Ninth Edition



Steven S. Zumdahl



Chapter 1 Chemical Foundations


  1. The difference between a law and a theory is the difference

between what and why. Explain.

  1. The scientific method is a dynamic process. What does this


  1. Explain the fundamental steps of the scientific method.
  2. What is the difference between random error and systematic


  1. A measurement is a quantitative observation involving both a

number and a unit. What is a qualitative observation? What are

the SI units for mass, length, and volume? What is the assumed

uncertainty in a number (unless stated otherwise)? The

uncertainty of a measurement depends on the precision of the

measuring device. Explain.

  1. To determine the volume of a cube, a student measured one of

the dimensions of the cube several times. If the true dimension

of the cube is 10.62 cm, give an example of four sets of measurements

that would illustrate the following.

  1. imprecise and inaccurate data
  2. precise but inaccurate data
  3. precise and accurate data

Give a possible explanation as to why data can be imprecise

or inaccurate. What is wrong with saying a set of measurements

is imprecise but accurate?

  1. What are significant figures? Show how to indicate the number

one thousand to 1 significant figure, 2 significant figures,

3 significant figures, and 4 significant figures. Why is the answer,

to the correct number of significant figures, not 1.0 for

the following calculation?

1.5 2 1.0



  1. A cold front moves through and the temperature drops by

20 degrees. In which temperature scale would this 20 degree

change represent the largest change in temperature?

  1. When the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (TF) is plotted vs.

the temperature in degrees Celsius (TC), a straight-line plot

results. A straight-line plot also results when TC is plotted vs.

TK (the temperature in kelvins). Reference Appendix A1.3 and

determine the slope and y-intercept of each of these two plots.

  1. Give four examples illustrating each of the following terms.
  2. homogeneous mixture d. element
  3. heterogeneous mixture e. physical change
  4. compound f. chemical change


In this section similar exercises are paired.

Significant Figures and Unit Conversions

  1. Which of the following are exact numbers?
  2. There are 100 cm in 1 m.
  3. One meter equals 1.094 yards.
  4. We can use the equation

°F 5 95

°C 1 32

to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit temperature. Are the

numbers 95

and 32 exact or inexact?

  1. p 5 3.1415927.
  2. Indicate the number of significant figures in each of the


  1. This book contains more than 1000 pages.
  2. A mile is about 5300 ft.
  3. A liter is equivalent to 1.059 qt.
  4. The population of the United States is approaching

3.1 3 102 million.

  1. A kilogram is 1000 g.
  2. The Boeing 747 cruises at around 600 mi/h.
  3. How many significant figures are there in each of the following


  1. 6.07 3 10215 e. 463.8052
  2. 0.003840 f. 300
  3. 17.00 g. 301
  4. 8 3 108 h. 300.
  5. How many significant figures are in each of the following?
  6. 100 e. 0.0048
  7. 1.0 3 102 f. 0.00480
  8. 1.00 3 103 g. 4.80 3 1023
  9. 100. h. 4.800 3 1023
  10. Round off each of the following numbers to the indicated

number of significant digits, and write the answer in standard

scientific notation.

  1. 0.00034159 to three digits
  2. 103.351 3 102 to four digits
  3. 17.9915 to five digits
  4. 3.365 3 105 to three digits
  5. Use exponential notation to express the number 385,500 to
  6. one significant figure.
  7. two significant figures.
  8. three significant figures.
  9. five significant figures.
  10. You have liquid in each graduated cylinder shown:

You then add both samples to a beaker. How would you write

the number describing the total volume? What limits the precision

of this number?

  1. The beakers shown below have different precisions.










  1. Label the amount of water in each of the three beakers to

the correct number of significant figures.

  1. Is it possible for each of the three beakers to contain the

exact same amount of water? If no, why not? If yes, did

you report the volumes as the same in part a? Explain.

  1. Suppose you pour the water from these three beakers into

one container. What should be the volume in the container

reported to the correct number of significant figures?

  1. Evaluate each of the following, and write the answer to the

appropriate number of significant figures.

