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ISBN 10: 1292094931

 ISBN 13: 9781292094939

 

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7e, (Silverthorn)

Chapter 1   Introduction to Physiology

 

1) Physiology is the study of

  1. A) the structure of the body.
  2. B) the tissues and organs of the body at the microscopic level.
  3. C) growth and reproduction.
  4. D) the normal function of living organisms.
  5. E) the facial features as an indication of personality.

Answer:  D

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

2) The literal meaning of the term physiology is knowledge of

  1. A) organs.
  2. B) nature.
  3. C) science.
  4. D) chemistry.
  5. E) math.

Answer:  B

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

3) Because anatomy and physiology have different definitions, they are usually considered separately in studies of the body.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  B

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

4) The following is a list of several levels of organization that make up the human body.

  1. tissue
  2. cell
  3. organ
  4. molecule
  5. organism
  6. organ system

 

The correct order from the smallest to the largest is

  1. A) 2, 4, 1, 3, 6, 5.
  2. B) 4, 2, 1, 6, 3, 5.
  3. C) 4, 2, 1, 3, 6, 5.
  4. D) 4, 2, 3, 1, 6, 5.
  5. E) 6, 4, 5, 2, 3, 1.

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

5) “Glucose is transported from blood into cells because cells require glucose to meet their energy needs.” This type of explanation is

  1. A) mechanistic.
  2. B) theological.
  3. C) teleological.
  4. D) metalogical.
  5. E) scatological.

Answer:  C

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

6) “Glucose is transported from blood into cells by transporters in response to insulin.” This type of explanation is

  1. A) mechanistic.
  2. B) theological.
  3. C) teleological.
  4. D) metalogical.
  5. E) scatological.

Answer:  A

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

7) Which of the following is a buffer zone between the outside world and most of the cells of the body?

  1. A) cell membrane
  2. B) red blood cells
  3. C) intracellular fluid
  4. D) extracellular fluid
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

8) Which of the following is one of Cannon’s “internal secretions”?

  1. A) hormones
  2. B) nutrients
  3. C) water
  4. D) inorganic ions
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

9) The study of body function in a disease state is

  1. A) necrology.
  2. B) physiology.
  3. C) microbiology.
  4. D) pathophysiology.
  5. E) histology.

Answer:  D

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) Homeostasis is the ability of the body to

  1. A) prevent the external environment from changing.
  2. B) prevent the internal environment from changing.
  3. C) quickly restore changed conditions to normal.
  4. D) ignore external stimuli to remain in a state of rest.
  5. E) prevent excessive blood loss.

Answer:  C

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

11) Oxytocin is a hormone that is released in response to cervical dilation. It in turn causes more uterine contractions that will further dilate the cervix. Which type of feedback loop does oxytocin trigger?

  1. A) negative feedback
  2. B) positive feedback
  3. C) local control
  4. D) nociceptive feedback

Answer:  B

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

12) How genetics influences the body’s response to drugs is called

  1. A) pharmacokinetics.
  2. B) pharmacogenetics.
  3. C) pharmacogenomics.
  4. D) pharmacodynamics.
  5. E) pharmageddon.

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

13) A physician basing clinical decisions on primary research published in biomedical literature is doing ________ medicine.

  1. A) evidence-based
  2. B) traditional
  3. C) alternative
  4. D) whimsical
  5. E) holistic

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

14) A study in which a participant acts as an experimental subject in part of the experiment and a control in another part of the experiment is called a ________ study.

  1. A) double-blind
  2. B) crossover
  3. C) meta-analysis
  4. D) retrospective

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) The Internet database for molecular, cellular, and physiological information is called the ________ Project.

  1. A) Human Genome
  2. B) Physiognomy
  3. C) Physiosome
  4. D) Physiome
  5. E) Manhattan

Answer:  D

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) A placebo is

  1. A) any drug being tested in a clinical trial.
  2. B) any drug in a class of drugs commonly used as pain relievers.
  3. C) a drug or treatment that is expected to have no pharmacological effect.
  4. D) a nutritive and respiratory organ in fetal development.
  5. E) a hole in a cavity wall through which an organ protrudes.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

17) A technique used to resolve contradictory results in scientific studies is

  1. A) meta-analysis.
  2. B) retrospective analysis.
  3. C) prospective analysis.
  4. D) cross-sectional analysis.
  5. E) longitudinal analysis.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

18) A scientifically logical guess is a

  1. A) model.
  2. B) theory.
  3. C) hypothesis.
  4. D) law.
  5. E) variable.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

19) If a scientific model is supported or verified repeatedly by multiple investigators, it may become a

  1. A) model.
  2. B) theory.
  3. C) hypothesis.
  4. D) law.
  5. E) variable.

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) Place these terms in the typical sequence in which they appear in the process of scientific inquiry: experimental data, theory, model, observation, hypothesis, replication.

  1. A) experimental data, theory, model, observation, hypothesis, replication
  2. B) replication, hypothesis, experimental data, theory, model, observation
  3. C) theory, observation, experimental data, hypothesis, replication, model
  4. D) observation, replication, model, experimental data, hypothesis, theory
  5. E) observation, hypothesis, experimental data, replication, model, theory

Answer:  E

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

21) You are interested in learning more about Parkinson’s disease, a neurological disorder that primarily affects motor function. Which is the best source to begin your investigation?

  1. A) Ask.com
  2. B) MedlinePlusPubMed
  3. C) public library
  4. D) physiology textbook
  5. E) a physician

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

22) Which of the following systems does NOT exchange material with the internal and external environments?

  1. A) respiratory system
  2. B) circulatory system
  3. C) digestive system
  4. D) urinary system
  5. E) All of the above.

Answer:  B

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

23) The human environment is terrestrial, dry, and highly variable. However, our bodies expend enormous amounts of energy maintaining a constant internal environment. Studying why our bodies do this is what kind of scientific endeavor?

  1. A) mechanistic
  2. B) translational
  3. C) teleological
  4. D) anatomical
  5. E) meterological

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

24) Individuals with Type I diabetes do not make enough insulin. Which of the following would be a mechanistic explanation of how insulin is used by the body?

  1. A) Cells need insulin because glucose will not cross the cell membrane.
  2. B) Insulin is a hormone involved in glucose transport.
  3. C) Insulin binds to its receptor which triggers the movement of glucose transporters to the cell membrane.
  4. D) Since all cells need glucose, insulin is required.
  5. E) Without insulin most cells in the body would be unable to produce enough ATP.

Answer:  C

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

25) Excretion is a function of the body. Which of the following would be considered excretion?

  1. A) Movement of sodium from the intestines to the bloodstream.
  2. B) Movement of glucose from the kidney to the blood stream.
  3. C) Movement of potassium from kidney cells into one’s urine.
  4. D) Movement of salt from sweat glands to the surface of the skin.
  5. E) Movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood stream.

Answer:  D

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

26) What is a nocebo effect?

Answer:  It is the phenomenon whereby a patient who has been informed of the side effects of a drug he is taking is more likely to experience some of the side effects than an otherwise similar patient receiving the same drug who has not been so informed.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

27) List the key concepts or themes in physiology.

Answer:  See Table 1.1 in the chapter.

Section:  Themes in Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) Adaptive significance is an important concept in physiology because it describes the

  1. A) importance of a highly variable external environment.
  2. B) physiological functions that promote an organism’s survival.
  3. C) ability of an organism to monitor and restore its internal state to normal conditions when necessary.
  4. D) similarities between ancient and modern marine organisms.
  5. E) parameters necessary to maintain a constant internal environment.

Answer:  B

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

29) You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various intensities of exercise influence heart rate. Which of the following is/are considered an independent variable?

  1. A) age of subjects
  2. B) sex of subjects
  3. C) intensity of exercise
  4. D) heart rate
  5. E) More than one of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

30) You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various intensities of exercise influence heart rate. Which of the following is/are considered a dependent variable?

  1. A) age of subjects
  2. B) sex of subjects
  3. C) intensity of exercise
  4. D) heart rate
  5. E) More than one of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

31) Why are physiology and anatomy frequently studied together?

Answer:  This is discussed in the “Physiology Is an Integrative Science” section of the chapter.

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

32) You want to display data on the finish times of the 10 fastest race horses in a single race at the Kentucky Derby.

Which type of graph would be best to display this information?

  1. A) bar graph
  2. B) line graph
  3. C) scatter plot

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

33) You want to display data on the finish times of the 10 fastest race horses in a single race at the Kentucky Derby.

What would the labels be for the graph axes?

Answer:  The x-axis is horse name or number; the y-axis is finish time in minutes.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

34) A horse runs 10 races, each a mile long, during a 6-month period, and you are interested in determining if the horse’s race time changes with experience. You set up a graph to display the race finish times of this horse.

Which type of graph would be best to display the race finish times of this horse?

  1. A) bar graph
  2. B) line graph
  3. C) scatter plot

Answer:  B

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

35) A horse runs 10 races, each a mile long, during a 6-month period, and you are interested in determining if the horse’s race time changes with experience. You set up a graph to display the race finish times of this horse.

What would the labels be for the graph axes?

Answer:  The x-axis is race number or date; the y-axis is finish time in minutes.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

36) There are 10 cloned horses, born on the same day, with identical chromosomes. They are each subjected to the same physical training regimen, but given daily injections of different concentrations of a particular vitamin. They all run the same race. You set up a graph to explore a relationship between race finish time and vitamin dose.

Which type of graph is best to explore a relationship between race finish time and vitamin dose?

  1. A) bar graph
  2. B) line graph
  3. C) scatter plot

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

37) There are 10 cloned horses, born on the same day, with identical chromosomes. They are each subjected to the same physical training regimen, but given daily injections of different concentrations of a particular vitamin. They all run the same race. You set up a graph to explore a relationship between race finish time and vitamin dose.

What are the labels for the graph axes?

Answer:  The x-axis is vitamin dose; the y-axis is finish time in minutes.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

38) What is the difference between a peer-reviewed article and a review article?

Answer:  A peer-reviewed article describes original research by one author (or group of authors working together) that has gone through a screening process in which a panel of qualified scientists evaluate the work. A review article is a summary (usually a collection of published research that was previously peer-reviewed, usually from more than one independent lab) that discusses a particular topic in the field.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

39) What is the major problem with the deconstructionist view of biology?

Answer:  Return to the topic of function and process. The deconstructionist view of biology predicted that once we uncovered the sequence of the human genome, the inner workings of the human body would be revealed. In reality, it is possible to know HOW a gene codes for a particular protein without knowing WHY that protein exists. Our knowledge of the human genome is only a piece of the puzzle.

Section:  Physiology Is an Integrative Science

Learning Outcome:  1.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

40) Sarah has just flown around the world in the last 48 hours. She is having trouble sleeping, a condition known as insomnia. How do you think Sarah’s long flights and her insomnia are related to biological rhythms?

Answer:  Our sleep-wake cycle is a biological rhythm that lets our body know when it is time to rest. Most likely Sarah has ignored the signals like sleepiness, changes in body temperature, and mood that her body is sending. By ignoring these rhythms she has disrupted the cycle and the body is struggling to maintain homeostasis.

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

41) Why is it necessary to label the axes of a graph?

Answer:  A graph with no axis labels is meaningless—without knowing what trend is being illustrated, there is no communication of scientific information.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) Why is it necessary to space grid marks on a graph proportionally to the quantity measured (example: each square represents one centimeter)?

Answer:  If this is not done, a trend would be obscured or even misrepresented.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

43) Explain why the prefix homeo- is used in the term homeostasis. Why do some physiologists prefer the term homeodynamics over homeostasis?

Answer:  The prefix homeo-, meaning like or similar, is used to indicate that the body’s internal environment is maintained within a range of acceptable values rather than a fixed state. Some physiologists argue that the term homeodynamics better reflects the small but constant changes that continuously take place in the internal environment, as opposed to homeostasis, which erroneously implies lack of change.

Section:  Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

44) Explain why animals are used in research. Are there any limitations to the application of animal data to human physiology? Could these limitations be addressed using cell or tissue culture, or computer simulations?

