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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Test Bank For Campbell Essential Biology with Physiology 4th Edition by Simon

 

 

 

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

 

 

 

Chapter 1: Psychology and Life

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1.1-1.  Psychology is best defined as the scientific study of

 

  1. the mind and consciousness.
  2. the mental processes of individuals.
  3. mental disorders and abnormal behavior.
  4. the behavior of individuals and their mental processes.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. the behavior of individuals and their mental processes.

% correct 95      a= 95  b= 2  c= 2  d= 0      r = .16

 

 

1.1-2.  Suppose you want to draw some psychological conclusions in a way that is consistent with the scientific aspect of psychology. You should base your conclusions on

 

  1. the beliefs held by most people.
  2. the fundamental notion of common sense.
  3. your personal feelings or intuitions, but only if they are reasonable.

Incorrect: Conclusions should be based on objectively gathered data that are consistent with the rules of the scientific method.

  1. evidence collected according to the principles of the scientific method.

Correct: The scientific method consists of steps that help us analyze and solve problems in orderly ways, based on objectively collected information.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. evidence collected according to the principles of the scientific method.

 

 

1.1-3.  The subject matter of psychology largely consists of

 

  1. observable behavior of humans.

Incorrect: This answer is only half correct, as psychology also considers the behaviors of other species beyond human beings.

  1. unobservable behavior of humans.
  2. observable behavior of other species of animals.
  3. observable behavior of humans and other species of animals.

Correct: Psychologists examine the behavior of humans in their environments and in their social and cultural contexts. Psychologists also study other species in their natural habitats or in the research laboratory.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. observable behavior of humans and other species of animals.

 

 

1.1-4.  When drawing conclusions about behavior, psychologists rely on

 

  1. their own personal beliefs.

Incorrect: One should, in fact, keep their personal beliefs out of their analysis of gathered data and rely on the scientific method and objectively gathered data.

  1. what is known as “common sense.”
  2. objectively collected information.

Correct: Psychological conclusions are based on evidence that gives psychologists a factual basis for drawing conclusions by using the scientific method.

  1. their everyday observations of people.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. objectively collected information.

% correct 68      a= 5  b= 0  c= 68  d=  28     r = .28

 

 

1.1-5.  Which statement is MOST consistent with the perspective taken by psychologists?

 

  1. Only human behavior is of interest.

Incorrect: Not only is the behavior of non-human animals of interest, so too are the mental processes of human beings.

  1. Mental processes are of little real importance.
  2. Both observable behavior and mental processes are of interest.

Correct: Psychologists focus on the behavior of individuals in various settings, while sociologists study social behavior of groups or institutions, and anthropologists study behavior in the broader contexts of culture.

  1. Behavior should only be studied in a controlled research laboratory.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. Both observable behavior and mental processes are of interest.

% correct 96      a= 2  b= 2  c= 96  d= 0      r = .37

 

 

1.1-6.  When compared to the work of sociologists and anthropologists, psychologists are likely to focus more on

 

  1. social institutions.
  2. individual behavior.

Correct: Psychologists focus on the behavior of individuals in various settings, while sociologists study social behavior of groups or institutions and anthropologists study behavior in the broader context of culture.

  1. cultural differences in behavior.

Incorrect: Actually this emphasis would be more focused on by the anthropologist and sociologist than the psychologist.

  1. the behavior of people in groups.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. individual behavior.

% correct 92      a= 2  b= 92  c=2   d= 4      r = .21

 

 

1.1-7.  A friend’s curiosity about how the human mind works is coupled with her fascination with computer science and artificial intelligence. It sounds as though your friend’s interests are consistent with the emerging area of ________ science.

 

  1. social
  2. health
  3. cognitive

Correct: Psychologists’ questions about how the mind works are related to theory and research in computer science, philosophy, linguistics, and neuroscience.

  1. biological

Incorrect: The relationship between the functioning of the human mind and computers (and AI) is explored by cognitive psychology, not biological psychology.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2-3

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. cognitive

 

 

1.1-8.  You overhear two psychologists discussing the relative importance of the various levels of analysis researchers may use. They are most likely to reach an agreement that

 

  1. the broadest level of analysis is the most important.

Incorrect: All levels of analysis are important for different reasons and at different times.

  1. the narrowest level of analysis is the most important.
  2. some levels of analysis are less important than others.
  3. different levels of analysis address different questions.

Correct: Each level of analysis gives information to the researcher that is important to understanding different aspects of behavior and mental processes. A level of analysis may be very narrow (i.e., an individual’s reaction time) to very broad (i.e., cultural influences on the individual).

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        3

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. different levels of analysis address different questions.

% correct 90      a= 0  b= 10  c= o  d= 90      r = .20

 

 

1.1-9.  An educational psychologist has decided to do research on reading behavior. If he were to approach this topic from the broadest level of analysis, he would be most likely to study

 

  1. whether readers move their lips while reading.

Incorrect: This would be an example of a very narrow level of analysis, and thus wouldn’t be the best answer.

  1. whether attitudes toward reading vary around the world.

Correct: At the broadest level of analysis, researchers study the whole person within social and cultural contexts, including cross-cultural differences and similarities.

  1. the eye movements readers make while reading a page of text.
  2. left and right brain hemisphere differences in the processing of foreign languages.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. whether attitudes toward reading vary around the world.

 

 

1.1-10.  The first task in psychology is to make accurate observations about behavior. This means that psychologists must first ________ behavior.

 

  1. predict
  2. explain
  3. control
  4. describe

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        3

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. describe

% correct 64      a= 20  b= 10  c= 6  d=  64     r = .39

 

 

1.1-11.  A boy complains that his sister has been teasing him. The parents ask him to tell them specifically when she teases him and how it happens; they are asking him to provide behavioral data to support his claim. A psychologist would say that the child is being encouraged to do all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. observe his sister’s behavior.

Incorrect: Observation is part of description, which is what he has been asked to do by his parents. This is one of the four major goals of psychology.

  1. explain why his sister teases him.

Correct: The parents are asking for accurate observations of the behavior; they are asking for descriptions of the behavior, rather than explanations of it. Explanations go beyond what is observed.

  1. report on his sister’s teasing behavior in an objective fashion.
  2. note the conditions under which his sister’s teasing behavior occurs.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        3

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. explain why his sister teases him.

 

 

1.1-12.  In order to investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the broadest, most global level of analysis?

 

  1. What are the origins of prejudice?

Correct: The broadest level of analysis describes complex social and cultural contexts of behavior and mental processes.

  1. Are there gender differences in prejudice?
  2. Are there differences in how various racial groups express prejudice?
  3. What is the role of early childhood experiences in the formation of prejudice?

Incorrect: This would be a rather narrow level of analysis, so it would not be the best answer.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3-4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. What are the origins of prejudice?

 

 

1.1-13.  To investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the narrowest, most specific level of analysis?

 

  1. What are the causes of mental illness?

Incorrect: This is a more general, or board, level of analysis so it would not be the best answer.

  1. Which brain structures are associated with paranoid schizophrenia?

Correct: This level of analysis explores smaller and smaller units of behavior; it is a description of specific influences on behavior.

  1. Are food additives responsible for the occurrence of certain types of mental illness?
  2. Are there differences in the prevalence of mental illness in different countries?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3-4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. Which brain structures are associated with paranoid schizophrenia?

 

 

1.1-14.  Imagine that you are a research psychologist. In your attempt to describe behavior, it is of utmost importance that you

 

  1. use a broad level of analysis.
  2. use a narrow level of analysis.
  3. collect the facts as they exist.

Correct: It is important to avoid letting biases, prejudices, or expectations influence collection of data. Description must be based on objective collection of data, rather than subjective points of view.

  1. collect only those facts that are consistent with your expectations.

Incorrect: Data must be gathered objectively, without being influenced by one’s individual expectations.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. collect the facts as they exist.

 

 

1.1-15.  A major way in which the psychologist’s goal of explanation differs from the psychologist’s goal of description is that explanations

 

  1. are objective.

Incorrect: Description can be based on objective observation, but explanation must go beyond what can be seen.

  1. are based on data.
  2. use a lower level of analysis.
  3. deliberately go beyond what can be observed.

Correct: Psychologists strive to describe behavior objectively by collecting facts as they exist. Explanations go beyond that to look for patterns in behavior and mental processes.  Explanations demonstrate that behavior is influenced in most cases by a combination of factors, some of which can be directly observed and some of which cannot.

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. deliberately go beyond what can be observed.

 

 

1.1-16.  In the context of the goal of explanation, the concept of “informed imagination” most closely refers to the

 

  1. widest level of analysis.
  2. researcher’s use of objective methods.
  3. creativity in synthesizing what is known and not yet known.
  4. discovery of cause-effect relationships by systematic experimentation.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. creativity in synthesizing what is known and not yet known.

 

 

1.1-17.  Different explanations of behavior are usually judged by how

 

  1. consistent they are with the beliefs of the researcher.

Incorrect: Sometimes the best explanations are at odds with a researcher’s beliefs. This is not the best answer to this question.

  1. well they combine situational and environmental variables.
  2. well they can make accurate and comprehensive predictions.

Correct: If explanations of behavior are based on research and creative synthesis of information, it is likely that we can say that the behavior will happen in a particular way in the future; if this is the case, prediction has been accurate and comprehensive.  If not, further research is needed to search for a more comprehensive and accurate explanation of the behavior.

  1. consistent they are with the experiences of the general public.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. well they can make accurate and comprehensive predictions.

 

 

1.1-18.  One day while playing golf, you catch your opponent cheating. Your subsequent belief that your opponent also probably cheats on his income tax is most consistent with which of the psychologist’s research goals?

 

  1. control

Incorrect: No behavior is being altered in this question, so control is not the right option.

  1. prediction

Correct: Predictions are statements about the likelihood that certain behaviors will occur. If you believe that your opponent is a cheater, you are likely to predict that he will act that way in other situations as well.

  1. description
  2. explanation

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. prediction

 

 

1.1-19.  Two students are discussing their teacher’s inability to remember student names. One attributes the inability to a poor memory, but the other believes it is due to a lack of motivation. Researchers would judge which of the two explanations is best by

 

  1. attributing the inability to a situational variable.
  2. measuring how strongly each friend feels about his opinion.

Incorrect: The intensity of one’s opinion would not be an important factor in the judgment of the validity of the explanations.

  1. attributing the inability to remember to a dispositional variable.
  2. determining how well each explanation predicts behavior in new situations.

Correct: Accurate explanations of the underlying causes of behavior allow researchers to make accurate predictions about the future. Causal explanations rely on examination of objective data and synthesis of what is known with trained insights into human experience.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. determining how well each explanation predicts behavior in new situations.

 

 

1.1-20.  Which of the following is most similar to the psychological goal of control?

 

  1. A girl discovers that she can make her brother cry by teasing him.

Correct: Control is making behavior happen or not happen.

