Sample Chapter

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Human Anatomy & Physiology 9th Edition Test Bank by Marieb,Hoehn

Sample  Questions  

 

 

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids. 1)
A) Three forms exist: DNA, RNA, and tDNA.
B) RNA is a long, single-stranded molecule made up of the bases A, T, G, and C.
C) tDNA is considered a molecular slave of DNA during protein synthesis.
D) DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A, T, G, and C bases.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2) An atom with a valence of 3 may have a total of ________ electrons. 2)
A) 13 B) 3 C) 17 D) 8
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3) Which of the following is not considered a factor in influencing a reaction rate? 3)
A) temperature B) time C) concentration D) particle size
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
4) Which of the following does not describe uses for the ATP molecule? 4)
A) pigment structure B) transport across membranes
C) mechanical work D) chemical work
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
5) ________ is fat soluble, produced in the skin on exposure to UV radiation, and necessary for normal
bone growth and function.
5)
A) Vitamin A B) Vitamin D C) Vitamin K D) Cortisol
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
1
6) Stress proteins are a type of protein called ________. 6)
A) coenzymes B) eicosanoids C) cofactors D) chaperones
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
7) Which of the following is a neutralization reaction? 7)
A) NaOH 􀀏 Na+ + OH- B) HCl + NaOH 􀀏 NaCl + H2O
C) HCl 􀀏 H+ + Cl- D) NH3 + H+ 􀀏 NH4+2
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
8) What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol in neutral fats? 8)
A) 3:1 B) 4:1 C) 2:1 D) 1:1
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
9) What is a chain of more than 50 amino acids called? 9)
A) polypeptide B) protein C) nucleic acid D) polysaccharide
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
10) Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the ________. 10)
A) addition of a carbon atom between each two units
B) removal of a carbon atom between each two units
C) removal of a water molecule between each two units
D) addition of a water molecule between each two units
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
2
11) Which protein types are vitally important to cell function in all types of stressful circumstances? 11)
A) structural proteins B) regulatory proteins
C) catalytic proteins D) molecular chaperones
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
12) Choose the answer that best describes fibrous proteins. 12)
A) are cellular catalysts B) are very stable and insoluble in water
C) are usually called enzymes D) rarely exhibit secondary structure
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
13) Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of ________. 13)
A) cholesterol B) glucose C) glycogen D) triglycerides
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
14) Which of the following would be regarded as an organic molecule? 14)
A) CH4 B) NaOH C) NaCl D) H2O
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
15) What does the formula C6H12O6 mean? 15)
A) The molecular weight is 24.
B) The substance is a colloid.
C) There are 6 calcium, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms.
D) There are, 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
3
16) Select which reactions will usually be irreversible regarding chemical equilibrium in human
bodies.
16)
A) H2O + CO2 to make H2CO3
B) ADP + Pi to make ATP
C) glucose molecules joined to make glycogen
D) glucose to CO2 and H2O
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
17) Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat? 17)
A) high heat of vaporization
B) polar solvent properties
C) high heat capacity
D) reactivity
E) cushioning
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18) Which of the following is an example of a suspension? 18)
A) salt water B) rubbing alcohol C) blood D) cytoplasm
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
19) The single most abundant protein in the body is ________. 19)
A) collagen B) glucose C) DNA D) hemoglobin
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
4
20) Select the correct statement about isotopes. 20)
A) Isotopes occur only in the heavier elements.
B) All the isotopes of an element are radioactive.
C) Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differ in their atomic masses.
D) All the isotopes of an element have the same number of neutrons but differing numbers of
electrons.
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
21) Which statement about enzymes is false? 21)
A) Enzymes require contact with substrate in order to assume their active form.
B) Enzymes may use coenzymes derived from vitamins or cofactors from metallic elements.
C) Enzymes may be damaged by high temperature.
D) Enzymes have the ability to accelerate reactions as much as a billion-fold.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
22) Which of the following statements is false? 22)
A) When the hydrogen ion concentration decreases, the hydroxyl ion concentration also
decreases.
B) The pH of blood is slightly basic.
C) When acids and bases are mixed, they react with each other to form water and a salt.
