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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Biology The Unity And Diversity Of Life 14th Edition by Cecie Starr – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions     

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. Approximately how many rainforest species become extinct every minute?​

a. ​one
b. ​two
c. ​five
d. ​ten
e. ​twenty

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.1 The Secret Life of Earth
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.1 – Examine why it is important to understand our natural world.

 

2. The smallest unit of life that can exist as a separate entity is a(n)​

a. ​cell.
b. ​molecule.
c. ​organ.
d. ​population.
e. ​ecosystem.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

3. The most inclusive level of organization listed here is a(n)

a. ​heart.
b. carbon atom.
c. DNA.
d. zebra.
e. red blood cell.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

4. What is the correct ordering in the hierarchal levels of the organization of life, from the least inclusive to the most inclusive?​

a. tissues, cells, population, organisms, and organs
b. molecules, cells, organs, tissues, and organisms
c. ecosystems, populations, tissues, cells, and organs
d. cells, tissues, organs, communities, and populations
e. cells, tissues, organs, organisms, and ecosystems

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

Figure 1.2

 

5. In the accompanying figure illustrating the levels of life’s organization, what is represented in frame 2?​

a. ​atom
b. ​tissue
c. ​molecule
d. ​organ
e. ​cell

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 1.2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

6. In the accompanying figure illustrating the levels of life’s organization, what is represented in frame 3?​

a. ​atom
b. ​tissue
c. ​molecule
d. ​organ
e. ​cell

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 1.2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

7. A community​

a. ​includes all populations of all species in a given area.
b. ​features the living organisms interacting with the physical and chemical environment.
c. ​is the sum of all places in Earth’s atmosphere, crust, and waters where organisms live.
d. ​includes members of only one species.
e. ​is at a higher level of organization than an ecosystem.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

8. At what level of organization does life begin?​

a. ​digestive system
b. cell
c. ​molecule (water)
d. ​molecule (DNA)
e. ​population

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

9. Living organisms are members of all of the levels listed below. However, rocks are components of​

a. ​the community.
b. ​the population.
c. ​the ecosystem only.
d. ​the biosphere only.
e. ​both the ecosystem and the biosphere.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

10. A(n) ____ property is a characteristic of a system that does not appear in any of its component parts.​

a. ​efferent
b. ​emergent
c. ​elective
d. ​energetic
e. ​living

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.2 – List the eleven levels of life’s organization.

 

11. Which feature is not characteristic of all living organisms?

a. All have requirements for energy.
b. All must participate in one or more nutrient cycles.
c. All have ultimate dependence upon the sun.
d. All interact with other forms of life.
e. All must reproduce inside of organisms of other species.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.2 Life Is More than the Sum of Its Parts
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

12. Four of the following are key characteristics for the survival of a species. Which one is the exception?​

a. ​ability to acquire energy and nutrients
b. ​response to environmental change
c. ​reproduction
d. ​inability to change
e. ​ability to grow and adapt through changes in DNA

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

13. Four of the following characteristics are required for the life of an individual organism to continue. Which is the exception?​

a. ​to maintain chemical uniqueness and organization
b. ​to respond to stimuli
c. ​to possess a genetic program to control cell processes
d. ​to reproduce
e. ​to evolve

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

14. The conversion of solar energy to chemical energy is known as​

a. ​metabolism.
b. ​photosynthesis.
c. ​chemosynthesis.
d. ​catabolism.
e. ​anabolism.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

15. Organisms sense and respond to changes both inside and outside the body by way of​

a. ​metabolism.
b. ​photosynthesis.
c. ​receptors.
d. ​catabolism.
e. ​anabolism.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

16. DNA codes for the production of​

a. ​proteins.
b. ​minerals.
c. ​inorganic molecules.
d. ​vital gasses.
e. ​water.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

17. Which group of organisms does not depend directly on sunlight for energy?

I. terrestrial producers
II. animal consumers
III. decomposers

 

a. I only
b. II and III only
c. II only
d. ​III only
e. ​I and III

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

Figure 1.3

 

18. On the accompanying illustration, “A” and “B” should be labeled, respectively, ____ and _____.​

a. ​consumers; producers
b. ​decomposers; producers
c. ​producers; redistributors
d. ​producers; consumers
e. ​consumers; decomposers

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 1.3
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

19. Which characteristic is NOT found in nonliving entities?​

a. ​energetic interactions
b. ​DNA
c. ​atoms
d. ​heat energy
e. ​complexity

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

20. ​The flow of nutrients through living organisms is best characterized as

a. ​circular.
b. ​a ladder.
c. ​a lattice.
d. ​one way.
e. ​a funnel.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

21. ​Homeostasis provides what kind of internal environment?

a. positive
b. tolerable
c. limiting
d. changing
e. chemical and physical

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

22. Each cell is able to maintain an internal environment within a range that favors survival. This condition is called​

a. ​metabolism.
b. ​homeostasis.
c. ​physiology.
d. ​adaptation.
e. ​evolution.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

23. About twelve to twenty-four hours after the previous meal, a person’s blood-sugar level normally varies from 60 to 90 milligrams per 100 milliliters of blood, though it may rise to 130 mg/100 ml after meals high in carbohydrates. That the blood-sugar level is maintained within a fairly narrow range despite uneven intake of sugar is due to the body’s ability to carry out​

a. ​adaptation.
b. ​inheritance.
c. ​metabolism.
d. ​homeostasis.
e. ​evolution.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

24. Which phrase would most likely be used in a discussion of homeostasis?​

a. ​respond to environmental stimuli
b. ​limited range of variation
c. ​rapid energy turnover
d. ​cycle of elements
e. ​structural and functional units of life

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

25. What characteristic is common to all living things?​

a. ​All living things eat.
b. ​All living things are producers.
c. ​All living things sense and respond to change.
d. ​All living things have a nucleus.
e. ​All living things are consumers.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

26. Energy sources are needed for which of the following processes?

I. reproduction
II. growth
III. development

 

a. ​I and II only
b. ​I and III only
c. ​II only
d. ​II and III only
e. ​I, II, and III

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

27. Which cell lacks a nucleus?​

a. ​bacterial cell
b. ​fungus cell
c. ​animal cell
d. ​protist cell
e. ​plant cell

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

28. Members of which prokaryotic domain are most closely related to eukaryotes evolutionarily?

a. ​animals
b. ​protists
c. ​fungi
d. ​bacteria
e. ​archaea

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

29. Which of the following is a domain of life?​

a. ​eukaryotes
b. ​plants
c. ​animals
d. ​protists
e. ​fungi

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

30. Members of what group are multicellular producers?​

a. ​animals
b. ​protists
c. ​fungi
d. ​plants
e. ​bacteria

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

31. Which group is made up of almost exclusively decomposers?​

a. ​plants
b. ​fungi
c. ​animals
d. ​bacteria
e. ​protists

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

32. Which organisms are NOT eukaryotes?​

a. ​fungi
b. ​bacteria
c. ​plants
d. ​animals
e. ​protists

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

33. A scientific name consists of which of the following?

I. family name
II. genus name
III. species name

 

a. ​I only
b. ​II only
c. ​III only
d. ​I and II
e. ​II and III

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.5 Organizing Information about Species
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.5 – Examine the importance of taxonomy in the classification of different species.

 

34. The plural for genus is​

a. ​genus.
b. ​geni.
c. ​genera.
d. ​gena.
e. ​genae.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.5 Organizing Information about Species
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.5 – Examine the importance of taxonomy in the classification of different species.

 

35. Which is the least inclusive of the taxonomic categories listed below?​

a. ​family
b. ​phylum
c. ​class
d. ​order
e. ​genus

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.5 Organizing Information about Species
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.5 – Examine the importance of taxonomy in the classification of different species.

 

36. Which group includes all of the other groups?​

a. ​domain
b. ​order
c. ​family
d. ​genus
e. ​species

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.5 Organizing Information about Species
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.5 – Examine the importance of taxonomy in the classification of different species.

 

37. Which renowned biologist defined species as a group of individuals that potentially can interbreed, produce fertile offspring, and do not interbreed with other groups?​

a. ​Charles Darwin
b. ​E. O. Wilson
c. ​Carl Linnaeus
d. ​Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
e. ​Ernst Mayr

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.5 Organizing Information about Species
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.5 – Examine the importance of taxonomy in the classification of different species.

 

38. Which term refers to judging information before accepting it as fact?​

a. ​critical thinking
b. law
c. ​theory
d. ​fact
e. ​hypothesis

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

39. Which term refers to the first explanation of a problem (sometimes referred to an “educated guess”)?​

a. ​principle
b. ​law
c. ​theory
d. ​fact
e. ​hypothesis

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

40. What is a hypothesis?​

a. ​a report of the findings of scientific experiments
b. ​a specific conclusion of an experiment in an “if . . . then” format
c. ​a way of using isolated facts to reach a general idea that may explain a phenomenon
d. ​the summary of the outcomes of scientific findings
e. ​a testable explanation of a natural phenomenon

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

41. Which concept represents the lowest degree of certainty?​

a. ​hypothesis
b. ​conclusion
c. ​fact
d. ​principle
e. ​theory

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

42. Which concept represents the highest degree of certainty?​

a. ​hypothesis
b. ​deduction
c. ​assumption
d. ​theory
e. ​prediction

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

43. The control in an experiment​

a. ​makes the experiment valid.
b. ​is an additional replicate for statistical purposes.
c. ​reduces the experimental errors.
d. ​minimizes experimental inaccuracy.
e. ​allows for comparisons to the experimental group.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s:
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

44. In an experiment, the control group is:​

a. ​not subjected to experimental error.
b. ​exposed to experimental treatments.
c. ​maintained under strict laboratory conditions.
d. ​treated exactly the same as the experimental group, except for one variable.
e. ​statistically the most important part of the experiment.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

45. The choice of whether a particular organism belongs to the experimental group or the control group should be based on​

a. ​age.
b. ​size.
c. ​chance.
d. ​history.
e. ​gender.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.6 – Examine the importance of critical thinking in the application of the scientific method