  1. A pet owner expects that her dog will be waiting for her when she gets home.

Incorrect: This speaks to prediction, not control. It is the anticipation of what will happen.

  1. A child likes ice cream because it tastes good.
  2. A poet writes a poem describing a beautiful snowfall.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. A girl discovers that she can make her brother cry by teasing him.

% correct  70     a= 70  b= 23  c= 2  d=  5     r = .22

 

 

1.1-21.  Therapeutic programs designed to help people substitute more positive behaviors for negative behaviors are most closely related to the psychological goal of

 

  1. control.

Correct: Psychologists have devised ways to help people gain control over problematic aspects of their lives; people learn ways to make behaviors happen or not happen in their lives to increase quality of life.

  1. prediction.

Incorrect: This question speaks to altering someone’s behaviors, and thus it involves the psychology goal of control, not prediction.

  1. explanation.
  2. description.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. control.

% correct 88      a= 88  b= 4  c= 8  d= 0      r = .37

 

 

1.1-22.  The types of interventions that allow people to improve the quality of their lives are most directly the result of which goal of psychological research?

 

  1. control

Correct: Changing behavior (making it happen or not happen) is one way of improving quality of life. Psychological interventions help people identify changes that are needed and help them make changes in behaviors that will have an effect on quality of life.

  1. prediction

Incorrect: This question speaks to altering someone’s behaviors, and thus it involves the psychology goal of control, not prediction.

  1. explanation
  2. description

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. control

correct 67      a= 67  b= 8  c= 25  d= 0      r = .26

 

 

1.1-23.  Treatments for mental illness, the ability of people to eliminate unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and initiate healthy behaviors such as exercise, and the development of positive parenting practices are all consistent with the idea that

 

  1. psychology is little more than common sense.
  2. psychological knowledge can be used to help improve the quality of life.

Correct: Quality of life is improved when we change behaviors (make them happen or not happen). Making behaviors happen or not happen is part of the ability to control behavior, which gives psychologists ways of helping people improve the quality of their lives.

  1. explanation and prediction are the two most important psychological goals.

Incorrect: Your author notes that explanation and prediction, along with description and control, are all equally important goals of psychology.

  1. the use of animal participants has minimal relevance to modern psychological research.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. psychological knowledge can be used to help improve the quality of life.

 

 

1.1-24.  Much of the history of psychology has been characterized by

 

  1. the belief that ideas matter greatly.
  2. general agreement about the subject matter of psychology.
  3. uncertainty with respect to the definition of psychology.
  4. considerable agreement among researchers as to appropriate methodologies.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. the belief that ideas matter greatly.

 

 

1.1-25.  In 1908, Hermann Ebbinghaus wrote that “Psychology has a long past, but only a short history.” Which statement best captures the idea that Ebbinghaus was expressing?

 

  1. Psychologists, like philosophers, have difficulty learning from their mistakes.
  2. Questions about human nature have existed for a long time, but only recently have the methods necessary to answer them been developed.

Correct: Toward the end of the nineteenth century, researchers in the new field of psychology began to apply laboratory techniques from sciences such as physiology and physics to the exploration of questions about behavior and mental processes. Questions about the mind and behavior had been asked by philosophers for centuries.

  1. The field of psychology has existed for a long time, but only recently have scholars recorded the accomplishments of the profession.
  2. Although psychologists have been doing laboratory research for hundreds of years, little of substance has been discovered about human nature.

Incorrect: In fact, the first true laboratory of psychology was established only around 130 years ago, in Leipzig, Germany.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        5

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. Questions about human nature have existed for a long time, but only recently have the methods necessary to answer them been developed.

% correct 88      a= 0  b= 88  c= 10  d= 2      r = .49

 

 

1.1-26.  Questions about how the mind works and the nature of free will can be traced back to

 

  1. Wilhelm Wundt.
  2. Hermann Ebbinghaus.
  3. the end of the nineteenth century.
  4. the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5-6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. the fourth and fifth centuries B.C.

 

 

1.1-27.  Western psychology traces its origin to

 

  1. Indian Yogic traditions.
  2. classical Greek philosophy.
  3. Asian and African psychology.
  4. the early Roman Catholic church.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        5-6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. classical Greek philosophy.

 

 

1.1-28.  With respect to attempts to answer questions about how the mind works, how did the classical Greek philosophers compare to the psychological researchers at the end of the nineteenth century?

 

  1. The philosophical approach was actually more scientific.

Incorrect: Philosophy is a very important discipline, but it does not employ the scientific method as a means of answering questions.

  1. The philosophical and psychological approaches were essentially identical.
  2. Only the psychological researchers applied laboratory techniques from other sciences.

Correct: The Greek philosophers did not possess the means to answer important questions about human nature in scientific ways.

  1. Only the classical Greek philosophers realized that such questions could never really be answered.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. Only the psychological researchers applied laboratory techniques from other sciences.

 

 

1.1-29.  In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany,

 

  1. Wilhelm Wundt was born.
  2. the idea of behaviorism was first suggested.
  3. Sigmund Freud wrote his book, The Interpretation of Dreams.
  4. the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology was founded.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology was founded.

% correct 74      a= 10  b= 10  c= 6  d= 74      r = .53

 

 

1.1-30.  While proofreading a paper a friend has written on the life of Wilhelm Wundt, you are startled by an error that states that Wundt

 

  1. was trained as a physiologist.

Incorrect: In fact, Wundt was trained as a physiologist.

  1. established the first formal psychology laboratory.
  2. wrote a book entitled Principles of Physiological Psychology.
  3. was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association.

Correct: The founder and president of the APA was G. Stanley Hall, not Wilhelm Wundt.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. was the founder and first president of the American Psychological Association.

 

 

1.1-31.  To help you learn to associate people with their contributions to the history of psychology, you have decided to use flashcards. Unfortunately, one of the cards you have written is incorrect. Which of the following pairings is wrong?

 

  1. William James wrote The Principles of Psychology in 1890.
  2. G. Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological Association.
  3. Wilhelm Wundt founded a laboratory at Cornell University in 1892.
  4. Edward Titchener was one of the first psychologists in the United States.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        6-7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. Wilhelm Wundt founded a laboratory at Cornell University in 1892.

 

 

1.1-32.  Which early American psychologist taught philosophy at Harvard, studied medicine, had strong interests in literature and religion, and wrote one of the most important psychology texts ever, The Principles of Psychology, in 1890?

 

  1. William James
  2. Wilhelm Wundt
  3. G. Stanley Hall
  4. Edward Titchener

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. William James

 

 

1.1-33.  The year is 1900 and you are looking for a job in a psychology laboratory, somewhere in North America. Assuming that each laboratory has an opening, about how many laboratories will you have from which to choose?

 

  1. 1
  2. 4
  3. 40
  4. 400

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. 40

 

 

1.1-34.  Suppose you were a research assistant in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory. After observing his experiments, you would probably conclude that

 

  1. his approach was not in the least bit scientific.

Incorrect: Wundt was a proponent of the science of psychology, which is why he established its first formal laboratory in 1879 in Germany.

  1. the responses that were required of participants were quite complex.
  2. independent observers could replicate the experiments.

Correct: Data was collected in his laboratory through systematic, objective procedures. Therefore, observers could do the experiments again in exactly the same ways.

  1. the data collection techniques were neither systematic nor objective.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. independent observers could replicate the experiments.

 

 

1.1-35.  When Edward Titchener brought Wundt’s psychology to the United States, his method for examining conscious mental life involved the use of the experimental technique known as

 

  1. structuralism.
  2. introspection.
  3. functionalism.
  4. psychoanalysis.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. introspection.

% correct 28      a= 22  b= 28  c= 30  d= 20      r = .24

 

 

 

1.1-36.  Imagine being a participant in one of Titchener’s early studies of conscious experience. What would you most likely be asked to do?

 

  1. Attempt to memorize a long list of nonsense words.

Incorrect: This would be correct if the question had asked about Ebbinghaus’s study of memory.

  1. Try to read the mind of a person seated in an adjoining room.
  2. Permit yourself to be hypnotized and your responses recorded.
  3. Examine your thoughts and feelings about sensory experiences.

Correct: Titchener used a technique called introspection to study consciousness.  Introspection is the systematic examination by individuals of their thoughts and feelings regarding their own sensory experiences.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. Examine your thoughts and feelings about sensory experiences.

 

 

1.1-37.  The approach known as structuralism was most concerned with the ________ of mental contents.

 

  1. “how”
  2. “why”

Incorrect: This would be a better answer if the question had asked about functionalism, which deals with the purposes of actions and mental contents.

  1. “what”

Correct: Structuralism is the study of consciousness based on the idea that all human mental experience can be understood as a combination of basic components. The goal of structuralism is to understand the basic structure of the human mind through analysis of the basic elements of sensation and other experiences of mental life.

  1. “when”

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. “what”

 

 

1.1-38.  As an advocate of an alternative to structuralism, the German psychologist ________ focused on the way in which the mind understands experiences as organized wholes rather than as the sums of simple parts.

 

  1. Max Wertheimer
  2. Sigmund Freud
  3. Wilhelm Wundt
  4. Edward Titchener

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. Max Wertheimer

% correct 44      a=  44 b= 12  c= 32  d= 12      r = .54

 

 

1.1-39.  A psychologist who specializes in the study of perception refers to herself as a “Gestalt psychologist.” You can expect that she will focus on

 

  1. the approach known as functionalism.
  2. the reduction of complex human experience into simple sensations.
  3. the way in which the mind understands experiences as organized wholes.

Correct: Gestalt psychology focuses on the way in which the mind understands organized wholes of experience. It does not see the organized wholes of experience as the sum of simple parts.

  1. conscious experience being nothing more than the sum of individual experiences.

Incorrect: It is often stated that the Gestalt school of psychology felt that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts.”

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the way in which the mind understands experiences as organized wholes.

 

 

1.1-40.  It would be accurate to state that William James was interested in the ________ of the mind, and Edward Titchener was interested in the ________ of the mind.

 

  1. functions; contents
  2. contents; functions
  3. functions; functions
  4. contents; contents

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. functions; contents

% correct 58      a= 58  b= 31  c= 8  d=  2     r = .45

 

 

1.1-41.  Compared to Edward Titchener, William James was more interested in

  1. rigorous laboratory methods and experimental control.
  2. the functions of mental processes, not the contents of the mind.

Correct: For functionalists such as William James, the key question to be answered by research was, “What is the function or purpose of learned habits/behaviors?”  Acts and functions of mental processing was the focus rather than the contents, structures, and elements of consciousness.

  1. the basic elements of sensation that formed an individual’s mental life.

Incorrect: This would be correct if the question had asked about Titchener’s structuralism instead of James’s functionalism.

  1. the “what” of mental contents rather than the “why” or “how” of thinking.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. the functions of mental processes, not the contents of the mind.

 

 

1.1-42.  Simply put, in their approach to behavior, functionalists such as William James and John Dewey emphasized the importance of

 

  1. purposes.