Answer:  (Note to instructor: This may be a good question to ask early in the semester, then again toward the end, after the organ systems have been covered.) There is a brief discussion of using humans or animals in research in the chapter. This question is intended to stimulate students to think about how science is done, how data are generated, and how the process is challenged by social issues. Generally, there are limitations to the usefulness of computer simulations and cell/tissue culture systems for the same reason that nonhuman animal data are not 100% applicable to human physiology. How human organ systems perform may be different in very subtle ways from corresponding systems in other species. Cells in culture are in an artificial environment, and while much has been learned from such systems, it has also been noted that the behavior of cells in culture is not identical to cells in a living body. Furthermore, cells cultured from established lines can change over time, becoming less like the original cells from which they were derived, and presumably less like normal cells. Computer simulations are valuable, but are only as good as the data entered, and given that we don’t know everything there is to know about physiology, we can’t write a perfect computer program. All three approaches are useful, but for different reasons, and therefore one research system does not completely substitute for another, nor is it appropriate to abandon one entirely.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

45) You conduct an experiment on twenty 18-year-old male subjects to see how various levels of exercise influence heart rate. Explain why only 18-year-old males were used as subjects.

Answer:  An important part of scientific inquiry is to remove sources of variation from among subjects. By choosing subjects of one gender in a particular age group, it is easier to determine that the dependent variable (heart rate, in this case) depends only on the independent variable, level of exercise. This also allows a study to have fewer participants, assuming that subjects were randomly assigned to a level of exercise. If subjects were of random ages and genders, data would have to be collected from many more individuals.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

46) Use the following terms to develop a concept map:

brain, sensory neuron, an eye, foot, soccer ball, motor neuron

Answer:  Eye sees soccer ball.

Sensory neuron sends visual information.

Brain receives information and formulates a plan.

Motor neuron carries action information.

Foot muscle contracts and the ball is kicked.

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

47) Provide an example of a control system. Be sure to include the three main components: an input signal, a controller, and an output signal.

Answer:  Variable. One example is blood glucose concentration. The input signal is a blood glucose concentration outside of the normal range, the controller is the pancreas, and the output signal is release of either insulin or glucagon.

Section:  Control Systems and Homeostasis

Learning Outcome:  1.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Application

 

48) Write a teleological explanation for why heart rate increases during exercise. Now write a mechanistic explanation for the same phenomenon.

Answer:  Teleological: Heart rate increases because the increased activity of skeletal and cardiac muscles requires increased delivery of blood contents such as oxygen and glucose. Mechanistic: Heart rate increases in response to signals from the brain (pacemaker cells of the heart are stimulated by the nervous system).

Section:  Function and Mechanism

Learning Outcome:  1.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

49) What is a hypothesis? What are the steps involved in following the scientific method? How does one distinguish the dependent variable from the independent variable in an experiment? How are each of these represented on a graph?

Answer:  This is discussed in “The Science of Physiology” section of the chapter and in Figure 1.15.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

50) You are designing a study to assess the effects of a new treatment for hypertension. What ethical considerations would you employ when monitoring your progress?

Answer:  Major considerations should involve assessing the efficacy of the treatment such that the control group patients are not deprived as well as ensuring that the experimental treatment is not less effective than the standard treatments.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

51) You are designing a study to assess the effects of a new drug treatment for hypertension. In your study of this drug’s efficacy in treating hypertension, your subjects are white males, ages 40 to 60 years. Is your study applicable to all people? Explain.

Answer:  Possibly, but not necessarily. There are gender differences in appropriate therapies because of physiological effects of higher testosterone in males compared to females, for example. Drugs are often not tested in children, and children also have a different hormonal environment than adults (again, sex hormones are a good example, because their levels are low until just before the onset of puberty). There are also racial differences in effectiveness of therapies, and while it is a contentious issue as to whether these represent genetic or socioeconomic influences, they should be considered.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

52) High cholesterol levels have been shown to be a contributing factor to heart disease and death due to cardiovascular disease for many decades. In the 1970s, scientists used this information to develop a hypothesis that giving a medicine to reduce blood cholesterol levels could reduce the chances of developing cardiovascular disease or dying from cardiovascular disease. They tested a group of people living in a town called Framingham, Massachusetts. This study became known as the Framingham Study, and it is very well known because it did not support the hypothesis that giving cholesterol-lowering medications would reduce the risk of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease. Does this mean that high cholesterol is not a risk factor for heart disease? What does this demonstrate about the scientific process, especially as it pertains to human studies? You can find a copy of the study online and read it, if necessary.

Answer:  This demonstrates the difficulty in doing human research because, even though elevated cholesterol levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, reducing cholesterol levels without addressing the reason those levels were high in the first place may not have the expected effect on reducing heart disease. Human testing on hypotheses is important because humans don’t always respond to treatments like other animals do, they may actually respond quite differently and each person may respond differently from the rest. It is why we need to test each hypothesis in circumstances as similar to the actual real group that would be treated.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

Use the table and graph below to answer the following questions.

 

Table 1.1

 

Figure 1.1

 

53)  List all of the errors in Figure 1.1.

Answer:

  1. The units of concentration are labeled as M when they should be mg.
  2. The x-axis is in decreasing order of concentration.
  3. The graph needs a legend.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

54) What is the reason for using a line graph to express the results of this study?

Answer:  Line graphs are commonly used when the independent variable (x-axis) is a continuous phenomenon. In this study the concentration of epinephrine is a continuous function. The line allows for interpolation (i.e., estimating values between the measured values).

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

55) Use Table 1.1 to graph the data appropriately. What can you CONCLUDE based on the new figure?

Answer:  Graphs should address the errors in Figure 1.1.

This small sample suggests that an increase in epinephrine concentration increases the average heart rate of Sprague-Dawley rats.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

Use the table and graph below to answer the following questions.

 

Table 1.2

 

Figure 1.2

 

56) Summarize the data shown in Figure 1.2.

Answer:  The systolic pressure of both genders increases with age. Under age 40, the systolic pressure of males is higher than that of females. After age 40, the systolic pressure of females is higher than that of males. The greatest rate of increase is from ages 50 to 70 in both genders. Blood pressure declines after age 70.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

57) Referring to Table 1.2, what general trend in systolic blood pressures is seen as both men and women increase in age?

Answer:  The systolic pressure of both genders increases with advancing age.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

58) Referring to Figure 1.2, at approximately what age do men begin to show higher systolic blood pressures than women? At what age does this trend reverse?

Answer:  From age 10 to 40, male pressures are higher; after age 40, female pressures are higher.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

59) You are doing an experiment to determine if caffeine consumption affects reaction time.

  1. Which is the dependent variable?
  2. Which is the independent variable?
  3. Briefly describe some ways you might manipulate the independent variable.
  4. Name three stimuli you could use, and how you might measure reaction time for each.
  5. Write an appropriate hypothesis for this study.
  6. You compute the following average values from your experiment. What would be a logical conclusion for these data?

Average caffeine consumer’s reaction time: 400 ms

Average noncaffeine consumer’s reaction time: 650 ms

  1. Sketch a simple graph to convey these results to your classmates. What kind of graph did you choose? Why? Which variable did you plot on the x-axis? Which one did you plot on the y-axis? Why?
  2. Do the results of this experiment support the hypothesis you chose?

Answer:

  1. Reaction time
  2. Caffeine consumption
  3. Vary the amounts of caffeine consumed; vary the source, for example, use coffee, pills, cola drinks, and/or chocolate; vary both the amounts and sources.
  4. Answers will vary. Example: a computer-based timer could measure the time elapsed between the subject’s detecting the appearance of an object on the computer monitor and depressing a key on the keyboard. Auditory or touch stimuli could be used, too.
  5. Depending on the answer to C, could choose: “Consumption of caffeine decreases reaction time” or similar statement.
  6. Consumption of caffeine improves reaction time by 250 ms, on average.
  7. Bar graph; allows comparison of the average of two groups. The x-axis: group, caffeine or none. The y-axis: reaction time in milliseconds.
  8. Yes, in case of hypothesis written in D.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

Following is a table of data collected from one section of an 8 a.m. physiology lab. There were 20 students present, 10 men and 10 women. Information collected from the students included their height, weight, age, gender, and resting pulse rate. In addition, the students were surveyed to see if they smoked cigarettes, considered themselves “regular exercisers,” if they had consumed caffeine the morning of the lab, and if they had eaten breakfast that day. A “y” or “n” (yes or no) was recorded to indicate their answers. Each student did “jumping jacks” for 5 minutes and recorded the time required to regain their resting heart rate, which is listed on the table as “recovery time.” Finally, each student participated in an exercise designed to measure their reaction time (in milliseconds) in catching an object dropped by a lab partner according to specified criteria. Use this table to answer the following questions. Ignore statistical problems caused by small sample size, and so on.

 

Table 1.3

 

Figure 1.3       

 

 

For these questions, the data were separated and analyzed by gender.

 

60) Refer to Table 1.3 and Figure 1.3 (bar graph).

  1. Write a hypothesis regarding gender and weight.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?
  3. Based on the data in the graph above, what is your conclusion?
  4. Why is a bar graph a good choice for presentation of these data? Would another type of chart be as effective?

Answer:

  1. Males weigh more than females.
  2. Weight depends on gender; thus weight is dependent, gender is independent.
  3. Males weigh more than females.
  4. Bar graph allows comparison of the average of two groups. No.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

61) Refer to Table 1.3.

  1. Write a hypothesis regarding gender and recovery time.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?
  3. Create a graph using the averages from the data table. Based on these data, what do you conclude?

Answer:

  1. A prediction such as “Males recover from exercise more quickly than females” would be appropriate.
  2. The independent variable is gender; the dependent variable is recovery time.
  3. A bar graph such as the one below is appropriate. In this study, men recovered from exercise more quickly than women.

 

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

62) Refer to Table 1.3.

  1. Write a hypothesis regarding the effects of breakfast consumption on reaction time.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?

Answer:

  1. A prediction such as “Eating breakfast prior to testing improves reaction time of subjects (compared to subjects who did not eat breakfast)” is appropriate.
  2. The independent variable is breakfast consumption; the dependent variable is reaction time.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

63) Refer to Table 1.3.

  1. Disregarding gender, write a hypothesis that expresses the relationship between weight and height.
  2. What is the dependent variable? What is the independent variable?
  3. From the data in Table 1.3, construct a graph that examines this relationship.

Answer:

  1. A prediction such as “As height increases, weight increases” would be appropriate.
  2. The dependent variable would be weight, the independent variable is height.

C.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

64) Table 1.3 shows data on various factors that may or may not be related to resting pulse rate, time to recovery to resting pulse rate after a few minutes of exercise, and reaction time measured by how quickly a student could press a keyboard key after seeing a computer-generated prompt. For each question below, write a testable hypothesis, identify the dependent and independent variables, sketch an appropriate graph of the results, and draw a conclusion from the data presented in the table. Discuss your results.

  1. Does caffeine consumption have an effect on resting pulse rate?
  2. Does age play a role in resting pulse rate? Does weight?
  3. Is there a relationship between eating breakfast and recovery time?
  4. Is there a relationship between reaction time and height?
  5. Do women who smoke show differences in their resting pulse rates compared to female nonsmokers or to male smokers and nonsmokers?
  6. Does regular exercise have an effect on resting pulse rate?

Answer:  Answers will vary, but examples follow (conclusions written here are based on cursory examination of graphed data—no statistical tests of significance were performed).

  1. Hypothesis: Caffeine consumption increases heart rate.

Independent variable: caffeine consumption.

Dependent variable: resting pulse rate.

Conclusion: Mean pulse rates between caffeine-drinking (68 bpm) and control subjects 73 bpm) are similar (large variation between individuals); hypothesis rejected.

  1. Hypothesis: Pulse rate is lower in older people and is higher in heavier people.

Independent variables: age and weight.

Dependent variables: resting pulse rate.

Conclusion: Pulse rate was similar in all groups; hypothesis rejected.

  1. Hypothesis: People who ate breakfast have a faster reaction time.

Independent variable: breakfast consumption.

Dependent variable: pulse rate.

Conclusion: People who ate breakfast had a faster reaction time (168.7 msec vs. 180.5 msec); hypothesis supported.

  1. Hypothesis: There is no relationship between height and reaction time.

Independent variable: height.

Dependent variable: reaction time.