 

46. Scientists are always thinking about ways to improve experimental design. In the text’s potato chip experiment, which of these changes would produce the most effective design?​

a. ​Show a different movie.
b. ​Exclude teenagers as group members.
c. ​Collect uneaten chip remains and weigh them for both groups.
d. ​Provide free drinks before the experiment.
e. ​Use a smaller theater.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

47. Olestra chips did not cause cramps at a higher rate than normal chips. This is known as the ____ of this experiment.​

a. ​hypothesis
b. ​prediction
c. ​control
d. ​conclusion
e. ​data

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

48. In the experiment with peacock butterflies, the working hypothesis is that​

a. ​silence confuses both predator and prey.
b. ​making sounds can provide a selective advantage to the prey.
c. ​birds are capable of learning.
d. ​birds are agents of evolution.
e. ​unpalatable species display distinctive wings.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

49. What is one of the major variables in the peacock butterfly experiment?​

a. ​pattern/color of the wings
b. ​range of migration
c. ​species of bird predator
d. ​experimental location
e. ​percentage of survivors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

50. Which group in the peacock butterfly experiment had the highest survival rates?​

a. ​Those with more nocturnal habits
b. ​Those without spots and without hissing/clicking sounds
c. ​Those without spots but with hissing/clicking sounds
d. ​Those with spots and hissing/clicking sounds
e. ​Those with the same flower habitat as the birds

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

51. What was the dependent variable in the peacock butterfly experiments?​

a. ​changing predators
b. ​changing habitats
c. ​painting the wings
d. ​clipping the hindwings
e. ​getting eaten

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

52. Which of the following is NOT true about the peacock butterfly?​

a. ​The dark underside of their wings provides camouflage.
b. ​The spots on the wings may resemble owl eyes, which help deter predation.
c. ​The butterflies remain still when a predator is near so as not to draw attention.
d. The rapid movement of their wings produces a hissing sound.​
e. ​A resting butterfly’s closed wing resembles a dead leaf.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

53. Which experiment would be the least effective follow-up to the peacock butterfly studies?​

a. ​Repeat in a forest area totally devoid of native butterflies.
b. ​Repeat in a wildlife sanctuary aviary after giving birds a chance to learn about peacock butterflies.
c. ​Repeat using young, inexperienced birds.
d. ​Repeat, and count survivors for three weeks.
e. ​Repeat using more butterflies and more blue tits in a larger area.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s:
REFERENCES:   1.7 Examples of Experiments in Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.7 – Recognize the importance of experimental research to the field of biology using an example.

 

54. Randomly selecting samples of experimental units from an environment can result in​

a. ​sampling error.
b. ​blind testing.
c. ​evidence.
d. ​experimental design.
e. ​consensus.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.8 Analyzing Experimental Results
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.8 – Examine how sampling errors occur in scientific experiments and what methods researchers use to combat errors and bias

 

55. What is an acceptable probability of sampling error that may have skewed the results in most scientific studies?​

a. ​80%
b. ​50%
c. ​25%
d. ​10%
e. ​5%

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.8 Analyzing Experimental Results
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.8 – Examine how sampling errors occur in scientific experiments and what methods researchers use to combat errors and bias

 

56. Science is based on​

a. ​faith.
b. ​authority.
c. ​evidence.
d. ​force.
e. opinion.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.9 The Nature of Science
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.8 – Examine how sampling errors occur in scientific experiments and what methods researchers use to combat errors and bias

 

57. Which characteristic is least applicable to the development of science?​

a. ​evaluation of data
b. ​personal conviction
c. ​prediction
d. ​systematic observation
e. ​sharing of ideas

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.9 The Nature of Science
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1. 1.8 – Examine how sampling errors occur in scientific experiments and what methods researchers use to combat errors and bias

 

58. Which characteristic will NOT strengthen the validity of a theory?​

a. ​repetitions of experiments
b. ​increased observations
c. ​time after the experiment
d. ​faith in the experiment
e. ​confirmation by many scientists

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.9 The Nature of Science
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.8 – Examine how sampling errors occur in scientific experiments and what methods researchers use to combat errors and bias

 

59. Scientific work involves​

a. ​the natural and supernatural world.
b. ​retesting theories frequently for verification.
c. ​proving theories with absolute certainty.
d. ​testing hypotheses under every possible circumstance.
e. coming up with the best descriptions of reality.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.9 The Nature of Science
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.8 – Examine how sampling errors occur in scientific experiments and what methods researchers use to combat errors and bias

 

60. ​Copernicus, Galileo, and Darwin found that ____ caused their science to be controversial.

a. ​prevailing belief
b. ​objective data
c. ​astronomical theories
d. ​supernatural influences
e. ​experimental design

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.9 The Nature of Science
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.9 – Examine how science works.

 

Matching

 

Match the following letters to the number with which they best correspond.​

a. ​Observation
b. ​Question
c. ​Hypothesis
d. ​Prediction
e. ​Law of nature
f. ​Scientific theory
g. ​Assessment
h. ​Report

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.9 – Examine how science works.

 

61. ​This is a generalization that describes a consistent natural phenomenon for which there is incomplete scientific explanation.

ANSWER:   e

 

62. ​If smoking causes cancer, then individuals who smoke will get cancer more often than those who do not.

ANSWER:   d

 

Match the following letters to the number with which they best correspond.​

a. ​Observation
b. ​Question
c. ​Hypothesis
d. ​Prediction
e. ​Law of nature
f. ​Scientific theory
g. ​Assessment
h. ​Report

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1.6 The Science of Nature
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.9 – Examine how science works.

 

63. ​Submit the results and the conclusions to the scientific community.

ANSWER:   h

 

64. ​Hypothesis that has not been disproven after many years of rigorous testing.

ANSWER:   f

 

65. ​Compile test results and draw conclusions from them.

ANSWER:   g

 

66. ​Smoking cigarettes causes cancer.

ANSWER:   c

 

67. ​Why do people get cancer?

ANSWER:   b

 

68. ​People get cancer.

ANSWER:   a

 

​Classification. Match the following descriptions to the most appropriate function, process, or trait listed below.

a. ​inheritance
b. ​reproduction
c. ​photosynthesis
d. ​growth
e. ​homeostasis

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.3 How Living Things Are Alike
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.3 – Outline the significance of energy and nutrients to organisms

 

69. ​a process found only in plants, some bacteria, and some protists

ANSWER:   c

 

70. ​a characteristic most organisms exhibit that tends to keep their internal environment within a range that favors survival

ANSWER:   e

 

71. ​the transmission of DNA from parent to offspring

ANSWER:   a

 

72. ​process by which individuals produce offspring

ANSWER:   b

 

Classification. Match the following descriptions with the most appropriate group listed below.​

a. ​bacteria
b. ​protists
c. ​plants
d. ​fungi
e. ​animals

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1.4 How Living Things Differ
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.1.4 – Examine how classification helps in understanding biodiversity using examples.

 

73. ​multicellular producers

ANSWER:   c

 

74. ​prokaryotic

ANSWER:   a

 

75. ​unicellular organisms of considerable internal complexity

ANSWER:   b

 

76. ​multicelled mobile consumers

ANSWER:   e

 

77. ​based on fossils, oldest, still living organisms

ANSWER:   a

 

78. ​unicellular eukaryotic producers

ANSWER:   b

 

79. ​most common multicellular decomposers

ANSWER:   d

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. Hydrogenation is a chemical process that ____.

a. ​turns liquid oil to solid fats
b. turns amino acids into proteins
c. turns DNA into lipids
d. creates stable alternative energy sources
e. creates unstable alternative energy sources

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.1 Fear of Frying
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.1 – Examine how trans fats affect human health.

 

2. Fats are major constituents of ____.

a. ​proteins
b. genes
c. photosynthesis
d. cell membranes
e. nucleic acids

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.1 Fear of Frying
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.1 – Examine how trans fats affect human health.

 

3. Typical fat molecules have ____ fatty acid chain(s).

a. ​one
b. two
c. three
d. four
e. five

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.1 Fear of Frying
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.1 – Examine how trans fats affect human health.

 

4. A single atom of carbon may form up to ____ covalent bonds with other atoms.

a. ​two
b. three
c. four
d. five
e. six

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.2 Organic Molecules
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.3 – Examine the importance of carbon atoms in the molecules of life.

 

5. Although carbon dioxide contains carbon, it is not considered an “organic” compound because ____.

a. ​it is not found in the earth’s crust
b. it is not present in living cells
c. the carbon atom is not bonded to at least one hydrogen atom
d. the carbons are not in chains or rings
e. it is too small

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.2 Organic Molecules
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.2 – Examine the composition of organic molecules.

 

6. A hydrolysis reaction results in ____.

a. ​bond formation of a macromolecule
b. bond breakage of a macromolecule
c. lipid molecule creation
d. nucleic acids creation
e. ​most macromolecules

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s:
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.5 – Examine how functional groups influence the properties of an organic compound.

 

7. An -OH group is a(n) ____ group.

a. ​carboxyl
b. hydroxyl
c. amino
d. ​methyl
e. carbonyl

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.5 – Examine how functional groups influence the properties of an organic compound.

 

8. ​An -NH2 group is a(n) ____ group.

a. ​carboxyl
b. hydroxyl
c. amine
d. methyl
e. carbonyl

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.5 – Examine how functional groups influence the properties of an organic compound.

 

Figure 3.6B

 

9. The figure above illustrates a ____ reaction that produces one ____ and a ____.

a. condensation; hydroxyl; polymer
b. condensation; water molecule; polymer
c. cleavage; water molecule; monomer
d. rearrangement; water molecule; polymer
e. rearrangement; hydrogen ion; polymer

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.5 – Examine how functional groups influence the properties of an organic compound.

 

10. What kind of reaction produces small molecules by cleaving large molecules?

a. ​oxidation
b. ​reduction
c. condensation
d. hydrolysis
e. decarboxylation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.5 – Examine how functional groups influence the properties of an organic compound.