Correct: Functionalism focused on learned habits that allow organisms to adapt to their environments and to function effectively.  The key question for research was, “What is the purpose or function of any behavioral act?”

  1. elements.

Incorrect: This would be the correct answer if the question had asked about structuralism instead of functionalism.

  1. contents.
  2. structures.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7-8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. purposes.

 

 

1.1-43.  Titchener is to structuralism as Dewey is to

 

  1. behaviorism.

Incorrect: Your author notes that Dewey was a believer in functionalism as it applied to schools and “progressive education.”

  1. determinism.
  2. functionalism.

Correct: Titchener’s approach to the study of mental processes became known as structuralism, the study of the structure of mind and behavior. Dewey’s approach was known as functionalism, the study of the purposes and functions of mental processes. Titchener and Dewey were responsible for the introduction of these opposing methods of study to the growing discipline of psychology in the United States.

  1. introspection.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7-8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. functionalism.

 

 

1.1-44.  For functionalists, the key question to be answered by research was

 

  1. “What is the nature of the mind?”
  2. “What is the purpose of any behavioral act?”

Correct: The emphasis of functionalism was on the ways in which behavioral acts/habits enable organisms to adapt to their environments and to function effectively.

  1. “What part of the mind is responsible for human motivation?”

Incorrect: This might be a question for a cognitive psychologist, not a functionalist.

  1. “What feelings are associated with specific thoughts and emotions?”

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        7-8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. “What is the purpose of any behavioral act?”

 

 

1.1-45.  The founder of the school of functionalism was the American philosopher

 

  1. John Dewey.
  2. Henry James.
  3. William James.
  4. Edward Titchener.

 

Difficulty:       2

Question ID:   1.1-51

Page Ref:        7-8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. William James

 

 

1.1-46.  Due in large part to the theorizing of John Dewey, school systems in the early part of the twentieth century in the United States placed less emphasis on

 

  1. rote learning.
  2. learning by doing.
  3. intellectual curiosity.
  4. “progressive education.”

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. rote learning.

 

 

1.1-47.  Which of the following is LEAST likely to have been the title of an article written by William James?

 

  1. “Human uniqueness.”
  2. “The role of religion and mysticism in human behavior.”

Incorrect: While this may not have been something in which James had enormous interest, it is not the best answer to the question. James did not adhere strictly to the belief that only that which could be observed in a laboratory was valuable for the field of psychology.

  1. “How human consciousness helps one adjust to the environment.”
  2. “The importance of rigorous laboratory methods in understanding behavior.”

Correct: William James believed in careful observation but he also recognized and made a place in his psychology for emotions, will, values, and even mystical and religious experiences. He recognized the uniqueness of each individual that could not be reduced to rigorous laboratory methods.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. “The importance of rigorous laboratory methods in understanding behavior.”

 

 

1.1-48.  With respect to the legacies of structuralism and functionalism, contemporary psychologists currently examine

 

  1. only the function of behavior.

Incorrect: This is only part of the right answer, as the structure of behavior is also important.

  1. only the structure of behavior.
  2. both the structure and function of behavior.

Correct: Psychologists now recognize that both the content and the purposes of mental processes are important to understanding the behavior of individuals.

  1. neither the structure nor the function of behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. both the structure and function of behavior.

% correct 94      a= 2  b= 0  c= 94  d= 4      r = .19

 

 

1.1-49.  Which statement most closely characterizes the current view of most psychologists toward the study of behavior?

 

  1. Psychologists borrow and blend from different perspectives.

Correct: Each perspective adds a different approach to understanding human experience, each adding a different dimension to fuller understanding of the entirety of human experience.

  1. Psychologists tend to agree that the most productive approach is the biological perspective.

Incorrect: There are so many different perspectives that it is not a correct statement to say that there is only one that is the most productive.

  1. Psychologists take the approach that complex behavior can be reduced to patterns of simple behavior.
  2. Although psychologists differ in their basic approach, all agree on the questions to be asked and how they should be studied.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. Psychologists borrow and blend from different perspectives.

% correct 52      a= 52  b= 8  c= 12  d=  29     r = .16

 

 

1.1-50.  According to the ________ perspective, one purpose of behavior is to reduce the tension that has been brought about by powerful inner forces such as conflicts between personal needs and society’s demands.

 

  1. cultural
  2. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. behavioristic
  2. psychodynamic

Correct: There are powerful unconscious forces that motivate organisms to act in certain ways; these motives arise from the tension created between the unconscious needs and desires of the individual and the demands of the society within which the individual lives.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. psychodynamic

 

 

1.1-51.  A psychologist believes that instincts, drives, and conflicts act as one fuel for behavior; when tension has been reduced sufficiently, behavior stops. This view is most consistent with that of the ________ perspective.

 

  1. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. evolutionary
  2. behavioristic
  3. psychodynamic

Correct: The main purpose of behavior is to reduce tension.  Tension arises when there is conflict between the needs of the individual and the demands of society.  When needs are met in some way, tension is reduced and the behavior directed toward fulfilling the needs is reduced or stopped.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. psychodynamic

% correct 35      a= 45  b= 13  c= 8  d=  35     r = .20

 

 

1.1-52.  A friend who has been studying psychology a lot longer than you tells you that your habit of biting your nails is the result of an inner conflict between your personal need to stay a child and society’s demand that you grow up. You should recognize this advice as stemming from the ________ perspective.

 

  1. cultural
  2. biological
  3. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. psychodynamic

Correct: The main purpose of action is to reduce tension.  Tension is created between your need to stay child-like and society’s demands.  The visible behavior of biting your nails is a symbol of the complex unconscious interaction of inner and outer forces each vying for fulfillment of conflicting needs.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. psychodynamic

 

 

1.1-53.  This Viennese physician, using ideas originating in his work with mentally disturbed patients, developed the psychodynamic principles of motivation. Who is he?

 

  1. John Dewey
  2. William James
  3. Sigmund Freud
  4. Wilhelm Wundt

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. Sigmund Freud

 

 

1.1-54.  While rummaging in your grandfather’s attic, you come across what appears to be a previously undiscovered early manuscript of Sigmund Freud. Although you can’t read German, you guess that it most likely entitled something like

 

  1. Learning by Doing.

Incorrect: This would probably be the manuscript of a behaviorist, not a Freudian psychodynamic theorist.

  1. The Technique of Introspection.
  2. The Purposes of Behavior.
  3. Unconscious Motivations.

Correct: Freud’s psychodynamic theory was the first to recognize that actions may be motivated by unconscious conflicts.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. Unconscious Motivations.

% correct 85      a= 4  b= 6  c= 6  d= 85      r = .36

 

 

1.1-55.  Neo-Freudian theorists broadened psychodynamic theory by suggesting that

 

  1. human nature is entirely rational.
  2. only conscious process are important.

Incorrect: The neo-Freudians may have ventured away from Freud’s original theory, but they did not shift away from valuing a focus on the unconscious. They brought more emphasis to the conscious, however.

  1. personality develops over the lifetime.

Correct: Rather than only emphasizing early childhood as the time of personality development, psychodynamic theory now includes the idea that, over the human lifespan, social interactions and influences occur that have an effect on personality development.

  1. systematic scientific research is not necessary.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. personality develops over the lifetime.

% correct 60      a= 17  b= 15  c= 60  d=  8     r = .17

 

 

1.1-56.  Psychologists who take the behaviorist approach seek to

 

  1. illustrate the innate goodness of humans.

Incorrect: This would be the correct answer if the question had asked about the humanistic approach.

  1. understand how environmental stimuli control behavior.

Correct: Behaviorists look at environmental conditions that precede behavior and set the stage for a response. Then they look at the response or action, followed by the observable consequences of the action.

  1. validate the importance of thought processes in human behavior.
  2. demonstrate the importance of unresolved conflicts and inner forces.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. understand how environmental stimuli control behavior.

% correct  79     a= 12  b= 79  c= 7  d= 2      r = .60

 

 

1.1-57.  The professor in a Theories of Psychology class asks the students to read the section of the textbook in which antecedents, responses, and consequences are described. No doubt the next topic for discussion in this class will be the ________ perspective.

 

  1. biological

Incorrect: This model focuses on genetic and physical contributors to behaviors. The best answer to this question is the behavioral model.

  1. humanistic
  2. behaviorist

Correct: Antecedents describe the environmental conditions that precede behavior. Responses describe the actions that take place following the antecedents. These responses are actions to be understood, predicted, and controlled.  Finally, the behaviorist studies the consequences or observable actions that are the result of the response.

  1. evolutionary

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. behaviorist

 

 

1.1-58.  The search for antecedent environmental conditions and the observable consequences that follow from responses is most closely associated with the ________ perspective.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. humanistic
  3. behaviorist

Correct: Those who take the behaviorist perspective want to understand how particular environmental stimuli control particular kinds of behavior.  Observable consequences follow responses. Responses follow antecedent environmental conditions.

  1. psychodynamic

Incorrect: This model focuses on early childhood experiences and unconscious motivations.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. behaviorist

 

 

1.1-59.  A teacher wants to determine whether smiling at children if they raise their hands after she asks a question increases the likelihood that children will volunteer answers. From the behaviorist perspective, the antecedent environmental condition is ________ and the consequence is ________.

 

  1. smiling; asking a question

Incorrect: This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. raising of hand; smiling
  2. asking a question; smiling

Correct: Smiling is the consequence of responses (raised hands). The environmental antecedent of raised hands is a question asked by the teacher. The response is the action to be studied: Will smiling increase the number of responses to questions asked?  Can we predict that smiling increases responses? Can we control behavior by smiling when questions are asked?

  1. raising of hand; asking a question

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. asking a question; smiling

 

 

1.1-60.  The behaviorist perspective was pioneered by ________, who first argued that psychological research should seek the laws that govern observable behavior.

 

  1. Sigmund Freud
  2. John Watson
  3. Mary Calkins
  4. B. F. Skinner

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. John Watson

% correct 77      a= 6  b= 77  c= 2  d= 15      r = .19

 

 

1.1-61.  Which statement best characterizes the textbook authors’ views with respect to the legacy of behaviorism?

 

  1. The principles of behaviorism have been widely and successfully applied to human problems.

Correct: Behaviorist principles have been successfully applied to educating children based on positive reinforcement rather than punishment, new therapies for modifying problematic behaviors, and guidelines for creating model communities, among many other things.

  1. The principles of behaviorism ultimately fail because they are not based on carefully controlled laboratory experiments.

Incorrect: On the contrary, the greatest strength of the behavioral model is the extent to which it lends itself to careful scrutiny using laboratory research.

  1. Behaviorism has not caught on because it places too little emphasis on determining the antecedents and consequences of behavior.
  2. Behaviorism has been successful because, unlike other perspectives, it has based all of its conclusions on research with human participants.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. The principles of behaviorism have been widely and successfully applied to human problems.