Conclusion: Reaction time did not vary with height; hypothesis supported.

  1. Hypothesis: Smokers of both genders have a higher resting pulse rate than nonsmokers of either gender, and males and females are affected equally.

Independent variables: smoking and gender.

Dependent variable: pulse rate.

Conclusion: There was no difference in pulse rate in any of the groups (70.4 bpm in nonsmokers vs. 70.3 bpm in smokers); hypothesis rejected.

  1. Hypothesis: People who exercise regularly have a lower resting pulse rate.

Independent variable: exercise.

Dependent variable: pulse rate.

Conclusion: Regular exercise had no effect on resting pulse rate (68.9 bpm in nonexercisers vs. 71.8 bpm in exercisers); hypothesis rejected.

 

Discussion may cover issues such as the effect of small sample size, use of adults of limited age range, lack of control over treatments (Were the subjects honest about age, eating breakfast, consuming caffeine, smoking, and exercising? Were the quantitative data of height and weight determined in the lab using the same equipment and same data collector?), the value of statistical analysis, and so on. It is likely that students will be surprised by some of the results and could make erroneous conclusions. For example, pulse rate may vary with age, but without including children and senior citizens in the sample population, this trend would be missed.

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.18

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

65) The law of mass balance states:

  1. A) if a substance is to remain constant any gain must be offset by an equal loss.
  2. B) that homeostasis can be maintained when the load of a substance is continuously lost.
  3. C) if one is to survive they must have a certain amount of mass.
  4. D) that all matter is neither created or destroyed.
  5. E) that all substances in the body have equal mass.

Answer:  A

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

66) Mass balance involves determining the total amount of a substance in the body. We can determine the rate of production (i.e. Mass Flow) of this substance by which of the following formulas?

  1. A) intake + production – excretion – metabolism.
  2. B) (amount of substance / min) × (concentration of the substance)
  3. C) volume of flow / (amount of substance / min)
  4. D) (concentration of a substance) / volume flow
  5. E) (concentration of a substance) × (volume/min)

Answer:  E

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

67) ________ are kept within normal range by physiological control mechanisms which are used if the variable strays too far from its ________.

  1. A) Setpoints, regulated variable
  2. B) Independent variables, steady state
  3. C) Regulated variables, setpoint
  4. D) Dependent variables, lowest value
  5. E) Steady state values, integrating center

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

68) The vasodilation of blood vessels surrounding muscles due to the production of carbon dioxide during exercise is an example of which of the following?

  1. A) neural control
  2. B) long-distance control
  3. C) reflex control
  4. D) local control
  5. E) hormonal control

Answer:  D

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

69) Which of the following are used to keep our systems at or near their setpoints?

  1. A) positive feedback loops
  2. B) response loops
  3. C) feedback loops
  4. D) open control loops
  5. E) feedforward control loop

Answer:  C

Section:  The Science of Physiology

Learning Outcome:  1.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7e  (Silverthorn)

Chapter 2   Molecular Interactions

 

1) Stanley Miller set out to demonstrate an explanation for the origins of organic molecules using a combination of simple organic molecules, heat and periodic bursts of electricity through the mixture, ultimately producing which kind of molecules?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) amino acids
  3. C) lipids
  4. D) glycoproteins
  5. E) nucleic acids

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

2) Glycosylated molecules are those formed with which group of organic compounds?

  1. A) lipids
  2. B) nucleic acids
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) cholesterol
  5. E) DNA

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

3) Cells regulate their level of activity by regulating the amount of proteins present in the cell at any given time, so an up regulation of enzymes would be expected to

  1. A) increase the cell’s response that is produced by the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme.
  2. B) decrease the level of productivity of chemical reactions that rely on them.
  3. C) have no effect on the rate of reactions catalyzed by the enzymes.
  4. D) decrease the rate of reactions catalyzed by the enzymes.
  5. E) both decrease the level of productivity of chemical reactions that rely on them and decrease the rate of reactions catalyzed by the enzymes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

4) When an enzyme reaches its saturation point, the amount of

  1. A) substrate for the enzyme to act upon is very high.
  2. B) substrate for the enzyme to act upon is very low.
  3. C) product produced continues to increase.
  4. D) product produced by the enzyme decreases.
  5. E) substrate for the enzyme to act upon is very low and the amount of product produced by the enzyme decreases.

Answer:  A

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

5) Which group of elements makes up more than 90% of the body’s mass?

  1. A) O, H, Na
  2. B) C, Na, K
  3. C) O, Ca, H
  4. D) Ca, C, O
  5. E) O, C, H

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

6) The organic molecules known as phospholipids are key components of cell membranes and composed of which molecules?

  1. A) amino acids
  2. B) nucleotides
  3. C) glycerol
  4. D) fatty acids
  5. E) both glycerol and fatty acids

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) Chromium is

  1. A) not an element in the periodic table.
  2. B) a protein.
  3. C) a dietary supplement with no natural role in the body.
  4. D) an essential element involved in glucose metabolism.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

8) Which of the following is a way to recognize a carbohydrate by looking at its name only?

  1. A) It ends in -ase.
  2. B) It ends in -ose.
  3. C) It begins with nucleo-.
  4. D) It begins with proteo-.
  5. E) It begins with lipo-.

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

9) Which of the following is NOT considered an essential element for a living organism?

  1. A) carbon
  2. B) hydrogen
  3. C) mercury
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) nitrogen

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) The largest carbohydrate molecules are called polysaccharides because they are composed of ________ molecules bonded together with one another.

  1. A) amino acid
  2. B) nucleotide
  3. C) purine
  4. D) pyrimidine
  5. E) simple sugar

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

11) Essential amino acids that are used to build proteins

  1. A) exist in twenty six different configurations.
  2. B) are linked together by ionic chemical bonds in proteins.
  3. C) can be used medically for both diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
  4. D) are derived from the foods we eat and digest.
  5. E) can only be made by cells within our bodies.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

12) Which of the following are examples of cations?

  1. A) SO42-
  2. B) Ca2+
  3. C) HPO42-
  4. D) HCO3-
  5. E) Cl-

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

13) A positively-charged ion is called a(n)

  1. A) electron.
  2. B) proton.
  3. C) neutron.
  4. D) cation.
  5. E) anion.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

14) The most important polar molecule is ________ because it is practically a universal solvent.

  1. A) water
  2. B) bicarbonate
  3. C) sodium chloride
  4. D) magnesium sulfate
  5. E) nucleic acid

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) A molecule referred to as highly soluble is

  1. A) very likely to dissolve in water.
  2. B) not very likely to dissolve in water.
  3. C) called aqueous.
  4. D) very likely to dissolve in water and is called aqueous.
  5. E) not very likely to dissolve in water and is called aqueous.

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

16) A free radical is a

  1. A) charged particle.
  2. B) molecule with an extra electron.
  3. C) molecule with an extra neutron.
  4. D) molecule with an extra proton.
  5. E) molecule with an unpaired electron.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

17) The chemical bonding behavior of an atom is directly determined by the

  1. A) number of protons.
  2. B) number of neutrons.
  3. C) number and arrangement of electrons.
  4. D) size of the atom.
  5. E) mass of the atom.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

18) Atoms in a covalent molecule

  1. A) share electrons in single pairs.
  2. B) share electrons in double pairs.
  3. C) share electrons in triple pairs.
  4. D) share electrons singly, never in pairs.
  5. E) can share electrons in single pairs, double pairs, or triple pairs.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

19) The weak interactions between atoms that keep atoms near each other are called

  1. A) hydrogen bonds.
  2. B) van der Waals forces.
  3. C) ionic bonds.
  4. D) hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces.
  5. E) van der Waals forces and ionic bonds.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

20) All of these statements about carbohydrates are true EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) Simple sugars include galactose, glucose, and ribose.
  2. B) Cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide on earth.
  3. C) Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide made by animal cells.
  4. D) Polysaccharides are important both for energy storage and to provide structure to cells.
  5. E) Glycogen is important both for energy storage and to provide structure for cells.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

21) In regard to lipids, the term unsaturated refers to

  1. A) the lack of double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms in a fatty acid.
  2. B) the presence of double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms in a fatty acid.
  3. C) the ring structure of steroids.
  4. D) glycerol, which acts as an anchor for joined fatty acids.
  5. E) fats, such as butter and lard, which come from animal sources.

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

22) Each amino acid differs from others in the

  1. A) number of central carbon atoms.
  2. B) size of the amino group.
  3. C) number of carboxyl groups.
  4. D) chemical structure of the R group.
  5. E) number of peptide bonds in the molecule.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

23) The alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of the ________ structure of a protein.

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) pentanary

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

24) Interactions between different globular or fibrous polypeptide chains result in which type of structure?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) pentagonal

Answer:  D

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

25) The concentration of a solution expresses the amount of

  1. A) solvent per volume of solute.
  2. B) solute per volume of solvent.
  3. C) solvent per volume of solution.
  4. D) solute per volume of solution.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

26) Nucleic acids are polymers of units called

  1. A) amino acids.
  2. B) fatty acids.
  3. C) bases.
  4. D) ribose.
  5. E) nucleotides.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

27) A nucleotide consists of a

  1. A) five-carbon sugar and phosphate group.
  2. B) five-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base.
  3. C) phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
  4. D) five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group.
  5. E) five-carbon sugar and an amino acid.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

28) According to the rules of complementary base pairing, a nucleotide containing the base cytosine would only pair with a nucleotide containing the base

  1. A) thymine.
  2. B) adenine.
  3. C) uracil.
  4. D) cytosine.
  5. E) guanine.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

29) The most important energy-transferring compound in cells is a nucleotide known as

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) fructose.
  3. C) protein.
  4. D) adenosine triphosphate.
  5. E) deoxyribonucleic acid.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

30) Which bases below are purines?

  1. adenine
  2. cytosine
  3. guanine
  4. thymine
  5. uracil
  6. A) 1 and 2
  7. B) 2 and 3
  8. C) 1, 3, and 5
  9. D) 1 and 3
  10. E) 2, 4, and 5

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

31) Polymers are a typical formation of ________ molecules.

  1. A) organic
  2. B) inorganic
  3. C) either organic or inorganic

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

32) Cholesterol is a

  1. A) precursor to steroid hormones.
  2. B) structural component of cell membranes.
  3. C) dangerous fat that is absent from a healthy body.
  4. D) precursor to steroid hormones and a structural component of cell membranes.
  5. E) precursor to steroid hormones, a structural component of cell membranes, and a dangerous fat that is absent from a healthy body.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

33) A component of an important buffer in the human body is

  1. A) NaCl.
  2. B) H+.
  3. C) HCl.
  4. D) HCO3-.
  5. E) H2

Answer:  D

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

34) Which of the following substances is most alkaline?

  1. A) lemon juice, pH = 2
  2. B) urine, pH = 6
  3. C) tomato juice, pH = 4
  4. D) white wine, pH = 3
  5. E) stomach secretions, pH = 1

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

35) If a substance has a pH that is less than 7, it is considered

  1. A) neutral.
  2. B) acidic.
  3. C) alkaline.
  4. D) a buffer.
  5. E) a salt.

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

36) Protein specificity is the

  1. A) activation of a specific protein that is needed to perform a particular function.
  2. B) degree to which a protein is attracted to a ligand.
  3. C) ability of a protein to bind a certain ligand or a group of related ligands.
  4. D) degree to which a protein-ligand complex initiates a response.
  5. E) degree to which a protein is attracted to a ligand and the ability of a protein to bind a certain ligand or a group of related ligands.

Answer:  C

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

37) Which of the following is a common feature of soluble proteins?

  1. A) structural support
  2. B) noncovalent interaction
  3. C) receptor binding
  4. D) chemical modulation
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  B

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

38) An ion has gained or lost

  1. A) a proton(s).
  2. B) a neutron(s).
  3. C) an electron(s).
  4. D) a carbon atom(s).
  5. E) a double bond.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

39) Isotopes of the same element differ by having different numbers of

  1. A) protons.
  2. B) neutrons.
  3. C) electrons.
  4. D) carbon atoms.
  5. E) double bonds.

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

40) The identity of an element can be determined by the number of

  1. A) protons.
  2. B) neutrons.
  3. C) electrons.
  4. D) carbon atoms.
  5. E) double bonds.

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

41) This particle has a charge of +1 and a mass of 1.