  1. 212.2 1 26.7 1 402.09
  2. 1.0028 1 0.221 1 0.10337
  3. 52.331 1 26.01 2 0.9981
  4. 2.01 3 102 1 3.014 3 103
  5. 7.255 2 6.8350
  6. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express

each result to the correct number of significant figures.


0.102 3 0.0821 3 273


  1. 0.14 3 6.022 3 1023
  2. 4.0 3 104 3 5.021 3 1023 3 7.34993 3 102


2.00 3 106

3.00 3 1027

  1. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express

the result to the correct number of significant figures.










  1. (6.404 3 2.91)y(18.7 2 17.1)
  2. 6.071 3 1025 2 8.2 3 1026 2 0.521 3 1024
  3. (3.8 3 10212 1 4.0 3 10213)y(4 3 1012 1 6.3 3 1013)


9.5 1 4.1 1 2.8 1 3.175


(Assume that this operation is taking the average of four

numbers. Thus 4 in the denominator is exact.)


8.925 2 8.905


3 100

(This type of calculation is done many times in calculating a

percentage error. Assume that this example is such a calculation;

thus 100 can be considered to be an exact number.)

  1. Perform the following mathematical operations, and express

the result to the correct number of significant figures.

  1. 6.022 3 1023 3 1.05 3 102


6.6262 3 10234 3 2.998 3 108

2.54 3 1029

Unless otherwise noted, all art on this page is © Cengage Learning 2014.

  1. 1.285 3 1022 1 1.24 3 1023 1 1.879 3 1021


11.00866 2 1.007282

6.02205 3 1023


9.875 3 102 2 9.795 3 102

9.875 3 102 3 100 1100 is exact2


9.42 3 102 1 8.234 3 102 1 1.625 3 103


13 is exact2

  1. Perform each of the following conversions.
  2. 8.43 cm to millimeters
  3. 2.41 3 102 cm to meters
  4. 294.5 nm to centimeters
  5. 1.445 3 104 m to kilometers
  6. 235.3 m to millimeters
  7. 903.3 nm to micrometers
  8. a. How many kilograms are in 1 teragram?
  9. How many nanometers are in 6.50 3 102 terameters?
  10. How many kilograms are in 25 femtograms?
  11. How many liters are in 8.0 cubic decimeters?
  12. How many microliters are in 1 milliliter?
  13. How many picograms are in 1 microgram?
  14. Perform the following unit conversions.
  15. Congratulations! You and your spouse are the proud

parents of a new baby, born while you are studying in a

country that uses the metric system. The nurse has

informed you that the baby weighs 3.91 kg and measures

51.4 cm. Convert your baby’s weight to pounds and

ounces and her length to inches (rounded to the nearest

quarter inch).

  1. The circumference of the earth is 25,000 mi at the

equator. What is the circumference in kilometers? in


  1. A rectangular solid measures 1.0 m by 5.6 cm by 2.1 dm.

Express its volume in cubic meters, liters, cubic inches,

and cubic feet.

  1. Perform the following unit conversions.
  2. 908 oz to kilograms
  3. 12.8 L to gallons
  4. 125 mL to quarts
  5. 2.89 gal to milliliters
  6. 4.48 lb to grams
  7. 550 mL to quarts
  8. Use the following exact conversion factors to perform the

stated calculations:


yd 5 1 rod

40 rods 5 1 furlong

8 furlongs 5 1 mile

  1. The Kentucky Derby race is 1.25 miles. How long is the

race in rods, furlongs, meters, and kilometers?

  1. A marathon race is 26 miles, 385 yards. What is this

distance in rods, furlongs, meters, and kilometers?