% correct  35     a= 35  b= 16  c= 42  d= 6      r = .46

 

 

1.1-62.  All of the following are direct consequences of behaviorism EXCEPT

 

  1. new therapies for modifying behavior disorders.
  2. guidelines to create model utopian communities.
  3. the determination that humans are innately good and capable of choice.
  4. education of children through the use of positive reinforcement rather than punishment.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. the determination that humans are innately good and capable of choice.

 

 

1.1-63.  The humanistic perspective in psychology gives greater weight and importance to

 

  1. the capacity of humans to make choices.

Correct: People are innately active, good, and capable of choice. Humanists emphasize that humans have a natural tendency to move toward psychological growth and health through their choices.

  1. breaking down complex behavior into elementary units of behavior.
  2. how environmental forces come to control the individual’s behavior.

Incorrect: This would be the correct answer if the question were asking about the behavioral model.

  1. the powerful instinctual tendencies that dominate people’s actions.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. the capacity of humans to make choices.

 

 

1.1-64.  According to the humanistic perspective, the main task for humans is to

 

  1. survive powerful, instinctive forces.

Incorrect: This is a main task of the psychodynamic perspective.

  1. attend, think, remember and understand.
  2. strive for positive development.

Correct: Carl Rogers emphasized that individuals have a natural tendency toward psychological growth and health; this tendency is aided by the positive regard of others. Maslow introduced the term self-actualization; this is the tendency of each individual to be motivated toward the fullest development of his or her potential.

  1. shape personal behavior to avoid unfavorable consequences.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. strive for positive development.

% correct 42      a= 23  b= 3  c= 42  d= 29      r = .39

 

 

1.1-65.  Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are closely associated with the ________ perspective in psychology.

 

  1. behaviorist
  2. psychodynamic
  3. evolutionary
  4. humanistic

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. humanistic

% correct 88      a= 4   b= 6  c= 2  d= 88      r = .18

 

 

1.1-66.  While looking for a reference in the psychology section of the library, you come across an interesting book that emphasizes the “whole” person. It includes references to historical figures, artists, and authors. You are most likely looking at a book that is taking a ________ perspective.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. humanistic

Correct: Humanists practice a holistic approach to human psychology, not only integrating knowledge of mind and body with knowledge of social and cultural influences, but also expanding the study of psychology to include lessons from literature, history, and the arts.

  1. behaviorist
  2. psychodynamic

Incorrect: This model emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and instinctive, unconscious forces.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. humanistic

 

 

1.1-67.  The central emphasis of the cognitive approach is on

 

  1. principles of evolution.
  2. human feelings and emotions.
  3. human thought and knowledge.

Correct: From the cognitive perspective people act because they think, and think because they are human beings, exquisitely equipped to think.

  1. inner forces that push and pull behavior.

Incorrect: This is the emphasis of psychodynamic psychology, not the cognitive approach.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10-11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. human thought and knowledge.

 

 

1.1-68.  One way in which the cognitive model of behavior differs from the behavioral model is in the assertion that, according to the cognitive model, behavior

 

  1. may result from totally novel ways of thinking.

Correct: Behavior is only partly the result of environmental antecedents and behavioral consequences.  Behavior cannot just be predicted from patterns of response.  Higher mental processes such as perception and problem solving are also involved.

  1. is totally determined by past behavioral consequences.

Incorrect: This is actually the hallmark of the behavioral model, not the cognitive model.

  1. is totally determined by preceding environmental events.
  2. is totally determined by both preceding stimulus events and past behavioral consequences.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. may result from totally novel ways of thinking.

% correct 29      a= 29  b= 13  c= 10  d= 48      r = .55

 

 

1.1-69.  A cognitive psychologist would be most likely to agree with the idea that

 

  1. there is no such thing as a novel way of thinking.
  2. behavior is primarily a function of objective reality.
  3. thoughts can be either the results of behavior or the causes of behavior.

Correct: We can have a thought that results in a behavior (apologizing because we think we have hurt someone) or a thought that is a result of a behavior (regretful thoughts because we hurt someone).

  1. researchers should focus their attention on simple behaviors rather than on higher mental processes.

Incorrect: This would be a statement more likely to be made by a behaviorist, not a cognitive psychologist.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. thoughts can be either the results of behavior or the causes of behavior.

 

 

1.1-70.  If you were to sample a group of researchers in psychology, they are most likely to say that the dominant approach in psychology today is the ________ perspective.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. sociocultural
  3. evolutionary
  4. psychodynamic

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. cognitive

 

 

1.1-71.  The ________ perspective looks for the causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain, the nervous system, and the endocrine system.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. biological
  3. humanistic
  4. psychodynamic

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. biological

% correct  77     a= 6  b= 77  c= 6  d= 10      r = .78

 

 

1.1-72.  A researcher who is investigating the possibility that some mental illnesses have a genetic basis is most likely being guided by the ________ perspective.

 

  1. cultural
  2. biological

Correct: The biological perspective guides those who search for causes of behavior in the functioning of genes, the brain, the nervous system, and the endocrine system.

  1. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. behaviorist

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. biological

 

 

1.1-73.  Psychologists who accept a biological explanation of behavior make certain assumptions. Which of the following would NOT be one of these assumptions?

 

  1. Psychological behavior has a biochemical basis.

Incorrect: In fact, this was one of the major assumptions of the biological model.

  1. Behavior or behavior potential is determined by heredity.
  2. Experience cannot alter underlying biological structures and processes.

Correct: Experience can modify behavior by altering biological structures and processes.  In learning to read, for instance, changes in the brain occur.  The task is to understand behavior at this most precise level of analysis.

  1. Complex behavior is best understood if it is broken down into smaller, elementary units of analysis.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. Experience cannot alter underlying biological structures and processes.

 

 

1.1-74.  The task of psychobiological researchers is to understand behavior at which of the following levels of analysis?

 

  1. the broadest level

Incorrect: Focusing on precision is of the highest concern to psychobiological researchers.

  1. the most precise level

Correct: The most precise level of analysis reduces knowledge to smaller and smaller units.  A psychobiologist who studies reading would attempt to understand the exact physical processes in cells of the brain.

  1. a moderately broad level
  2. a moderately precise level

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. the most precise level

 

 

1.1-75.  Organisms that are better suited to their environments are more likely to pass on their genes than are organisms with poorer adaptations. This statement reflects a basic idea underlying

 

  1. the cultural perspective.
  2. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Correct: Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection is an idea central to life sciences. Over generations, species change in the direction of the best adaptations.

  1. Sigmund Freud’s psychodynamic approach.

Incorrect: Though Freud was a physician, he did not focus on genetic transmission from generation to generation.

  1. the behaviorist view of human behavior.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        11-12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

 

 

1.1-76.  With respect to the relationship between the principles of evolution and the brain’s mental abilities, evolutionary psychologists

 

  1. assume that brains evolve just as other organs do.
  2. believe that evolution of mental abilities has finally ended.
  3. have concluded that brains adapt in humans, but not in other animals.
  4. believe that only physical abilities adapt to environmental demands, not the brain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. assume that brains evolve just as other organs do.

% correct 45      a= 45  b= 0  c= 13  d= 42      r = .40

 

 

1.1-77.  Evolutionary psychologists are more likely to explain the male and female sexual roles of today as

 

  1. products of recent changes in the society.
  2. behaviors that developed over extremely long periods of time.
  3. identical to those roles as they existed during the Pleistocene era.
  4. learned responses to environmental consequences in the individual male’s and female’s experience.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. behaviors that developed over extremely long periods of time.

 

 

1.1-78.  Eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia, do not seem to be as common in third-world countries as they are in technologically advanced countries. Focusing on reasons for the difference in the incidence of these illnesses around the world is most directly within the province of the ________ perspective.

 

  1. sociocultural

Correct: Psychologists who take a sociocultural perspective study cross cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.

  1. cognitive
  2. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. evolutionary

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. sociocultural

 

 

1.1-79.  When anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski soundly critiqued Freud’s father-centered theory by describing the family practices of the Trobriand Islanders of New Guinea, he was showing the value of the ________ perspective.

 

  1. sociocultural

Correct: The sociocultural perspective suggests in this case that the claims of the psychodynamic perspective are not universal.  It challenges generalizations about human experience that ignore the diversity and richness of cultural influence.

  1. cognitive
  2. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. psychodynamic

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. sociocultural

 

 

1.1-80.  A man is convicted of being a serial killer. A psychologist who favors the biological perspective would be MOST likely to look for the determinants of the killer’s behavior in the

 

  1. immediate stimulus environment.
  2. man’s unconscious drives and conflicts.

Incorrect: This would be the right answer if the psychologist in the question favored the psychodynamic model.

  1. man’s brain and nervous system processes.

Correct:  This perspective searches for causes of behavior in central nervous system processes, including analyzing the brain for involvement of specific processes in aggressive behavior.

  1. adaptive behaviors of the man’s ancestors.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. man’s brain and nervous system processes.

 

 

1.1-81.  A psychologist who explains a rapist’s behavior in terms of the rapist’s displaced hostility toward his mother is most likely to prefer the ________ perspective.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. evolutionary
  2. psychodynamic

Correct: This perspective views adult behavior as the result of unresolved unconscious childhood conflicts.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. psychodynamic

 

 

1.1-82.  Ever since she was a little girl, a teenager has been a troublemaker. A psychologist who favors the behaviorist perspective would most likely explain her behavior in terms of

 

  1. heredity.

Incorrect: If this question had asked about a psychologist who favored the biological model, this would be the best answer.

  1. her mental processes.
  2. the role of specific brain systems.
  3. her previous behavior and its consequences.

Correct: Reinforcement of past aggressive responses would be identified.  The positive consequence of extra attention for aggressive behavior might explain current behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. her previous behavior and its consequences.

% correct  58     a= 10  b= 32  c= 0  d= 58      r = .32

 

 

1.1-83.  According to a psychologist, youngsters she is working within an alternative high school program have value systems that have developed under social conditions that foster self-limiting, aggressive tendencies instead of growth enhancement. It is likely the psychologist favors the ________ perspective.

 

  1. humanistic

Correct: Humanists look for explanations of negative behavior in personal values and social conditions that limit growth-enhancing experiences and limit personal potential and positive interpersonal experiences.

  1. evolutionary
  2. psychodynamic

Incorrect: This model focuses on early childhood experiences, as well as unconscious and instinctive drives and impulses.

  1. behavioristic

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. humanistic

 

 

1.1-84.  Suppose you read in the newspaper that someone robbed a store after watching a particularly violent movie. If you were a cognitive psychologist seeking to understand this behavior, you would be most interested in whether the

 

  1. individual really needed the money.
  2. individual had relatives who were also robbers.
  3. movie affected the thoughts and attitudes of the individual.

Correct: Cognitive psychologists study the impact of violence in the media on attitudes toward violence, on intentions to harm others, and on aggressive imagery after witnessing violence.