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) electron
  4. D) molecular oxygen
  5. E) sodium chloride

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) This particle has a charge of -1 and a negligible mass.

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) electron
  4. D) hydrogen
  5. E) magnesium

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

43) This particle has a neutral charge and a mass of 1.

  1. A) proton
  2. B) neutron
  3. C) electron
  4. D) hydrogen
  5. E) magnesium

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

44) A change in pH value of one unit indicates a

  1. A) 1-fold change in [H+].
  2. B) change of 10-1in pH.
  3. C) change of 10-2in pH.
  4. D) 10 fold change in [H+].
  5. E) Cannot be determined.

Answer:  D

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

45) A blood pH of less than 7.00 and greater than 7.70 is incompatible with life.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

46) Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between pH and hydrogen ions?

  1. A) pH and hydrogen ions are equivalent.
  2. B) pH and hydrogen ions are directly proportional.
  3. C) pH and hydrogen ions are inversely proportional.
  4. D) pH is always 100 times more than the number of hydrogen ions.
  5. E) pH and hydrogen ions are independent and unrelated.

Answer:  C

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

47) HCl (hydrochloric acid) is considered an acid because

  1. A) in solution it donates its H+.
  2. B) in solution it decreases the concentration of free H+.
  3. C) in solution it increases the pH.
  4. D) it is similar to ammonia.
  5. E) it is able to form hydroxide ions.

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

48) Molecular function and distinctive shapes of large complex biomolecules result from the interactions of which of the following?

  1. A) van der Waals forces
  2. B) ionic bonds
  3. C) hydrogen bonds
  4. D) covalent bond angles
  5. E) All of the choices can contribute.

Answer:  E

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

49) Which of the following formulas describes the relationship between pH and hydrogen ions?

  1. A) pH = log [H+]
  2. B) pH = -log [H+]
  3. C) [H+] = -log pH
  4. D) [H+] = log pH
  5. E) pH= [H+] + [OH-]

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

50) All organic molecules contain which of the following?

  1. A) calcium
  2. B) carbon
  3. C) adenosine
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) lipids

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

51) Molecules that contain the element carbon are known as

  1. A) organic molecules.
  2. B) essential elements.
  3. C) nucleic acids.
  4. D) protons.
  5. E) vitamins.

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

52) Which of the following combination of elements make up 90% of the body’s mass?

  1. A) oxygen, carbon, and nucleic acids
  2. B) hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen
  3. C) oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen
  4. D) carbon dioxide, oxygen, and sodium
  5. E) sodium, potassium, and calcium

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

53) Which of the following results when an atom has such a strong attraction for electrons that it pulls one or more electrons completely away from another atom?

  1. A) a Van der Waals attraction
  2. B) an ionic bond
  3. C) a hydrogen bond
  4. D) a covalent bond
  5. E) a very stable bond

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

54) These are weak attractive forces that are responsible for the surface tension of water.

  1. A) a Van der Waals attraction
  2. B) an ionic bond
  3. C) a hydrogen bond
  4. D) a covalent bond
  5. E) a potassium bond

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

55) These result when the carbon atoms in phospholipids share a pair of electrons.

  1. A) a Van der Waals attraction
  2. B) an ionic bond
  3. C) a hydrogen bond
  4. D) a covalent bond
  5. E) a potassium bond

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

56) Van der Waals forces are weak attractive forces between the nucleus of one atom and the electrons of another atom close by.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

57) Which of the following biological molecules does glycogen belong to?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) nucleotides
  5. E) lipids and proteins

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

58) Nucleotides participate in which of the following functions?

  1. A) They combine with oxygen to produce energy.
  2. B) They are the building blocks of proteins like cell receptors.
  3. C) They form structural elements in the cell membrane.
  4. D) They transfer energy and are part of genetic material.
  5. E) They store glucose as fat.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

59) Which of the following biological molecules exhibit the characteristics of saturation, specificity and competition?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) receptor proteins
  4. D) nucleotides
  5. E) lipids and proteins

Answer:  C

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

60) To which of the following groups of biomolecules do triglycerides and steroids belong?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) nucleotides
  5. E) lipids and proteins

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

61) Potassium channels are usually composed of several subunits. This is an example of which level of protein structure?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) teritiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) alpha helix

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

62) The sequence and number of amino acids in the chain is an example of which of the following levels of protein structure?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) teritiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) alpha helix

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

63) Hemoglobin molecules are made from four globular protein subunits. The three-dimensional shape of these globular subunits would be an example of which of the following levels of protein structure?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) teritiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) alpha helix

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

64) Beta strands are an example of a spatial arrangement of amino acids.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

65) Which of the following levels of protein structure occurs from spontaneous folding that results from covalent bonds and noncovalent interactions?

  1. A) primary
  2. B) secondary
  3. C) teritiary
  4. D) quaternary
  5. E) triangular

Answer:  C

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

66) The protein keratin which is found in hair and nails and affords nails their rigid structure would be categorized as which of the following protein shapes?

  1. A) fibrous
  2. B) globular
  3. C) acidic
  4. D) hexavalent
  5. E) triangular

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

67) Which of the following types of bonds between adjacent amino acids plays an important role in the shape of globular proteins?

  1. A) collagen bonds
  2. B) disulfide bonds
  3. C) sodium bonds
  4. D) metallic bond
  5. E) secondary bonds

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

68) Which of the following would be disrupted by changes in free hydrogen ions in solution, thus disrupting the molecule’s shape and function?

  1. A) disulfide bonds
  2. B) hydrogen bonds
  3. C) sodium bonds
  4. D) covalent bonds
  5. E) double bonds

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

69) During intense exercise our muscles produce lactate and hydrogen ions. Which of the following molecules would be affected by the accumulation of hydrogen ions?

  1. A) cholesterol in the plasma membrane
  2. B) glucose molecules in the adipose tissue
  3. C) DNA in the nucleus
  4. D) the proteins actin and myosin
  5. E) phospholipids in the membrane

Answer:  D

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

70) Which of the following best describes an irreversible antagonist?

  1. A) involved in activation via phosphorylation
  2. B) cannot be displaced by competition
  3. C) binds to proteins away from the active site
  4. D) reversible antagonist
  5. E) allosteric enhancer

Answer:  B

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

71) When glucose enters a cell it is phosphorylated in order to maintain a low glucose concentration in the cell. The enzyme that phosphorylates glucose would be what kind of modulator?

  1. A) covalent modulator
  2. B) competitive inhibitor
  3. C) allosteric modulator
  4. D) reversible antagonist
  5. E) irreversible agonist

Answer:  A

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

72) If a reaction which is stopped by substance X can recover when a lot more of the native activator is supplied, substance X would be considered which of the following?

  1. A) covalent modulator
  2. B) competitive inhibitor
  3. C) allosteric modulator
  4. D) irreversible antagonist
  5. E) a phosphotase

Answer:  B

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

73) Which of the following would be considered an allosteric modulator?

  1. A) A substance involved in activation via phosphorylation.
  2. B) A substance that can be displaced by competition at the active site.
  3. C) A substance that binds to proteins away from the active site.
  4. D) A substance that has no effect on the affinity of the ligand.
  5. E) A substance that binds irreversibly.

Answer:  C

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

74) The smallest unit of an element is a(n)

  1. A) atom.
  2. B) molecule.
  3. C) element.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) tissue.

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

75) When two or more atoms are chemically linked, the smallest unit of the resulting material is referred to as a(n)

  1. A) atom.
  2. B) molecule.
  3. C) element.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) tissue.

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

76) A(n) ________ is a substance that consists entirely of atoms with the same atomic number.

  1. A) atom
  2. B) molecule
  3. C) element
  4. D) nucleus
  5. E) tissue

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

77) The center of an atom is called the

  1. A) proton.
  2. B) molecule.
  3. C) element.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) electron.

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

78) Electrons travel around the center of the atom at high speed forming a(n)

  1. A) atom.
  2. B) molecule.
  3. C) element.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) shell.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

79) An element’s ability to bind to and with other elements is determined by which of the following?

  1. A) the arrangement of electrons in the outer shell of an atom
  2. B) its amino acid composition
  3. C) its state of glycosylation
  4. D) the number of enzymes required
  5. E) the amount of folding in its subunits

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

80) Ions with a positive charge are called

  1. A) anions.
  2. B) electrons.
  3. C) cations.
  4. D) neurons.
  5. E) tissues.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

81) Ions with a negative charge are called

  1. A) anions.
  2. B) electrons.
  3. C) cations.
  4. D) neurons.
  5. E) tissues.

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

82) A ________ is a homogeneous mixture containing a solvent and a solute.

  1. A) nucleus
  2. B) molecule
  3. C) solution
  4. D) compound
  5. E) cocktail

Answer:  C

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

83) Molecules that readily dissolve in water are called

  1. A) hydrophobic.
  2. B) hydrophilic.
  3. C) isotonic.
  4. D) non-polar.
  5. E) lipids.

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

84) Molecules that do not dissolve well in water are called

  1. A) hydrophobic.
  2. B) hydrophilic.
  3. C) isotonic.
  4. D) polar.
  5. E) salts.

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

85) A(n) ________ is any molecule or ion that binds to another molecule.

  1. A) phospholipid
  2. B) enzyme
  3. C) vitamin
  4. D) ligand
  5. E) cofactor

Answer:  D

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

86) Two methods of protein activation include ________ and ________.

  1. A) exergonic, endogonic
  2. B) enzymatic, glycolytic
  3. C) homeostatic, osmotic
  4. D) mechanistic, covalent bonding
  5. E) proteolytic, cofactor binding

Answer:  E

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

87) The molecule DNA contains the five-carbon sugar

  1. A) lactose.
  2. B) ribose.
  3. C) deoxyribose.
  4. D) glucose.
  5. E) uracil.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

88) The molecule RNA contains the five-carbon sugar

  1. A) lactose.
  2. B) ribose.
  3. C) deoxyribose.
  4. D) glucose.
  5. E) uracil.

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

89) The purines found in DNA are ________ and ________.

  1. A) adenine, guanine
  2. B) ribose, thymine
  3. C) deoxyribose, guanine
  4. D) guanine, cytosine
  5. E) uracil, adenine

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

90) The pyrimidines found in DNA are ________ and ________.

  1. A) adenine, guanine
  2. B) cytosine, thymine
  3. C) deoxyribose, guanine
  4. D) guanine, cytosine
  5. E) uracil, adenine

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

91) In a chemical reaction, ________ between atoms are broken as atoms are rearranged in new combinations to form different chemical substances.

  1. A) electron shells
  2. B) nuclei
  3. C) chemical bonds
  4. D) homeostatic interactions
  5. E) protons

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

92) The reaction rates of many chemical reactions that occur in the body are controlled by special protein molecules called

  1. A) neurotransmitters.
  2. B) purines.
  3. C) nucleic acids.
  4. D) enzymes.
  5. E) intermediates.

Answer:  D

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

93) List the following in order of increasing mass: atom, molecule, proton, neutron, electron.

  1. A) electron < proton < neutron < atom < molecule
  2. B) neutron < proton < electron < atom < molecule
  3. C) electron < proton < atom < neutron < molecule
  4. D) proton < neutron < electron < atom < molecule
  5. E) atom < electron < proton < neutron < molecule

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

94) How many milliequivalents are represented by a mole of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)?

Answer:  1000 milliequivalents. This is calculated by taking the equivalent value of the molecule, which equals the molarity of the molecule (1 in this case) times the number of charges the molecule carries (in this case, the minus symbol indicates a charge of negative one, i.e., -1), so 1 × 1 = 1 equivalent. 1 equivalent = 1000 milliequivalents.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

95) List and briefly describe the seven categories of soluble proteins.

Answer:  The seven categories: enzymes, membrane transporters, signal molecules, receptors, binding proteins, regulatory proteins, and immunoglobulins. See the “Protein Interactions” section of the chapter.

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

96) Which of the following elements combine to form nonpolar covalent bonds?