  1. Although the preferred SI unit of area is the square meter, land

is often measured in the metric system in hectares (ha). One

hectare is equal to 10,000 m2. In the English system, land is

often measured in acres (1 acre 5 160 rod2). Use the exact

conversions and those given in Exercise 43 to calculate the


  1. 1 ha 5 ________ km2
  2. The area of a 5.5-acre plot of land in hectares, square

meters, and square kilometers

  1. A lot with dimensions 120 ft by 75 ft is to be sold for

$6500. What is the price per acre? What is the price per


  1. Precious metals and gems are measured in troy weights in the

English system:

24 grains 5 1 pennyweight 1exact2

20 pennyweight 5 1 troy ounce 1exact2

12 troy ounces 5 1 troy pound 1exact2

1 grain 5 0.0648 g

1 carat 5 0.200 g

  1. The most common English unit of mass is the pound

avoirdupois. What is 1 troy pound in kilograms and in


  1. What is the mass of a troy ounce of gold in grams and in


  1. The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. What is the volume of a

troy pound of gold?

  1. Apothecaries (druggists) use the following set of measures in

the English system:

20 grains ap 5 1 scruple 1exact2

3 scruples 5 1 dram ap 1exact2

8 dram ap 5 1 oz ap 1exact2

1 dram ap 5 3.888 g

  1. Is an apothecary grain the same as a troy grain? (See

Exercise 45.)

  1. 1 oz ap 5 ________ oz troy.
  2. An aspirin tablet contains 5.00 3 102 mg of active

ingredient. What mass in grains ap of active ingredient

does it contain? What mass in scruples?

  1. What is the mass of 1 scruple in grams?
  2. For a pharmacist dispensing pills or capsules, it is often easier

to weigh the medication to be dispensed than to count the individual

pills. If a single antibiotic capsule weighs 0.65 g, and

a pharmacist weighs out 15.6 g of capsules, how many capsules

have been dispensed?

  1. A children’s pain relief elixir contains 80. mg acetaminophen

per 0.50 teaspoon. The dosage recommended for a child who

weighs between 24 and 35 lb is 1.5 teaspoons. What is the range

of acetaminophen

dosages, expressed in mg acetaminophen/kg

body weight, for children who weigh between 24 and 35 lb?

  1. Science fiction often uses nautical analogies to describe space

travel. If the starship U.S.S. Enterprise is traveling at warp


1.71, what is its speed in knots and in miles per hour?

(Warp 1.71 5 5.00 times the speed of light; speed of light 5

3.00 3 108 m/s; 1 knot 5 2030 yd/h.)

  1. The world record for the hundred meter dash is 9.58 s. What is

the corresponding average speed in units of m/s, km/h, ft/s,

and mi/h? At this speed, how long would it take to run 1.00 3

102 yards?

  1. Would a car traveling at a constant speed of 65 km/h violate a

40 mi/h speed limit?

  1. You pass a road sign saying “New York 112 km.” If you drive

at a constant speed of 65 mi/h, how long should it take you to

reach New York? If your car gets 28 miles to the gallon, how

many liters of gasoline are necessary to travel 112 km?

  1. You are in Paris, and you want to buy some peaches for lunch.

The sign in the fruit stand indicates that peaches cost 2.45 euros

per kilogram. Given that 1 euro is equivalent to approximately

$1.32, calculate what a pound of peaches will cost in


  1. In recent years, there has been a large push for an increase in

the use of renewable resources to produce the energy we need

to power our vehicles. One of the newer fuels that has become

more widely available is E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and

15% gasoline. Despite being more environmentally friendly,

one of the potential drawbacks of E85 fuel is that it produces

less energy than conventional gasoline. Assume a car gets

28.0 mi/gal using gasoline at $3.50/gal and 22.5 mi/gal using

E85 at $2.85/gal. How much will it cost to drive 500. miles

using each fuel?

  1. Mercury poisoning is a debilitating disease that is often fatal.

In the human body, mercury reacts with essential enzymes

leading to irreversible inactivity of these enzymes. If the

amount of mercury in a polluted lake is 0.4 mg Hg/mL, what

is the total mass in kilograms of mercury in the lake? (The lake

has a surface area of 100 mi2 and an average depth of 20 ft.)

  1. Carbon monoxide (CO) detectors sound an alarm when peak

levels of carbon monoxide reach 100 parts per million (ppm).