  1. individual had a happy childhood without conflict and stress.

Incorrect: This would be the right answer if you were a psychodynamic psychologist, not a cognitive psychologist.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. movie affected the thoughts and attitudes of the individual.

 

 

1.1-85.  One night, you go to a lecture by a psychologist who emphasizes our early ancestors. For example, when describing marital infidelity, he suggests that our ancestors were not monogamous because not being monogamous was adaptive behavior and increased the chances for survival. It is likely that the psychologist endorses the ________ approach.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. biological
  3. evolutionary

Correct: Evolutionary psychologists study the adaptive qualities of behaviors such as monogamy that help the species survive and thrive over millions of years.

  1. psychodynamic

Incorrect: If the question had focused on infidelity as a function of unconscious, impulsive drives, this might be the best answer.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. evolutionary

% correct 98      a= 0  b= 2  c= 98  d= 0      r = .24

 

 

1.1-86.  While doing research for a paper on “teenage rebellion,” you discover that there are some places in the world where young adults experience very little turmoil and other places where teenagers seem prone to violent outbursts. Psychological studies of such differences are most likely to be done by psychologists who favor the ________ perspective.

 

  1. sociocultural

Correct: This perspective identifies similarities and differences in cultural displays and interpretations of particular behaviors and identifies how social and cultural factors influence the behaviors.

  1. cognitive
  2. humanistic

Incorrect: This model focuses on the positive and unique qualities of each individual, as well as freedom of choice and striving for self-actualization.

  1. evolutionary

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. sociocultural

% correct  98     a= 98  b= 0  c= 2  d=  0     r = .18

 

 

1.1-87.  A forensic psychologist is most likely to

 

  1. help an athlete perform better.

Incorrect: This might be the job of a sports psychologist, not a forensic psychologist.

  1. teach workers how to relieve stress.
  2. consult with lawyers about the sanity of a defendant.

Correct: Forensic psychologists apply psychological concepts to human problems in the field of law enforcement.

  1. help elementary school children adapt to new teaching methods.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        14

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. consult with lawyers about the sanity of a defendant.

% correct 90      a= 2  b= 4  c= 90  d= 4      r = .50

 

 

1.1-88.  You’re reading an article about how recent research has shown that infants are much more sophisticated than was previously thought. Although several different types of psychologists may have written it, the author is most likely a ________ psychologist.

 

  1. health
  2. clinical
  3. developmental

Correct: Developmental psychologists study the influence of genetics and environment on the physical, cognitive, and social functioning of individuals across the lifespan.

  1. human factors

Incorrect: This is a part of industrial-organization (I/O) psychology, while this question really examines developmental psychology as the primary emphasis.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        14

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. developmental

 

 

1.1-89.  Which one of the following psychologists provide assessment and counseling for people with illnesses or disabilities?

 

  1. biological psychologist
  2. cognitive psychologist
  3. health psychologist
  4. rehabilitation psychologist

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        14

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. rehabilitation psychologist

 

 

1.1-90.  A classmate comes to you because he is concerned that his best friend is experiencing personal problems. You should suggest to your classmate that his friend may benefit by talking to a(n) ________ psychologist.

 

  1. cognitive
  2. counseling

Correct: Counseling psychologists provide diagnosis and treatment options to people who have psychological problems or other issues of personal adjustment.

  1. educational

Incorrect: A counseling psychologist is trained to help people deal with personal difficulties and problems. An educational psychologist helps to design curricula and test students in various educational domains.

  1. developmental

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        14

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. counseling

 

 

1.1-91.  Forensic psychologists are often involved in making important legal decisions.  Which of the following examples is NOT likely to be a part of a forensic psychologist’s work?

 

  1. assessments of an individual’s capacity to understand the acts they have committed

Incorrect: This is definitely something that forensic psychologists would do as part of their job description.

  1. providing evidence that influences child custody decisions in divorce proceedings
  2. assessments regarding the effects of absenteeism in the workplace

Correct: Assessments of factors that influence performance and morale in the workplace are usually carried out by industrial-organizational psychologists.  Forensic psychologists are asked to provide assessments for both civil and criminal proceedings.

  1. assessments regarding whether individuals are a danger to themselves or others

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        16

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life: In What Ways Do Psychologists Participate in the Legal System?

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. assessments regarding the effects of absenteeism in the workplace

 

 

True/False Questions

 

1.2-1.  Psychologists are trained to describe behavior from their own subjective point of view, making sure to include their own biases and expectations in their observations.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-2.  Psychologists believe that behavior should only be studied in a controlled research laboratory.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-3.  Most psychologists today would agree with the statement that it is best to analyze behavior from the narrowest possible level.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3-4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-4.  With respect to the goals of psychology, descriptions must stick to perceivable information, whereas explanations deliberately go beyond what can be observed.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3-4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-5.  The first experimental psychologists were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        5-6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-6.  In 1879, B. F. Skinner founded the first formal laboratory devoted to experimental psychology.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        6

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-7.  Historically speaking, the school of structuralism is older than the school of functionalism.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-8.  The idea that one’s experience of a painting is more than the sum of all of the individual brushstrokes is consistent with the view of Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-9.  John Dewey’s approach to education led to an overriding emphasis on the importance of rote learning and encouraged teachers to instruct their pupils through “drill and practice.”

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-10.  Margaret Washburn was the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-11.  In Freud’s view, human nature is not always rational, and behavior may be driven by motives that are not in conscious awareness.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        9

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-12.  According to the humanistic perspective, people are driven by powerful, instinctive forces, manipulated by their environments, and are incapable of making choices and decisions concerning their lives.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-13.  In the view of psychologists who follow the cognitive perspective, behavior is completely determined by preceding environmental events and past behavioral consequences.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        10-11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-14.  Imagine reading a study that attributes abnormal behavior to malfunctioning brain centers and hormonal imbalances. This analysis would be most consistent with the approach taken by a psychologist who favors the biological perspective.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-15.  Brain imaging techniques have led to dramatic breakthroughs in the field of cognitive neuroscience.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-16.  Simply stated, the idea behind natural selection is that organisms that are better suited to their environments tend to produce offspring more successfully than those organisms with poorer adaptations.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        11-12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-17.  Evolutionary psychology differs from other perspectives in its focus on the extremely long process of evolution as a central explanatory principle.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

1.2-18.  Clinical psychologists apply the insights of researchers, but are not trained to do research themselves.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        15

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

1.2-19.  According to a survey of American Psychological Association members holding doctoral degrees in psychology, only about one-third has an independent practice.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        15

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

1.3-1.   Psychological conclusions are based on evidence collected according to the principles of the __________ method.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        2

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer:  scientific

 

 

1.3-2.  One of the first psychologists in the United States, Edward Titchener assumed that all human mental experience could be understood as the combination of basic components. His approach came to be known as __________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  structuralism

 

 

1.3-3.  Founded by the American psychologist William James, the school of __________ focused on the purposes of behavior.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        7

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer:  functionalism

 

 

1.3-4.  Establishing one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States and inventing techniques for studying memory were accomplishments of __________, who, as a woman, was allowed only to participate as a guest graduate student even though she completed all requirements for a Ph.D. at Harvard.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  Mary Whiton Calkins

 

 

1.3-5.  The first woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology was __________ in 1894.  She wrote an influential textbook, The Animal Mind, published in 1908 and became the second woman to lead the American Psychological Association.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        8

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  Margaret Floy Washburn

 

 

1.3-6.  Antecedent environmental conditions and observable consequences that follow from a response are primary matters of concern for psychologists who follow the __________ perspective.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer:  behaviorist

 

 

1.3-7.  The behaviorist perspective was pioneered by  __________, who was first to argue that psychological research should seek the laws that govern observable behavior across species.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  John Watson

 

 

1.3-8.  Abraham Maslow coined the term  __________ to refer to each individual’s drive toward the fullest development of his or her potential.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        10

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  self-actualization

 

 

1.3-9.  The centerpiece of the  __________ perspective in psychology is human thought and all the processes of knowing. From this perspective, people act because they think.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        11

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer:  cognitive

 

 

1.3-10.  Psychologists who take the  __________ perspective are most likely to assess behavior as it occurs across nationalities and take into account different traditions, societies, and customs.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        12

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer:  sociocultural

 

 

Essay Questions

 

1.4-1.  Your best friend is a freshman in college; she has just started to think about choosing a major. All she knows about psychology is that psychologists study behavior. Define behavior for her as it is understood by psychologists, including a description of levels of analysis, so that she has an idea of the different ways in which behavior can be studied.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3-4

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Define psychology, behavior, and the scientific method. Discuss the emphasis on the study of individuals, human and nonhuman. Studies can be done in natural environments or in the laboratory. Studies often include investigation of mental processes.  How does all of this make psychology unique among the social sciences?

 

 

1.4-2.  Years ago, an eccentric rich uncle started looking out for your well-being. Recently he decided to subsidize your education. While you are on a vacation break, you drop by to visit him and mention in passing that you are taking a psychology course. He is intrigued and asks you to tell him about it. Specifically, he is interested in what the “point” of psychology is. What can you tell him about the goals of psychologists?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        3-5

Topic:  What Makes Psychology Unique?

Skill:    Applied

Answer:  Psychologists seek to answer the question, “What is human nature?” Include discussion of the parts of the definition of psychology:  scientific, behavior, individual, and mental. Include the goals of the psychologist conducting research to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior. Explain those goals.

 

 

1.4-3.  A friend is taking a history of science course, and has chosen to write a paper on the history of psychology. She comes to you for advice on who were the important people in the early history of psychology and the basic ideas underlying their approaches. What kind of helpful information could you give her concerning the evolution of modern psychology?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        5-13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Include the early ideas of Aristotle and Plato, John Locke, and Immanuel Kant.  Discuss Wilhelm Wundt’s work. Include Max Wertheimer, Edward Titchener, and William James.  Discuss structuralism and functionalism and the legacy of these approaches as discussed in the textbook. Discuss women’s roles in the development of psychology.

 

 

1.4-4.  Briefly describe the following perspectives on psychology: psychodynamic, behaviorist, humanistic, cognitive, biological, evolutionary, and sociocultural. What is the importance of perspectives in psychology?

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        9-13

Topic:  The Evolution of Modern Psychology

Skill:    Factual/Conceptual

Answer: Psychodynamic emphasis is on powerful inner forces that drive and motivate behavior. Behaviorists try to understand how stimuli in the environment control behavior. Humanists believe that people are active, innately good, and capable of choice. The cognitive perspective focuses on human thought and all the processes of knowing. The biological perspective guides psychologists in the search for underlying biological processes and structures that affect behavior. The evolutionary perspective focuses on conditions in the environment in which the human brain evolved, and the adaptive patterns that contribute to survival of species. The sociocultural perspective looks at cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior.