  1. A) carbon and hydrogen
  2. B) nitrogen and hydrogen
  3. C) sodium and chlorine
  4. D) hydrogen and oxygen
  5. E) carbon and chlorine

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

97) The designation Ca2+ means calcium has

  1. A) space for two more electrons.
  2. B) gained two more electrons.
  3. C) space for two more protons.
  4. D) gained two more protons.

Answer:  A

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

98) In a 5% NaCl solution,

  1. A) there are 5 grams of sodium chloride for every 100 mL of water.
  2. B) there are 5 grams of sodium chloride for every 100 mL of total solution.
  3. C) the solute is water.
  4. D) there are 5 grams of sodium chloride for every 100 mL of water and there are 5 grams of sodium chloride for every 100 mL of total solution.
  5. E) there are 5 grams of sodium chloride for every 100 mL of total solution and the solute is water.

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

99) A molecule of sucrose has a molecular weight of 342 Daltons. How many grams of sucrose would be required to make one liter of a 2.5 Molar solution of sucrose?

Answer:  805 grams (per liter). This is calculated by multiplying the amount of sucrose in one liter of a

1 molar solution (342 grams) times the molar concentration (2.5). 342 × 2.5 = 805 grams

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

100) A double covalent bond is formed when atoms

  1. A) share one pair of electrons (a total of two).
  2. B) share two pairs of electrons (a total of four).
  3. C) swap two pairs of electrons.
  4. D) transfer a pair of electrons from one atom to the other.
  5. E) transfer two pairs of electrons from one atom to the other.

Answer:  B

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

101) The term polar is used to describe molecules because

  1. A) polar covalent molecules are found in colder climates.
  2. B) polar covalent molecules were first discovered in polar bears.
  3. C) there are at least two distinct ends of the molecule regarding electron position and the resulting charge.
  4. D) there are at least two distinct ends of the molecule regarding hydrogen placement.
  5. E) such molecules are always linear in shape.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

102) What makes fats solid at room temperature? The more likely a fat is to be solid at room temperature the more it potentially can contribute to cardiovascular disease. With this in mind which fats will be the most dangerous?

Answer:  The more saturated or the higher the number of hydrogens a fat contains, the more likely it will be solid at room temperature. Therefore, saturated animal fats are the most associated with cardiovascular disease.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

103) Lipids are hydrophobic, and do not usually dissolve in water. Because blood is water-based, the lipid cholesterol is combined with ________ so that it can be transported by blood.

  1. A) hydrophilic molecules
  2. B) hydrophobic molecules
  3. C) nothing; cholesterol is not transported in blood
  4. D) cations
  5. E) anions

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

104) Only free H+ contributes to the hydrogen ion concentration.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

105) In the equation CO2 + H2O ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-, which of these is an acid?

  1. A) HCO3-
  2. B) H2CO3
  3. C) H2O
  4. D) CO2
  5. E) H+

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

106) Chemical reactions that occur in the human body proceed at a faster rate due to special catalytic molecules called

  1. A) enzymes.
  2. B) cytozymes.
  3. C) proteins.
  4. D) antibodies.
  5. E) antagonists.

Answer:  A

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

107) The fuel molecule cells use to run all their activities is

  1. A) sucrose.
  2. B) starch.
  3. C) protein.
  4. D) vitamins.
  5. E) glucose.

Answer:  E

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

108) A fatty acid that contains three double bonds in its carbon chain is said to be

  1. A) saturated.
  2. B) monounsaturated.
  3. C) polyunsaturated.
  4. D) hydrogenated.
  5. E) carboxylated.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

109) Most of the lipid found in the human body is in the form of

  1. A) steroids.
  2. B) phospholipids.
  3. C) triglycerides.
  4. D) prostaglandins.
  5. E) monoglycerides.

Answer:  C

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

110) Each of the following is a function of proteins EXCEPT one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) binding to ligands
  2. B) transport
  3. C) catalyst
  4. D) storage of genetic information
  5. E) carrying of messages

Answer:  D

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

111) If a polypeptide contains 10 peptide bonds, how many amino acids does it contain?

  1. A) 0
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 10
  4. D) 11
  5. E) 12

Answer:  D

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

112) Glycoprotein molecules

  1. A) act as buffers in body fluids.
  2. B) increase the solubility of lipids.
  3. C) allow atoms to pack closely together and occupy minimum space.
  4. D) aid in the formation of chemical bonds between carbon atoms.
  5. E) create a coat on the cell surface that assists in cell aggregation and adhesion.

Answer:  E

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

113) Compare and contrast the role of up-regulation and down-regulation of proteins.

Answer:  These terms refer to the net change in the amount of a functional protein present in a cell in response to a signal. Up-regulation is an increase in the amount of the protein, whereas down-regulation is a decrease.

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

114) What is the induced-fit model? List the types of bonds involved and classify them as strong or weak.

Answer:  The interaction between a protein binding site and a ligand that are in close proximity results in a conformational change of the protein to fit more closely to the ligand. The bonds involved are hydrogen (weak), ionic (strong), and van der Waals (weak).

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

115) The ________ of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, expressed in moles per liter of solution.

Answer:  pH

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

116) When a nitrogenous base is bonded to a pentose sugar and a phosphate, a ________ is formed.

Answer:  nucleotide

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

117) Solutions are formed with water and ________ solutes which dissolve in them.

Answer:  hydrophilic

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

118) The ________ molecules which form the bilayer region of the cell membrane exhibit hydrophilic properties on the outer surface and hydrophobic properties on the inner surface.

Answer:  phospholipid

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

119) Compare and contrast the chemical bonds between adjacent monomers in DNA, and between two strands of DNA.

Answer:  The bonds holding monomers together are covalent bonds, between sugar and phosphate molecules. The bonds holding neighboring strands together at the complementary bases are hydrogen bonds.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

120) Compare and contrast the general chemical structures of monosaccharides and amino acids.

Answer:  Monosaccharides consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in the ratio C:H:O of 1:2:1. Amino acids consist of a central carbon (CH), a carboxylic acid (COOH), an amine (NH2), and an organic side chain of variable structure (mainly a hydrocarbon chain, designated as R).

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

121) What are functional groups? List the most common functional groups found in biological molecules.

Answer:  Several combinations of atoms that occur repeatedly in biological molecules. See Table 2.1 in the main text.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

122) True or False? Lipids are considered hydrophobic because they easily dissolve in water. If true what allows them to dissolve in water or if not, what is it about their molecular structure that makes them less likely to dissolve in water?

Answer:  False. Lipids are considered hydrophobic because they have an even distribution of electrons and no positive or negative poles. Thus, nonpolar molecules have no regions of partial charge, and therefore tend to repel water molecules.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

123) Explain the polar character of an ammonia molecule (NH3). What is the cause of the partial charges? What is the overall charge for NH3?

Answer:  When chemically bonded with each other, the nitrogen atom is partially negative whereas the hydrogen atoms are partially positive. The nitrogen atom in a molecule of ammonia has a stronger attraction for the electrons participating in the covalent bonds than the hydrogen atoms. The net charge on the molecule is still zero, however.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

124) Water striders are insects that literally walk on water. These insects are frequently found living on ponds. If hydrogen bonds did not exist, how would this affect the life of water striders?

Answer:  Hydrogen bonds are responsible for the surface tension of water, the attractive force between water molecules that can make it difficult to separate them. The surface tension is strong enough to support the weight of water striders, thus allowing them to walk on water. If water molecules could not form hydrogen bonds, the water striders would not be able to walk on water because there would be no surface tension to support their weight. Therefore, these insects would have to adapt to terrestrial conditions near ponds or lakes rather than living on them.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

125) If the dissociation constant of a protein is less than one (Kd < 1), what can you conclude about the affinity of the protein for the ligand?

Answer:  Since Kd < 1, you know that [P][L] < [PL]. Therefore, at equilibrium, there is a higher concentration of protein-ligand complex suggesting that the protein has a relatively high binding affinity for the ligand.

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

126) Noncovalent molecular interactions occur between many different biomolecules and often involve proteins. Give an example of such an interaction and what the function might be.

Answer:  Examples of such interactions would be the interactions between carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. These interactions form molecules like glycolipids and glycoproteins. These molecules are usually used as signaling molecules on the surfaces of cells.

Section:  Protein Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

127) Sally does not understand the differences between ions, isotopes, and free radicals. Assuming she has learned and understood some basic chemistry, what is the likely source of her confusion? Review the definitions of these terms, then make a table or flow chart to help her sort this out.

Answer:  Her confusion may arise from the fact that all of these terms describe a structure that has either gained or lost something. An ion is an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons and thus bears an electrical charge. Ions form when salts dissolve in water and are required for normal cell function. An ion’s charge affects both its behavior in solution and its chemical reactivity. An isotope is an atom that has gained or lost one or more neutrons; as neutrons lack a charge, isotopes remain neutral. Some isotopes emit radiation, a type of energy, rendering them both useful and dangerous; compared to ions, they are rare in nature. A free radical is an atom or molecule that has at least one unpaired electron (an electron is more stable if paired with another electron). Free radicals can be either electrically charged (e.g., superoxide) or neutral (e.g., hydroxy), depending upon the total number of protons and electrons present. Because free radicals are unstable, they are highly reactive and disruptive to cell function; compared to ions, they are rare in the body. Neither isotopes nor free radicals are known to be required for normal cell function.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

128) Ahmed is trying to memorize chemical structures of every compound his professor has indicated are important to the human body. Explain to him that an easier way is to memorize a few rules of chemical bonding and then figure out the structure of the important compounds, especially the simpler compounds.

Answer:  Elements combine to form molecules in predictable ways because of how the outer shell electrons combine between atoms. In most cases, the outer shell will be most stable with a total of eight electrons. This information is easily discernible from the periodic table. Therefore an atom with seven outer shell electrons, such as K, combines very readily with an atom with one outer shell electron, such as Cl; an atom with six outer shell electrons, such as Ca will combine with an atom with two outer shell electrons or with two atoms with one outer shell electron each, and so on. Examples: KCl, CaCl2, CH4.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

129) Your roommate is not a science major but is interested in science and asks you to verify a rumor he has heard: it is theoretically possible for two people to walk through each other without causing harm. Confirm or refute what he has heard, and explain.

Answer:  People are composed of molecules, which are in turn composed of atoms. Each atom is mostly empty space, because the protons, neutrons, and electrons are extremely tiny, and the electrons are relatively distant from each other and from the nucleus. A scientist acknowledges that there is often a finite probability, however small, that a very unlikely event could happen. If all of each person’s subatomic particles were aligned just right, they could move through the other person’s empty atomic space. This is so unlikely as to be practically impossible, however.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

130) Define polar covalent, nonpolar covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonding. Which of these bonds involves more than one molecule? Which of these bonds is/are important in determining the properties of water? Explain.

Answer:  Polar covalent bonds occur within a single molecule that shares electrons unequally; i.e., the constantly orbiting electrons spend more time at some locations and less at others. Nonpolar covalent bonds occur within a single molecule that shares electrons equally; i.e., the probability of an electron occupying a particular location is the same at all locations. Ionic bonds occur within a single molecule in which one atom completely loses an electron to another, causing each to develop an opposite charge; it is this electrical attraction that holds the molecule together. Hydrogen bonding occurs between separate molecules that contain polar covalent bonds; where electrons spend more time the molecule is partially negative, and where electrons spend less time the molecule is partially positive. The ends of different molecules are thus electrically attracted to each other. Water is a polar covalent molecule, with the oxygen end being partially negative and attracted to the partially positive hydrogen portions of other water molecules. Hydrogen-bonding between water molecules is responsible for surface tension and the crystalline structure of ice.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

131) Ionic bonds are considered to be strong chemical bonds. Yet, ions dissociate in water. Explain this apparent contradiction.

Answer:  Molecules such as sodium chloride are bonded by ionic bonds. So much energy would be required to separate a molecule of NaCl into Na+ and Cl- that it is practically impossible. That is, if the sodium chloride is dry. Because water molecules have partial charges resulting from their polar covalent bonds, sodium chloride dissociates in water. This means that the ions separate and function relatively independently. An attraction between sodium and chloride still exists, however, and the dissociation can be described as an increase in bond length rather than a loss of the bond. Evaporate the water, though, and the sodium chloride crystals reform.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

132) Your swimming buddy, Mario, jumped into a pool parallel to the water surface. When he stood up, he yelled “ouch,” and you noticed that the skin on his chest and belly looked red and irritated. How would you describe the properties of water to explain to Mario why this happened? Why doesn’t it hurt when pool water is penetrated perpendicular to the surface, as with a hands-first or feet-first dive?