D) The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more acidic the solution.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
23) The basic structural material of the body consists of ________. 23)
A) Nucleic acids. B) Lipids. C) Carbohydrates D) Proteins.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
5
24) What is a dipole? 24)
A) an organic molecule B) a type of reaction
C) a polar molecule D) a type of bond
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
25) In a DNA molecule, the phosphate serves ________. 25)
A) to bind the sugars to their bases B) to hold the molecular backbone together
C) as nucleotides D) as a code
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
26) Which of the following is the major positive ion outside cells? 26)
A) potassium B) magnesium C) hydrogen D) sodium
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
27) Choose the answer that best describes HCO3-. 27)
A) a weak acid B) a bicarbonate ion
C) common in the liver D) a proton donor
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
28) In general, the lipids that we refer to as oils have ________. 28)
A) a high water content B) long fatty acid chains
C) a high degree of unsaturated bonds D) a high degree of saturated bonds
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
6
29) If atom X has an atomic number of 74 it would have which of the following? 29)
A) 37 electrons B) 37 protons and 37 neutrons
C) 74 protons D) 37 protons and 37 electrons
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
30) Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a(n) ________ reaction. 30)
A) decomposition B) reversible C) synthesis D) exchange
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
31) Salts are always ________. 31)
A) hydrogen bonded B) ionic compounds
C) double covalent compounds D) single covalent compounds
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
32) The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are ________. 32)
A) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen B) nitrogen, hydrogen, calcium, sodium
C) sodium, potassium, hydrogen, oxygen D) carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, calcium
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
33) The genetic information is coded in DNA by the ________. 33)
A) regular alteration of sugar and phosphate molecules
B) arrangement of the histones
C) three-dimensional structure of the double helix
D) sequence of the nucleotides
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
7
34) A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with ________. 34)
A) a synthesis B) forming a larger molecule
C) the release of energy D) the consumption of energy
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
35) Which bonds often bind different parts of a molecule into a specific three-dimensional shape? 35)
A) Oxygen B) Hydrogen C) Carbon D) Amino acid
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
36) Sucrose is a ________. 36)
A) triglyceride B) disaccharide
C) polysaccharide D) monosaccharide
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
37) Which of the following elements is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses? 37)
A) Na B) I C) Fe D) P
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
38) What does CH4 mean? 38)
A) This was involved in a redox reaction.
B) There is one carbon and four hydrogen atoms.
C) There are four carbon and four hydrogen atoms.
D) This is an inorganic molecule.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
8
39) The numbers listed represent the number of electrons in the first, second, and third energy levels,
respectively. On this basis, which of the following is an unstable or reactive atom?
39)
A) 2, 8 B) 2 C) 2, 8, 1 D) 2, 8, 8
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
40) Which of the following is not a role of molecular chaperonins? 40)
A) promote the breakdown of damaged or denatured proteins
B) aid the desired folding and association process of polypeptides
C) act as a platform for assembling primary protein structure
D) help to translocate proteins and certain metal ions across cell membranes
E) prevent accidental, premature, or incorrect folding of polypeptide chains
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
41) Which of the following statements is false? 41)
A) Larger particles move faster than smaller ones and thus collide more frequently and more
forcefully.
B) Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions, sometimes while undergoing reversible
changes in shape.
C) Chemical reactions progress at a faster rate when the reacting particles are present in higher
numbers.
D) Chemical reactions proceed more quickly at higher temperatures.
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
42) The chemical symbol O􀀺O means ________. 42)
A) the atoms are double bonded
B) this is an ionic bond with two shared electrons
C) zero equals zero
D) both atoms are bonded and have zero electrons in the outer orbit
Answer: A
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
9
43) 31) You notice that you cannot read your book through a test tube of patient fluid held against the
print, making it so blurred as to be unreadable. There is no precipitant in the bottom of the beaker,
though it has been sitting for several days in a rack. What type of liquid is this?
43)
A) suspension B) colloid C) mixture D) solution
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
44) Atom X has 17 protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell? 44)
A) 10 B) 5 C) 7 D) 3
Answer: C
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
45) What happens in redox reactions? 45)
A) the organic substance that loses hydrogen is usually reduced
B) the electron acceptor is oxidized
C) the reaction is uniformly reversible
D) both decomposition and electron exchange occur
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
46) Which of the following is not true of proteins? 46)
A) They have both functional and structural roles in the body..