This level roughly corresponds to a composition of air that

contains 400,000 mg carbon monoxide per cubic meter of air

(400,000 mg/m3). Assuming the dimensions of a room are

18 ft 3 12 ft 3 8 ft, estimate the mass of carbon monoxide in

the room that would register 100 ppm on a carbon monoxide



  1. Convert the following Fahrenheit temperatures to the Celsius

and Kelvin scales.

  1. 24598F, an extremely low temperature
  2. 240.8F, the answer to a trivia question
  3. 688F, room temperature
  4. 7 3 107 8F, temperature required to initiate fusion

reactions in the sun

  1. A thermometer gives a reading of 96.18F 6 0.28F. What is the

temperature in 8C? What is the uncertainty?

  1. Convert the following Celsius temperatures to Kelvin and to

Fahrenheit degrees.

  1. the temperature of someone with a fever, 39.28C
  2. a cold wintery day, 2258C
  3. the lowest possible temperature, 22738C
  4. the melting-point temperature of sodium chloride, 8018C
  5. Convert the following Kelvin temperatures to Celsius and

Fahrenheit degrees.

  1. the temperature that registers the same value on both the

Fahrenheit and Celsius scales, 233 K

  1. the boiling point of helium, 4 K
  2. the temperature at which many chemical quantities are

determined, 298 K

  1. the melting point of tungsten, 3680 K
  2. At what temperature is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

equal to twice the temperature in degrees Celsius?

  1. The average daytime temperatures on the earth and Jupiter are

728F and 313 K, respectively. Calculate the difference in temperature,

in 8C, between these two planets.

  1. Use the figure below to answer the following questions.





  1. Derive the relationship between 8C and 8X.
  2. If the temperature outside is 22.08C, what is the temperature

in units of 8X?

  1. Convert 58.08X to units of 8C, K, and 8F.
  2. Ethylene glycol is the main component in automobile antifreeze.

To monitor the temperature of an auto cooling system,

you intend to use a meter that reads from 0 to 100. You devise

a new temperature scale based on the approximate melting and

boiling points of a typical antifreeze solution (2458C and

1158C). You wish these points to correspond to 08A and

1008A, respectively.

  1. Derive an expression for converting between 8A and 8C.
  2. Derive an expression for converting between 8F and 8A.
  3. At what temperature would your thermometer and a

Celsius thermometer give the same numerical reading?

  1. Your thermometer reads 868A. What is the temperature in

8C and in 8F?

  1. What is a temperature of 458C in 8A?


  1. A material will float on the surface of a liquid if the material

has a density less than that of the liquid. Given that the density

of water is approximately 1.0 g/mL, will a block of material

having a volume of 1.2 3 104 in3 and weighing 350 lb float or

sink when placed in a reservoir of water?

  1. For a material to float on the surface of water, the material must

have a density less than that of water (1.0 g/mL) and must not

react with the water or dissolve in it. A spherical ball has a radius

of 0.50 cm and weighs 2.0 g. Will this ball float or sink

when placed in water? (Note: Volume of a sphere 5 43


  1. A star is estimated to have a mass of 2 3 1036 kg. Assuming it

to be a sphere of average radius 7.0 3 105 km, calculate the

average density of the star in units of grams per cubic


  1. A rectangular block has dimensions 2.9 cm 3 3.5 cm 3

10.0 cm. The mass of the block is 615.0 g. What are the volume

and density of the block?

  1. Diamonds are measured in carats, and 1 carat 5 0.200 g. The

density of diamond is 3.51 g/cm3.

  1. What is the volume of a 5.0-carat diamond?
  2. What is the mass in carats of a diamond measuring 2.8 mL?
  3. Ethanol and benzene dissolve in each other. When 100. mL of

ethanol is dissolved in 1.00 L of benzene, what is the mass of

the mixture? (See Table 1.5.)

  1. A sample containing 33.42 g of metal pellets is poured into a

graduated cylinder initially containing 12.7 mL of water, causing

the water level in the cylinder to rise to 21.6 mL. Calculate

the density of the metal.