Answer:  Because Mario was parallel to the water surface, the force of his mass was spread out over a relatively large area of the water, making the force per unit water lower than in a typical dive. The surface tension of water, while not strong enough to keep Mario from penetrating the water surface, was strong enough to momentarily resist him. The force of the water pushing back on Mario, however briefly, was enough to cause pain. In a typical dive position, the force of Mario’s entire mass is spread only over a tiny area of the water, and thus the force per unit water surface is greater. This higher force is sufficient to immediately break the hydrogen bonds and overcome the surface tension.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

133) You are helping your dad prepare food in the kitchen. Dad has a tablespoon of water in one hand and a tablespoon of vegetable oil in the other, when he trips over the rug and spills both spoons on the countertop. Dad notices that the oil forms a thin film on the countertop, whereas spilled water forms smaller, taller beads. How should you explain the different behavior of these liquids to your dad?

Answer:  Water forms beads when it strikes a nonabsorptive surface because of surface tension resulting from the hydrogen bonds between neighboring water molecules. Vegetable oil molecules are nonpolar covalent, therefore there is no hydrogen bonding between the lipid molecules and no bead formation.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

134) Stanley is confused on the similarities and differences between proteins and nucleic acids. Assuming he has learned and understood the basic chemistry, what is the likely source of his confusion? To help him sort this out, make a table or flow chart to explain the structure of these molecules and their relationship to each other.

Answer:  His confusion probably stems from the fact that both proteins and nucleic acids are classified as macromolecules, and both are assembled by covalently bonding certain monomers in a particular order. Also, nucleic acids contain the information necessary for manufacturing proteins, the term acid is used in describing the structure of both nucleic acids and proteins, and both nucleic acids and proteins must contain nitrogen. The monomer of protein is the amino acid, which has a central carbon, a variable chain denoted as R, and a nitrogen-containing amino group. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The monomer of the nucleic acid is the nucleotide, which has a sugar attached to a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate. There are five different bases and two different sugars. The sequence of bases in a DNA or RNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

135) Proteins are described as having different levels of structure. List and distinguish between the level(s) that produce a linear shape vs. a globular shape, and explain why one of those levels can result in either a linear or globular shape.

Answer:  Linear shapes: primary, secondary, quaternary. Primary structure is simply the sequence of covalently bonded amino acids in a peptide chain. Secondary structure is further bonding between nearby amino acids in a peptide chain, with the molecule still retaining a strand-like shape. Quaternary structure can involve separate linear polypeptide chains held together in a strand. Globular shapes: tertiary and quaternary. Tertiary structure involves bonding between distant amino acids, which causes the molecule to be wadded. Quaternary structure occurs when more than one globular peptide chain bonds together.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

136) While every level of a protein’s structure is important to the function of that protein, which level of structure is most important to the function of enzymes, and why?

Answer:  Enzymes and other globular proteins depend upon the three-dimensional shape resulting from the globular folding. Under conditions in which this shape is altered by denaturing agents such as heat, the protein ceases to function, though the primary and secondary structure may be unchanged.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

137) You are a student intern in the research and development department of a pharmaceutical company. You have discovered a compound that destroys the common cold virus in cultured human cells. Chemical characterization reveals that carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are present, in a 20:40:4 ratio of C:H:O. Which chemical class is this compound? Experiments in rats show that neither oral nor injectable treatment with the compound was effective in destroying the virus. Discuss some possible reasons for this lack of effectiveness.

Answer:  The relatively low amount of oxygen and high carbon and hydrogen indicate that this compound is probably a lipid. Oral administration may result in digestion of the compound so that none is absorbed into the blood. Lipids are not highly soluble in water, and because blood is a watery medium, the injected lipid may not transport well in the blood. Also, human cells as well as the viruses may behave differently in culture compared to in a real patient.

Section:  Molecules and Bonds, Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.1, 2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

138) Describe what happens to NaCl when placed in water.

Answer:  Water molecules break the ionic bonds holding Na+ and Cl- together. Each sodium ion becomes surrounded by polar water molecules, with the electronegative ends of water molecules interacting with the ion. Each chloride ion also becomes surrounded by polar water molecules, but in this case it is the electropositive ends of the water molecules that bind to the ion. A consequence is that sodium and chloride ions can function relatively independently of each other when in solution.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

139) How many grams of glucose, molecular mass = 180 Daltons, is necessary to make 1 liter of a 1.0 molar solution?

  1. A) 180
  2. B) 360
  3. C) 90
  4. D) 6.02 × 1023
  5. E) 1.0

Answer:  A

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

140) A 5 M solution of 100 mL of glucose contains how many grams of glucose, molecular mass = 180 Daltons?

  1. A) 180
  2. B) 360
  3. C) 90
  4. D) 6.02 × 1023
  5. E) 1.0

Answer:  C

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

141) If 100 mL of water contains 5 grams of NaCl, molecular mass = 58.5 Daltons, what is the molarity of the solution in moles/L?

  1. A) 0.05
  2. B) 0.85
  3. C) 2.92
  4. D) 0.085
  5. E) 0.25

Answer:  B

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

142) How many grams of NaCl, molecular mass = 58.5 Daltons, are the molar equivalent to 90 g of glucose (molecular mass = 180 daltons)?

  1. A) 0.25
  2. B) 0.5
  3. C) 29.25
  4. D) 117
  5. E) 14.6

Answer:  C

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

143) How many grams of NaCl, molecular mass = 58.5 Daltons, are necessary to make 1 liter of 5% saline?

  1. A) 58.5
  2. B) 1
  3. C) 50
  4. D) 6.02 × 1023
  5. E) 2.9

Answer:  C

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

144) A typical blood concentration of glucose is 100 mg/dL. The molecular weight of glucose is approximately 180 Daltons. What is the molarity of this solution in millimoles?

  1. A) 100
  2. B) 10
  3. C) 0.56
  4. D) 18
  5. E) 5.6

Answer:  E

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

145) If in an acid-base reaction H2SO42- donates two H+, one mole of H2SO42- would equal how many equivalents?

  1. A) 0.75
  2. B) 1
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 0.5
  5. E) 2

Answer:  E

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

146) What is the difference between atomic mass and molecular mass.

Answer:  The atomic mass is the actual mass of an atom, expressed in atomic mass units (amu) or Daltons (Da), where 1 amu = 1.6 × 10-27 kg. However, molecular mass is the sum of the atomic mass of each element × the number of atoms of each atom that make up the molecule.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

147) A.  Distinguish between the mass of a molecule and the mass of a mole, using NaCl in your example.

  1. Calculate the mass of a mole of NaCl in g, using the mass of one Da (amu).
  2. Calculate the mass of a dozen NaCl molecules, a dozen donuts, and a mole of donuts, assuming a 30 gram donut.

Answer:

  1. The mass of a molecule is determined by the mass of its component atoms. From the periodic table, the mass of Na is 23 amu and of Cl is nearly 36 amu, so the mass of one molecule of NaCl is 59 Da. A mole is like a dozen, i.e., it is a particular number of items, specifically 6.02 × 1023.
  2. A mole of NaCl = 59 Da × 6.02 × 1023= 3.55 × 1025Da.

1 Da = 1.66 × 10-27 kg, so 3.55 × 1025 Da × 1.66 × 10-27 kg/Da × 1000 g/kg = 59 g.

  1. A dozen NaCl molecules: 12 × 59 Da × 1.66 × 10-27kg/Da × 1000 g/kg = 1.2 × 10-21g.

A dozen donuts: 12 × 30 g = 360 g. A mole of donuts: 6.02 × 1023 × 30 g = 1.8 × 1025 g.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

148) Write the chemical formula for the molecule drawn below. Which class of organic molecule does it belong to? Is it most likely polar or nonpolar?

 

 

Answer:  C11H12N2O2. The presence of the carboxylic acid (COOH) and amine (NH2) indicates this is an amino acid. Because of the R group structure, it is relatively nonpolar (this amino acid is tryptophan).

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

149) What is the pH of a 0.005 M HCl solution? Assume complete dissociation.

Answer:  pH = 2.3. If pH = – log [H+] and HCl is a strong acid, we can assume complete dissociation will occur in solution.

Section:  Noncovalent Interactions

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 7e, (Silverthorn)

Chapter 3   Compartmentation: Cells and Tissues

 

1) When cancer develops in one tissue and spreads to another via the blood or the lymph, the cancer is said to have undergone what process?

  1. A) differentiation
  2. B) metastasis
  3. C) cytokinesis
  4. D) mutation

Answer:  B

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

2) The space that is surrounded by the tissue wall of hollow organs is known as the

  1. A) peritoneal cavity.
  2. B) lumen.
  3. C) extracellular space.
  4. D) epidural space.
  5. E) tract.

Answer:  B

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

3) The lumen of a hollow organ such as the stomach is considered to be part of the ________ environment.

  1. A) internal
  2. B) external

Answer:  B

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

4) The watery medium that surrounds a cell is known as

  1. A) cytosol.
  2. B) protoplasm.
  3. C) extracellular fluid.
  4. D) cytoplasm.
  5. E) plasma.

Answer:  C

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

5) Which of the following terms is NOT used to define the structure that separates the contents of a human cell from its surrounding medium?

  1. A) a cell wall
  2. B) a cell membrane
  3. C) plasma membrane
  4. D) plasmalemma
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

6) Which of the following is NOT a function of membrane proteins?

  1. A) respond to extracellular molecules
  2. B) creating junctions between cells
  3. C) act as transport molecules for various solutes
  4. D) anchor or stabilize the cell membrane
  5. E) produce energy

Answer:  E

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

7) Cell membranes are said to be

  1. A) impermeable barrier.
  2. B) freely permeable barrier.
  3. C) selectively permeable barrier.
  4. D) only permeable to water soluble molecules.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

8) What is/are the major role(s) of the phospholipid bilayer in the cellular membrane?

  1. A) the absorption of fats only
  2. B) the formation of a barrier that is selectively permeable to lipid-soluble molecules only
  3. C) to provide a framework for membrane proteins only
  4. D) to carry water-soluble molecules through a hydrophobic environment only
  5. E) the formation of a barrier that is a selective for lipid-soluble molecules and to provide a framework for membrane proteins

Answer:  E

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

9) Which of the following is NOT a membrane lipid?

  1. A) sphingolipids
  2. B) cholesterol
  3. C) phospholipids
  4. D) All are membrane lipids.

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

10) Which structure is a lipid bilayer that controls which objects can leave or enter the cell?

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) nucleus
  4. D) plasma membrane
  5. E) ribosome

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

11) A liposome is

  1. A) only an additive to creams and lotions.
  2. B) only a drug-delivery vehicle.
  3. C) only a type of lipid.
  4. D) only a structural component of cell membranes.
  5. E) an additive to creams and lotions and a drug-delivery vehicle.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

12) An immunoliposome is a liposome that

  1. A) suppresses the immune system.
  2. B) stimulates the immune system.
  3. C) can recognize cancer cells.
  4. D) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.4

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

13) Intermediate filaments

  1. A) provide the cell with strength.
  2. B) stabilize the position of organelles.
  3. C) transport materials within the cytoplasm.
  4. D) form the neurofilaments in nerve cells.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

14) Which proteins assist in the movement of vesicles along microtubules?

  1. A) kinesins
  2. B) mitochondria
  3. C) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  4. D) ribosomes
  5. E) Golgi complex

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.10

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

15) Which of the following is an example of a membranous organelle?

  1. A) lysosome
  2. B) cilia
  3. C) centriole
  4. D) ribosome
  5. E) cytoskeleton

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

16) The thickest protein fibers from the following group are

  1. A) microtubules.
  2. B) neurofilaments.
  3. C) microfilaments.
  4. D) myosin molecules.
  5. E) keratin filaments.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

17) Ribosomal RNA is formed by

  1. A) the endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. B) Golgi complexes.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) nucleoli.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

18) Each of the following statements concerning mitochondria is true except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) The mitochondrial cristae form the inner membrane forming separate compartments.
  2. B) The matrix of the mitochondria contains metabolic enzymes involved in energy production.
  3. C) The intermembrane space plays an important role in mitochondrial ATP production.
  4. D) The mitochondria contain no DNA or RNA.
  5. E) The mitochondria produce most of a cell’s ATP.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

19) In humans, only ________ cells have flagella.