B) They appear to be the molecular carriers of coded hereditary information.
C) Their function depends on their three-dimensional shape.
D) They may be denatured or coagulated by heat or acidity.
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
47) What level of protein synthesis is represented by the coiling of the protein chain backbone into an
alpha helix?
47)
A) primary structure B) secondary structure
C) quaternary structure D) tertiary structure
Answer: B
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
10
48) Which of the following does NOT describe enzymes? 48)
A) Some enzymes are purely protein.
B) Each enzyme is chemically specific.
C) Some enzymes are protein plus a cofactor.
D) Enzymes work by raising the energy of activation.
Answer: D
Explanation: A)
B)
C)
D)
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
49) Name at least four things you know about enzymes. 49)
Answer: 1. They are proteins.
2. They have specific binding sites for specific substrates.
3. They lower the activation barrier for a specific reaction.
4. The names end in “ase.”
5. They can be denatured.
6. They can be used again and again.
Explanation:
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
50) Functional protein 50)
Answer: B
Explanation:
11
51) Which metals have a toxic effect on the body? 51)
Answer: heavy
Explanation:
52) A chemical bond never occurs between components of a mixture. Discuss this. 52)
Answer: Mixtures come in three forms–solutions, colloids, and suspensions. Components of
these mixtures always retain their original makeup and can be separated into their
individual components; therefore no chemical bonding has taken place.
Explanation:
53) Molecules such as methane that are made of atoms that share electrons have ________
bonds.
53)
Answer: covalent
Explanation:
54) AB 􀀏 A + B is an example of a(n) ________ reaction. 54)
Answer: decomposition
Explanation:
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
55) Tertiary (protein) structure 55)
Answer: B
Explanation:
56) What type of chemical bond can form between an element with 11 protons and an element
with 17 protons?
56)
Answer: ionic
Explanation:
12
57) What advantages does ATP have in being the energy currency molecule? 57)
Answer: Its energy is easy to capture and store; it releases just the right amount of energy for
the cell’s needs so it is protected from excessive energy release. A universal energy
currency is efficient because a single system can be used by all the cells in the body.
Explanation:
58) What happens when globular proteins are denatured? 58)
Answer: The active sites are destroyed.
Explanation:
59) All chemical reactions are theoretically reversible. Comment on this statement. 59)
Answer: It is possible to reverse any reaction if the products are still present. Those that are
only slightly exergonic are easily reversible. Some would require an enormous
amount of energy to reverse. In the simple reaction Na + Cl 􀀏 NaCl the amount of
energy it takes to reverse table salt to chlorine gas and sodium metal is enormous.
The reversing of the covalently bonded sugar molecule once it is reduced to ATP
molecules is even harder or next to impossible without plant-like systems.
Explanation:
13
Figure 2.2
Using Figure 2.2, match the following:
60) Hydrogen bonds 60)
Answer: A
Explanation:
61) A holoenzyme is composed of an apoenzyme and a(n) ________. 61)
Answer: cofactor
Explanation:
14
Figure 2.2
Using Figure 2.2, match the following:
62) Deoxyribose sugar. 62)
Answer: B
Explanation:
63) Describe the factors that affect chemical reaction rates. 63)
Answer: Temperature increases kinetic energy and therefore the force of molecular collisions.
Particle size: smaller particles move faster at the same temperature and therefore
collide more frequently; also, smaller particles have more surface area given the
same concentration of reactants. Concentration: the higher the concentration, the
greater the chance of particles colliding. Catalysts increase the rate of the reaction at
a given temperature. Enzymes are biological catalysts.
Explanation:
64) Explain the difference between potential and kinetic energy. 64)
Answer: Potential energy is inactive stored energy that has potential to do work. Kinetic
energy is energy in action.
Explanation:
15
Figure 2.2
Using Figure 2.2, match the following:
65) Guanine 65)
Answer: E
Explanation:
16
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
66) Polymer 66)
Answer: C
Explanation:
67) How many phosphates would AMP have attached to it? 67)
Answer: one
Explanation:
68) In a DNA molecule, guanine would connect to ________. 68)
Answer: cytosine
Explanation:
69) An amino acid may act as a proton acceptor or donor. Explain. 69)
Answer: Amino acids have two components􀁎a base group (proton acceptor) and an organic
acid part (a proton donor). Some have additional base or acid groups on the ends of
their R groups as well.
Explanation:
70) Protons and electrons exist in every atom nucleus except hydrogen. Is this statement true
or false and why?
70)
Answer: False. Hydrogen has one proton and one electron. It is the neutron, not the electron
that can coexist in the nucleus and that hydrogen does not have.
Explanation:
71) The atomic number is equal to the number of ________. 71)
Answer: protons (and electrons)
Explanation:
17
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
72) Lipid 72)
Answer: D
Explanation:
73) Are all chemical reactions reversible? If not, why aren’t they all reversible? 73)
Answer: All chemical reactions are theoretically reversible, but only if the products are not
consumed.
Explanation:
18
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
74) Monosaccharide 74)
Answer: A
Explanation:
19
Figure 2.2
Using Figure 2.2, match the following:
75) Phosphate 75)
Answer: C
Explanation:
76) What properties does water have that make it a very versatile fluid? 76)
Answer: High heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polarity and solvent properties,
reactivity, and cushioning.
Explanation:
77) What does the polar end of a phospholipid contain? 77)
Answer: a phosphorus-containing group
Explanation:
20
78) If all protons, electrons, and neutrons are alike, regardless of the atom considered, what
determines the unique properties of each element?
78)
Answer: Atoms of different elements are composed of different numbers of protons,
electrons, and neutrons.
Explanation:
79) In the compound H2CO3, what do the numbers 2 and 3 represent? 79)
Answer: The 2 indicates that there are two hydrogen atoms in the compound and the 3
indicates that there are three oxygen atoms in the compound.
Explanation:
80) Hydrogen bonds are more like a type of weak ________ than true bonds. 80)
Answer: attraction
Explanation:
81) How can phospholipids form a film when mixed in water? 81)
Answer: Phospholipids have both polar and nonpolar ends. The polar end interacts with
water, leaving the nonpolar end oriented in the opposite direction.
Explanation:
82) The ________ molecule directly provides energy for cellular work. 82)
Answer: ATP
Explanation:
83) An atom with three electrons would have a valence of ________. 83)
Answer: one
Explanation:
21
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
84) Nucleotide 84)
Answer: E
Explanation:
85) Weak acids and bases make good ________. 85)
Answer: buffers
Explanation:
86) ________ have a bitter taste, feel slippery, and are proton acceptors. 86)
Answer: Bases
Explanation:
87) What is the major difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds? 87)
Answer: Polar bonds have an unequal sharing of electrons resulting in a slight negative
charge at one end of the molecule and a slight positive charge at the other end.
Nonpolar bonds have an equal sharing of electrons, resulting in a balanced charge
among the atoms.
Explanation:
88) When a set of electrodes connected to a light bulb is placed in a solution of dextrose and a
current is applied, the light bulb does not light up. When the same unit is placed in HCl, it
does. Why?
88)
Answer: HCl ionizes to form current-conducting electrolytes. Dextrose does not ionize, and
therefore does not conduct current.
Explanation:
22
89) Starch is the stored carbohydrate in plants, while ________ is the stored carbohydrate in
animals.
89)
Answer: glycogen
Explanation:
90) Explain why chemical reactions in the body are often irreversible. 90)
Answer: Chemical reactions that release energy cannot be reversed unless energy is put back
into the system. Also, some reactions produce molecules in excessive quantities (like
CO2 and NH4) that the body then eliminates, but which are needed to reverse a
reaction.
Explanation:
Figure 2.1
Using Figure 2.1, match the following:
91) Polysaccharide. 91)
Answer: C
Explanation:
23
Figure 2.2
Using Figure 2.2, match the following:
92) Thymine 92)
Answer: D
Explanation:
TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.
93) Current information suggests that omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of heart disease. 93)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
94) Buffers resist abrupt and large changes in the pH of the body by releasing or binding ions. 94)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
95) Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. 95)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
24
96) Isotopes differ from each other only in the number of electrons the atom contains. 96)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
97) Chemical properties are determined primarily by neutrons. 97)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
98) The fact that no chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture is the chief
difference between mixtures and compounds.