 

 

1.4-5.  Imagine that you have a cousin who is a senior in high school and who has started to think about possible careers. All he knows about psychologists is that they are interested in behavior. Describe for him the opportunities for a career within the field of psychology. What are the different types of psychologists and what kinds of questions do they attempt to answer?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        14-16

Topic:  What Psychologists Do

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Consult Table 1.2 in the text: “The Diversity of Psychological Inquiry.” Each approach to psychology achieves a balance of research and application in a different way.  Give examples of different types of psychologists and their focuses of research and practice.

 

 

Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

3.1-1.  Nature is to nurture as heredity is to

 

  1. evolution.

Incorrect: Evolution and heredity are both nature-based concepts. The best answer that correlates to nurture is environment.

  1. aggression.
  2. environment.

Correct: Nature refers to the effects of an individual’s biology, including his/her genetic makeup. Nurture refers the features of the environment within which the individual was raised. To discover the causes of behavior, it is useful to be able to discriminate the forces of heredity from the forces of the environment.

  1. natural selection.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. environment.

% correct  85     a= 8  b= 0  c= 85  d=  8     r = .33

 

 

3.1-2.  A prisoner is violent and hostile, although he wasn’t always this way. His therapist believes that the environment the prisoner was raised in brought about his aggressive tendencies. The therapist is espousing the view that behavior is primarily influenced by

 

  1. nature.
  2. biology.

Incorrect: Influences of one’s environment are connected to a “nurture” view of behavior development. This prisoner’s therapist assesses the behaviors in question as having been produced by the environment in which he was raised. Therefore nurture is the best answer.

  1. nurture.

Correct: Nurture refers to the effects of the environment on the behavior of the individual; in this case the therapist likely believes that all people are equally predisposed to aggression and that the particular environment in which they were raised creates more or less aggression in them.

  1. heredity.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. nurture.

 

 

3.1-3.  The book The Origin of Species was written by

 

  1. Sigmund Freud.
  2. Charles Darwin.
  3. Sir Charles Sherrington.
  4. Peter and Rosemary Grant.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. Charles Darwin.

% correct  98     a=  0 b=  98 c= 0  d=  2     r = .24

 

 

3.1-4.  To help him explain the variety of species he observed during exploration of the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin suggested the process of

 

  1. bipedalism.
  2. encephalization.
  3. natural selection.
  4. behavior genetics.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        47-48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. natural selection.

% correct  96     a= 4  b= 0  c= 96  d= 0      r = .54

 

 

3.1-5.  Charles Darwin noted that among the finches on the various Galápagos Islands, the factor that differentiated those that survived from those that didn’t was

 

  1. the shape of their beaks.
  2. the nesting sites they chose.
  3. their speed and endurance in flying.
  4. their ability to camouflage their eggs.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. the shape of their beaks.

 

 

3.1-6.  According to the theory of natural selection,

 

  1. organisms prefer natural environments to artificial habitats.
  2. each organism has the ability to choose which of nature’s laws it will follow.
  3. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce more offspring.

Correct: Over time, those organisms which are suited to their environment will become more numerous because they will better adapt and survive. Thus, they will be able to produce more offspring who will also have a good chance of surviving because they, too, will be suited to their environment.

  1. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce fewer offspring.

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. organisms that are well adapted to their environment will produce more offspring.

% correct 74      a= 19  b= 0  c= 74  d= 6      r = .60

 

 

3.1-7.  In evolutionary terms, an individual’s success is measured by the

 

  1. amount of territory one controls.

Incorrect: The most critical component of the theories of evolution is reproductive success of individual members of a species.

  1. degree of comfort an individual attains.
  2. number of offspring an individual produces.

Correct: If the species is well adapted to the environment it inhabits, it will produce and support more offspring who will in turn survive, produce, and support more offspring of their own.

  1. level of intelligence an individual acquires.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. number of offspring an individual produces.

 

 

3.1-8.  One explanation for new species is that they emerge when two populations from an original species become geographically separate. With respect to this explanation, contemporary research has shown that

 

  1. geographically isolating a species brings about its extinction.
  2. it is not possible to geographically isolate members of a species from one another.

Incorrect: This is not consistent with the information presented in your text. Geographic isolation is, in fact, a possibility.

  1. there are many examples of new species that have emerged without geographic isolation.

Correct: Modern researchers have discovered that there are other influences on the emergence of two species from one than the influence of geographically different environments. For instance, different chemical cues may emerge for recognizing appropriate mates. If over time cues become distinct for two different groups of the same species, two different populations of the same species may emerge in the same geographical area.

  1. new species never have ancestors in common with original species.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        48-49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. there are many examples of new species that have emerged without geographic isolation.

 

 

3.1-9.  Members of a species who possess the range of physical and psychological attributes best adapted to the environment are most likely to survive. This concept is known as

 

  1. natural selection.

Incorrect: Natural selection is a larger evolutionary concept. The best, most specific, answer to this question is survival of the fittest.

  1. genotypical structure.
  2. phenotypical structure.d. survival of the fittest.

Correct: To the extent that attributes that foster survival can be passed from one generation to the other and these adaptations match environmental stresses, the species is likely to survive.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. survival of the fittest.

% correct   60    a= 36  b= 0  c= 4  d=  60     r = .23

 

 

3.1-10.  As you enter a crowded room, you catch a glimpse of your friend’s dark hair and slim frame. What you are noticing most directly are aspects of your friend’s

 

  1. genotype.

Incorrect: A genotype refers to one’s genetic code, which is established at the moment of conception. The expression of that code is one’s phenotype.

  1. phenotype.

Correct: The outward characteristics of an individual—those that can be directly observed—are known as the phenotype.

  1. adaptations.
  2. selective advantage.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. phenotype.

 

 

3.1-11.  In the vocabulary of evolutionary theory, you have inherited ________ from your parents.

 

  1. a genotype
  2. a phenotype
  3. a behavioral repertory
  4. your outward appearance

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. a genotype

% correct 51      a= 13  b= 32  c= 51  d= 3      r = .45

 

 

3.1-12.  Imagine, for a moment, that you are a finch and that you live in an environment in which seeds of all types are plentiful. Under these circumstances, the size of your beak would

 

  1. be irrelevant to your survival.

Correct: The size of your beak becomes relevant to survival when seeds are of specific size and shape and do or do not allow you to easily consume them.

  1. enhance your chances of survival.

Incorrect: If seeds of all sizes are available, then the size of your beak would not be relevant to your ability to gather and consume food.

  1. detract from your chances of survival.
  2. enhance your chances of survival, but not your offspring’s chances.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. be irrelevant to your survival.

% correct   82    a= 82  b= 16  c= 2  d= 0      r = .51

 

 

3.1-13.  While surfing the Web, you stop at an anthropology website. There, you learn that natural selection favored two major adaptations in the evolution of the human species:

 

  1. fire and the wheel.
  2. reading and writing.
  3. language and emotion.
  4. bipedalism and encephalization.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        50

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. bipedalism and encephalization.

% correct  87     a= 2  b= 2  c= 10  d=  87     r = .26

 

 

3.1-14.  Your genetics professor has asked you to simplify the process of natural selection into a sequence of steps. Which of the following will your professor agree is the correct sequence?

 

  1. competition for resources, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases, selection of fittest genotype, environmental pressure

Incorrect: In this response, the different steps are scrambled in several different locations. Please refer back to Figure 3.1 to see the correct order of steps.

  1. reproductive success, competition for resources, frequency of genotype increases, environmental pressure, selection of fittest genotype
  2. selection of fittest genotype, competition for resources, environmental pressure, reproductive success, frequency of that genotype increases
  3. environmental pressure, competition for resources, selection of fittest genotype, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases

Correct: Only those who can reproduce can survive; the environment presents challenges to survival that must be met. The species that best adapt to the challenges survive to pass their genetic material on to their offspring, who in turn pass the genotype on . . . and the species continues, survives, and increases.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        49 (Figure 3.1)

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. environmental pressure, competition for resources, selection of fittest genotype, reproductive success, frequency of genotype increases

% correct  96     a= 0  b= 2  c= 2  d=  96     r = .25

 

 

3.1-15.  Gregor Mendel is best known for his research on

 

  1. how human intelligence is inherited.
  2. ethnic and racial differences.
  3. identical and fraternal twins.
  4. garden peas.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. garden peas.

% correct  83     a= 6  b= 0  c= 12  d=  83     r = .36

 

 

3.1-16.  Sex chromosomes

 

  1. contain 23 pairs of genes.
  2. are identical for males and females.
  3. bring about the union of a sperm and an egg.
  4. code the development of male or female physical characteristics.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. code the development of male or female physical characteristics.

% correct  85     a= 6  b= 4  c= 6  d= 85      r = .24

 

 

3.1-17.  In the human male, the sex chromosomes normally consist of a(n) ________ pair; in the human female they consist of a(n) ________ pair.

 

  1. XY; XX
  2. XX; XX
  3. YY; XX
  4. XX; YY

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. XY; XX

% correct  94    a=  94 b= 0  c= 0  d=  6     r = .25

% correct  93     a= 93  b= 0  c= 6.  d= 0      r = .30

 

 

3.1-18.  The goal of the Human Genome Project is to

  1. identify all of the human genes.
  2. verify Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
  3. show research support for the major events in human evolution.
  4. build human-like robots or cyborgs.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. identify all of the human genes.

% correct  86     a= 86  b= 6  c= 8  d= 0      r = .51

 

 

3.1-19.  Heritability is measured on a scale of

  1. -1.0 to +3.1.
  2. 0 to 1.
  3. 0 to 10.
  4. 1 to 100.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. 0 to 1.

% correct  90     a= 4  b= 90  c= 4  d=  0     r = .39

 

 

3.1-20. In a study by Vink et al. (2009) described in your textbook, which of the following behaviors yielded a “rather large” heritability estimate of about 0.62 for monozygotic (identical) twins?

 

  1. preferring coffee over tea
  2. preferring baseball over football
  3. preferring to get dressed “pants first” over “shirt first”
  4. preferring a partner with their own hair color over a partner with a different hair color

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. Preferring coffee over tea

 

 

3.1-21.  Which cell part and description is matched correctly?

  1. soma; contains the nucleus and cytoplasm that sustains its life
  2. terminal button; extends outward from the cell body and receives incoming signals
  3. dendrite; conducts information along its length, at the end of which can be found terminal buttons
  4. axon; bulblike structure through which stimulation of nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons is made possible

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. soma; contains the nucleus and cytoplasm that sustains its life

 

 

3.1-22.  The children in a classroom are playing the role of different parts of a neuron and arranging themselves in the order that information follows as it passes along the neuron. Beginning with incoming signals, the correct order is

 

  1. dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons.

Correct: The dendrites pass information on to the soma or cell body, which integrates the information and passes it to the axon, which passes the information to the terminal buttons that are then able to stimulate other neurons (or glands, muscles, etc.) by releasing the neurotransmitter that is stored in them. The neurotransmitter crosses the synapse to the dendrites and the process starts again.