 

11. Which of the following may characterize monosaccharides?

a. ​An amino group
b. Carbon and hydrogen 1:2 ratio
c. A backbone of eight carbon atoms
d. One carbonyl group
e. The presence of glycerol and fatty acids

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

12. Fructose and glucose are both ____.

a. ​six-carbon sugars
b. disaccharides
c. monosaccharides
d. disaccharides and six-carbon sugars
e. monosaccharides and six-carbon sugars

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

13. Oligosaccharides include ____.

a. sucrose only
b. glucose only
c. fructose only
d. lactose only
e. both sucrose and lactose

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

14. Glucose and fructose ____.

a. ​form rings with the same number of carbon atoms
b. have two oxygen atoms as part of their ring structure
c. have identical functional groups
d. contain the same number of hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups
e. form the same polysaccharide molecule

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

15. The sugars in DNA and RNA ____.

a. ​have a different number of carbon atoms
b. have the same structural formulas
c. are the two components of sucrose
d. are monosaccharides
e. are disaccharides

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

16. Sucrose is composed of____.

a. ​two molecules of fructose
b. two molecules of glucose
c. a molecule of fructose and a molecule of glucose
d. ​a molecule of fructose and a molecule of galactose
e. a monosaccharide and a disaccharide

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

17. Glycogen is a polysaccharide used for energy storage by ____.

a. ​animals
b. plants
c. protists
d. bacteria
e. archaea

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

18. Cellulose is ____.

a. ​a polysaccharide found in cell walls of plants
b. a component of cell membranes
c. an oligosaccharide found in animals
d. formed by hydrolysis of monosaccharides
e. a component of invertebrate exoskeletons

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

19. Which feature is characteristic of all polysaccharides?

a. ​energy usage
b. always branched chains
c. fructose subunits
d. only consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
e. produced by condensation reactions

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

20. Polysaccharides ____.

a. ​are composed of three linked monosaccharides
b. contain only straight monomer chains
c. are always made of glucose molecules
d. may be insoluble and difficult to break down
e. are formed by cleavage reactions

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

21. Which lipid type does not have fatty acid tails?​

a. ​phospholipids
b. ​polysaccharides
c. ​unsaturated fats
d. ​steroids
e. saturated fats​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

22. Triglycerides are ____.​

a. ​carbohydrates
b. ​nucleotides
c. ​proteins
d. ​neutral fats
e. amino acids​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

Chapter 3 (page 45)

 

23. In the figure above, the honeycomb on which the bee is standing is made up primarily of ____.​

a. ​carbohydrates
b. ​nucleotides
c. ​proteins
d. ​lipids
e. amino acids​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

Figure 3.10 B

 

24. ​What are the arrows pointing to in the accompanying figure?

a. ​double ionic bonds
b. ​single ionic bonds
c. ​double covalent bonds
d. ​single covalent bonds
e. ​hydrogen bonds

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

25. What type of molecule is shown in the accompanying figure?​

a. ​saturated fatty acid
b. ​unsaturated fatty acid
c. ​triglyceride
d. ​wax
e. steroid​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

26. Steroids ____.​

a. ​have no fatty-acid component
b. ​consist of three rings
c. ​have the same type of functional groups attached to them
d. ​are a specialized type of wax
e. are a specialized type of phospholipid​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

27. Cholesterol ____.​

a. ​has a rigid backbone of four nitrogen rings
b. is the most common steroid in animal tissue​
c. is a lipid with a fatty-acid component​
d. ​is needed to inhibit sexual development and maturity
e. is needed to lubricate feathers​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

28. Which type of lipid is composed of long-chain fatty acids attached to long-chain alcohols?​

a. ​triglycerides
b. ​phospholipids
c. ​sterols
d. ​waxes
e. ​most neutral fats

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

29. Polyunsaturated fats ____.​

a. ​have fewer hydrogen atoms than do saturated fats
b. ​are more characteristic of animal fats than plant fats
c. ​have no double bonds
d. ​are solid at room temperature
e. are gas at room temperature​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

30. Lipids ____.​

a. ​yield less energy per gram than do carbohydrates
b. ​include cartilage and chitin
c. ​include fats consisting of three fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
d. ​are composed of monosaccharides
e. are only found in animals​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.7 – Describe the composition of a lipid molecule.

 

31. All steroids have ____.​

a. ​the same number of double bonds
b. ​one or more fatty acids
c. ​four rings of carbon to which other atoms are attached
d. ​the same functional groups
e. the same number and positions of double bonds​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

32. The order of amino acids is the ____ structure of proteins.​

a. ​primary
b. ​secondary
c. ​tertiary
d. ​quaternary
e. stereo​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

33. What kind of bonds link amino acids to form the basic sequence of a protein?​

a. ​disulfide
b. ​hydrogen
c. ​ionic
d. ​peptide
e. noncovalent​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

34. The interaction of two or more polypeptide chains in a hemoglobin molecule is its ____ structure.​

a. ​primary
b. ​secondary
c. ​tertiary
d. ​quaternary
e. combined​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

35. A helix is one possible ____ structure of ____.​

a. ​primary; proteins
b. ​primary; carbohydrates
c. ​primary; lipids
d. ​secondary; proteins
e. tertiary; proteins​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

36. What may be a result of the denaturation of proteins?​

a. ​formation of hydrogen bonds
b. ​loss of three-dimensional structure
c. ​removal of R groups from amino acids
d. ​no change in enzyme activity
e. formation of covalent bonds​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.7 Why Is Protein Structure So Important?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.10 – Outline the negative consequences of an abnormal protein structure.

 

37. Which of the following is found in every nucleotide?​

a. ​ribose
b. ​a single phosphate group
c. ​a single carbon ring
d. ​a double nitrogen ring
e. nitrogen​

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

Figure 3.18

 

38. The figure above illustrates a(n) ____.​

a. ​guanine nucleotide
b. ​cytosine nucleotide
c. ​thymine nucleotide
d. ​adenine nucleotide
e. uracil nucleotide​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

39. What type of sugar is shown in the figure above?​

a. ​deoxyribose
b. ​ribose
c. ​phosphate
d. ​nitrogenous
e. adenine​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

40. Nucleotides contain what kind of sugars?​

a. ​three-carbon
b. ​four-carbon
c. ​five-carbon
d. ​six-carbon
e. seven-carbon​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

41. Which molecule is incorrectly matched with its monomer?​

a. ​fat; fatty acid
b. ​starch; ribose
c. ​protein; amino acid
d. ​glycogen; glucose
e. nucleic acids; nucleotide​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

Matching

 

Choose the one most appropriate item from its description.

a. ​a six-carbon sugar
b. ​found in DNA and RNA
c. ​principal components of cell membranes
d. ​affect metabolic reaction rates​

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

42. ​enzymes​

ANSWER:   d

 

​Choose the one most appropriate item from its description.

a. ​a six-carbon sugar
b. ​found in DNA and RNA
c. ​principal components of cell membranes
d. ​affect metabolic reaction rates

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

43. ​glucose

ANSWER:   a

 

​Choose the one most appropriate item from its description.

a. ​a six-carbon sugar
b. ​found in DNA and RNA
c. ​principal components of cell membranes
d. ​affect metabolic reaction rates

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

44. ​nucleotides

ANSWER:   b

 

​Choose the one most appropriate item from its description.

a. ​a six-carbon sugar
b. ​found in DNA and RNA
c. ​principal components of cell membranes
d. ​affect metabolic reaction rates

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

45. ​phospholipids

ANSWER:   c

 

Classification. The following are chemical functional groups that may be part of a biologically active molecule. Answer the questions by

matching the items with the most appropriate group. ​

a. ​-COOH
b. ​-CH3
c. ​-NH2
d. ​-OH
e.
f. ​-PO43-
g. ​-CHO

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.5 – Examine how functional groups influence the properties of an organic compound.

 

46. ​The amine group

ANSWER:   c

 

47. ​The carboxyl group

ANSWER:   a

 

48. ​The group that is acidic

ANSWER:   a

 

49. ​The aldehyde group in simple sugars

ANSWER:   g

 

50. ​The methyl group

ANSWER:   b

 

51. ​The hydroxyl group

ANSWER:   d

 

52. ​The carbonyl group of simple sugars

ANSWER:   e

 

53. ​The group on the amino-terminal end of proteins

ANSWER:   c

 

54. ​The group on the carboxyl-terminal end of proteins

ANSWER:   a

 

55. ​The group that makes lipid ‘head’s hydrophilic

ANSWER:   a

 

56. ​The group typical of energy carriers such as ATP

ANSWER:   f

 

Classification. The following are basic building blocks of biopolymers. Match the building blocks with the statements below.​

a. ​amino acid
b. ​glucose
c. ​glycerol
d. ​fatty acid
e. ​nucleotide

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

57. ​the basic unit of proteins

ANSWER:   a

 

58. ​the monomers of a polypeptide chain

ANSWER:   a

 

Classification. The following are basic building blocks of biopolymers. Match the building blocks with the statements below.​

a. ​amino acid
b. ​glucose
c. ​glycerol
d. ​fatty acid
e. ​nucleotide

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

59. ​the basic unit of DNA

ANSWER:   e

 

60. the basic unit of RNA

ANSWER:   e

 

Classification. The following are basic building blocks of biopolymers. Match the building blocks with the statements below.​

a. ​amino acid
b. ​glucose
c. ​glycerol
d. ​fatty acid
e. ​nucleotide

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

61. ​the basic unit of cellulose

ANSWER:   b

 

62. ​the basic unit of glycogen

ANSWER:   b

 

63. ​the basic unit of starch

ANSWER:   b

 

64. ​the hydrophilic component of lipids

ANSWER:   c

 

65. ​the hydrophobic component of lipids

ANSWER:   d

 

Classification. The following are basic building blocks of biopolymers. Match the building blocks with the statements below.

a. ​amino acid
b. ​glucose
c. ​glycerol
d. ​fatty acid
e. ​nucleotide

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.7 – Describe the composition of a lipid molecule.