  1. A) respiratory tract lining
  2. B) intestine lining
  3. C) stomach lining
  4. D) sperm
  5. E) uterine tube lining

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

20) Tay-Sachs is a disease caused by having ineffective

  1. A) mitochondria.
  2. B) Golgi bodies.
  3. C) lysosomes.
  4. D) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

21) Microvilli are found

  1. A) mostly in muscle cells.
  2. B) on the inside of cell membranes.
  3. C) in large numbers on cells that secrete hormones.
  4. D) in cells that are actively engaged in absorption.
  5. E) only on cells lining the reproductive tract.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

22) Microtubules

  1. A) are composed of tubulin.
  2. B) are hollow, filamentous structures.
  3. C) form cilia that aid in cell movement.
  4. D) are the largest cytoplasmic fibers.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

23) Centrioles

  1. A) function as pipelines to move fluid through the cell.
  2. B) direct the movement of DNA during cell division.
  3. C) hold the cell’s ribosomes in place.
  4. D) are white blood cells out of vessels.
  5. E) provide shape and stability to a cell.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

24) Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the

  1. A) ribosomes.
  2. B) endoplasmic reticulum.
  3. C) nucleus.
  4. D) mitochondria.
  5. E) Golgi apparatus.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

25) Which does NOT accurately complete the sentence? One of the major functions of BOTH types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the

  1. A) synthesis of biomolecules.
  2. B) storage of genetic material for the cell.
  3. C) transport of biomolecules.
  4. D) storage of biomolecules.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

26) All of the following are synthesized along various sites of the endoplasmic reticulum except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) proteins
  2. B) fatty acids
  3. C) steroids
  4. D) RNA
  5. E) phospholipids

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

27) Which of the following is NOT a molecule synthesized in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)?

  1. A) fatty acids
  2. B) steroids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) lipids
  5. E) All are synthesized in the SER.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

28) Which of the following consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes?

  1. A) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) mitochondria
  4. D) nucleoli
  5. E) Golgi apparatus

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

29) All of the structures listed below are involved in storage, EXCEPT

  1. A) lysosomes.
  2. B) peroxisomes.
  3. C) mitochondrial cristae.
  4. D) storage vesicles.
  5. E) All are involved in cellular storage.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

30) The proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are then sent to the

  1. A) smooth endoplasmic reticulum for storage.
  2. B) Golgi complex for packaging.
  3. C) lysosome for modification.
  4. D) cell membrane for secretion.
  5. E) nucleus for cellular use.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

31) If a cell lacked lysosomes, it would not be able to

  1. A) synthesize lipids.
  2. B) produce enzymes.
  3. C) digest cellular wastes and bacteria.
  4. D) destroy H2O2.
  5. E) transport water-soluble molecules.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

32) Which substance is responsible for activating the digestive enzymes inside lysosomes?

  1. A) air
  2. B) water
  3. C) acid
  4. D) enzymes
  5. E) base

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

33) Peroxisomes

  1. A) use an enzyme to destroy H2O2that is toxic to the cell.
  2. B) are a type of lysosome.
  3. C) are responsible for the atrophy of unused muscles.
  4. D) are sites for synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, and phospholipids.
  5. E) All of the answers accurately describe peroxisomes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

34) The number of mitochondria in skeletal muscle cells is ________ adipose (fat) cells.

  1. A) greater than
  2. B) less than
  3. C) equal to

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

35) The control center for cellular operations is the

  1. A) nucleus.
  2. B) mitochondria.
  3. C) Golgi complex.
  4. D) endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. E) ribosomes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

36) The beta cells of the pancreas produce insulin, a protein-based hormone. Which of the following organelles would be found in higher levels in the beta cells?

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) ribosomes
  3. C) microvilli
  4. D) lysosomes

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

37) If the adrenal cortex produces lipid-based hormones such as aldosterone, which organelle would be higher in cells of the adrenal cortex than in the adrenal medulla?

  1. A) Golgi apparatus
  2. B) mitochondria
  3. C) ribosome
  4. D) rough endoplasmic reticulum
  5. E) smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

38) The nucleus stores all the information needed to synthesize which of the following molecules?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) phospholipids
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

39) The term secretion refers to

  1. A) the process by which a cell releases a substance into the extracellular space.
  2. B) synthesis of a protein for export from the cell.
  3. C) the manufacture and assembly of a material.
  4. D) storage of a material, until it is time for it to leave the cell.
  5. E) None of the answers describe secretion.

Answer:  A

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

40) Which cellular organelle is considered the powerhouse of the cell because it produces most of the ATP?

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) mitochondria
  4. D) nucleus
  5. E) ribosome

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

41) Arrange the following events in protein secretion in the proper sequence.

  1. The polypeptide chain enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. A secretory vesicle is formed.
  3. A transport vesicle is formed.
  4. The polypeptide chain enters the lumen of the Golgi complex.
  5. A) 1, 2, 3, 4
  6. B) 1, 3, 2, 4
  7. C) 1, 3, 4, 2
  8. D) 4, 3, 1, 2
  9. E) 3, 1, 4, 2

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.12

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

42) Movement of material between cells is known as the ________ pathway.

  1. A) transcellular
  2. B) paracellular
  3. C) metacellular
  4. D) transendothelial
  5. E) cisendothelial

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

43) All but one of the structures listed below are a type of cell junction. Identify the exception.

  1. A) desmosomes
  2. B) tight junctions
  3. C) gap junctions
  4. D) loose junctions
  5. E) adherens junctions

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

44) The esophagus is a tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. It does not secrete any enzymes or absorb any nutrients, but it does need to stand up to significant friction and stress. The type of epithelium most likely lining the esophagus would be

  1. A) cuboidal epithelium.
  2. B) simple squamous epithelium.
  3. C) simple columnar epithelium.
  4. D) stratified squamous epithelium.
  5. E) transitional epithelium.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

45) The type of protein found in gap junctions is the

  1. A) claudin.
  2. B) occludin.
  3. C) cadherin.
  4. D) connexin.
  5. E) integrin.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

46) Disappearance of which type of junction most likely contributes to the metastasis of cancer cells throughout the body?

  1. A) gap
  2. B) tight
  3. C) anchoring

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

47) The types of junction proteins important in nerve growth and development are

  1. A) claudins.
  2. B) occludins.
  3. C) CAMs.
  4. D) connexins.
  5. E) integrins.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

48) Each of the following is a primary tissue type except one. Identify the exception.

  1. A) muscle tissue
  2. B) neural tissue
  3. C) osseous tissue
  4. D) connective tissue
  5. E) epithelial tissue

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

49) Functions of epithelia include all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) providing physical protection.
  2. B) controlling permeability.
  3. C) producing specialized secretions.
  4. D) storing energy reserves.
  5. E) movement.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

50) Epithelial cells that are adapted for membrane transport of materials, such as ions and nutrients, usually have ________ on their apical surface.

  1. A) mitochondria
  2. B) cilia or flagella
  3. C) microvilli
  4. D) junctional complexes
  5. E) vesicles

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

51) Epithelia are connected to underlying connective tissues by

  1. A) a basement membrane only.
  2. B) protein filaments embedded in glycoprotein only.
  3. C) a basal lamina only.
  4. D) an apical membrane and protein filaments embedded in proteoglycans only.
  5. E) a basement membrane, protein filaments embedded in proteoglycans, and a basal lamina.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

52) Glands that secrete hormones into the blood via tissue fluids are

  1. A) endocrine glands.
  2. B) mixed glands.
  3. C) exocrine glands.
  4. D) unicellular glands.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

53) Exocrine glands

  1. A) may make either mucous or serous secretions.
  2. B) release their secretions into the external environment.
  3. C) release their secretions through open tubes, called ducts.
  4. D) may work as single cells or as a multicellular organ.
  5. E) All of the statements are true.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

54) Every substance that enters or leaves the internal environment of the body must cross an epithelium.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

55) Due to the fact that they divide frequently, epithelia are prone to the genetic mutations associated with cancer.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

56) The function of microvilli, often seen on the apical membrane of transporting epithelia, is to

  1. A) increase the movement of extracellular fluid.
  2. B) increase the resistance of the cell to viruses.
  3. C) increase the cell’s surface area.
  4. D) increase the toughness of the cell.
  5. E) allow the cell to move through a fluid medium.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

57) The simple squamous epithelial lining of blood vessels is called

  1. A) basolateral epithelium.
  2. B) endothelium.
  3. C) luteal cells.
  4. D) the vasa recta.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

58) Which type of tissue below has minimal extracellular matrix?

  1. A) epithelial only
  2. B) connective only
  3. C) neural only
  4. D) muscle only
  5. E) epithelial, neural, and muscle

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

59) Functions of connective tissue include

  1. A) establishing a structural framework for the body.
  2. B) transporting fluids and dissolved materials.
  3. C) providing protection for delicate organs.
  4. D) storing energy reserves.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

60) Cells that store fat are called

  1. A) fibroblasts.
  2. B) liposomes.
  3. C) adipocytes.
  4. D) mast cells.
  5. E) melanocytes.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

61) Loose connective tissue functions in

  1. A) supporting small glands.
  2. B) supporting epithelia.
  3. C) anchoring blood vessels and nerves.
  4. D) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

62) Plasma is not

  1. A) a dilute solution of ions and dissolved organic molecules.
  2. B) the fluid portion of blood.
  3. C) a subdivision of the ECF.
  4. D) considered an extracellular matrix.
  5. E) a sticky solution containing glycoproteins and proteoglycans.

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

63) The term meaning “programmed cell death” is

  1. A) necrosis.
  2. B) apoptosis.
  3. C) oncogenesis.
  4. D) diuresis.
  5. E) cytocide.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.20

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

64) The term meaning “a mitotic population of cells that persists into adulthood” applies to

  1. A) stem cells.
  2. B) totipotent cells.
  3. C) apoptosis.
  4. D) nurse cells.
  5. E) gametocytes.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

65) Groups of tissues that carry out related functions may form structures known as

  1. A) cells.
  2. B) organs.
  3. C) organelles.
  4. D) organisms.
  5. E) Impossible to tell from the information given.

Answer:  B

Section:  Organs

Learning Outcome:  3.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

66) The heaviest organ in the body is the

  1. A) liver.
  2. B) brain.
  3. C) skin.
  4. D) stomach.
  5. E) urinary bladder.

Answer:  C

Section:  Organs

Learning Outcome:  3.22

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

67) This organelle is the site of most ATP synthesis in the cell.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

68) These degrade long chain fatty acids and toxic foreign molecules.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

69) This is the digestive system of a cell, degrading and/or recycling bacterial or organic components.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

70) This modifies proteins and packages them into secretory vesicles for export from the cell.

  1. A) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. B) Golgi apparatus
  3. C) lysosomes
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) peroxisomes

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

71) The simplest cell-cell junction is called a(n)

  1. A) gap junction.
  2. B) tight junction.
  3. C) anchoring junction.
  4. D) desmosome.
  5. E) neuromuscular junction.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

72) This junction contributes to the blood-brain barrier.

  1. A) gap junction
  2. B) tight junction
  3. C) anchoring junction
  4. D) desmosome
  5. E) neuromuscular junction

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

73) These junctions can be cell-matrix junctions.

  1. A) gap junction
  2. B) tight junction
  3. C) anchoring junction
  4. D) connexin
  5. E) neuromuscular junction

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

74) The loss of these junctions are a characteristic of cancer.

  1. A) gap junction
  2. B) tight junction
  3. C) anchoring junction
  4. D) claudin constructed junction
  5. E) neuromuscular junction

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.14

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

75) This tissue is made up of adipocytes.

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) dense, irregular connective tissue
  4. D) fat
  5. E) dense, regular connective tissue

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

76) Fibroblasts that secrete collagen-rich matrix dominants this tissue.