  1. axon, dendrites, soma, terminal buttons.

Incorrect: Incoming chemical information is received by dendrites, so they would have to come first in the system. Then the information goes to the soma, the axon, and the terminal buttons.

  1. terminal buttons, soma, dendrites, axon.
  2. soma, terminal buttons, axon, dendrites.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54-55

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. dendrites, soma, axon, terminal buttons.

% correct  82     a= 82  b= 10  c= 0  d=  8     r = .46

 

 

3.1-23.  At one end of the neuron are swollen, bulblike structures called ________, which make it possible for the neuron to stimulate nearby glands, muscles, or other neurons.

 

  1. soma
  2. axons
  3. dendrites
  4. terminal buttons

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        54-55

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. terminal buttons

% correct   88    a= 2  b= 0  c= 10  d=  88     r = .48

 

 

3.1-24.  The primary function of ________ is to carry messages away from the central nervous system toward the muscles and glands.

 

  1. glial cells
  2. interneurons
  3. motor neurons
  4. sensory neurons

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. motor neurons

% correct  58     a= 3  b= 12  c= 58  d= 25      r = .47

 

 

3.1-25.  Imagine that you have gone to the garden to pick a rose. Unfortunately, when reaching for a flower, your thumb encounters a thorn and you jerk your hand away. What is the order in which information is communicated, from the time of the prick through withdrawal of your hand and realization of pain?

 

  1. sensory neuron, brain, interneuron, motor neuron
  2. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, brain

Correct: Sensory neurons take the information from the environment (the thorn) to an interneuron in the spinal cord. This interneuron stimulates a motor neuron, which excites appropriate muscles to pull your hand away from the thorn. Only after this has occurred does the brain receive the information; the perception of pain occurs in the brain after you have physically responded to the danger.

  1. motor neuron, interneuron, brain, sensory neuron

Incorrect: In this answer, motor and sensory neurons are reversed from their correct positions.

  1. brain, interneuron, sensory neuron, motor neuron

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54-56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, brain

 

 

3.1-26.  While jotting down the numerous functions of glial cells being rattled off by your professor, you make an error: glial cells do NOT

 

  1. prevent the formation of a myelin sheath around axons.

Correct: Glial cells form this fatty insulation, which greatly increases the speed of neural transmission.

  1. make up a blood-brain barrier around blood vessels in the brain.
  2. help guide newborn neurons to appropriate locations in the brain.
  3. take up excess neurotransmitters and other substances at the gaps between neurons.

Incorrect: This is not one of the functions of glial cells.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. prevent the formation of a myelin sheath around axons.

 

 

3.1-27.  The myelin sheath, which is found around some types of axons,

  1. has no known function.
  2. is composed of glial cells.
  3. decreases the speed of nerve signal conduction.
  4. increases the likelihood that harmful substances will reach the brain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. is composed of glial cells.

 

 

3.1-28.  In loose terms, the “decision” as to whether a neuron will produce a response or not depends upon the

 

  1. excitatory inputs it receives.

Incorrect: In deciding whether or not to create an action potential, a neuron’s soma weighs the information of both excitatory and inhibitory inputs that it receives from dendrites.

  1. inhibitory inputs it receives.
  2. removal of the action potential.
  3. excitatory and inhibitory inputs it receives.

Correct: Whether the neuron fires or not will depend on the pattern of excitatory and inhibitory inputs over time. When inputs reach the right threshold, the neuron will fire. The decision to fire or not is made on the basis of information arriving at the dendrites, then integrated and passed on by the soma.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        56

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. excitatory and inhibitory inputs it receives.

% correct  87     a= 10  b=  2 c= 0  d=  87     r = .35

 

 

3.1-29.  When the neuron is inactive, we say it is in a resting state. When it is in such a state,

 

  1. we say the neuron is depolarized.

Incorrect: Depolarization happens when a neuron shifts from is negative resting state to its positive action state.

  1. potassium is being actively pumped out of the cell.
  2. it does not have the capacity to respond to stimulation.
  3. the fluid inside the neuron is slightly negative electrically, relative to the fluid outside the neuron.

Correct: The fluid inside the cell is polarized with respect to the fluid outside the cell (fluid inside the cell has a slightly more negative voltage). This slight polarization is called a resting potential.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. the fluid inside the neuron is slightly negative electrically, relative to the fluid outside the neuron.

 

 

3.1-30.  You arrive at class late, and walk in during the part of the lecture describing how action potentials work. The professor says, “the channels that allow sodium to flow into the neuron have just closed and the channels that allow potassium to flow out have opened.” You can conclude that the cell is

 

  1. in its leaking state.

Incorrect: There is no such thing as a “leaking” state for a neuron.

  1. in the process of being depolarized and will soon fire.
  2. in the process of returning to its original resting state.

Correct: When the inside of the neuron becomes positive because sodium has rushed into it, the neuron is depolarized. The channels that allow sodium in then close and the channels that allow potassium to flow out open. The outflow of potassium allows the cell to return to a resting state. This progression happens successively down the axon until all of the axon has depolarized and then been returned to the resting state.

  1. not behaving as it normally would and might be damaged.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. in the process of returning to its original resting state.

 

 

3.1-31.  In the context of the action potential, all of the following are consequences of the all-or-none law EXCEPT that

 

  1. if the threshold is not reached, no action potential occurs.
  2. the size of the action potential does not diminish along the length of the axon.
  3. once started, the action potential needs no outside stimulation to keep going.
  4. the size of the action potential varies as a function of the intensity of stimulation.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        57-58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. the size of the action potential varies as a function of the intensity of stimulation.

% correct  73     a= 8  b= 10  c= 10  d= 73      r = .35

 

 

3.1-32.  The nodes of Ranvier are found in

 

  1. myelinated neurons only.
  2. unmyelinated neurons only.
  3. the dendrites of the neuron.
  4. both myelinated and unmyelinated neurons.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. myelinated neurons only.

 

 

3.1-33.  During the absolute refractory period,

 

  1. neurons can fire continuously.
  2. no amount of further stimulation can induce another action potential to develop.
  3. only the strongest stimulation will cause another action potential to be generated.
  4. the neuron will fire to a stimulus that is slightly stronger than what is normally necessary.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. no amount of further stimulation can induce another action potential to develop.

 

 

3.1-34.  On the neuron, neurotransmitters are stored in

 

  1. synaptic vesicles.
  2. the nodes of Ranvier.
  3. the myelin sheath.
  4. synaptic clefts.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        58-59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. synaptic vesicles.

% correct 61      a= 61  b= 13  c= 6  d= 19      r = .41

 

 

3.1-35.  Which of the following most accurately reflects the sequence of events involved in synaptic transmission?

 

  1. binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; rupturing of synaptic vesicles; action potential
  2. rupturing of synaptic vesicles; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; action potential; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules
  3. action potential; rupturing of synaptic vesicles; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules
  4. action potential; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules; rupturing of synaptic vesicles

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        58-59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. action potential; rupturing of synaptic vesicles; dispersal across the synaptic cleft; binding of neurotransmitters to receptor molecules

% correct 61      a= 16  b= 13  c= 61 d= 10      r = .44

 

 

3.1-36.  The image of a key fitting into a keyhole is most useful in understanding how

 

  1. synaptic vesicles are opened by an action potential.
  2. the end of one neuron fits snugly into another.

Incorrect: Remember that neurons are separated by microscopic gaps called synaptic clefts.

  1. ion channels open and close.
  2. neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules.

Correct: Neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules if no other neurotransmitters or chemical substances are attached to the receptor molecule and if the shape of the neurotransmitter matches the shape of the receptor molecule, just as a key fits into a keyhole.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: d. neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules.

% correct 85      a=  10 b=  4 c= 2  d=  85     r = .21

 

 

3.1-37.  A mystery writer can’t decide how the victim will meet his end. One possibility is to have him suffer botulism poisoning, but curare, a poison used by Amazon Indians, is also a possibility. In either case, the victim’s death will involve the neurotransmitter

 

  1. acetylcholine.

Correct: The botulism toxin prevents the release of acetylcholine in the respiratory system, causing death by suffocation. Curare paralyzes lung muscles by occupying critical acetylcholine receptors so that the neurochemical cannot work as it normally does.

  1. GABA.
  2. dopamine.

Incorrect: Your authors discuss the poison curare and its effects on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, not dopamine.

  1. norepinephrine.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. acetylcholine.

% correct  40     a= 40  b= 38  c= 10  d= 12      r = .42

 

 

3.1-38.  A patient has just received a prescription drug that will decrease her high level of anxiety. It is most likely that the drug she has received will increase the activity of the neurotransmitter

 

  1. acetylcholine.
  2. GABA.

Correct: GABA inhibits neural activity; when levels of this neurotransmitter are low, people may experience anxiety or depression. Medications that help alleviate the symptoms of these disorders increase GABA activity.

  1. nitric oxide.

Incorrect: Nitric oxide is not a neurotransmitter.

  1. dopamine.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. GABA.

% correct  49     a= 12  b= 49  c= 0  d= 39      r = .48

 

 

3.1-39.  A student is interrupted while making notes for a test on neurotransmitter substances. When he returns to the task, he makes a mistake. Can you see the error?

 

  1. norepinephrine – depression
  2. dopamine – schizophrenia
  3. dopamine – Parkinson’s disease
  4. norepinephrine – botulism

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        59-60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. norepinephrine – botulism

 

 

3.1-40.  Psychologists are especially interested in neurotransmitters that belong to the class of substances called catecholamines because research suggests that these substances play a major role in

 

  1. long-term memory.
  2. mood disturbances and schizophrenia.
  3. drug addiction.
  4. pain.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        59-60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. mood disturbances and schizophrenia.

% correct  63     a= 12  b= 63  c=  17 d=  8     r = .18

 

 

3.1-41.  A friend is taking a drug awareness class. One of the things he learns is that LSD, a hallucinogenic drug that produces bizarre sensory experiences, is believed to work because it

 

  1. suppresses the effect of serotonin neurons.

Correct: For some reason this serotonergic suppression is known to produce the hallucinogenic effects that are associated with LSD.

  1. increases the production of serotonin.
  2. enhances the effect of serotonin, which is normally excitatory.
  3. removes serotonin from the body.

Incorrect: While LSD does work by affecting the serotonin system, it is not by removing it from the body but rather by suppressing its effects on the body.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. suppresses the effect of serotonin neurons.

% correct  23     a= 23  b= 0  c= 44  d= 33      r = .23

 

 

3.1-42.  You come across a magazine article on endorphins. It doesn’t surprise you that it is subtitled “the keys to paradise,” because

 

  1. they have the capacity to alter a person’s mood state.

Incorrect: If you were talking about serotonin, for example, this would be a correct answer.

  1. these substances can reduce the addictive properties of illegal drugs.
  2. of their pleasure-pain controlling properties.