 

66. Which two units combine in various ways to form lipids?

a. a and b

b. a and c

c. b and c

d. b and d

e. c and d

ANSWER:   e

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

67. ​main storage carbohydrate in animals

ANSWER:   a

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

68. ​active role in protein synthesis

ANSWER:   i

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

69. main component of cell membranes

ANSWER:   d

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

70. the main component of plant cell walls

ANSWER:   b

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

71. softens skin and hair

ANSWER:   e

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

72. ​contains information to build a new cell

ANSWER:   h

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

73. precursor for important molecules such as bile salts

ANSWER:   g

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

74. main storage carbohydrate in plants

ANSWER:   c

 

Match the molecules below with their functions​

a. ​glycogen
b. ​cellulose
c. ​starch
d. ​phospholipid
e. ​wax
f. ​steroid
g. ​cholesterol
h. ​DNA
i. ​RNA

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

75. ​responsible for sexual development

ANSWER:   f

 

Choose the monomer with its polymer.​

a. ​glucose
b. ​nucleotide
c. ​fatty acid
d. ​amino acid

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.6 Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.9 – Explain how the structure of a protein influences its function.

 

76. ​hemoglobin

ANSWER:   d

 

Choose the monomer with its polymer.​

a. ​glucose
b. ​nucleotide
c. ​fatty acid
d. ​amino acid

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

77. ​triglyceride

ANSWER:   c

 

Choose the monomer with its polymer.​

a. ​glucose
b. ​nucleotide
c. ​fatty acid
d. ​amino acid

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.8 Nucleic Acids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.12 – Examine the different types of nucleic acids with examples.

 

78. DNA

ANSWER:   b

 

Choose the monomer with its polymer.​

a. ​glucose
b. ​nucleotide
c. ​fatty acid
d. ​amino acid

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

79. starch

ANSWER:   a

 

Completion

 

80. A(n) _____________________ is a term given to a macromolecule (large molecule) made up of individual subunits.​

ANSWER:   polymer​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.2 Organic Molecules
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.4 – Recognize the importance of organic compounds in biological systems.

 

81. Write the empirical formula for a carbohydrate.​

ANSWER:   (CH2O)n
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

82. A denatured protein has lost its _____________________.​

ANSWER:   3D structure

three dimensional structure

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3.7 Why Is Protein Structure So Important?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.10 – Outline the negative consequences of an abnormal protein structure.

 

83. A lipid _____________________ is the most common conformation of the membrane of living systems.​

ANSWER:   bilayer​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

84. In biology, many complementary processes exist. Explain how condensation reactions are complementary to hydrolysis reactions.​

ANSWER:   In condensation reactions, a hydroxyl ion is removed from one reactant while a hydrogen ion is removed from the other (collectively forming water).  This allows the two reactants to bind.  In hydrolysis reactions, reactants are separated by adding a hydroxyl ion to one reactant and a hydrogen ion to the other, using a water molecule.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.3 Molecules of Life—From Structure to Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.4 – Recognize the importance of organic compounds in biological systems.

 

85. How are cellulose and starch similar and how do they differ?​

ANSWER:   Both cellulose and starch are complex carbohydrates, i.e., long chains of monomers. Both are found in plants. However, cellulose is a structural molecule that is not easily digested (hydrolyzed), while starch is an energy-storage molecule that is easily hydrolyzed.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3.4 Carbohydrates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.6 – Contrast the features of the different types of carbohydrates.

 

86. What property of phospholipids allows them to form cell membranes?​

ANSWER:   Phospholipids have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. The hydrophilic phosphate end interacts well with the watery environment outside and inside the cell, while the hydrophobic fatty acid tails form the middle of the phospholipid bilayer.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3.5 Lipids
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.8 – Examine the different types of naturally occurring lipids using diagrams.

 

87. Explain why vigorous exercise in warm weather could be hazardous to your enzymes.​

ANSWER:   For enzymes, a class of proteins, to function properly them must retain their proper structure. Heat is capable of denaturing proteins, or altering their mature structure. Extreme exercise in hot weather can cause the body to overheat and denature the enzymes. Great care should be taken to avoid overheating!​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   3.7 Why Is Protein Structure So Important?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.3.10 – Outline the negative consequences of an abnormal protein structure.

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. ​HeLa cells have been used in research to

a. ​identify cell structures.
b. ​study sickle cell anemia.
c. ​study the effects of hyperoxia on cells.
d. ​study the mechanisms of cancer.
e. ​study various lung diseases.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.1 Henrietta’s Immortal Cells
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.1 – Examine the unique features and applications of HeLa cells.

 

2. ​The unique feature of HeLa cells that make them important for research is that they are

a. ​identical to all other human cells.
b. ​immortal cells and will grow in culture.
c. ​limited in growth cycles.
d. ​identical to stem cells.
e. ​cannot propagate.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.1 Henrietta’s Immortal Cells
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.1 – Examine the unique features and applications of HeLa cells.

 

3. ​Which of the following results from mitosis?

a. ​a pair of unidentical twins
b. ​a group of rooted plant cuttings from multiple plants
c. ​the cells produced by the sexual reproduction of a single-celled organism
d. ​two new descendent cells each with a full complement of identical DNA
e. ​completely repaired DNA from damaged parental cells

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

4. ​Strictly speaking, mitosis

a. ​divides the nucleus and doubles the chromosomal number.
b. ​divides the cytoplasm and doubles the chromosomal number.
c. ​divides the chromosomes within the nucleus.
d. ​divides the nucleus and maintains the chromosomal number.
e. ​maintains the structure of the nucleus, cytoplasm, and chromosomes.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

5. ​Which of the following is associated with mitosis?

a. fertilization
b. ​somatic cells
c. ​sexual reproduction
d. ​sperm and egg
e. ​germ cells

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

 

Figure 11.4

 

6. ​In the depiction of the cell cycle in the figure above, what does step 2 represent?

a. a pair of homologous chromosomes in G1.
b. two chromosomes in anaphase.
c. a pair of duplicated homologous chromosomes in G2
d. the entire genome of the organism.
e. a chromosome in telophase.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
PREFACE NAME:   figure 11.4
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

7. ​Homologous chromosomes have the:

a. ​same length but differing genes.
b. ​same shape but differing genes
c. ​the same genes but differing shapes.
d. ​same genes but differing lengths.
e. ​same length, shape, and genes.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

8. ​Which process is absolutely necessary for asexual cellular reproduction to occur in eukaryotes?

a. ​prokaryotic fission
b. ​mitosis
c. ​meiosis
d. doubling of chromosomal number​ in descendent cells
e. ​growth factor activation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

9. ​Chromatids that are attached at the centromere are called ____ chromatids?

a. ​mother
b. ​daughter
c. ​sister
d. ​programmed
e. ​either mother or daughter

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

10. ​The number of DNA molecules in a duplicated chromosome is

a. ​one.
b. ​undetermined.
c. ​half that of an unduplicated chromosome.
d. ​two.
e. ​four.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

11. ​DNA replication occurs

a. ​before mitosis.
b. ​immediately before prophase of mitosis.
c. ​during prophase of mitosis.
d. ​during metaphase of mitosis.
e. ​at any time during cell division.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

12. ​DNA is replicated during

a. ​anaphase.
b. ​metaphase.
c. ​interphase.
d. ​prophase.
e. ​telophase.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

13. ​Chromosomes are copied during what stage of the cell cycle?

a. ​M
b. ​D
c. ​G1
d. ​G2
e. ​S

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

14. ​The interval stage before the onset of DNA replication is called the

a. ​G1 stage.
b. ​G2 stage.
c. ​M stage.
d. ​S stage.
e. ​G3 stage.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

15. ​Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. ​Once a person reaches maturity, cell division stops except to repair wounds.
b. ​Cell division in an adult signifies cancer.
c. Select cells throughout the body retain the ability to divide and replace themselves.​
d. ​Growth continues throughout the life of an adult human.
e. ​All cells retain the ability to divide even after the organism reaches maturity.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

(page 187 in the text)

 

16. ​The accompanying figure reveals which of the following about the organism from which it was obtained?

a. ​type of gene markers
b. ​age.
c. ​deceased or living
d. ​total number of genes
e. ​gender and chromosome number

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
PREFACE NAME:   Page 187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

17. ​In mitosis, if a parent cell has 16 chromosomes, each daughter cell will have how many chromosomes?

a. ​64
b. ​32
c. ​16
d. ​8
e. ​4

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

18. ​Which of the following results from DNA replication during interphase?

a. ​Each new cell receives half of the number of chromosomes in the original cell.
b. ​Each new cell receives copies of all the original chromosomes.
c. If the original number of chromosomes was 46, each new cell will have 23.
d. The sister chromosomes are not identical due to breakages in the DNA.
e. ​All chromosomes are duplicated except the sex chromosomes.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

19. ​The spindle apparatus is composed of

a. ​Golgi bodies.
b. ​microtubules.
c. ​endoplasmic reticulum.
d. ​nucleoprotein.
e. ​chromatids.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

20. ​Which statement is TRUE about mitosis in animal cells?

a. ​The location of the centromere is the same for each chromosome.
b. ​All spindle fibers become attached to kinetochores.
c. ​The spindle apparatus is composed of actin protein molecules.
d. ​The spindle begins to disassemble during telophase.
e. ​Some centromeres overlap midway at the spindle.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

21. ​Spindles are___.

a. permanent cell structures.​
b. ​present throughout every step of mitosis.
c. ​present during interphase.
d. ​mainly composed of microtubules.
e. ​all identical.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

22. ​In eukaryotic cells, which occurs during the prophase of mitosis?

a. ​duplication of chromatids
b. ​replication of DNA
c. separation of sister chromatids
d. ​breakup of the nuclear envelope
e. ​appearance of the nuclear envelope

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

23. ​Mitosis comes from the Greek word “mitos,” which means

a. ​to divide.
b. ​to grow.
c. ​to swell.
d. ​thread.
e. ​to shrink.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

24. ​The chromosomes are aligned midway between spindle poles during

a. ​anaphase.
b. ​metaphase.
c. ​interphase.
d. ​prophase.
e. ​telophase.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

25. ​The chromatids detach from one another during

a. ​anaphase.
b. ​metaphase.
c. ​interphase.
d. ​prophase.
e. ​telophase.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

26. ​The nuclear membrane re-forms during

a. ​anaphase.
b. ​metaphase.
c. ​interphase.
d. ​prophase.
e. ​telophase.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

Figure 11.5

 

27. The cell in panel 3 in the figure is in ___.

a. ​anaphase
b. ​metaphase
c. ​interphase
d. ​prophase
e. ​telophase

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
PREFACE NAME:   fig 11.5
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

28. ​During which phase do sister chromatids separate?

a. ​interphase
b. ​prophase
c. ​anaphase
d. ​telophase
e. ​metaphase

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

29. ​During which phase does transcription stop, and the DNA begin to appear grainy and start to condense?

a. ​interphase
b. ​early prophase
c. ​prophase
d. ​anaphase
e. ​early anaphase

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

30. Which of the following is the proper sequence for mitosis?

I. metaphase
II. telophase
III. prophase
IV. anaphase

 

a. ​I, III, IV, II
b. ​I, II, III, IV
c. ​III, I, IV, II
d. ​IV, I, III, II
e. ​III, IV, I, II

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

31. ​The division of cytoplasm is accomplished during

a. ​prokaryotic fission.
b. ​interphase.
c. ​meiosis.
d. ​cytokinesis.
e. ​karyokinesis.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.4 Cytokinesis: Division of Cytoplasm
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.4 – Differentiate between the cytokinesis of an animal cell and a plant cell.

 

32. ​Cytoplasmic division in animal cells involves _____.

a. ​formation of a cell plate
b. ​formation of a deepening cleavage furrow
c. ​the formation of vesicle clusters
d. ​the formation of a ring of myosin filaments under the plasma membrane at the equator
e. ​the use of ADP

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.4 Cytokinesis: Division of Cytoplasm
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.4 – Differentiate between the cytokinesis of an animal cell and a plant cell.

 

Figure 11.7

 

33. ​This illustration shows

a. ​cytoplasmic division in a plant cell.
b. ​cytokinesis via a contractile ring mechanism.
c. ​how chromosomes are dragged to the poles.
d. ​chromosome condensation.
e. ​an animal cell in interphase.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   11.4 Cytokinesis: Division of Cytoplasm
PREFACE NAME:   fig 11.7
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.4 – Differentiate between the cytokinesis of an animal cell and a plant cell.

 

34. ​Which of the following is true of telomeres?

a. ​They have the sequence ATAGGG.
b. ​They are at in the middle of chromosomes.
c. ​Their sequence can change.
d. ​They shorten with each round of cell replication.
e. ​They have the sequence ATAGTG.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.5 Marking Time With Telomeres KEY
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.5 – Assess the influence of telomeres on the life span of a cell using examples.

 

35. ​Dolly, the cloned sheep, had telomeres that:

a. ​were unusually short.
b. ​were unusually long.
c. ​became longer with each cell division
d. ​did not change in length
e. ​were perfectly normal

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.5 Marking Time With Telomeres
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.5 – Assess the influence of telomeres on the life span of a cell using examples.

 

36. ​Which of the following is true about the enzyme telomerase?

a. ​It can re-establish telomere length.
b. ​It is found only in adult cells.
c. ​It is responsible for telomere shortening.
d. ​It may speed up the aging process.
e. ​It is expressed at low levels in cancer cells.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.5 Marking Time With Telomeres
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.5 – Assess the influence of telomeres on the life span of a cell using examples.

 

37. ​When cells are not responding to normal controls over growth and division, they form a tissue mass known as a

a. ​metastasis.
b. ​malignancy.
c. ​tumor.
d. ​carcinogen.
e. ​nucleosome.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.6 When Mitosis Becomes Pathological
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.6 – Demonstrate the ill-effects of a malfunction in the mitosis process using examples.

 

38. ​Cancer cells ____.

a. ​have normal plasma membranes.
b. ​have an increased ability to attach to other cells.
c. ​divide slowly to produce low densities of cells.
d. ​show an amplified reliance on ATP formation by fermentation.
e. ​are all malignant.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.6 When Mitosis Becomes Pathological
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.6 – Demonstrate the ill-effects of a malfunction in the mitosis process using examples.

 

39. ​Which characteristic is correlated with cancer cells and metastasis?

a. ​gain of nuclear-cytoplasmic controls governing cell growth and division
b. ​changes in adhesion proteins on membrane surfaces
c. ​expansion of the cytoskeleton
d. normal chromosome number
e. ​deceased blood supply to the tumor

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   11.6 When Mitosis Becomes Pathological
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.6 – Demonstrate the ill-effects of a malfunction in the mitosis process using examples.

 

40. ​Which of the following is typical of cancer cells?

a. Products of oncogenes inhibit mitosis.
b. ​Benign tumors invade normal tissue.
c. ​Malignant cells migrate.
d. ​Cancer cells lose the ability to divide.
e. ​The parent cell of the tumor contains a single mutation in a single checkpoint gene.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   11.6 When Mitosis Becomes Pathological
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.6 – Demonstrate the ill-effects of a malfunction in the mitosis process using examples.

 

Completion

 

41. ​After plant mitosis, the vesicles fuse into a disk-shaped __________.

ANSWER:   ​cell plate
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

42. ​The most common type of skin cancer is __________.

ANSWER:   basal cell carcinoma
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.6 When Mitosis Becomes Pathological
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

43. ​The bipolar spindle is composed of __________.

ANSWER:   microtubules​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

44. ​The __________ that facilitates cytokinesis in animal cells cannot work with plant cells because a stiff cell wall surrounds their __________.

ANSWER:   ​contractile ring; plasma membrane
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.4 Cytokinesis: Division of Cytoplasm
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.4 – Differentiate between the cytokinesis of an animal cell and a plant cell.

 

Matching

 

​Choose the one most appropriate response for each.

a. ​cytoplasmic division
b. ​final phase of mitosis; daughter nuclei re-form
c. ​two sister chromatids are joined here
d. ​chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle begins to form
e. ​chromosomes line up at spindle equator
f. ​sister chromatids separate and move to opposite spindle poles
g. ​form the mitotic spindle
h. ​half of a chromosome in prophase
i. ​in pairs in some eukaryotic cells; move to poles during spindle formation

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

45. ​centriole

ANSWER:   i

 

46. ​centromere

ANSWER:   c

 

47. ​chromatid

ANSWER:   h

 

48. ​cytokinesis

ANSWER:   a

 

49. ​metaphase

ANSWER:   e

 

50. ​microtubules

ANSWER:   g

 

51. ​prophase

ANSWER:   d

 

52. ​telophase

ANSWER:   b

 

53. ​anaphase

ANSWER:   f

 

The following phrases refer to the eukaryotic cell cycle. Select the single BEST choice for each phrase.​

a. ​G2
b. ​mitosis
c. ​S
d. ​G1
e. ​cytokinesis

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

54. ​period when DNA is duplicated

ANSWER:   c

 

55. last part of interphase in the parent cell​

ANSWER:   a

 

56. event that divides a cytoplasmic mass​

ANSWER:   e

 

57. ​period of cell growth before DNA duplication

ANSWER:   d

 

58. ​period after DNA is duplicated

ANSWER:   a

 

59. ​period of nuclear division

ANSWER:   b

 

60. ​period when interphase begins in a cell

ANSWER:   d

 

61. ​period commonly followed by cytokinesis

ANSWER:   b

 

62. ​period in which metaphase occurs

ANSWER:   b

 

63. ​period prior to mitosis

ANSWER:   a

 

The stages of mitosis plus interphase are listed below. Select the correct phase for each of the following statements.​

a. ​interphase
b. ​prophase
c. ​metaphase
d. ​anaphase
e. ​telophase

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

64. ​Homologous pairs of chromosomes line up midway between the spindle poles.

ANSWER:   c

 

65. ​Chromosomes replicate.

ANSWER:   a

 

66. ​Genes replicate.

ANSWER:   a

 

67. ​DNA replicates.

ANSWER:   a

 

68. ​Condensation and shortening of chromosomes occurs.

ANSWER:   b

 

69. ​Spindle fibers first appear.

ANSWER:   b

 

70. ​Centromeres break apart as the separated sister chromatids begin to move to opposite poles.

ANSWER:   d

 

71. ​The microtubular spindle develops.

ANSWER:   b

 

72. ​Sister chromatids joined at their centromeres are attached to spindle fibers.

ANSWER:   b

 

73. ​Cytokinesis occurs after this phase of mitosis.

ANSWER:   e

 

74. ​Daughter nuclear membranes form.

ANSWER:   e

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

75. Imagine a cell entered mitosis but was unable to make microtubules. At what stage of mitosis would it remain?​

ANSWER:   The cell would be stuck in prophase. It would be able to dismantle the nuclear membrane and condense its chromosomes. Without microtubules, it would be unable to position the chromosomes on the midway point for metaphase.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.3 – Analyze the four main stages of mitosis.

 

76. ​How could telomerase inhibitors be used to treat cancer?

ANSWER:   ​Cancer cells express a high level of telomerase. For this reason the cells can divide again and again without the telomeres shrinking as occurs in normal cells. Therefore, if you could inhibit telomerase in cancer cells they may die after a number of divisions and not be immortal. However, there is some danger as mice without telomerase aged prematurely and this could be a side-effect of treatment.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.5 Marking Time With Telomeres
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.6 – Demonstrate the ill-effects of a malfunction in the mitosis process using examples.

 

77. ​During which stage of the cell cycle would a cell contain the least total amount of DNA?

ANSWER:   ​In the G1 stage, each chromosome exists as a single copy, and is unreplicated. During the S stage, the chromosomes replicate so there is now twice as much DNA present.  Not until the end of telophase (and after cytokinesis) will this situation revert.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   11.2 Multiplication by Division
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.11.2 – Analyze the different stages of cell division.