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) loose connective tissue
  4. D) fat
  5. E) blood

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

77) Chondrocytes secrete a firm but flexible matrix to form what tissue?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) loose connective tissue
  4. D) fat
  5. E) blood

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

78) An osteocyte is the main cell type in which of the following?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) adipose
  3. C) loose connective tissue
  4. D) blood
  5. E) bone

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

79) Which of the following plays a role in temperature regulation in infants?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) brown fat
  3. C) collagen
  4. D) bone
  5. E) white fat

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

80) Nucleoli function in the production of

  1. A) peroxisomes.
  2. B) secretory vesicles.
  3. C) RNA for ribosomes.
  4. D) DNA that controls all cell functions.
  5. E) proteins.

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

81) Cell membranes are said to be ________ because they allow some substances to pass but not others.

  1. A) hydrophilic
  2. B) a physical barrier
  3. C) structural
  4. D) selectively permeable
  5. E) metabolically active

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

82) The nucleus is surrounded by a(n)

  1. A) plasmalemma.
  2. B) nuclear envelope.
  3. C) cell wall.
  4. D) protein coat.
  5. E) adhesion molecule.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

83) Communication between the nucleus and cytosol occurs through

  1. A) plasmalemma.
  2. B) desmosomes.
  3. C) sodium channels.
  4. D) nuclear pores.
  5. E) nucleoli.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.11

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

84) Cells are transformed into specialized units during

  1. A) differentiation.
  2. B) mitosis.
  3. C) apoptosis.
  4. D) transcription.
  5. E) programed cell death.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

85) The lining of the heart is called

  1. A) transporting epithelium.
  2. B) ciliated epithelium.
  3. C) protective epithelium.
  4. D) endothelium.
  5. E) secretory epithelium.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

86) ________ is the extracellular component of connective tissues.

  1. A) Cytoplasm
  2. B) Blood
  3. C) Mucous
  4. D) Cartilage
  5. E) Ground substance

Answer:  E

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

87) The combination of fibers and ground substance in supporting connective tissues is known as

  1. A) cytoplasm.
  2. B) extracellular matrix.
  3. C) blood.
  4. D) mucous.
  5. E) micelles.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

88) The fluid substance of blood is called

  1. A) interstitial fluid.
  2. B) cytoplasm.
  3. C) peroxide.
  4. D) endothelium.
  5. E) plasma.

Answer:  E

Section:  Functional Compartments of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.1

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

89) The study of tissue structure and function is called

  1. A) histology.
  2. B) plasticity.
  3. C) differentiation.
  4. D) physiology.
  5. E) remodeling.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

90) Structures composed of epithelial cells that produce secretions are called

  1. A) nuclear pores.
  2. B) cell junctions.
  3. C) glands.
  4. D) ducts.
  5. E) micelles.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

91) ________ is a tissue that is modified to transmit chemical and electrical signals from one cell to another.

  1. A) Endothelium
  2. B) Neural tissue
  3. C) Connective tissue
  4. D) Exocrine tissue
  5. E) Epithelia tissue

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.19

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

92) ________ secretions are released onto an epithelial surface.

  1. A) Nuclear
  2. B) Hormonal
  3. C) Microtubular
  4. D) Exocrine
  5. E) Endocrine

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

93) ________ secretions are released into interstitial space to diffuse into the blood.

  1. A) Endocrine
  2. B) Exocrine
  3. C) Mucous
  4. D) Serous
  5. E) Ribosomal

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

94) ________ proteins extend all the way across the cell membrane.

  1. A) Nuclear
  2. B) Transmembrane
  3. C) Cytoskeletal
  4. D) Peripheral
  5. E) Glycolipid

Answer:  B

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

95) ________ proteins attach loosely to other membrane proteins or polar regions of phospholipids.

  1. A) Nuclear
  2. B) Transmembrane
  3. C) Cytoskeletal
  4. D) Peripheral
  5. E) Glycolipid

Answer:  D

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

96) ________ is a protective layer made up of mostly membrane carbohydrates.

  1. A) Epidermis
  2. B) Glycocalyx
  3. C) Connective tissue
  4. D) Focal Adhesion
  5. E) Cadherin

Answer:  B

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

97) Explain the relationship between microtubules, cilia, flagella, centrioles, spindle fibers, and the centrosome.

Answer:  Microtubules are a cytoskeletal protein made of tubulin. Microtubules form a major component of the internal scaffolding of the cell. Microtubules can also be assembled into cilia and flagella, which are organelles that produce cell-generated movements, and into centrioles and spindle fibers. Centrioles produce the spindle fibers, which are responsible for changing the position of chromosomes during nuclear division. Centrioles are part of a larger structure known as the centrosome, which also includes a darkly staining material and acts as the cell’s microtubule organizing center.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

98) List the four major tissue types. Give an example and location of each.

Answer:  See Table 3.4 and the “Tissues of the Body” section in the chapter.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

99) Describe the structure of the cytoskeleton, and list its functions.

Answer:  The cytoskeleton consists of actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules and forms a scaffold throughout the cytoplasm. An interesting feature is that some of the proteins are relatively fixed in position, whereas others can be rapidly assembled or disassembled as necessary. The functions include providing mechanical strength and shape, stabilizing position of organelles, intracellular transport system, functional linkage to other cells and to extracellular space, and cell-generated movements.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

100) Define, compare, and contrast each term listed and explain how the terms are related to each other: rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, and Golgi Apparatus.

Answer:  All are structures involved in synthesis of biomolecules. All but ribosomes are membranous structures. Ribosomes may be free or attached to ER, making it rough. See Figure 3.4 in the chapter.

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

101) Sketch a cell membrane. Label at least three components and briefly explain what each one does.

Answer:  See Figure 3.2

Section:  Biological Membranes

Learning Outcome:  3.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

102) Describe the composition and function of the extracellular matrix.

Answer:  In any tissue, the extracellular matrix consists of two basic components: proteoglycans and insoluble proteins. The matrix plays an important role in processes ranging from growth and development to cell death. The matrix aids in cell communication with its environment by attaching to the cell membrane or cytoskeleton.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.13

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

103) Define, compare, and contrast each term listed, and explain how the terms are related to each other: tendons, ligaments, cartilage, bone.

Answer:  Each term is a type or subtype of connective tissue. Tendons attach skeletal muscle to bone, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone. Cartilage and bone together are structurally supportive tissues. See Figure 3.12 and 3.13 in the chapter.

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

104) If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to

  1. A) maintain its balance.
  2. B) synthesize proteins.
  3. C) produce DNA.
  4. D) metabolize sugars.
  5. E) undergo nuclear division.

Answer:  E

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.7

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

 

105) Which of the following cytoskeleton components are responsible for the movement of chromosomes during cell division?

  1. A) microfilaments
  2. B) intermediate filaments
  3. C) thick filaments
  4. D) microtubules
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.9

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

106) A flagellum moves a cell through a fluid medium. What moves the fluid medium across the surface of cells that are not free to move?

  1. A) centrioles
  2. B) thick filaments
  3. C) cilia
  4. D) ribosomes
  5. E) endoplasmic reticulum

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.8

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

107) Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding mitochondria?

  1. A) The outer mitochondrial membrane is responsible for its shape.
  2. B) The intermembrane space is used in the production of ATP.
  3. C) Mitochondria contain their own DNA and RNA.
  4. D) Mitochondria can replicate themselves only when directed by the cell’s nuclear DNA.
  5. E) Mitochondria are responsible for providing energy to the cell.

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

108) Plasma is to blood as ________ is to cytoplasm.

  1. A) inclusion
  2. B) organelle
  3. C) protein
  4. D) cytosol
  5. E) serum

Answer:  D

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

 

109) Examination of a sample of glandular cells reveals an extensive network of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Which of the following would be a likely product of these cells?

  1. A) digestive enzymes
  2. B) steroid hormones
  3. C) protein (peptide) hormones
  4. D) transport proteins
  5. E) antibodies

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

110) In a pancreatic cell producing digestive enzyme, you would expect to find an elaborate

  1. A) rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  2. B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

111) Chondrocytes are to cartilage as osteocytes are to

  1. A) blood.
  2. B) epithelium.
  3. C) fat.
  4. D) bone.
  5. E) neural tissue.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

112) The tissue(s) that is/are considered excitable because of the ability to generate electrical signals is/are called ________ tissue.

  1. A) muscle
  2. B) neural
  3. C) epithelial
  4. D) muscle tissue and neural
  5. E) muscle tissue, neural tissue, and epithelial

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

 

113) You are looking at a slide of an unknown organ that has an empty lumen with stratified squamous epithelium contacting the lumen. Deep to the epithelium is a basement membrane and then two layers of smooth muscle. Which of the following organs would this most likely belong to and why?

  1. A) The intestines because they need to move food along and absorb digested products.
  2. B) The liver because it secretes enzymes and bile and needs to move them to the gallbladder.
  3. C) The esophagus because it is a passageway that needs to move but not absorb food products.
  4. D) The urinary bladder because it needs to stretch and constrict to store and eliminate urine.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

114) A layer of glycoproteins and a network of fine protein filaments that prevents the movement of proteins and other large molecules from the connective tissue to epithelium describes

  1. A) interfacial canals.
  2. B) the basal lamina.
  3. C) the reticular lamina.
  4. D) areolar tissue.
  5. E) endothelium.

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.16

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application

 

115) The distinguishing characteristic of connective tissue is

  1. A) that it is arranged in sheets of tissue that lie on body surfaces.
  2. B) that it is always dividing, constantly being replaced throughout the body.
  3. C) the presence of extensive extracellular matrix containing widely scattered cells.
  4. D) the collagen fibers that offer support.
  5. E) All of these characteristics help make connective tissue unique.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

116) Which type of connective tissue does NOT fit with the typical characteristic of a dense ground substance?

  1. A) cartilage
  2. B) bone
  3. C) blood
  4. D) adipose
  5. E) tendons

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

117) Close examination of an organ reveals a lining of several layers of cells. The layers do not contain any blood vessels, and one surface of the cells faces the internal cavity of the organ. This tissue is probably

  1. A) epithelium.
  2. B) muscle tissue.
  3. C) connective tissue.
  4. D) neural tissue.
  5. E) fat tissue.

Answer:  A

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.15

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

 

118) Increasing muscle mass and decreasing fat content in your body can increase ones use of energy. Why is this?

  1. A) Fat is a connective tissue and not an excitable one.
  2. B) Muscle cells have more mitochondria than fat cells.
  3. C) Adipocytes contain more cytoplasmic inclusions.
  4. D) Fat cells have no blood supply.

Answer:  B

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

119) Microscopic examination of a tissue reveals an open framework of fibers with a large volume of fluid ground substance and elastic fibers. This tissue would most likely have come from the

  1. A) inner wall of a blood vessel.
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) larynx.
  4. D) tissue that separates skin from underlying muscle.
  5. E) bony socket of the eye.

Answer:  D

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.17

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Analysis

120) Mature nerve and muscle cells are expected to lack which organelle(s)?

  1. A) nucleus
  2. B) endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) centrioles
  4. D) ribosomes
  5. E) Golgi bodies

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissues of the Body

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

121) Neurons in the CNS of the adult don’t contain centrioles. What does that tell you about CNS neurons?

  1. A) They don’t produce any products.
  2. B) It doesn’t tell you much of anything.
  3. C) They don’t replicate themselves.
  4. D) They don’t carry nerve impulses.

Answer:  C

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

122) Only totipotent stem cells are capable of producing new cells in an adult.

  1. A) True
  2. B) False

Answer:  B

Section:  Tissue Remodeling

Learning Outcome:  3.21

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Comprehension

 

 

123) A lysosome is considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) transmembrane protein
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) cytoskeletal protein
  5. E) glycolipid

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

 

124) Mitochondria are considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) transmembrane protein
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) cytoskeletal protein
  5. E) glycolipid

Answer:  A

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.6

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge

125) A ribosome is considered which of the following?

  1. A) membranous organelle
  2. B) transmembrane protein
  3. C) inclusion
  4. D) cytoskeletal protein
  5. E) glycolipid

Answer:  C

Section:  Intracellular Compartments

Learning Outcome:  3.5

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge