Description

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Human Heredity Principles And Issues 11th Edition by Michael Cummings – Test Bank
 
Sample  Questions        

 

True / False

 

1. Normal white blood cells (called B cells) and cancerous B cells that cause leukemia both carry a unique surface protein called CD-19.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-1 Genetics and Translational Medicine
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-1-1 – Explain the connection between genetic research and clinical medicine as it relates to cancer treatment.

 

2. Genetic modification of immune cells has not been shown to be an effective leukemia treatment.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-1 Genetics and Translational Medicine
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-1-1 – Explain the connection between genetic research and clinical medicine as it relates to cancer treatment.

 

3. The human genome carries approximately 20,000 genes.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

4. In the years after the completion of the human genome project, genome sequencing revealed surprisingly little amount of variation in the sequence and arrangement of nucleotides in humans.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

5. In some societies, the birth of a deformed child is regarded as a sign of impending war or famine.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work? (Genetic Disorders in Culture and Art)
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-2 – Describe the role of genes in the production of proteins.

 

6. Genes are precisely copied during the process of DNA replication and never undergo any change.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-1 – Identify basic gene components and diagram the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

7. The U.S. has stayed ahead of the issues surrounding genetic technology by implementing ground-breaking public policy and laws.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-2 Genetics Is the Key to Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-2-1 – Define the term genetics and summarize its role in our understanding of all of biology.

 

8. The separation of genes during the formation of the sperm and egg and the reunion of genes at fertilization is explained by the behavior of chromosomes in a form of cell division called meiosis.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-2 – Explain how Mendel’s research with pea plants has increased our understanding of how specific traits are passed from parent to offspring by genes.

 

9. Genetic discoveries made in one organism cannot necessarily be applied to other species.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

10. The Immigration Restriction Act of 1924 was supported by research that demonstrated that Western Europeans were genetically superior to Eastern Europeans.​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-2 – Assess the social and political ramifications of eugenics policies.

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. What is the greatest risk factor for cancer?​

a. ​family history
b. ​age
c. ​environmental toxins
d. ​diet
e. ​physical inactivity

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   Genetics and Translational Medicine
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-1-1 – Explain the connection between genetic research and clinical medicine as it relates to cancer treatment.

 

12. ​The immune system ____.

a. ​works by attacking anything recognized as foreign
b. plays no role in fighting cancer​
c. ​often accelerates development of malignant cancers
d. ​works by turning off specific genes in an individual’s DNA
e. ​is highly resistant to genetic modification

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   Genetics and Translational Medicine
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-1-1 – Explain the connection between genetic research and clinical medicine as it relates to cancer treatment.

 

13. What is an example of basic research?​

a. ​Developing a new diagnostic test
b. ​Synthesizing proteins for treating disease
c. ​Manufacturing a vaccine
d. ​Developing a new drug to treat diabetes
e. ​Learning how plants turn carbon dioxide into sugar

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-2 – Differentiate between basic and applied research and illustrate how each approach is used in the study of genetics.

 

14. ​Genetics is defined as the scientific study of ____.

a. ​diseases
b. ​DNA
c. ​heredity
d. ​chromosome structure
e. ​cell structure

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-2 Genetics Is the Key to Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-2-1 – Define the term genetics and summarize its role in our understanding of all of biology.

 

15. ​The DNA components adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are examples of ____.

a. ​phosphates
b. ​sugars
c. ​bases
d. ​genes
e. ​ribosomes

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-1 – Identify basic gene components and diagram the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

16. Gregor Mendel ____.​

a. ​discovered the structure of DNA
b. ​claimed that each individual carries a pair of “factors” for a given trait
c. ​demonstrated that traits carried by parents are “blended” in their offspring
d. ​cross-bred thirty different species of pea plants over a span of fifty years
e. ​reasoned that each parent carries one gene for a specific trait

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-1 – Discuss Gregor Mendel and his role in the early science of genetics.

 

17. What Mendel called “factors,” we now call ____.​

a. ​nucleotides
b. ​DNA
c. ​chromosomes
d. ​genes
e. ​bases

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-2 – Explain how Mendel’s research with pea plants has increased our understanding of how specific traits are passed from parent to offspring by genes.

 

18. Before Mendel, most people would have predicted that a cross of a red rose with a yellow rose would produce ____.​

a. ​all red roses
b. ​all yellow roses
c. ​all orange roses
d. ​about half yellow roses and half red roses
e. ​about three-fourths red roses and one-fourth yellow roses

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-2 – Explain how Mendel’s research with pea plants has increased our understanding of how specific traits are passed from parent to offspring by genes.

 

19. The main purpose of preparing karyotypes is to ____.​

a. ​prepare for gene extractions
b. ​determine gender
c. ​determine which genes are on which chromosomes
d. ​separate DNA into its component parts
e. ​diagnose or rule out certain genetic disorders

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

20. Eugenics ____.​

a. ​has been scientifically tested and shown to be a valid theory
b. ​is a dubious method for improving the human species through selective breeding
c. ​assumes that human traits are much more influenced by environment than by genes
d. ​had major social ramifications in Germany but is largely dismissed in the United States
e. ​was based on faulty karyotyping and DNA analysis

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-2 – Assess the social and political ramifications of eugenics policies.

 

21. Carrie Buck is significant in the history of genetics because she ____.​

a. ​was a well-known advocate for eugenics
b. ​became the first woman geneticist
c. ​was sterilized after the U.S. Supreme Court determined she was feebleminded
d. ​discovered how to genetically modify corn to be resistant to herbicides
e. ​is the author of the first biography of Gregor Mendel

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-3 – Summarize the flaws in eugenics theory and critique its influence in the U.S. during the early 20th century.

 

22. Hereditarianism is the idea that all human traits are ____.​

a. ​partly influenced by environment
b. ​traceable to our earliest ancestors
c. ​influenced equally by genes and environment
d. ​determined only by genes
e. ​immutable from generation to generation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-1 – Explain the field of eugenics as proposed by Francis Galton.

 

23. The decline of the eugenics movement in the U.S. in the early 20th century resulted from ____.​

a. ​breakthroughs in genetic technology
b. ​violent protests by the medical community
c. ​the ability to manipulate gene expression
d. ​social outrage at the number of deaths caused by botched sterilizations
e. ​its misuse for social and political purposes by the Nazis

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-3 – Summarize the flaws in eugenics theory and critique its influence in the U.S. during the early 20th century.

 

24. Induced pluripotent stem cells are ____​

a. ​produced from normal body cells
b. not used for human genetic research
c. ​a major cause of cancer
d. ​grown in the lab to produce clones
e. ​isolated from embryos

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

25. ​Gene therapy can best be described as the ____.

a. ​repair of a defect (mutation) in a gene
b. ​insertion of normal genes to act in place of mutant genes
c. ​insertion of human genes into other organisms
d. ​cloning of genes to produce and purify therapeutically useful proteins
e. ​mapping of all human genetic information

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

26. The methods of ____ have had the greatest impact on human genetics in recent decades.​

a. ​cytogenetics
b. molecular genetics
c. ​transmission genetics
d. ​translational medicine
e. ​genomics

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-1 – Identify basic gene components and diagram the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

27. A human pedigree ____.​

a. ​is a family tree chart showing birth and death dates
b. ​certifies that an individual has a particular genome
c. ​certifies good genetic health
d. ​represents the inheritance of a trait through several generations of a family
e. ​summarizes the health history of an individual and his/her parents

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

28. The development and use of ____ ushered in the era of genomics when geneticists began planning ways to sequence the 3.2 billion nucleotides in the human genome.​

a. ​transmission genetics
b. ​the electron microscope
c. ​recombinant DNA technology
d. ​cytogenetics
e. ​karyotypes

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

29. The nucleotide sequence encoded in a gene defines the ____ that make up proteins.​

a. phosphate groups​
b. ​polypeptides
c. ​ribosomes
d. ​haplotypes
e. ​amino acids

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-2 – Describe the role of genes in the production of proteins.

 

30. ​Transmission genetics ____.

a. ​studies the pattern of inheritance as traits are passed from generation to generation
b. ​reconstructs the pattern of inheritance associated with a trait as it passes through several generations
c. ​maps genes to study chromosome structure and abnormalities in chromosome numbers and organization
d. ​uses recombinant DNA technology to identify, isolate, and produce millions of copies of genes that can be studied in the laboratory
e. ​sequences the complete human genome

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

Completion

 

31. The union of research and medicine that seeks to quickly translate research findings into methods for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases is called ____________________.​

ANSWER:   translational medicine​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-1 Genetics and Translational Medicine
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-1-1 – Explain the connection between genetic research and clinical medicine as it relates to cancer treatment.

 

32. ​The simplest type of variation in a genome sequence is a single nucleotide change called a(n)

ANSWER:   single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

33. A set of genetic markers located close together on a single ____________________ is called a haplotype.​

ANSWER:   chromosome

chromosome region​

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

34. New technology has made it possible to screen an individual’s entire genome, instead of testing for one genetic disorder at a time. This technology uses ____________________ that carry DNA from the entire human genome.​

ANSWER:   DNA microarrays

DNA chips

microarrays

chips

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

35. In the mid-twentieth century, researchers discovered that genes are made of ____________________ and that this molecule is part of cellular structures known as ____________________.​

ANSWER:   DNA, chromosomes​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-2 – Explain how Mendel’s research with pea plants has increased our understanding of how specific traits are passed from parent to offspring by genes.

 

36. The process in which genes move from one chromosome to another is called ____________________.​

ANSWER:   recombination

recombining

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-2 – Describe the role of genes in the production of proteins.

 

37. Each nucleotide in a strand of DNA is composed of a(n) ____________________, a(n) ____________________, and a(n) ____________________.​

ANSWER:   sugar, base, phosphate group

base, sugar, phosphate group

sugar, phosphate group, base

phosphate group, sugar, base

base, phosphate group, sugar

phosphate group, base, sugar

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-1 – Identify basic gene components and diagram the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

38. ​Chemical subunits called amino acids combine to make ____________________.

ANSWER:   proteins​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-2 – Describe the role of genes in the production of proteins.

 

39. Transmission genetics studies the pattern of ____________________ as traits are passed from generation to generation.​

ANSWER:   ​inheritance
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

40. ____________________ is the branch of genetics that is used to map genes and study chromosome structure and abnormalities in chromosome number and organization.​

ANSWER:   ​Cytogenetics
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

41. DNA is a helical molecule consisting of two strands of ____________________ that is the primary carrier of ____________________ information.​

ANSWER:   nucleotides, genetic​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-1 – Identify basic gene components and diagram the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

42. ​In 1927, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of states to use ____________________ as a means of preventing reproduction by those deemed “unfit.”

ANSWER:   sterilization

eugenic sterilization

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-2 – Assess the social and political ramifications of eugenics policies.

 

43. Recombinant DNA technology has been used for over 30 years to produce ____________________ in bacteria for the treatment of diabetes.​

ANSWER:   insulin

human insulin

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

44. Results from the ____________________ and the development of new technologies have revolutionized the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.​

ANSWER:   Human Genome Project

HGP

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-1 Genetics and Translational Medicine
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-1-1 – Explain the connection between genetic research and clinical medicine as it relates to cancer treatment.

 

45. Eugenics is the attempt to improve the human species by ____________________.​

ANSWER:   selective breeding​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-1 – Explain the field of eugenics as proposed by Francis Galton.

 

46. Mendel’s experiments on pea plants showed that genes are passed ____________________ from generation to generation and that traits are not ____________________.​

ANSWER:   intact, blended​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-2 – Explain how Mendel’s research with pea plants has increased our understanding of how specific traits are passed from parent to offspring by genes.

 

47. Clones are genetically identical molecules, cells, or organisms, all derived from a(n) ____________________.

ANSWER:   single ancestor

single individual

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

48. Population geneticists are interested in the forces that change the ____________________ of genes in a population.​

ANSWER:   frequency​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

49. A trait is a(n) ____________________  property of an organism.​

ANSWER:   observable​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-2 Genetics Is the Key to Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-2-1 – Define the term genetics and summarize its role in our understanding of all of biology.

 

50. The fundamental unit of heredity is called a(n) ____________________.​

ANSWER:   gene​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   1-3 What Are Genes and How Do They Work?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-3-1 – Identify basic gene components and diagram the structure of a DNA molecule.

 

Essay

 

51. Consider this statement: Information about citizens’ genomes should be held in a centralized database by a single private company or by the government. Do you agree or disagree? Explain your reasoning.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Students might discuss privacy and security issues with regard to their personal data, as well as the potential misuse of these data by corporations or the government to restrict the rights of groups based on real or imagined traits.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate, Create
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
1-8 What Choices Do We Make in the Era of Genomics and Biotechnology?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-2 – Assess the social and political ramifications of eugenics policies.
HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.
HUHE.CUMM.16.1-8-1 – Debate the ethical and social issues that the use of genomics and biotechnology introduces to society.

 

52. ​Discuss how and why the investigative method of molecular genetics has had the greatest impact on human genetics over the last several decades.

ANSWER:   Molecular genetics uses recombinant DNA technology to identify, isolate, and produce millions of copies of genes (clones) that can be studied in the laboratory. These methods have greatly advanced our knowledge of how genes are organized and how they work at the molecular level.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-1 – Compare and contrast the different methods scientists use to study genetics.

 

53. Differentiate between basic and applied research and discuss how the two are linked in terms of genetics.

ANSWER:   Scientists do basic research in laboratory and field settings to understand how something works or why it works the way it does. In basic research, there is no immediate goal of solving a practical problem or making a commercial product; knowledge itself is the goal. In turn, the results of basic research generate new ideas and more basic research. In this way, we gain detailed information about the structure and function of cells, why animals behave in certain ways, and how plants turn carbon dioxide into sugar. Among other things, basic research in genetics has provided us with details about genes, how they work, and, more importantly, what happens when they don’t work properly.

Applied research is usually done to solve a practical problem or turn a discovery into a commercial service or product. Applied research uses basic methods such as transmission genetics to study the way in which a trait is inherited, and it also uses biotechnology to make products such as transgenic organisms, medicines, and nutritionally enhanced foods. In agriculture, applied genetic research has increased crop yields, lowered the fat content of pork, and created new forms of corn and soybeans that are resistant to herbicides and pests. In medicine, new diagnostic tests, the synthesis of customized proteins for treating disease, and the production of vaccines are just a few examples of applied genetic research.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   1-5 How Do Scientists Study Genes?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-5-2 – Differentiate between basic and applied research and illustrate how each approach is used in the study of genetics.

 

54. Define eugenics and discuss Francis Galton’s influence in the development of the fundamentally flawed ‘science.’

ANSWER:   ​Francis Galton proposed that selection should be used to improve the human species. Galton started a new field, which he called eugenics. He claimed that by applying the principle of natural selection, we could improve the intellectual, economic, and social level of humankind through selective breeding. Bypassing legal and ethical considerations, Galton’s proposals were simple: People with desirable traits such as leadership and musical ability should be encouraged to have large families, whereas those with undesirable traits such as intellectual disability and physical deformities should be discouraged from reproducing. Galton’s reasoning was flawed for several reasons, including his belief that human traits are handed down without any environmental influence. His proposals failed to address another important consideration: Who defines what is a desirable or an undesirable trait?
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-6 Has Genetics Affected Social Policy and Law?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-6-1 – Explain the field of eugenics as proposed by Francis Galton.

 

55. What was the benefit envisioned from the Human Genome Project? Was this project an appropriate use of taxpayers’ money? Why or why not?​

ANSWER:   The benefit envisioned from the Human Genome Project was the ability to identify, map, and assign functions to all genes carried in our cells and then turn those results into new methods of diagnosis and treatment of disease.​

Answers will vary.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

56. Discuss some negative implications of recombinant DNA technology.​

ANSWER:   The use of herbicide-resistant corn and soybeans may speed the development of herbicide-resistant weeds and increase our use of and dependence on chemical herbicides. There is also the possibility that genetically engineered traits may be transferred to other organisms, leading to irreversible and deleterious changes in ecosystems.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

57. In what sense is genetics the key to all of biology?​

ANSWER:   Genes control what cells look like and what they do as well as how babies develop and how we reproduce. An understanding of what genes are, how they are passed from generation to generation, and how they work is essential to our understanding of all life on Earth, including our species, Homo sapiens.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-2 Genetics Is the Key to Biology
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-2-1 – Define the term genetics and summarize its role in our understanding of all of biology.

 

58. Define stem cells and briefly discuss stem cell research and its potential for use in treating disease.​

ANSWER:   In the embryo, stem cells divide to form about 200 different cell types that become parts of the tissues and organs of the body. In adults, stem cells are a reservoir that provides replacements for cells lost through injury, disease, or wear and tear. The ability to isolate stem cells from embryos and to produce stem cells from normal body cells in the laboratory offers the possibility of using stem cells to treat disorders such as heart disease, diabetes, and other degenerative conditions​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-7 What Impact Is Genomics Having?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-7-1 – Describe genome sequencing and illustrate various methods of use in the treatment of disease, genetic testing, and plant and animal modification.

 

59. Describe the experimental design Mendel used while researching pea plant traits and explain the general result that lead him to form his hypothesis about the transmission of “factors” from parents to offspring?

ANSWER:   Mendel chose pea parental plants that each had a different distinguishing characteristic, called a trait. For example, Mendel bred tall pea plants with short pea plants. Plant height is the trait in this case and has two variations: tall and short. He also bred plants carrying green seeds with plants having yellow seeds. In this work, seed color is the trait; green and yellow are the variations of the trait he studied. In these breeding experiments, he wanted to see how traits such as height and seed color were passed from generation to generation. Mendel kept careful records of the number and type of traits present in each generation. He also recorded the number of individual plants that carried each trait. He discovered patterns in the way traits were passed from parent to offspring through several generations. Based on those patterns, Mendel concluded that traits such as plant height and seed color are passed from generation to generation by “factors” that are transmitted from parent to offspring.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   1-4 How Are Genes Transmitted from Parents to Offspring?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-4-1 – Discuss Gregor Mendel and his role in the early science of genetics.

 

60. Should we buy and eat food that comes from genetically modified plants and animals? Defend your answer based on previous knowledge and on what you learned from this chapter.​

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Students should address one or more controversial uses of biotechnology. Here are two examples:
Critics have raised concerns that the use of herbicide-resistant corn and soybeans will speed the development of herbicide-resistant weeds and increase our use of and dependence on chemical herbicides. Others point to the possibility that genetically engineered traits may be transferred to other organisms, leading to irreversible and deleterious changes in ecosystems.​Genetically modified sheep, rabbits, and cows are being used to produce medically important human proteins in their milk. These proteins are, or soon will be, used in clinical trials to treat human diseases such as emphysema and Pompe disease.

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   1-8 What Choices Do We Make in the Era of Genomics and Biotechnology?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.1-8-1 – Debate the ethical and social issues that the use of genomics and biotechnology introduces to society.

 

True / False

 

1. ​Recessive traits are expressed only in the homozygous state.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions

 

2. ​Gregor Mendel was a completely self-trained scientist and never attended university.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-2 Heredity: How Are Traits Inherited?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-2-1 – Specify why Mendel’s experiments with pea plants are the starting point for a discussion of human genetics.

 

3. ​Pedigree construction can be a difficult task.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-2 – Construct a pedigree and interpret the results.

 

4. ​Chi-square tests are used to determine whether a cross has been correctly constructed and analyzed.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-6 Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Results: Genes Are on Chromosomes.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-6-2 – Describe the chi-square test and discuss its efficacy in analyzing the results of Mendel’s pea plant experiments.

 

5. ​People with albinism carry two copies of the dominant allele (AA) and cannot make a pigment called melanin.

​​​​

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-1 – Illustrate how segregation and independent assortment are valid concepts when studying human genetics.

 

6. ​If a dihybrid cross is begun with a P1 generation of a true-breeding plant that produces smooth and yellow peas (smooth and yellow are both dominant traits), crossed with a plant that produces wrinkled green peas (wrinkled and green are both recessive traits), the F1 plants will all be smooth and yellow.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments on the inheritance of two traits using pea plant seed shape and seed color and describe his results and conclusions.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for the inheritance of two traits and predict the outcomes.

 

7. ​Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is caused by the inability to metabolize amino acids and fats.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-1 Mom, Murder, and MMA
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-1-1 – Debate the issues involved with newborn screening for genetic disorders.

 

8. ​Mendel chose to study pea plants because they have a long life cycle that offers ample time for analysis.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-3 Mendel’s Experimental Design Resolved Many Unanswered Questions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-3-1 – Assess the criteria Mendel used for his choice of experimental plant species

 

9. ​When analyzing a cross involving two traits, each trait is analyzed separately, and then the frequencies of each are combined to yield the observed phenotypic ratios.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments on the inheritance of two traits using pea plant seed shape and seed color and describe his results and conclusions.

 

10. ​Incomplete dominance is the expression of a phenotype that is intermediate to those of the parents.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-2 – Demonstrate why incomplete dominance has a distinctive phenotype in heterozygotes.

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. ​In his monohybrid crosses, Mendel deduced that one trait was recessive because that trait was ____.

a. ​not present in the F1 and did not reappear in the F2
b. ​present in the F1 and in the F2
c. ​not present in the F1 and reappeared in the F2
d. ​present only in the parents
e. ​present only in the F2

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions

 

12. ​In a monohybrid cross with complete dominance, the F2 offspring should contain ____.

a. ​two different phenotypes and two different genotypes
b. ​two different phenotypes and three different genotypes
c. ​three different phenotypes and two different genotypes
d. ​three different phenotypes and three different genotypes
e. ​two different phenotypes and one genotype

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for single trait inheritance and predict the outcomes.

 

13. ​Alternate forms of a gene are called ____.

a. ​homologues
b. ​loci
c. ​alleles
d. ​homozygous
e. ​heterozygous

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions

 

14. ​Independent assortment means that the ____.

a. ​phenotypes are often a blending of two independent genotypes
b. ​segregation of one gene pair depends on the segregation of another gene pair
c. ​gametes produced must be heterozygous in all cases
d. ​segregation of one gene pair occurs as if no other gene pair was present
e. ​phenotypic ratio in F2 will be the same for dihybrid and monohybrid crosses

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-2 – Define Mendel’s Second Law (the principle of independent assortment) and apply it to the inheritance of two traits.

 

15. ​In a cross between a true-breeding plant bearing the dominant traits of smooth, yellow seeds and a true-breeding plant bearing the recessive traits of wrinkled, green seeds, the offspring (F1) are all smooth and yellow and their genotype is ____.

a. SSYY
b. ssyy
c. SsYy
d. ssYY
e. SSyy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments on the inheritance of two traits using pea plant seed shape and seed color and describe his results and conclusions.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for the inheritance of two traits and predict the outcomes.

 

16. ​In a P1 cross involving incomplete dominance, ____.

a. ​the dominant phenotype is expressed in the F1
b. ​the recessive phenotype is expressed in the F1
c. ​Mendelian inheritance does not apply
d. ​the phenotypic ratio and genotypic ratio in the F1 are identical
e. ​heterozygotes will express the parental phenotype

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-1 – Describe incomplete dominance and discuss why it led some scientists to question the validity of segregation and independent assortment.

 

17. ​Phenotype is ____.

a. ​only expressed in a heterozygous organism
b. ​an observable property or expression of a trait in an organism
c. ​the specific genetic constitution of an organism
d. ​the variation of genes
e. ​cannot be determined by knowing genotype

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions

 

18. ​In codominant inheritance, ____.

a. ​there is partial phenotypic expression of one member of a gene pair in the homozygous condition
b. ​there is full phenotypic expression of both members of a gene pair in the heterozygous condition
c. ​the interaction of two or more non-allelic genes controls a single phenotype
d. ​two recessive alleles interact and express themselves as a single dominant trait
e. ​the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate to those of the parents

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-3 – Define codominance in a heterozygote.

 

19. ​A locus is ____.

a. ​an alternate form of a gene
b. ​the chromosome location of the centromere
c. ​the location of a gene on a chromosome
d. ​a mutation of a gene to an alternate state
e. ​the site of crossing over

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-6 Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Results: Genes Are on Chromosomes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-6-1 – Explain the chromosome theory of inheritance and summarize how its conclusions were confirmed.

 

20. ​Pedigrees ____.

a. ​are usually constructed using the phenotypic information of one generation
b. ​cannot determine whether a trait has a dominant or recessive pattern
c. ​use squares to represent females and circles to represent males on their diagrams
d. ​are not useful in deducing the genotypes of parents
e. ​provide information on the patterns of inheritance of a trait

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-2 – Construct a pedigree and interpret the results.

 

21. ​In genetics, a chi-square test can be used to determine ____.

a. ​whether an organism with a dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous
b. ​whether an allele exhibits complete or incomplete dominance
c. ​what the predicted outcome of a dihybrid cross will be
d. ​how closely actual results of a cross match the expected results
e. ​whether a trait is determined by one gene or many genes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-6 Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Results: Genes Are on Chromosomes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-6-2 – Describe the chi-square test and discuss its efficacy in analyzing the results of Mendel’s pea plant experiments.

 

22. ​In a pedigree, a person whose symbol is filled in and who is associated with the Roman numeral II is ____.

a. ​affected by the trait and in the second generation
b. ​not affected by the trait and in the second generation
c. ​affected by the trait and is the second-oldest child in the family
d. ​not affected by the trait and is the second-oldest child in the family
e. ​affected by the trait and has an identical twin

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-2 – Construct a pedigree and interpret the results.

 

23. ​The offspring (F1) resulting from the cross between two red flowered plants are 3/4 red and 1/4 white. The most likely genotype of both red flowered parental plants (P1) is ____.

a. ​codominant recessive
b. ​incomplete dominant
c. ​incomplete recessive
d. ​heterozygous
e. ​homozygous recessive

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for single trait inheritance and predict the outcomes.

 

24. ​In humans, hair texture is an incompletely dominant trait. Curly is the dominant genotype, wavy is heterozygous, and straight hair is recessive. What is the probable phenotypic ratio for a cross between a man with wavy hair and a woman with curly hair?

a. ​All wavy hair
b. ​3/4 wavy hair; 1/4 straight hair
c. ​1/2 wavy hair; 1/2 curly hair
d. ​All curly hair
e. ​1/4 curly hair; 1/2 wavy hair; 1/4 straight hair

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for single trait inheritance and predict the outcomes.

 

25. ​Some forms of methylmalonic acidemia can be ____.

a. ​caused by ethylene glycol exposure
b. ​caused by tainted baby formula
c. ​caused by type O blood transfusions
d. ​cured if the condition is detected early in life
e. ​treated successfully if the condition is detected early in life

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-1 Mom, Murder, and MMA
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-1-1 – Debate the issues involved with newborn screening for genetic disorders.

 

26. ​The topic of ____, the idea of the fundamental unit of living organisms, raised several questions in Mendel’s mind about inheritance.

a. ​evolution
b. ​cosmology
c. ​cell theory
d. ​DNA
e. ​blood typing

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-2 Heredity: How Are Traits Inherited?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-2-1 – Specify why Mendel’s experiments with pea plants are the starting point for a discussion of human genetics.

 

27. ​Mendel selected pea plants for his experiments because ____.

a. ​the offspring are infertile
b. ​others were also using pea plants for their experiments and this would allow data sharing
c. ​male and female flowers are on separate plants
d. ​they can be self-fertilized or artificially fertilized by hand
e. ​he was told by his superior that only pea plants were suitable for experimentation

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-3 Mendel’s Experimental Design Resolved Many Unanswered Questions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-3-1 – Assess the criteria Mendel used for his choice of experimental plant species

 

28. ​Mendel analyzed his pea plant data using the principles of ____.

a. ​nomenclature
b. ​physics
c. ​Aristotle
d. ​cellular dynamics
e. ​probability

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-3 Mendel’s Experimental Design Resolved Many Unanswered Questions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-3-2 – Explain how Mendel’s experimental design was crucial to the success of his experiments.

 

29. ​Ockham’s razor could also be called the principle of ____.

a. ​parsimony
b. ​selectivity
c. ​identity
d. ​homogeneity
e. ​exceptionalism

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-4 – Paraphrase Ockham’s razor and apply it to Mendel’s study of single trait inheritance.

 

30. ​The first genetic trait described in humans was ____.

a. ​albinism
b. ​dwarfism
c. ​Marfan syndrome
d. ​multiple sclerosis
e. ​brachydactyly

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-1 – Illustrate how segregation and independent assortment are valid concepts when studying human genetics.

 

Completion

 

31. ​When members of the gene pair carried by an individual are not alike, the individual is said to be ____________________.

ANSWER:   heterozygous
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.

 

32. ​The offspring of a parental cross (P1) are called the F1, or ____________________.

ANSWER:   first filial
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions

 

33. ​Mendel called crosses involving two traits ____________________ crosses.

ANSWER:   ​dihybrid
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments on the inheritance of two traits using pea plant seed shape and seed color and describe his results and conclusions.

 

34. ​Pure-breeding individuals always have the ____________________ genotype.

ANSWER:   homozygous
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.

 

35. ​In crosses involving complete dominance, the F2 genotypic ratio is 1:2:1 and is expressed as a phenotypic ____________________ ratio (express as x:x).

ANSWER:   3:1​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for single trait inheritance and predict the outcomes.

 

36. ​The inheritance of human traits is predictable because the genes controlling them exhibit the principles of both ____________________ and ____________________ during meiosis.

ANSWER:   ​segregation; independent assortment
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-2 – Define Mendel’s Second Law (the principle of independent assortment) and apply it to the inheritance of two traits.

 

37. ​When two traits are analyzed separately, then the frequencies of each are combined to yield the observed phenotypic ratios, this confirms the principle of ____________________.

ANSWER:   independent assortment​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments on the inheritance of two traits using pea plant seed shape and seed color and describe his results and conclusions.
HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-2 – Define Mendel’s Second Law (the principle of independent assortment) and apply it to the inheritance of two traits.

 

38. ​Although phenotypes may not follow predicted ratios, genotypes do obey the principles of ____________________.

ANSWER:   Mendelian inheritance
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-1 – Describe incomplete dominance and discuss why it led some scientists to question the validity of segregation and independent assortment.

 

39. ​Symptoms of methylmalonic acidemia are similar to those seen in ____________________ poisoning.

ANSWER:   ethylene glycol or antifreeze​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-1 Mom, Murder, and MMA
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-1-1 – Debate the issues involved with newborn screening for genetic disorders.

 

40. ​In spite of the benefits offered by genetic screening for newborns, critics charge that patients’ ____________________ rights are violated because the programs are mandatory.

ANSWER:   privacy​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-1 Mom, Murder, and MMA
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-1-1 – Debate the issues involved with newborn screening for genetic disorders.

 

41. ​Before Mendel began his pea plant experiments he wondered if traits in offspring result from blending of parental traits or it they are inherited as ____________________ units.

ANSWER:   discrete​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-2 Heredity: How Are Traits Inherited.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-2-1 – Specify why Mendel’s experiments with pea plants are the starting point for a discussion of human genetics.

 

42. ​In Mendel’s pea plant experiment, the trait of pea shape was represented by the two variations ____________________ and ____________________.

ANSWER:   ​smooth; wrinkled

wrinkled; smooth

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-3 Mendel’s Experimental Design Resolved Many Unanswered Questions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-3-2 – Explain how Mendel’s experimental design was crucial to the success of his experiments.

 

43. ​The separation of members of a gene pair from each other during gamete formation is called ____________________.

ANSWER:   segregation​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-2 – Define Mendel’s First Law (the principle of segregation) and establish its significance in the study of inheritance.

 

44. ​The genotypes of two F1 plants are SsYy, with S and Y alleles dominant to s and y. If fertilization occurs at random ____________________ (number) genotypes and ____________________ (number) phenotypes will result in the F2 generation.

ANSWER:   nine; four​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-3 – Diagram a Punnett square for the inheritance of two traits and predict the outcomes.

 

45. ​The fusion of gametes during fertilization restores the ____________________ number of chromosomes.

ANSWER:   diploid​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-6 Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Results: Genes Are on Chromosomes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-6-1 – Explain the chromosome theory of inheritance and summarize how its conclusions were confirmed.

 

46. ​People with albinism carry two copies of the ____________________ allele (aa) and cannot make a pigment called ____________________ which is the principal pigment in skin, hair and eye color.

ANSWER:   recessive; melanin​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-1 – Illustrate how segregation and independent assortment are valid concepts when studying human genetics.

 

47. ​The first affected family member who seeks medical attention for a genetic disorder is called the ____________________.

ANSWER:   proband​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-2 – Construct a pedigree and interpret the results.

 

48. ​Easily observable examples of incomplete dominance in human are rare, but ____________________ is one example.

ANSWER:   sickle cell anemia​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-2 – Demonstrate why incomplete dominance has a distinctive phenotype in heterozygotes.

 

49. ​In humans, the gene for blood type has ____________________ (number) alleles and the A and B alleles are ____________________.

ANSWER:   three; codominant​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-3 – Define codominance in a heterozygote.

 

50. ​An example of ____________________ occurs in a rare condition called the Bombay phenotype, where a mutation in an unrelated gene prevents expression of the A and B blood phenotypes, making those with this condition phenotypically blood type ____________________

ANSWER:   epistasis; O
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-4 – Explain the significance of the facts that many genes have more than two alleles and that many non-allelic genes can interact to control a single phenotype.

 

Essay

 

51. ​Should states have mandatory screening programs that test every newborn for genetic disorders? Explain your reasoning.

ANSWER:   Answers will vary. Some students may use portions of the following information for the basis of their answers.

All states have mandatory screening programs that test every newborn for genetic disorders. Some states test for only about four disorders, while others screen for up to 50. Some genetic disorders can be treated successfully if the condition is detected early in life. In spite of the benefits offered by such programs, critics charge that patients’ privacy rights are violated because the programs are mandatory. Others feel that the results of such screening may be used in the future to restrict the reproductive rights of those diagnosed with a genetic disorder.​

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3-1 Mom, Murder, and MMA
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-1-1 – Debate the issues involved with newborn screening for genetic disorders.

 

52. ​Why is it unethical to use humans in experimental genetics? Explain your reasoning.

ANSWER:   ​Answers will vary. Students may discuss the physical, mental, and emotional harm that may occur from experiments with unknown outcomes.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   3-2 Heredity: How Are Traits Inherited?
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-2-1 – Specify why Mendel’s experiments with pea plants are the starting point for a discussion of human genetics.

 

53. ​Explain why Mendel choose seven different varieties of pea plants for his experiments.

ANSWER:   Mendel chose seven different varieties of pea plants because each had a different, distinguishing characteristic called a trait. Each trait was represented by two variations: For example, plant height is the trait, tall and short are the variations; pea shape is the trait, and the variations are wrinkled and smooth peas; and so forth. In his experiments, he wanted to see how traits such as height or pea shape were passed from generation to generation.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-3 Mendel’s Experimental Design Resolved Many Unanswered Questions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-3-1 – Assess the criteria Mendel used for his choice of experimental plant species

 

54. ​Explain Mendel’s conclusion that traits passed from parents to offspring are not blended, but are instead inherited as if they are separate units.

ANSWER:   Mendel based his conclusion on several observations. Only one of the parental traits was present in the offspring (F1). The trait not present in the offspring (F1) reappeared in about 25% of the second offspring generation (F2). In all crosses, it did not matter which parental plant contributed the pollen; the results were always the same. He, therefore, concluded that traits remained unchanged, even though they might not be expressed in a specific generation. Instead, he concluded that traits were inherited as if they were separate units that did not blend together.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-1 – Outline Mendel’s experiments studying single trait inheritance using pea plant seed shape and describe his results and conclusions

 

55. ​Define Ockham’s razor and provide an example.

ANSWER:   Ockham’s razor is based on a well-established principle of scientific reasoning known as parsimony. This was taken to mean that when constructing an argument, you should use the smallest number of steps possible. In other words, never go beyond the simplest argument.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-4 Crossing Pea Plants: Mendel’s Study of Single Traits
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-4-4 – Paraphrase Ockham’s razor and apply it to Mendel’s study of single trait inheritance.

 

56. ​Explain how the resulting phenotypic ratios from Mendel’s dihybrid cross assisted him in framing his Second Law.

ANSWER:   Mendel explained the results of his cross involving two traits by assuming that alleles of one gene pair segregate into gametes independently of the alleles belonging to other gene pairs, resulting in gametes containing all combinations of alleles. This second fundamental principle of genetics is called the principle of independent assortment or Mendel’s Second Law.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-5 More Crosses with Pea Plants: The Principle of Independent Assortment
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-5-2 – Define Mendel’s Second Law (the principle of independent assortment) and apply it to the inheritance of two traits.

 

57. ​Identify the contribution of Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri to the science of genetics and explain its importance.

ANSWER:   Walter Sutton and Theodore Boveri independently proposed that because genes and chromosomes behave in similar ways, genes must be located on chromosomes. This idea, the chromosome theory of inheritance, is one of the foundations of modern genetics. We know that each gene is located at a specific site—called a locus—on a chromosome, and each chromosome carries many genes.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-6 Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Results: Genes Are on Chromosomes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-6-1 – Explain the chromosome theory of inheritance and summarize how its conclusions were confirmed.

 

58. ​Explain how Mendel compensated for the fact that he was unable to analyze mathematically how well the observed outcome of his cross fulfilled his predictions.

ANSWER:   Mendel recognized the problem and compensated for it by conducting his experiments on a large scale, counting substantial numbers of offspring in each experiment to reduce the chance for error.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-6 Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Results: Genes Are on Chromosomes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-6-2 – Describe the chi-square test and discuss its efficacy in analyzing the results of Mendel’s pea plant experiments.

 

59. ​Explain the circumstances that led to a debate about whether all inheritance cases could be explained by Mendelian inheritance or whether there might be another, separate mechanism of inheritance that did not follow the laws of segregation and independent assortment. Summarize the outcome of that debate.

ANSWER:   Geneticists turned up cases in which the F1 phenotypes were not identical to one of the parents. In some cases, the offspring had a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents or a phenotype in which the traits of both parents were expressed. Eventually, research showed that although phenotypes can be somewhat complex, these cases were not exceptions to Mendelian inheritance at the level of genotypes. Although phenotypes may not follow predicted ratios, genotypes do obey the principles of Mendelian inheritance.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   3-8 Variations on a Theme by Mendel
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-8-2 – Demonstrate why incomplete dominance has a distinctive phenotype in heterozygotes.

 

Figure 3.15

 

60. ​Interpret the pedigree in the accompanying figure by describing each symbol and number. How might the information from this pedigree be used by clinicians and researchers?

ANSWER:   A square symbolizes a male and a circle a female. Each generation is identified by a Roman numeral (I, II, III, and so on), and each individual within a generation is identified by an Arabic number (1, 2, 3, and so on according to birth order). Pedigrees are often constructed after a family member afflicted with a genetic disorder has been identified. This individual, known as the proband, is indicated on the pedigree by an arrow and the letter P.

A pedigree contains information that can help establish how a trait is inherited and identify those at risk of developing or transmitting the trait; it is also a resource for establishing biological relationships within a family. Analysis of the information in the pedigree using the principles of Mendelian inheritance can determine whether a trait has a dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance.​

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   3-7 Mendelian Inheritance in Humans
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 3.15
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.3-7-2 – Construct a pedigree and interpret the results.

 

True / False

 

1. ​mRNA is made up of introns that have been spliced together.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-2 – Describe how pre-mRNA is processed into mRNA in eukaryotes.

 

2. ​Prion diseases are always fatal and there is no treatment.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

3. ​Twenty different types of amino acids are used to make proteins.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-2 The Link Between Genes and Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-2-3 – Calculate the protein diversity that is possible from the combinations of twenty different amino acids.

 

4. ​The codon encoding the amino acid methionine functions as a start codon when it occurs at the beginning of a gene.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

5. ​Translation begins when the DNA in a chromosome unwinds and one strand is used as a template to make a pre-mRNA molecule.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-1 – Illustrate the three steps of transcription, including the functions of enzymes involved in the process.

 

6. ​An mRNA molecule has a cap attached to its 5’ end and a poly-A tail attached to its 3’ end.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-2 – Describe how pre-mRNA is processed into mRNA in eukaryotes.

 

7. ​During translation, the rRNA in the large ribosomal subunit acts as an enzyme, linking amino acids together to form a polypeptide.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-2 – Define the terms messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, anticodon, and ribosome and describe their interactions during translation.

 

8. ​Each amino acid is encoded by only one mRNA codon.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

9. ​The set of proteins in a particular cell type is always equal to the number of genes in the genome.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-1 – Explain how polypeptides are chemically modified and folded to become functional proteins.

 

10. ​The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis is the deletion of a single amino acid which results in a misfolded protein.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-8 Protein Structure and Function Are Related
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-8-1 – Identify the four levels of protein structure and describe how improper protein folding can affect protein function.

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. ​Amino acids are characterized by ____.

a. ​an amino group and a hydrogen bond
b. ​a carboxyl group and a hydrogen bond
c. ​two R groups
d. ​an amino group, a carboxyl group, and an R group
e. ​an amino group and a hydrochloric group

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-1 – Diagram the chemical structure of an amino acid and define the terms polypeptide, C-terminus, and N-terminus.

 

12. ​Peptide bonds form between ____.

a. ​two amino groups
b. ​two carboxyl groups
c. ​a carboxyl group and an R group
d. ​an amino group and a carboxyl group
e. ​an amino group and an R group

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-1 – Diagram the chemical structure of an amino acid and define the terms polypeptide, C-terminus, and N-terminus.

 

13. ​The three-dimensional shape of a protein is determined by the ____ and the results of chemical modifications and other processing events.

a. ​interaction of R groups
b. ​interaction with other polypeptide chains
c. amino acid sequence
d. ​bonds formed with other proteins
e. initiation complex​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-1 – Explain how polypeptides are chemically modified and folded to become functional proteins.

 

14. ​Codons are ____ that encode the information for a specific amino acid in a protein.

a. ​made of two polynucleotide strands
b. ​ribosomal subunits
c. ​mRNA templates that are transcribed into tRNA
d. ​post-translational templates of tRNA
e. ​triplets of nucleotides in mRNA

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

15. ​The secondary structure of a protein forms ____.

a. ​pleated sheets or coils
b. ​when pleated sheet regions fold back on themselves
c. ​from interactions between polypeptide chains
d. ​from covalent bonding between amino acids
e. ​a functional chromatin unit

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-8 Protein Structure and Function
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-8-1 – Identify the four levels of protein structure and describe how improper protein folding can affect protein function.

 

16. ​One gene is able to encode information for different forms of a protein via ____.

a. ​alternative splicing
b. ​primary splicing
c. ​secondary splicing
d. ​mRNA mutations
e. ​tRNA mutations

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-1 – Illustrate the three steps of transcription, including the functions of enzymes involved in the process.

 

17. ​At one end of a tRNA molecule is a sequence of 3 nucleotides called an anticodon that ____.

a. ​signals the production of a ribosome
b. ​signals the unwinding of the DNA coils
c. ​initiates the movement of mRNA out of the cell nucleus and into the cytoplasm
d. ​binds to its anti-complementary tRNA codon
e. ​binds to its complementary mRNA codon

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-2 – Define the terms messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, anticodon, and ribosome and describe their interactions during translation.

 

18. ​Prions are created when normal proteins in the body ____.

a. ​combine with large ribosomal subunit and become infectious
b. ​exchange several long sections of amino acids with other infected proteins
c. ​refold into a different and infectious three-dimensional shape that kills cells in the brain and nervous system
d. ​undergo mutation and create hundreds of copies of themselves
e. ​invade the immune system, causing it to mistakenly destroy the body’s healthy tissue

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-1 Cows as a Cause of Death
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-1-2 – List the normal functions of proteins and define the term prion.

 

19. ​During the elongation step of translation, ____.

a. ​the small ribosomal subunit pairs with an anticodon
b. ​amino acids are added to a growing polypeptide chain
c. ​methionine is inserted at the beginning of all proteins
d. ​mRNA is transformed into tRNA
e. ​release factors bind to stop codons

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-1 – Illustrate the three steps of transcription, including the functions of enzymes involved in the process.

 

20. ​Messenger RNA is a(n) ____ of the amino acid-coding nucleotide sequence of a gene.

a. ​exact copy of the DNA template
b. ​exact copy of the tRNA template
c. ​double-stranded complementary copy
d. ​single-stranded complementary copy
e. ​single-stranded anti-complementary copy

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-4 Tracing the Flow of Genetic Information from Nucleus to Cytoplasm
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-4-1 – Outline the steps in the transfer of genetic information from the linear sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule into the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.

 

21. ​____ nucleotides form the code for one amino acid.

a. ​Two
b. ​Three
c. ​Six
d. ​Nine
e. ​Twelve

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

22. ​Activated genes can be inactivated by reversing histone modification during a process called ____.

a. ​chromatin remodeling
b. ​histone remodeling
c. ​chromatin interference
d. ​interference remodeling
e. ​histone interference

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

23. ​In pre-mRNA processing, ____.

a. ​exons are spliced out and used to produce ribosomal subunits
b. ​introns are spliced out and combined to form complete proteins
c. ​introns are spliced out and combined in the tRNA
d. ​exons are spliced out and the introns are combined in the mature mRNA
e. ​introns are spliced out and the exons are combined in the mature mRNA

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-2 – Describe how pre-mRNA is processed into mRNA in eukaryotes.

 

24. ​Most protein synthesis ____.

a. ​takes place on the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. ​takes place inside the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
c. ​takes place inside the nucleus of the cell
d. ​relies on mitochondria to supply the amino acids necessary
e. ​is carried out by ribosomes on the Golgi complex

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-2 – Define the term proteome, and examine the diversity of proteins that can be produced from the 20,000 genes in the human genome.

 

25. ​Tetracyclines interfere with ____.

a. ​DNA replication
b. ​initiation of transcription
c. ​initiation of translation
d. ​the process of protein folding
e. ​transport of proteins to the Golgi complex

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-3 – Describe the events of initiation, elongation, and termination during translation.

 

26. ​Each amino acid has a different side chain, called a(n) ____.

a. ​amino strand
b. ​carboxyl group
c. ​R group
d. ​glucose pentose configuration
e. ​ribosomal attachment

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-1 – Diagram the chemical structure of an amino acid and define the terms polypeptide, C-terminus, and N-terminus.

 

27. ​Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by errors in ____.

a. ​DNA replication
b. ​translation
c. ​transcription
d. ​protein folding
e. ​RNA template replication

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-1 Cows as a Cause of Death
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16. 9-1-1: – Recognize the correlation between proper protein function and genetic disease.

 

28. ​The process of post-transcriptional gene silencing triggered by micro-RNA molecules that stop translation is called ____.

a. ​RNA interference
b. ​micro-interference
c. ​translational interference
d. ​transcriptional disruption
e. ​disruptive genetic silencing

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

29. ​Proteins are composed of subunits called ____ linked together by chemical bonds.

a. ​nucleotides
b. ​polynucleotides
c. ​mRNAs
d. ​amino acids
e. ​proteasomes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-2 The Link Between Genes and Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-2-2 – Discuss George Beadle and Edward Tatum’s experimental work in establishing the connection among genes, proteins, and phenotypes.

 

30. ​The tertiary structure of a protein is ____.

a. ​the amino acid sequence in a polypeptide chain
b. ​generated by the formation of bonds between amino acids
c. ​formed by a protein region folding on itself
d. ​formed by the interaction of two or more polypeptide chain
e. ​generated by bonding and folding of ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-8 Protein Structure and Function Are Related
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-8-1 – Identify the four levels of protein structure and describe how improper protein folding can affect protein function.

 

Completion

 

31. ​Transcribed DNA sequences that are removed during mRNA processing are called _____________________.

ANSWER:   introns
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-2 – Describe how pre-mRNA is processed into mRNA in eukaryotes.

 

32. ​A protein folded into an infectious conformation that is the cause of several disorders is called a(n) ____________________.

ANSWER:   prion​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-8 Protein Structure and Function Are Related
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-8-1 – Identify the four levels of protein structure and describe how improper protein folding can affect protein function.

 

33. ​Amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the human body are called ____________________.

ANSWER:   essential amino acids

essential

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-1 – Diagram the chemical structure of an amino acid and define the terms polypeptide, C-terminus, and N-terminus.

 

34. ​Of the 64 triplet combinations in the genetic code, ____________________ code(s) for amino acids and ____________________ code(s) for the signal that ends protein synthesis.

ANSWER:   61; 3​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

35. ​The primary structure of a protein is the ____________________ in a polypeptide chain.

ANSWER:   amino acid sequence​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-8 Protein Structure and Function Are Related
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-8-1 – Identify the four levels of protein structure and describe how improper protein folding can affect protein function.

 

36. ​Cytoplasmic organelles composed of two subunits, one large and one small, which are the sites of polypeptide synthesis are called ____________________.

ANSWER:   ribosomes​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-2 – Define the terms messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, anticodon, and ribosome and describe their interactions during translation.

 

37. ​In the process of initiation, RNA polymerase and several regulatory proteins bind to a(n) ____________________ that marks the beginning of a gene.

ANSWER:   promoter​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-1 – Illustrate the three steps of transcription, including the functions of enzymes involved in the process.

 

38. ​Archibald Garrod was the first to advance the idea that there is a direct link between ____________________ and ____________________.

ANSWER:   genes; proteins

proteins; genes

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-2 The Link Between Genes and Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-2-1: – Describe how Archibald Garrod determined the connection between proteins and genes through his study of the autosomal recessive genetic disorder alkaptonuria.

 

39. ​The process of turning genes on and off is called ____________________.

ANSWER:   gene regulation

regulation

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

40. ​A proteome is the set of ____________________ present in a particular cell at a specific time under a particular set of conditions.

ANSWER:   proteins​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-1 – Explain how polypeptides are chemically modified and folded to become functional proteins.

 

41. ​The RNA molecule involved in both transcription and translation is ____________________.

ANSWER:   mRNA

messenger RNA

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-4 Tracing the Flow of Genetic Information from Nucleus to Cytoplasm
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-4-1 – Outline the steps in the transfer of genetic information from the linear sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule into the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.

 

42. ​An N-terminus is the end of a(n) ____________________ that has a free amino group.

ANSWER:   polypeptide

protein

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-1 – Diagram the chemical structure of an amino acid and define the terms polypeptide, C-terminus, and N-terminus.

 

43. ​Another name for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is ____________________.

ANSWER:   mad-cow disease​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-1 Cows as a Cause of Death
9-8 Protein Structure and Function Are Related
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-1-2: – List the normal functions of proteins and define the term prion.

 

44. ​Proteins are the intermediary between a(n) ____________________ and a(n) ____________________.

ANSWER:   gene; phenotype

phenotype; gene

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-2 The Link Between Genes and Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-2-2 – Discuss George Beadle and Edward Tatum’s experimental work in establishing the connection among genes, proteins, and phenotypes.

 

45. ​During processing in the nucleus, a(n) ____________________ is added to the 3’ end of mRNA molecules.

ANSWER:   poly-A tail​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

46. ​Proteins are made in the ____________________, but are present in all parts of the cell.

ANSWER:   cytoplasm

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-2 – Define the term proteome, and examine the diversity of proteins that can be produced from the 20,000 genes in the human genome.

 

47. ​A protein that guides the folding of a polypeptide into a functional, three-dimensional shape, converting the polypeptide into a protein is called a(n) ____________________.

ANSWER:   chaperone

molecular chaperone

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-1 – Explain how polypeptides are chemically modified and folded to become functional proteins.

 

48. ​If the nucleotide sequence in a DNA template strand is GGCTTAACCATT; the complementary mRNA strand will have the sequence ____________________.

ANSWER:   CCGAAUUGGUAA​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-1 – Illustrate the three steps of transcription, including the functions of enzymes involved in the process.

 

49. ​George Beadle and Edward Tatum discovered the key step in showing that genes produce ____________________ through the action of proteins.

ANSWER:   phenotypes​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-2 The Link Between Genes and Proteins
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-2-2: – Discuss George Beadle and Edward Tatum’s experimental work in establishing the connection among genes, proteins, and phenotypes.

 

50. ​A mechanism of gene regulation that controls the amount of mRNA available for translation is called ____________________.

ANSWER:   RNA interference

RNAi

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

Essay

 

51. ​Elaborate on the idea that proteins are the workhorse molecules of the cell.

ANSWER:   Proteins perform tasks essential for life; they form most of the structures in a cell, transfer energy to drive all processes in a living cell, help copy chromosomes for cell division, control which genes are switched on and off, relay signals, fight infection, and repair damage caused by environmental agents. All of these protein functions result in the production of phenotypes.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-1 Cows as a Cause of Death
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-1-2 – List the normal functions of proteins and define the term prion.

 

52. ​Discuss the concept and consequences of built-in redundancy as it applies to amino acid sequences, and include an example.

ANSWER:   Three nucleotides are needed to carry the information for one amino acid. However, some amino acids can be specified by more than one combination of three nucleotides. For example, glycine can be encoded from four different codons, with any of four different nucleotides taking the final position in the triplet. This type of redundancy provides flexibility and also decreases the probability of mistakes during triplet construction.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

53. ​Explain how the composition and distribution of codons among living organisms provide evidence for evolution from a common ancestor.

ANSWER:   With a few exceptions, the same codons are used for the same amino acids in viruses and all living organisms, including bacteria, algae, fungi, and multicellular plants and animals. The nearly universal nature of the genetic code means that the code was established early in the evolution of life on this planet and provides strong evidence that all living things evolved from a common ancestor.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   9-3 The Genetic Code: The Key to Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-3-1 – Explain how only four nucleotides and sixty-four different codons can lead to the production of billions of different proteins.

 

54. ​Describe the three steps of translation.

ANSWER:   Translation has three steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Initiation begins when mRNA binds to a small ribosomal subunit and the anticodon of the initiator tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine pairs with the AUG codon of mRNA. During elongation, amino acids are added to the growing polypeptide chain. Termination occurs when the ribosome reaches a stop codon. Proteins called release factors bind to stop codons; then the polypeptide, mRNA, and tRNA are released from the ribosome.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-3 – Describe the events of initiation, elongation, and termination during translation.

 

55. ​Outline the series of steps that transfers genetic information from the linear sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule into the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.

ANSWER:   During the first step the information encoded in a gene is copied into an RNA molecule known as pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). This step is called transcription and takes place in the nucleus. Next, the pre-mRNA is then processed into a finished messenger RNA (mRNA) that moves through a nuclear pore into the cytoplasm. Here, during the third step called translation, the information encoded in the mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain, which is processed and folded to form a protein.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-4 Tracing the Flow of Genetic Information from Nucleus to Cytoplasm
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-4-1 – Outline the steps in the transfer of genetic information from the linear sequence of nucleotides in a DNA molecule into the linear sequence of amino acids in a protein.

 

56. ​Explain why vegetarians and vegans might be deficient in some amino acids.

ANSWER:   To make all the proteins our bodies need, we must have a supply of all 20 amino acids. Some of these can be made by the cells in our body, but others must be included in our diet; these are called essential amino acids. A balanced diet is necessary to ensure that we have an adequate supply of all the essential amino acids. Vegetarians must be especially careful in planning meals because some plants contain low levels of certain essential amino acids. Vegetarians and vegans (who consume no animal or dairy products) must select complementary protein sources to ensure that their diet contains all the essential amino acids.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-6 Translation Requires the Interaction of Several Components
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-6-1 – Diagram the chemical structure of an amino acid and define the terms polypeptide, C-terminus, and N-terminus.

 

57. ​Explain how chromatin remodeling can involve changes to DNA instead of histones.

ANSWER:   The addition of methyl groups to cytosine bases in the DNA of promoters turns genes off by a process called gene silencing. The presence of methyl groups may prevent the binding of transcriptional proteins to the gene, and methylated DNA binds to non-histone proteins that promote the formation of genetically inactive chromatin, termed silent chromatin.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-9 Several Mechanisms Regulate the Expression of Genes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-9-1 – Describe four mechanisms of gene regulation that are used to control gene expression.

 

58. ​Outline the four levels of protein structure that give the protein its three-dimensional shape and determine its function.

ANSWER:   The primary structure of a protein is the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide chain. The secondary structure is the pleated or helical structure generated by the formation of bonds between amino acids. The tertiary structure is the three-dimensional structure brought about by folding on itself. The quaternary structure is formed by the interaction of two or more polypeptide chains in a protein.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-8 Protein Structure and Function Are Related
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-8-1 – Identify the four levels of protein structure and describe how improper protein folding can affect protein function.

 

Figure 9.11

 

59. ​Summarize the sequence of processing, sorting, and transport of proteins synthesized in a human cell. Then indicate which cell component corresponds with each number above.

ANSWER:   Proteins made on ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transferred to the interior of the ER, where they are folded and chemically modified. Many of these proteins are transported to the Golgi complex in vesicles. In the Golgi, the proteins are further modified, sorted, and packaged into vesicles for delivery to other parts of the cell and are incorporated into organelles such as lysosomes or are transported to the surface for insertion into the plasma membrane. Proteins also can be packaged into vesicles for secretion.​

The diagram is labeled as follows:

1) nucleus

2) ribosome

3) vesicle

4) protein

5) cytoplasm

6) Golgi complex

7) lysosome

8) plasma membrane

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   9-7 Polypeptides Are Processed and Folded to Form Proteins
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 9.11
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-7-1 – Explain how polypeptides are chemically modified and folded to become functional proteins.

 

60. ​Outline the three stages involved in the transcription of a DNA molecule.

ANSWER:   In the first stage of transcription, initiation, RNA polymerase and several regulatory proteins bind to a specific nucleotide sequence called a promoter that marks the beginning of a gene. In the second stage, elongation, the strands of DNA unwind further, and RNA polymerase reads the nucleotide sequence of the template strand. As it moves along, it inserts and links together complementary RNA nucleotides to form a pre-mRNA molecule. In the third and final stage, termination, RNA polymerase moves along the DNA template, and eventually reaches the end of the gene, marked by nucleotides called a termination sequence. There, RNA polymerase falls off the DNA template strand, the pre-mRNA molecule is released, and the DNA strands re-form a double helix.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   9-5 Transcription Produces Genetic Messages
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   HUHE.CUMM.16.9-5-1 – Illustrate the three steps of transcription, including the functions of enzymes involved in the process.