  1. The density of pure silver is 10.5 g/cm3 at 208C. If 5.25 g of

pure silver pellets is added to a graduated cylinder containing

11.2 mL of water, to what volume level will the water in the

cylinder rise?

  1. In each of the following pairs, which has the greater mass?

(See Table 1.5.)

  1. 1.0 kg of feathers or 1.0 kg of lead
  2. 1.0 mL of mercury or 1.0 mL of water
  3. 19.3 mL of water or 1.00 mL of gold
  4. 75 mL of copper or 1.0 L of benzene
  5. a. Calculate the mass of ethanol in 1.50 qt of ethanol. (See

Table 1.5.)

  1. Calculate the mass of mercury in 3.5 in3 of mercury. (See

Table 1.5.)

  1. In each of the following pairs, which has the greater volume?
  2. 1.0 kg of feathers or 1.0 kg of lead
  3. 100 g of gold or 100 g of water
  4. 1.0 L of copper or 1.0 L of mercury
  5. Using Table 1.5, calculate the volume of 25.0 g of each of the

following substances at 1 atm.

  1. hydrogen gas
  2. water
  3. iron

Chapter 5 discusses the properties of gases. One property

unique to gases is that they contain mostly empty space. Explain

using the results of your calculations.

  1. The density of osmium (the densest metal) is 22.57 g/cm3. If a

1.00-kg rectangular block of osmium has two dimensions of

4.00 cm 3 4.00 cm, calculate the third dimension of the block.

  1. A copper wire (density 5 8.96 g/cm3) has a diameter of

0.25 mm. If a sample of this copper wire has a mass of 22 g,

how long is the wire?

Classification and Separation of Matter

  1. Match each description below with the following microscopic

pictures. More than one picture may fit each description. A

picture may be used more than once or not used at all.

i ii iii

iv v vi

  1. a gaseous compound
  2. a mixture of two gaseous elements
  3. a solid element
  4. a mixture of a gaseous element and a gaseous compound
  5. Define the following terms: solid, liquid, gas, pure substance,

element, compound, homogeneous mixture, heterogeneous

mixture, solution, chemical change, physical change.

  1. What is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous

matter? Classify each of the following as homogeneous

or heterogeneous.

  1. a door d. the water you drink
  2. the air you breathe e. salsa
  3. a cup of coffee (black) f. your lab partner
  4. Classify the following mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous.
  5. potting soil d. window glass
  6. white wine e. granite
  7. your sock drawer
  8. Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure


  1. water f. uranium
  2. blood g. wine
  3. the oceans h. leather
  4. iron i. table salt
  5. brass

Of the pure substances, which are elements and which are


  1. Suppose a teaspoon of magnesium filings and a teaspoon of

powdered sulfur are placed together in a metal beaker. Would

this constitute a mixture or a pure substance? Suppose the

magnesium filings and sulfur are heated so that they react with

each other, forming magnesium sulfide. Would this still be a

“mixture”? Why or why not?

  1. If a piece of hard, white blackboard chalk is heated strongly in

a flame, the mass of the piece of chalk will decrease, and eventually

the chalk will crumble into a fine white dust. Does this

change suggest that the chalk is composed of an element or a


  1. During a very cold winter, the temperature may remain below

freezing for extended periods. However, fallen snow can still

disappear, even though it cannot melt. This is possible because

a solid can vaporize directly, without passing through the liquid

state. Is this process (sublimation) a physical or a chemical


  1. Classify the following as physical or chemical changes.
  2. Moth balls gradually vaporize in a closet.
  3. Hydrofluoric acid attacks glass and is used to etch

calibration marks on glass laboratory utensils.

  1. A French chef making a sauce with brandy is able to boil

off the alcohol from the brandy, leaving just the brandy


  1. Chemistry majors sometimes get holes in the cotton jeans

they wear to lab because of acid spills.

  1. The properties of a mixture are typically averages of the properties

of its components. The properties of a compound may

differ dramatically from the properties of the elements that

combine to produce the compound. For each process described

below, state whether the material being discussed is

most likely a mixture or a compound, and state whether the

process is a chemical change or a physical change.

  1. An orange liquid is distilled, resulting in the collection of

a yellow liquid and a red solid.

  1. A colorless, crystalline solid is decomposed, yielding a

pale yellow-green gas and a soft, shiny metal.

  1. A cup of tea becomes sweeter as sugar is added to it.

Additional Exercises

  1. Lipitor, a pharmaceutical drug that has been shown to lower

“bad” cholesterol levels while raising “good” cholesterol levels

in patients taking the drug, had over $11 billion in sales in

  1. Assuming one 2.5-g pill contains 4.0% of the active ingredient

by mass, what mass in kg of active ingredient is present

in one bottle of 100 pills?

  1. In Shakespeare’s Richard III, the First Murderer says:

“Take that, and that! [Stabs Clarence]

If that is not enough, I’ll drown you in a malmsey butt within!”

Given that 1 butt 5 126 gal, in how many liters of malmsey (a

foul brew similar to mead) was the unfortunate Clarence about

to be drowned?

  1. The contents of one 40. lb bag of topsoil will cover 10. square

feet of ground to a depth of 1.0 inch. What number of bags is

needed to cover a plot that measures 200. by 300. m to a depth

of 4.0 cm?

  1. In the opening scenes of the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark,


Jones tries to remove a gold idol from a booby-trapped

pedestal. He replaces the idol with a bag of sand of approximately

equal volume. (Density of gold 5 19.32 g/cm3; density

of sand < 2 g/cm3.)

  1. Did he have a reasonable chance of not activating the

mass-sensitive booby trap?

  1. In a later scene, he and an unscrupulous guide play catch

with the idol. Assume that the volume of the idol is about

1.0 L. If it were solid gold, what mass would the idol

have? Is playing catch with it plausible?

  1. A parsec is an astronomical unit of distance where 1 parsec 5

3.26 light years (1 light year equals the distance traveled by

light in one year). If the speed of light is 186,000 mi/s, calculate

the distance in meters of an object that travels 9.6 parsecs.

  1. You are driving 65 mi/h and take your eyes off the road for

“just a second.” What distance (in feet) do you travel in this


  1. This year, like many past years, you begin to feel very sleepy


eating a large helping of Thanksgiving turkey. Some

people attribute this sleepiness to the presence of the amino

acid tryptophan in turkey. Tryptophan can be used by the body

to produce serotonin, which can calm the brain’s activity and

help to bring on sleep.

  1. What mass in grams of tryptophan is in a 0.25-lb serving

of turkey? (Assume tryptophan accounts for 1.0% of the

turkey mass.)

  1. What mass in grams of tryptophan is in 0.25 quart of

milk? (Assume tryptophan accounts for 2.0% of milk by

mass and that the density of milk is 1.04 kg/L.)

  1. Which of the following are chemical changes? Which are

physical changes?

  1. the cutting of food
  2. interaction of food with saliva and digestive enzymes
  3. proteins being broken down into amino acids
  4. complex sugars being broken down into simple sugars
  5. making maple syrup by heating maple sap to remove

water through evaporation

  1. DNA unwinding
  2. A column of liquid is found to expand linearly on heating. Assume

the column rises 5.25 cm for a 10.08F rise in temperature.

If the initial temperature of the liquid is 98.68F, what will

the final temperature be in 8C if the liquid has expanded by

18.5 cm?

  1. A 25.00-g sample of a solid is placed in a graduated cylinder,

and then the cylinder is filled to the 50.0-mL mark with benzene.

The mass of benzene and solid together is 58.80 g. Assuming

that the solid is insoluble in benzene and that the density

of benzene is 0.880 g/cm3, calculate the density of the


  1. For each of the following, decide which block is more dense:

the orange block, the blue block, or it cannot be determined.

Explain your answers.

  1. According to the Official Rules of Baseball, a baseball must

have a circumference not more than 9.25 in or less than

9.00 in and a mass not more than 5.25 oz or less than 5.00 oz.

What range of densities can a baseball be expected to have?

Express this range as a single number with an accompanying

uncertainty limit.