98)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
99) All organic compounds contain carbon. 99)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
100) A chemical bond is an energy relationship between outer electrons and neighboring atoms. 100)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
101) Hydrogen bonds are too weak to bind atoms together to form molecules but are important
intramolecular bonds.
101)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
102) The pH of body fluids must remain fairly constant for the body to maintain homeostasis. 102)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
103) A dipeptide can be broken into two amino acids by dehydration synthesis. 103)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
104) The atomic weight is only an average of relative weights of an atom and its isotopes, and it may
vary from the weight of a specific isotope.
104)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
105) The acidity of a solution reflects the free hydrogen ions in the solution 105)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
106) Lipids are a poor source of stored energy. 106)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
107) Glycogen, the storage form of glucose, is primarily stored in muscle tissue only. 107)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
25
108) The lower the pH, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration. 108)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
109) Mixtures are combinations of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but are
not bound by chemical bonds.
109)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
110) Covalent bonds are generally less stable than ionic bonds. 110)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
111) A charged particle is generally called an ion or electrolyte. 111)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
112) About 60% to 80% of the volume of most living cells consists of organic compounds. 112)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
113) It is the difference in the R group that makes each amino acid chemically unique. 113)
Answer: True False
Explanation:
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match the following:
114) Can be measured only by its effects on
matter.
Answer: A
A) Energy 114)
Match the following:
115) Heterogeneous, will settle.
Answer: A
A) Suspensions 115)
Match the following chemical bonds to the correct description:
116) A bond in which electrons are
completely lost or gained by the atoms
involved.
Answer: A
A) Ionic bond 116)
Match the following:
117) Blood.
Answer: A
A) Mixture 117)
26
Match the following:
118) Heterogeneous, will not settle.
Answer: A
A) Colloids 118)
Match the following:
119) Number of protons in an atom
Answer: A
A) Atomic number 119)
Match the following:
120) Water.
Answer: A
A) Compound 120)
Match the following:
121) Anything that occupies space and has
mass.
Answer: A
A) Matter 121)
Match the following:
122) Combined number of protons and
neutrons in an atom
Answer: A
A) Mass number of an element 122)
Match the following:
123) Energy that travels in waves. Part of
the electromagnetic spectrum.
Answer: A
A) Radiant energy 123)
Match the following chemical bonds to the correct description:
124) A bond in which electrons are shared
unequally.
Answer: A
A) Polar covalent bond 124)
Match the following:
125) Is a function of, and varies with,
gravity.
Answer: A
A) Weight 125)
Match the following:
126) Carbon.
Answer: A
A) Element 126)
27
Match the following particles to the correct description:
127) Smallest particle of an element that
retains its properties.
Answer: A
A) Atom 127)
Match the following:
128) Dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide).
Answer: A
A) Compound 128)
Match the following chemical bonds to the correct description:
129) A type of bond important in tying
different parts of the same molecule
together into a three-dimensional
structure.
Answer: A
A) Hydrogen bond 129)
Match the following particles to the correct description:
130) Electrically charged particle due to
loss of an electron.
Answer: A
A) Cation 130)
Match the following:
131) Legs moving the pedals of a bicycle.
Answer: A
A) Mechanical energy 131)
Match the following:
132) Although a man who weighs 175
pounds on Earth would be lighter on
the moon and heavier on Jupiter, his
________ would not be different.
Answer: A
A) Mass 132)
Match the following:
133) First one or two letters of an element’s
name
Answer: A
A) Atomic symbol 133)
Match the following particles to the correct description:
134) Neutral subatomic particle.
Answer: A
A) Neutron 134)
28
Match the following chemical bonds to the correct description:
135) A bond in which electrons are shared
equally.
Answer: A
A) Nonpolar covalent bond 135)
Match the following:
136) Will not scatter light.
Answer: A
137) Homogeneous, will not settle.
Answer: A
A) Solutions 136)
137)
Match the following:
138) Represented by the flow of charged
particles along a conductor, or the
flow of ions across a membrane.
Answer: A
A) Electrical energy 138)
Match the following particles to the correct description:
139) Smallest particle of a compound that
still retains its properties.
Answer: A
A) Molecule 139)
Match the following:
140) When the bonds of ATP are broken,
energy is released to do cellular work.
Answer: A
A) Chemical energy 140)
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
141) Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that
she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?
Answer: Sodas are strong acids that can reduce bone and tooth salts. Calcium phosphate makes teeth hard and
therefore more resistant to tooth decay.
142) A 65-year-old patient came to the emergency room with complaints of severe heartburn unrelieved by taking a
“large handful” of antacids. Would you expect the pH to be high or low? Explain why.
Answer: You would expect a high pH. Taking antacids will neutralize the acidic stomach. Taking a “handful” of
antacids can cause an alkaloid state. Certain drugs, such as corticosteroids and antacids that contain
baking soda, will lead to metabolic alkalosis.
29
143) How can DNA be used to “fingerprint” a suspect in a crime?
Answer: The DNA of a person is unique to that individual. By obtaining the DNA from nucleated cells from the
crime scene (e.g., tissue, sperm), enzymes may be used to break up the DNA into fragments. Because
nearly everyone’s DNA is different, it also breaks up into fragments differently. When the fragments are
separated, they form patterns even more unique than fingerprint patterns. A match of suspect and crime
scene DNA is strong evidence.
144) Although his cholesterol levels were not high, Mr. Martinez read that cholesterol was bad for his health, so he
eliminated all foods and food products containing this molecule. He later found that his cholesterol level
dropped only 20%. Why did it not drop more?
Answer: Cholesterol is produced by the liver, in addition to being ingested in foods.
145) Brenda is a 26-year-old female who is being discharged from the hospital after a vaginal delivery of an
8-pound healthy infant. Brenda is instructed by the nurse to eat a diet high in fiber and to drink 8 glasses of
water per day to prevent constipation. Explain the role of fiber and water to promote defecation.
Answer: Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in all plant products that adds bulk to the diet to promote feces
through the colon. Water acts as a lubricating liquid within the colon, which eases feces through the
bowel.
146) A 23-year-old male was riding his road bike in 100-degree heat, when he suddenly became nauseated and
weak. He called 911 from his cell phone. When the ambulance came, the paramedics started intravenous
therapy for severe dehydration. Explain the critical role of water to maintain homeostasis.
Answer: Water is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material. It makes up 60% to
80% of the volume of most living cells. The properties of water are: high heat capacity, high heat of
vaporization, polar solvent properties, reactivity, and cushioning. In this case the bicyclist lost a large
amount of water through perspiration in an effort to cool his body. This caused a disruption in
homeostasis.
147) Why is it possible for us to drink a solution that contains a mixture of equal concentration of a strong acid and a
strong base, either of which, separately, would be very caustic?
Answer: When an acid and base of equal strength are mixed, they undergo a displacement reaction to form a
water and a salt.
30
Answer Key
Testname: C2
1) D
2) A
3) B
4) A
5) B
6) D
7) B
8) A
9) B
10) C
11) D
12) B
13) C
14) A
15) D
16) D
17) A
18) C
19) A
20) C
21) A
22) A
23) D
24) C
25) B
26) D
27) B
28) C
29) C
30) C
31) B
32) A
33) D
34) C
35) B
36) B
37) A
38) B
39) C
40) C
41) A
42) A
43) B
44) C
45) D
46) B
47) B
48) D
31
Answer Key
Testname: C2
49) 1. They are proteins.
2. They have specific binding sites for specific substrates.
3. They lower the activation barrier for a specific reaction.
4. The names end in “ase.”
5. They can be denatured.
6. They can be used again and again.
50) B
51) heavy
52) Mixtures come in three forms–solutions, colloids, and suspensions. Components of these mixtures always retain their
original makeup and can be separated into their individual components; therefore no chemical bonding has taken
place.
53) covalent
54) decomposition
55) B
56) ionic
57) Its energy is easy to capture and store; it releases just the right amount of energy for the cell’s needs so it is protected
from excessive energy release. A universal energy currency is efficient because a single system can be used by all the
cells in the body.
58) The active sites are destroyed.
59) It is possible to reverse any reaction if the products are still present. Those that are only slightly exergonic are easily
reversible. Some would require an enormous amount of energy to reverse. In the simple reaction Na + Cl 􀀏 NaCl the
amount of energy it takes to reverse table salt to chlorine gas and sodium metal is enormous. The reversing of the
covalently bonded sugar molecule once it is reduced to ATP molecules is even harder or next to impossible without
plant-like systems.
60) A
61) cofactor
62) B
63) Temperature increases kinetic energy and therefore the force of molecular collisions. Particle size: smaller particles
move faster at the same temperature and therefore collide more frequently; also, smaller particles have more surface
area given the same concentration of reactants. Concentration: the higher the concentration, the greater the chance of
particles colliding. Catalysts increase the rate of the reaction at a given temperature. Enzymes are biological catalysts.
64) Potential energy is inactive stored energy that has potential to do work. Kinetic energy is energy in action.
65) E
66) C
67) one
68) cytosine
69) Amino acids have two components􀁎a base group (proton acceptor) and an organic acid part (a proton donor). Some
have additional base or acid groups on the ends of their R groups as well.
70) False. Hydrogen has one proton and one electron. It is the neutron, not the electron that can coexist in the nucleus and
that hydrogen does not have.
71) protons (and electrons)
72) D
73) All chemical reactions are theoretically reversible, but only if the products are not consumed.
74) A
75) C
76) High heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polarity and solvent properties, reactivity, and cushioning.
77) a phosphorus-containing group
78) Atoms of different elements are composed of different numbers of protons, electrons, and neutrons.
79) The 2 indicates that there are two hydrogen atoms in the compound and the 3 indicates that there are three oxygen
atoms in the compound.
32
Answer Key
Testname: C2
80) attraction
81) Phospholipids have both polar and nonpolar ends. The polar end interacts with water, leaving the nonpolar end
oriented in the opposite direction.
82) ATP
83) one
84) E
85) buffers
86) Bases
87) Polar bonds have an unequal sharing of electrons resulting in a slight negative charge at one end of the molecule and a
slight positive charge at the other end. Nonpolar bonds have an equal sharing of electrons, resulting in a balanced
charge among the atoms.
88) HCl ionizes to form current-conducting electrolytes. Dextrose does not ionize, and therefore does not conduct current.
89) glycogen
90) Chemical reactions that release energy cannot be reversed unless energy is put back into the system. Also, some
reactions produce molecules in excessive quantities (like CO2 and NH4) that the body then eliminates, but which are
needed to reverse a reaction.
91) C
92) D
93) TRUE
94) TRUE
95) TRUE
96) FALSE
97) FALSE
98) TRUE
99) TRUE
100) TRUE
101) TRUE
102) TRUE
103) FALSE
104) TRUE
105) TRUE
106) FALSE
107) FALSE
108) TRUE
109) TRUE
110) FALSE
111) TRUE
112) FALSE
113) TRUE
114) A
115) A
116) A
117) A
118) A
119) A
120) A
121) A
122) A
123) A
124) A
33
Answer Key
Testname: C2
125) A
126) A
127) A
128) A
129) A
130) A
131) A
132) A
133) A
134) A
135) A
136) A
137) A
138) A
139) A
140) A
141) Sodas are strong acids that can reduce bone and tooth salts. Calcium phosphate makes teeth hard and therefore more
resistant to tooth decay.
142) You would expect a high pH. Taking antacids will neutralize the acidic stomach. Taking a “handful” of antacids can
cause an alkaloid state. Certain drugs, such as corticosteroids and antacids that contain baking soda, will lead to
metabolic alkalosis.
143) The DNA of a person is unique to that individual. By obtaining the DNA from nucleated cells from the crime scene
(e.g., tissue, sperm), enzymes may be used to break up the DNA into fragments. Because nearly everyone’s DNA is
different, it also breaks up into fragments differently. When the fragments are separated, they form patterns even more
unique than fingerprint patterns. A match of suspect and crime scene DNA is strong evidence.
144) Cholesterol is produced by the liver, in addition to being ingested in foods.
145) Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in all plant products that adds bulk to the diet to promote feces through the colon.
Water acts as a lubricating liquid within the colon, which eases feces through the bowel.
146) Water is the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material. It makes up 60% to 80% of the
volume of most living cells. The properties of water are: high heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polar solvent
properties, reactivity, and cushioning. In this case the bicyclist lost a large amount of water through perspiration in an
effort to cool his body. This caused a disruption in homeostasis.
147) When an acid and base of equal strength are mixed, they undergo a displacement reaction to form a water and a salt.
34