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. What type of cells do the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium infect?​

a. ​blood only
b. ​liver only
c. ​brain only
d. ​both blood and liver
e. ​blood, liver, and brain

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.1 Malaria: From Tutankhamun to Today
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.1 – Examine the characteristics of protists using plasmodium as an example.

 

2. Four of the statements about malaria are true. Which one is FALSE?​

a. ​It is caused by an evolving organism.
b. ​It is transmitted from person to person by the bite of a mosquito.
c. ​Its mortality rate is linked to the allele for sickle cell anemia.
d. ​Its greatest mortality rate is in Africa.
e. Its occurrence in the United States can be traced to ineffective mosquito spraying in the southern states.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.1 Malaria: From Tutankhamun to Today
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.1 – Examine the characteristics of protists using plasmodium as an example.

 

3. What occurs when a photosynthetic protist is taken up by a heterotrophic protist and evolves into a chloroplast?​

a. ​multicellularity
b. ​primary endosymbiosis
c. ​colonialism
d. ​chloroplasty
e. ​secondary endosymbiosis

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.2 A Collection of Lineages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.2 – Examine the three types of reproductive life cycles used by protists.

 

4. In a life cycle that exhibits ____, the only diploid cell is the zygote.​

a. ​alternation of generations
b. ​haploid-dominance
c. ​heterotrophism
d. ​endosymbiosis
e. ​diploid-dominance

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.2 A Collection of Lineages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.2 – Examine the three types of reproductive life cycles used by protists.

 

5. Which group is most closely related to fungi?​

a. ​radiolarians
b. ​stramenopiles
c. ​alveolates
d. ​choanoflagellates
e. ​oomycetes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.2 A Collection of Lineages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.2 – Examine the three types of reproductive life cycles used by protists.

 

6. Which group is most distantly related to green algae?​

a. ​ciliates
b. ​dinoflagellates
c. ​diplomonads
d. ​apicomplexans
e. ​diatoms

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   21.2 A Collection of Lineages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.2 – Examine the three types of reproductive life cycles used by protists.

 

7. ​Four of the following are shared characteristics of parabasalids and diplomonads. Which is the exception?

a. ​heterotrophy
b. ​flagella
c. ​oxygen-poor or anaerobic habitats
d. ​abundant mitochondria
e. ​presence of a pellicle

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

 

Figure 21.5

 

8. ​The organism in the accompanying figure belongs to which group?

a. ​excavates
b. ​alveolates
c. ​stramenopiles
d. ​green algae
e. ​amoebozoans

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.5
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

9. ​Four of the following are true of euglenoids. Which statement is false?

a. ​Many move by pseudopods.
b. ​Many contain chloroplasts.
c. ​Many absorb nutrients from their environment in a heterotrophic manner.
d. ​Their cell body is surrounded by a pellicle.
e. ​They use a contractile vacuole to maintain water balance.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

10. ​The ____ gives structure to many unwalled, single-celled protists.

a. ​contractile vacuole
b. ​pellicle
c. ​Golgi body
d. ​endoplasmic reticulum
e. ​nucleus

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

11. Which feature is shared by euglenoids and kinetoplastids?​

a. ​an eyespot
b. flagellated
c. ​photoautotrophy
d. ​parasitic existence
e. ​marine and freshwater habitats

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

12. The causative agents of Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness are ____.​

a. ​trypanosomes
b. ​euglenoids
c. ​hydrogenosomes
d. ​diplomonads
e. ​parabasalids

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

13. Protists cause four of the following diseases. Which one is the exception??​

a. ​dysentery
b. ​neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
c. ​malaria
d. ​AIDS
e. ​trichomonas infections of the reproductive tract

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

14. The term “plankton” ____.

a. ​refers to a taxonomic division of algae
b. ​is a common term for microscopic organisms that drift or swim weakly in water
c. ​includes only multicellular forms
d. ​refers to small aquatic plants
e. ​would apply to large brown algae

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.4 Foraminifera and Radiolarians
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.4 – Differentiate between the structures of foraminifera and radiolarians using examples and diagrams.

 

Figure 21.9

 

15. The organism in the accompanying figure belongs to which group?​

a. ​excavates
b. ​alveolates
c. ​stramenopiles
d. ​green algae
e. rhizarians

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.4 Foraminifera and Radiolarians
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.9
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.4 – Differentiate between the structures of foraminifera and radiolarians using examples and diagrams.

 

16. ​What is NOT a characteristic of radiolarians?

a. ​They have perforated shells of calcium carbonate.
b. ​They form part of the plankton.
c. ​They use pseudopods for feeding.
d. ​They have vacuoles that impart buoyancy.
e. ​They are heterotrophic protists.

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.4 Foraminifera and Radiolarians
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.4 – Differentiate between the structures of foraminifera and radiolarians using examples and diagrams.

 

Figure 21.11

 

17. The organism in the accompanying figure belongs to which group?​

a. ​excavates
b. ​alveolates
c. ​stramenopiles
d. ​green algae
e. ​rhizarians

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.5 The Ciliates
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.11
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.5 – Discuss the structural features of the different types of ciliates using examples.

 

18. What feature is common to all the alveolates?​

a. ​autotrophy
b. ​lung-like sacs used for respiration
c. ​bioluminescence
d. ​complex life cycle with two hosts
e. ​membrane-bound sacs beneath the plasma membrane

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   21.5 The Ciliates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.5 – Discuss the structural features of the different types of ciliates using examples.

 

19. ​In ciliates, the ____ is used for ____.

a. ​gullet; digestion
b. ​cilia; flexible support
c. ​pellicle; digestion
d. ​contractile vacuole; food gathering
e. ​pellicle; water balance

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Synthesis
REFERENCES:   21.5 The Ciliates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.5 – Discuss the structural features of the different types of ciliates using examples.

 

20. ​Red tides and extensive fish kills are caused by population blooms of ____.

a. Euglena
b. ​specific dinoflagellates
c. ​diatoms
d. Plasmodium
e. ​fish

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.6 Dinoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.6 – Examine the unique characteristics of dinoflagellates using examples and diagrams.

 

21. The production of light by an organism is called ____.​

a. ​autophotoproduction
b. ​bioluminescence
c. ​luminarianism
d. ​autoillumination
e. ​bioillumination

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.6 Dinoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.6 – Examine the unique characteristics of dinoflagellates using examples and diagrams.

 

Figure 21.15

Refer to the accompanying figure for questions 22 and 23.

 

22. At which stage does the Plasmodium (malaria) parasite reproduce asexually and mature into merozoites?​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.7 Apicomplexans
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.15
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.7 – Examine the different diseases caused by pathogenic apicomplexans using diagrams.

 

23. ​Within one or two weeks after infection with Plasmodium, ruptured liver cells release _____ and cellular debris into the host’s bloodstream, causing fever and weakness characteristic of malaria.

a. ​sporozoites
b. ​merozoites
c. Anopheles mosquitoes
d. ​gametocytes
e. zygotes

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.7 Apicomplexans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.7 – Examine the different diseases caused by pathogenic apicomplexans using diagrams.

 

24. Four of the following statements are true about stramenopiles. Which statement is FALSE?​

a. ​They are filamentous heterotrophs.
b. ​Some species are unicellular.
c. ​They include diatoms and red algae.
d. ​Most are photosynthetic.
e. ​Their chloroplast structure suggests evolution by secondary endosymbiosis.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

25. Diatoms are used for four of the following. Which one is the exception?​

a. ​biofuels
b. ​ink
c. ​filters
d. ​cleaners
e. ​insecticides

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

Portion of Figure 21.17

Refer to the accompanying figure for questions 26 and 27.

 

26. ​The organism shown in the accompanying figure belongs to the ____ group.

a. ​kinetoplastids
b. ​diplomonads
c. ​green algae
d. ​red algae
e. ​brown algae

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.17
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

27. Which letter points to the counterpart of a stem in a flowering plant?

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

Figure 21.17A

 

28. The kelp shown in the accompanying figure represents the ____ stage in its life cycle.​

a. ​spore-bearing
b. ​gamete-forming
c. ​haploid
d. ​motile
e. ​feeding

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.17A
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

29. Four of the following are true about water molds. Which one is the exception?​

a. ​Water mold is responsible for the Irish potato famine.
b. ​Some species are aquatic parasites.
c. ​Most act as decomposers.
d. ​Their filaments are composed of haploid cells.
e. ​They are heterotrophs.

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

30. The red algae are classified as ____.​

a. ​rhodophytes
b. ​chlorophytes
c. ​phaeophytes
d. ​bryophytes
e. ​pterophytes

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.9 – Describe the structure of red algae and their commercial uses using examples.

 

31. Red algae ____.​

a. ​are primarily marine organisms
b. ​are thought to have developed from green algae
c. ​contain xanthophylls as their main accessory pigments
d. ​are mostly unicellular
e. ​survive only in shallow water

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.9 – Describe the structure of red algae and their commercial uses using examples.

 

32. Chloroplasts of red algae may have evolved from ancient endosymbiotic ____.​

a. ​cyanobacteria
b. ​dinoflagellates
c. ​apicomplexans
d. ​archaeans
e. ​nitrifying bacteria

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.9 – Describe the structure of red algae and their commercial uses using examples.

 

33. Most freshwater algae belong to which group?​

a. ​red algae
b. ​green algae
c. ​brown algae
d. ​golden algae
e. ​blue-green algae

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.10 – Illustrate how green algae are classified.

 

 

Figure 21.21

 

34. ​Gametes are formed at stage ____.

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 21.21
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.10 – Illustrate how green algae are classified.

 

35. ​Which pigment(s) is/are characteristic of chlorophytes?

a. ​chlorophyll a
b. ​phycobilins
c. ​chlorophyll b
d. fucoxanthin
e. ​chlorophylls a and b

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.10 – Illustrate how green algae are classified.

 

36. ​Land plants are thought to be most closely related to the ____.

a. ​chlorophyte algae
b. ​red algae
c. ​charophyte algae
d. ​brown algae
e. ​euglenoids

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.10 – Illustrate how green algae are classified.

 

37. Four of the following are true about the amoebozoans. Which one is the exception?​

a. ​They are shape shifters.
b. ​They include the amoebas.
c. ​They are the closest known relatives of animals.
d. ​They include species that are able to form pseudopods.
e. ​They include the slime molds.

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.10 Amoebozoans and Choanoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.11 – Differentiate between amoebozoans and choanoflagellates.

 

38. Cellular slime molds can be distinguished from plasmodial slime molds on the basis of ____.​

a. ​reproductive structures
b. ​spore formation
c. ​number of nuclei per cell
d. ​slime trails
e. ​food requirements

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.10 Amoebozoans and Choanoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   OBJ: UDOL.STES.16.21.11 – Differentiate between amoebozoans and choanoflagellates.

 

39. Choanoflagellates are ____.​

a. ​heterotrophs
b. ​chemoautotrophs
c. ​autotrophs
d. ​phototrophs
e. ​halotrophs

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.10 Amoebozoans and Choanoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.11 – Differentiate between amoebozoans and choanoflagellates.

 

40. Choanoflagellates are most closely related to the ____.​

a. ​land plants
b. ​animals
c. ​mold
d. ​bacteria
e. ​slime molds

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.10 Amoebozoans and Choanoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.11 – Differentiate between amoebozoans and choanoflagellates.

 

Matching

 

​Select the best choice for the following statements using the five groups listed below.

a. ​apicomplexans
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​euglenoids
d. ​dinoflagellates
e. ​trypanosomes

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.5 The Ciliates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.5 – Discuss the structural features of the different types of ciliates using examples.

 

41. ​All members of this group are parasitic alveolates.

ANSWER:   a

 

​Select the best choice for the following statements using the five groups listed below.

a. ​apicomplexans
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​euglenoids
d. ​dinoflagellates
e. ​trypanosomes

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

42. These possess an eyespot for detecting light needed for photosynthesis.

ANSWER:   c

 

43. ​Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness are caused by members of this group.

ANSWER:   e

 

​Select the best choice for the following statements using the five groups listed below.

a. ​apicomplexans
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​euglenoids
d. ​dinoflagellates
e. ​trypanosomes

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.10 Amoebozoans and Choanoflagellates

 

44. These move by means of pseudopods.

ANSWER:   b

 

​Select the best choice for the following statements using the five groups listed below.

a. ​apicomplexans
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​euglenoids
d. ​dinoflagellates
e. ​trypanosomes

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.6 Dinoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.6 – Examine the unique characteristics of dinoflagellates using examples and diagrams.

 

45. Neurotoxin from some members of this group can kill humans.

ANSWER:   c

 

Select the best choice for the following statements in reference to the four groups of protists listed below.​

a. ​stramenopiles
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​alveolates
d. ​parabasalids and diplomonads

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.10 Amoebozoans and Choanoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.11 – Differentiate between amoebozoans and choanoflagellates.

 

46. The common amoeba, Amoeba proteus, is a member of this group.​

ANSWER:   b

 

47. ​The slime molds are members of this group.

ANSWER:   b

 

Select the best choice for the following statements in reference to the four groups of protists listed below.​

a. ​stramenopiles
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​alveolates
d. ​parabasalids and diplomonads

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.5 The Ciliates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.5 – Discuss the structural features of the different types of ciliates using examples.

 

48. The malarial parasite Plasmodium is a member of this group.

ANSWER:   c

 

49. Paramecium belongs to this group.

ANSWER:   c

 

Select the best choice for the following statements in reference to the four groups of protists listed below.​

a. ​stramenopiles
b. ​amoebozoans
c. ​alveolates
d. ​parabasalids and diplomonads

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

50. This group includes the diatoms.​

ANSWER:   a

 

Completion

 

51. Some protists have complex life cycles and change between the haploid and diploid state. This process is called __________ of _________.

ANSWER:   alternation; generations​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.2 A Collection of Lineages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.2 – Examine the three types of reproductive life cycles used by protists.

 

52. __________ are single-celled and mostly or entirely heterotrophic.​

ANSWER:   Flagellated protozoans
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

53. Euglenoids live in freshwater; a(n) __________ rids them of excess water.

ANSWER:   contractile vacuole
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.3 Flagellated Protozoans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.3 – Outline the features of the different types of flagellated protozoans using diagrams and examples.

 

54. __________ and __________ are single-celled heterotrophs with a secreted shell.​

ANSWER:   Foraminiferans; radiolarians​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.4 Foraminifera and Radiolarians
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.4 – Differentiate between the structures of foraminifera and radiolarians using examples and diagrams.

 

55. __________ are aquatic heterotrophs and autotrophs with a cellulose covering.​

ANSWER:   Dinoflagellates
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.6 Dinoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.6 – Examine the unique characteristics of dinoflagellates using examples and diagrams.

 

56. In nutrient-rich water, photosynthetic protists may undergo population explosions known as __________.​

ANSWER:   algal blooms
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.6 Dinoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.6 – Examine the unique characteristics of dinoflagellates using examples and diagrams.

 

57. __________ are heterotrophs that grow as a mesh of absorptive filaments. Some are plant pathogens.​

ANSWER:   Water molds
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   21.8 The Stramenopiles
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.8 – Examine the features of the different stramenopile species using examples.

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

58. Why is malaria such an effective disease?

ANSWER:   There are many reasons that malaria is effective. Perhaps most significant is the mosquito vector.  Mosquitoes offer the Plasmodium direct access to the blood so the pathogen does not need to rely on accidental cuts or openings.  In addition, the mosquito solves the problem of moving the pathogen between hosts.  In addition, the pathogen assists the vector by both making the host week and making them secrete a mosquito-appealing odor, increasing the odds of a mosquito successfully visiting them.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Synthesis
REFERENCES:   21.1 Malaria: From Tutankhamun to Today
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.1 – Examine the characteristics of protists using plasmodium as an example.

 

59. Describe the relationship of protists to the major groups of eukaryotes.

ANSWER:   Protists seem to have been the pathway to land plants, animals and fungi. Many protist groups are only distantly related to each other. Some are more closely related to plants, fungi, or animals than to other protists.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Synthesis
REFERENCES:   21.2 A Collection of Lineages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.2 – Examine the three types of reproductive life cycles used by protists.

 

60. Are humans responsible for neurotoxic shellfish poisoning? Why or why not?​

ANSWER:   Indirectly, yes we are. Dinoflagellates will, under specific conditions, experience ‘algal blooms’ – explosive growths in population.  One of the primary factors contributing to this is the availability of nutrients which can be greatly increased by agricultural runoff (human input). When the dinoflagellates are present in great numbers, filter-feeding shellfish consume them in great quantity and absorb their toxins. These toxins then cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning in human consumers.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Synthesis
REFERENCES:   21.6 Dinoflagellates
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.6 – Examine the unique characteristics of dinoflagellates using examples and diagrams.

 

61. Why can red algae grow at deeper depths of water than green algae?

ANSWER:   Green algae have chlorophylls a and b, which do not absorb green light (they reflect, hence the algae looks green).  Conversely, red algae have phycobilins that can absorb green light.  As green light can penetrate to great depths, red algae can perform photosynthesis and live at greater depths.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   21.9 Red Algae and Green Algae
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.21.10 – Illustrate how green algae are classified.

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. Whales and elephants use sound to communicate with which kind of receptor?​

a. ​photoreceptors
b. ​nociceptors
c. ​thermoreceptors
d. ​chemoreceptors
e. ​mechanoreceptors

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

2. When the brain assigns meaning to a sensory signal, we say that _____ has taken place.

a. ​sensory adaptation
b. ​sensory perception
c. ​semantic perception
d. ​sensory action
e. ​sensory activation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

3. The processing of sensory input in animals leads to ____.​

a. ​an adaptation
b. ​a sensation
c. ​an action
d. ​feeling exactly what is happening at the site
e. ​responding to the stimulus

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

4. The major function of a receptor is to _____.​

a. ​control the autonomic functions of the body
b. ​stabilize the internal environment to achieve homeostasis
c. ​produce responses to the various stimuli the body receives
d. ​give organisms or cells awareness of and sensitivity to their environment
e. ​control the visceral functions of the body

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

5. Which analgesic relieves pain by mimicking the action of endorphins?​

a. ​aspirin
b. ​ziconotide
c. ​NSAIDS
d. ​morphine
e. ​acetaminophen

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

6. A diminishing response by receptors to a constant stimulus is known as ____.​

a. ​an action potential
b. ​neural transduction
c. ​sensory adaptation
d. ​referred pain
e. ​a sensation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

7. The somatosensory cortex _____​.

a. ​maps the distribution of somatic receptors on the body
b. ​consists of gray matter
c. ​involves only the spinal cord
d. ​responds to all signals equally
e. ​is not responsive to mechanoreceptors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

8. The somatic senses include four of the following sensations. Which one is the exception?​

a. ​balance
b. ​pain near the body surface
c. ​temperature
d. ​touch
e. ​pressure

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom | Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

 

Figure 33.6​

 

9. The accompanying figure shows areas of referred pain that indicate an internal organ is damaged. Which letter corresponds to heart damage?​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.6
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

10. The Pacinian corpuscle is used in detecting ____.​

a. ​sound
b. ​hard pressure
c. ​chemicals
d. ​light touch
e. ​chemical differences

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

11. ​A stretch receptor is classified as a ____.

a. ​chemoreceptor
b. ​mechanoreceptor
c. ​photoreceptor
d. ​thermoreceptor
e. ​nociceptor

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

12. The pain produced in an internal organ may be perceived as occurring somewhere else. This phenomenon is called ____.​

a. ​mixed nerve messages
b. ​referred pain
c. ​phantom pain
d. ​psychosomatic pain
e. ​hypochondria

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

13. Sensory pathways of smell and taste ____.​

a. ​begin with chemoreceptors
b. ​begin in the somatosensory cortex
c. ​are not involved in communication
d. ​are integrated with the advanced vomeronasal organ that humans possess
e. ​are completely separated from one another

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

14. Humans have ____.​

a. ​more taste receptors than olfactory receptors
b. ​more olfactory receptors than taste receptors
c. ​a high degree of dependency on pheromones
d. ​approximately six types of olfactory receptors
e. ​an advanced vomeronasal organ

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

 

Figure 33.8

Use the accompanying figure to answer the following question.

 

15. ​What letter indicates a taste bud?

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​A and B
e. ​none of these, because they are olfactory receptors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

16. Eyes contain ____ ​

a. ​chemoreceptors
b. ​mechanoreceptors
c. ​photoreceptors
d. ​nociceptors
e. ​thermoreceptors

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

17. Insects have ____.​

a. ​simple eyes
b. ​ocelli
c. ​ciliary eyes
d. ​compound eyes
e. ​”camera” eyes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

 

Figure 33.12

 

18. ​Refer to the accompanying photograph. Which statement best explains why the owl has its head almost upside down?

a. ​Photoreceptors are concentrated near the bottom of the eye.
b. ​Photoreceptors are concentrated near the top of the eye.
c. ​Loud music from a passing car has caused damage to the sense of balance.
d. ​An obstruction in its ear has caused this instinctual behavior.
e. ​The presence of prey above has caused this physical alert.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.12
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

19. The portion of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the ____.​

a. ​lens
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​fovea
e. ​retina

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

20. The adjustable ring of contractile and connective tissues that controls the amount of light entering the eye is the ____.​

a. ​lens
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​iris
e. ​retina

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

21. ​The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the ____.

a. ​fovea
b. ​retina
c. ​sclera
d. ​choroid
e. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

 

Figure 33.14​

Use the accompanying figure to answer the following two questions.

 

22. The retina is indicated by the letter ____.​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.14
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

23. The structure that protects the eyeball is indicated by the letter ____.​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.14
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

24. Visual accommodation involves the ability to ____.​

a. ​change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters
b. ​change the position of the retina
c. ​change the thickness of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles
d. ​protect the eyeball from foreign matter
e. ​prevent eye strain

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

25. Rods and cones are located in the ____.​

a. ​lens
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​iris
e. ​retina

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.7 Light reception and Visual Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.7 – Discuss how humans process visual information using diagrams.

 

26. The area on the retina that has the greatest density of cone cells is called the ____.​

a. ​fovea
b. ​visual ganglion
c. ​lateral geniculate nucleus
d. ​visual cortex
e. ​blind spot

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.7 Light reception and Visual Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.7 – Discuss how humans process visual information using diagrams.

 

27. When light rays converge behind the retina, it is known as ____.​

a. ​astigmatism
b. ​color blindness
c. ​nearsightedness
d. ​macular degeneration
e. ​farsightedness

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.8 Visual Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.8 – Examine the causes of any three common visual disorders.

 

Figure 33.17C

 

28. The letter “C” in the above figure represents the ____.​

a. ​cortex
b. ​cornea
c. ​fovea
d. ​blood vessels
e. ​optic nerve

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.7 Light reception and Visual Processing
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.17C
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.7 – Discuss how humans process visual information using diagrams.

 

29. Nearsightedness is caused by a(n) _____​

a. ​eye structure that focuses an image in front of the retina
b. ​eye structure that focuses an image behind the retina
c. ​eyeball that is too short
d. ​recessive trait on the Y chromosome
e. ​recessive trait on the X chromosome

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.8 Visual Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.8 – Examine the causes of any three common visual disorders.

 

30. The color of the eye is predicated on the amount of ____ present.​

a. ​enzyme
b. ​protein
c. ​melanin
d. ​salts
e. ​lipids

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

31. Which statement accurately describes the properties of sound?​

a. ​The frequency of a sound determines the loudness.
b. ​The amplitude of a sound determines its pitch.
c. ​The amplitude of a sound is the number of waves per second.
d. ​A soft sound has a greater amplitude than a loud sound.
e. ​A high note and a low note with the same amplitude are equally loud.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

32. The organ of Corti ____.​

a. ​is integral to balance
b. ​controls the sense of depth perception
c. ​has hair cells that fire and sends signals to the brain
d. ​is involved in visual acuity
e. ​detects light energy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

Figure 33.21 (part 2)

Use the accompanying figure to answer the following two questions.

 

33. The bones that amplify sound reaching the eardrum are indicated by the letters ____.​

a. ​A and B
b. ​A, B, and C
c. ​B and C
d. ​C and D
e. ​C, D, and F

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.21
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

34. The oval window is indicated by the letter ____.​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.21
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

35. In humans, and some other vertebrates, the organ that collects sound is called the ____.​

a. ​auditory nerve
b. ​cochlea
c. ​eardrum
d. ​pinna
e. ​round window

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

36. Equilibrium is sensed by ____.​

a. ​chemoreceptors
b. ​mechanoreceptors
c. ​photoreceptors
d. ​thermoreceptors
e. ​nociceptors

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.

 

37. Failure of the organs in the vestibular apparatus to function correctly can cause ____.​

a. ​lack of sensation on the skin
b. ​loss of hearing
c. ​motion sickness
d. ​inability to smell
e. ​night blindness

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.

 

38. The utricle and saccule ____.​

a. ​each contain an organ of dynamic equilibrium
b. ​detect rotation of the head
c. ​detect how the head is oriented relative to the ground
d. ​are semicircular canals
e. ​use the auditory nerve to send information to the brain

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.

 

Matching

 

Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. relays action potentials from the ear to the brain
b. ​contains the organ of Corti
c. ​separates the outer and middle ears
d. ​membrane-covered gateway to inner ear
e. ​consists of tissue containing rods and cones
f. ​bone in middle ear
g. ​defined by peak height and valley depth of sound waves
h. helps maintain balance and position; detects acceleration
i. ​depends on the number of wave cycles per second
j. ​a substance that elicits a response in members of the same species
k. ​regulates size of pupil and amount of incoming light

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.
UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.
UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.
UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

39. ​amplitude

ANSWER:   g

 

40. ​cochlea

ANSWER:   b

 

41. ​eardrum

ANSWER:   c

 

42. ​iris

ANSWER:   k

 

43. ​oval window

ANSWER:   d

 

44. ​pheromone

ANSWER:   j

 

45. ​hammer

ANSWER:   f

 

46. ​pitch

ANSWER:   i

 

47. ​retina

ANSWER:   e

 

48. ​auditory nerve

ANSWER:   a

 

49. ​saccule

ANSWER:   h

 

Classification. Respond to the following statements in reference to the four kinds of receptors listed below.​

a. ​chemical
b. ​mechanical
c. ​thermal
d. ​nociceptor

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

50. ​Receptors on the tongue detect variations in this kind of signal.

ANSWER:   a

 

51. ​Receptors that detect pain.

ANSWER:   d

 

52. ​Ears detect this kind of energy.

ANSWER:   b

 

53. ​The warmth you feel from a campfire is a result of detecting this kind of energy.

ANSWER:   c

 

Answer the following questions in reference to the five eye structures listed below.​

a. ​cornea
b. ​lens
c. ​retina
d. ​ommatidium
e. ​vitreous body

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

54. ​This structure is found in the compound eyes of insects but not in the eyes of vertebrates.

ANSWER:   d

 

55. ​This structure forms the transparent front of the eye.

ANSWER:   a

 

56. ​This structure primarily acts to focus light waves.

ANSWER:   b

 

57. ​This structure contains rods and cones in vertebrates.

ANSWER:   c

 

58. ​This structure acts to maintain the shape of the eye and to transmit light to other structures.

ANSWER:   e

 

Completion

 

59. __________ respond to mechanical energy such as touch.​

ANSWER:   Mechanoreceptors​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

60. __________ sense pain.​

ANSWER:   Nociceptors​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

61. Continued stimulation of a receptor may lead to a diminished response and is called __________.​

ANSWER:   sensory adaptation
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

62. The __________ sensations arise from sensory receptors located in skin, or near muscles or joints.​

ANSWER:   somatic​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

63. __________ sensations arise from receptors near organs in body cavities.

ANSWER:   Visceral​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

64. __________ line human nasal passages.​

ANSWER:   Olfactory receptors​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

65. The __________ is a system of fluid-filled sacs and canals in the inner ear.​

ANSWER:   vestibular apparatus​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

66. The cochlea is a coiled structure with fluid-filled ducts that holds the mechanoreceptors responsible for hearing in its __________.​

ANSWER:   organ of Corti​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

67. Insects have a(n) __________ eye, with many individual units.​

ANSWER:   compound​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

68. Light enters the eye’s interior through the __________, an adjustable opening in the center of the muscular, doughnut-shaped iris.​

ANSWER:   pupil​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

69. What would be the danger in lacking nociceptors?​

ANSWER:   Nociceptors are responsible for sensing pain, so in their absence an individual’s ability to sense and respond to pain would be greatly reduced. Directly, this could impact reflex actions in which rapid response minimizes the damage done to the body. From a bigger perspective, the individual would be less able to detect the pain caused by specific actions and thus may not learn to avoid them.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

70. An individual reports to the doctor that they are experiencing pain in their left arm. What would the doctor think may be wrong?​

ANSWER:   Due to referred pain, there is the distinct possibility that the pain in the left arm could be indicative of damage to the heart. Thus, it would be prudent for the doctor to check the heart health of the client.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

71. People tend to crave sweet and salty foods, but dislike bitter foods. What is the evolutionary explanation for this?​

ANSWER:   During our evolution, obtaining basic dietary needs was a struggle so craving foods that would benefit us was valuable.  Sweet foods are rich in simple sugars and represent a valuable source of energy.  Salty foods contain sodium chloride, and sodium was historically difficult to obtain.  Conversely, foods that are bitter commonly contain plant toxins and the taste served as a warning not to eat that particular plant.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

72. Why is color blindness more common in males?​

ANSWER:   Color blindness is an X-linked trait, which means the gene controlling color vision is on the X chromosome.  You will recall from earlier chapters that human females have two X chromosomes while human males have only one.  As a result, if the male receives the X chromosome with the faulty allele, he will express the trait, but a female who receives one faulty allele will not show the trait if her second X chromosome has the normal allele.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.8 Visual Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.8 – Examine the causes of any three common visual disorders.