Correct: Endorphins are neuromodulators that play an important role in the regulation of emotional behavior—they modify or modulate the activity of the neuron that receives them postsynaptically.

  1. many of the new prescription medications will have endorphins as their primary component.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. of their pleasure-pain controlling properties.

 

 

3.1-43.  A research participant is given a dose of the drug naloxone and then his arm is placed in a bucket of ice water, which is normally quite a painful experience. It is likely that the

 

  1. participant will experience little or no pain.
  2. participant will experience a placebo effect.
  3. participant will undergo a painful experience.
  4. participant’s body will stop producing endorphins.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. participant will undergo a painful experience.

 

 

3.1-44.  Much of the research related to how our brains respond when we have to make decisions about trust has been focused on a hormone called oxytocin. Oxytocin

 

  1. functions in our brains to enhance social bonds between animals.
  2. is unlikely to have much of an impact on social behavior.
  3. helps us to act on information that tells us that our trust has been broken.
  4. influences brain activity no differently from a placebo.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        61

Topic:  Psychology in Your Life:  How Does Your Brain Determine Trust?

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. functions in our brains to enhance social bonds between animals.

 

 

3.1-45.  Historically speaking, the case of Phineas Gage, a railroad worker who was injured in 1848, is important because it provides evidence for a link between

 

  1. verbal and motor behavior.
  2. the brain and complex psychological processes.

Correct: The traumatic piercing of his brain led his doctor to hypothesize that personality and rational behavior might be based in the brain.

  1. near-death experiences and motivation.
  2. intellectual faculties and equilibrium.

Incorrect: These neurological functions were not the main lesson we learned from the tragic case of Phineas Gage.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        61-62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. the brain and complex psychological processes.

% correct  71     a= 15  b= 71  c=  2 d=  8     r = .36

 

 

3.1-46.  Broca’s area in the brain is most closely associated with

 

  1. memory.
  2. emotion.
  3. language.
  4. physical movement.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. language.

% correct  61     a= 19  b= 10  c= 61  d= 10      r = .58

 

 

3.1-47.  The problem with relying on participants whose brains have been accidentally damaged in order to understand brain functioning is that

 

  1. researchers have no control over the location or extent of the damage.

Correct: To produce a well-founded understanding of the brain and its relationship to behavior and cognition, scientists need methods that allow them to specify the brain tissue that has been damaged or incapacitated.

  1. people with damaged brains no longer allow themselves to be studied by researchers.
  2. the brain damage is never extensive enough and does not produce noticeable changes in behavior.
  3. governmental agencies prohibit research with people who have suffered damage to their brains.

Incorrect: There is no such prohibition on research involving those who have suffered brain damage, though they must be cared for with the same ethical principles that govern all research.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. researchers have no control over the location or extent of the damage.

 

 

3.1-48.  You see a notice to recruit participants for an experiment that will use rTMS. If you participated in such a study, you should expect that

 

  1. a series of words will be read to you rapidly through earphones.
  2. reversible “lesions” will inactivate areas of your brain.

Correct: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation uses pulses of magnetic stimulation to create temporary reversible lesions in human brains so that, without any damage being done, brain regions will temporarily be inactive.

  1. you will be expected to make decisions with others in a group.
  2. you will be given a physical stress test and your oxygen levels will be monitored.

Incorrect: These are not procedures that will be included in an assessment using rTMS.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. reversible “lesions” will inactivate areas of your brain.

 

 

3.1-49. In a study by Cappelletti et al. (2008) described by your authors, the different parts of the brain associated with producing spoken nouns and spoken verbs were examined. Which of the following techniques was used to temporarily lesion specific brain areas in this study?

 

  1. fMRI
  2. rTMS
  3. EMG
  4. SPECT

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. rTMS

 

 

3.1-50.  A project director is committed to using a noninvasive technique to examine the functions of the brain. If she is true to her word, she will avoid the use of

 

  1. lesioning techniques.

Correct: Lesions are highly localized brain injuries. Lesions that create permanent damage to the brain can be carried out only with nonhuman animals. The ethics of this kind of research has now come under heightened scrutiny.

  1. magnetic resonance imaging.

Incorrect: Magnetic resonance imaging does not “invade” the body of the person being assessed, so this would not be a neuroimaging technique to avoid.

  1. positron emission tomography.
  2. functional magnetic resonance imaging.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. lesioning techniques.

 

 

3.1-51.  In the 1950s, Walter Hess examined 4500 brain sites in nearly 500 cats using which technique?

 

  1. brain lesions
  2. functional MRI
  3. electrical recording
  4. electrical stimulation

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. electrical stimulation

 

 

3.1-52.  The ________ shows where different types of activity are occurring in the brain and involves the use of a safe radioactive substance that is given to participants.

 

  1. MRI
  2. fMRI
  3. PET scan
  4. electroencephalogram

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        63

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. PET scan

% correct  64     a= 16  b= 8  c= 64  d= 12      r = .45

 

 

3.1-53.  Which technique uses special radio receivers to detect information from resonating atoms in order to assess brain activity?

 

  1. MRI
  2. EEG
  3. PET scan
  4. electrical stimulation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        63

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. MRI

 

 

3.1-54.  A researcher wants to be able to make precise claims about both the structure and the function of the brain. It will be best if she uses ________ to accomplish both goals.

 

  1. a PET scan

Incorrect: A PET scan does not give both information about structure and function. This would require an fMRI.

  1. EEG tracings
  2. functional MRI

Correct: The fMRI detects magnetic changes in blood flow to cells in the brain, allowing identification of cognitive functions such as attention, perception, language processing, and memory.

  1. electrical stimulation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. functional MRI

 

 

3.1-55.  The nervous system is subdivided into two major divisions. What are they?

  1. somatic and autonomic
  2. peripheral and somatic
  3. central and peripheral
  4. sympathetic and parasympathetic

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. central and peripheral

% correct 61      a= 10  b= 6.  c= 61  d= 23      r = .35

 

 

3.1-56.  All the neurons of the brain and spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system.

 

  1. central
  2. somatic
  3. autonomic
  4. peripheral

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. central

% correct 87      a= 87  b= 10  c= 3  d= 0      r = .43

 

 

3.1-57.  You remember as a child seeing an insect buzzing on a flower and trying to catch the insect. You may also remember the pain and your hand automatically jerking away. Although you didn’t know it at the time, your reflexive withdrawal was controlled by your

 

  1. brain.

Incorrect: As your authors note, reflexive actions often do not require the immediate involvement of the brain.

  1. spinal cord.

Correct: Although the brain will be notified of the action, the spinal cord takes care of simple reflex actions on its own.

  1. frontal lobe.
  2. autonomic nervous system.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. spinal cord.

 

 

3.1-58.  Involvement of the brain is not necessary for a person to

 

  1. shake someone else’s hand.
  2. pull his or her hand from a hot stove.

Correct: The spinal cord is responsible for simple fast-action reflexes such as pulling a hand away from a hot stove.

  1. imagine what it feels like to be paralyzed.
  2. feel the difference between velvet and sandpaper.

Incorrect: The brain would have to interpret the tactile input from your sensory receptors, so this would not be a correct answer.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. pull his or her hand from a hot stove.

% correct  64     a= 0  b= 64  c= 26  d= 10      r = .33

 

 

3.1-59.  A first-time marathon runner is learning that running a marathon can be quite stimulating. The applause from the spectators, sights along the road, and the pain in her legs are all experiences brought to her central nervous system by her

 

  1. CNS.
  2. brain.
  3. brain stem.

Incorrect: The brain step is part of the brain, so it would not make sense as an answer to this question.

  1. peripheral nervous system.

Correct: The central nervous system is isolated from the outside world.  It is the role of the peripheral nervous system to give the central nervous system information from sensory receptors and to then relay messages from the brain to the body’s muscles and glands.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. peripheral nervous system.

% correct  76     a= 4  b= 12  c= 8  d=  76     r = .47

 

 

3.1-60.  You are typing a letter to your friend. Suddenly, an image of a car wreck pops up on your screen and you are startled by it. In this situation, the act of typing the letter is regulated by your ________, while your response of fear is regulated by your ________.

 

  1. sympathetic division; parasympathetic division
  2. parasympathetic division; sympathetic division
  3. somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system

Correct: The somatic system regulates the action of skeletal muscles and is involved with the behavior of writing. The autonomic system includes the sympathetic division, which governs responses to emergency situations.

  1. autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system

 

 

3.1-61.  Each fifth grader is supposed to play the role of a part of the body for the school play. One of the children says that she is responsible for respiration, digestion, and arousal. You can surmise that she must be playing the role of the

 

  1. spinal cord.

Incorrect: The spinal cord is not responsible for these important tasks, but rather the autonomic nervous system controls them.

  1. somatic nervous system.
  2. central nervous system.
  3. autonomic nervous system.

Correct: The autonomic nervous system works even when we are asleep, sustaining basic life processes.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. autonomic nervous system.

% correct  67     a= 2  b= 13  c= 17  d=  67     r = .25

 

 

3.1-62.  One way to conceptualize the relationship among the elements of the nervous system is to use a hierarchical organization. Using this kind of scheme, the

 

  1. sympathetic and parasympathetic are divisions of the somatic nervous system.
  2. peripheral nervous system can be divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

Correct: The somatic nervous system regulates the action of the body’s skeletal muscles.  The autonomic nervous system sustains basic life processes and survival of the organism.

  1. autonomic nervous system is composed of the peripheral and central nervous systems.

Incorrect: The autonomic nervous system is comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

  1. two divisions of the central nervous system are the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        65-66

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. peripheral nervous system can be divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

 

 

3.1-63.  Taking a shortcut through the park late one night, you catch a glimpse of movement in the shadows. Automatically, your ________ mobilizes your body into action and your ________ tells the muscles in your legs to run.

 

  1. sympathetic nervous system; spinal cord
  2. parasympathetic nervous system; brain
  3. sympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

Correct: The sympathetic branch of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for survival of the individual in emergency situations. The somatic system controls the skeletal muscles which are necessary for response to this emergency.

  1. parasympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

Incorrect: The second half of this answer is correct, but the first half should refer to the sympathetic nervous system.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64-65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. sympathetic nervous system; somatic nervous system

 

 

3.1-64.  In the middle of the night, you hear two loud thumps outside your bedroom door. Your ________ nervous system increases your heart rate and sends blood away from internal organs to your muscles, preparing you for “fight or flight.” When you learn it is just your roommate coming in late, your ________ nervous system slows down your heart rate and calms you down.

 

  1. peripheral; somatic
  2. somatic; peripheral
  3. sympathetic; parasympathetic

Correct: The sympathetic system is responsible for response to emergency situations. The parasympathetic nervous system monitors the body’s internal routine operations and returns the body to its day-to-day state when the emergency is resolved.

  1. parasympathetic; sympathetic

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. sympathetic; parasympathetic

% correct  70     a= 23  b= 5  c= 70  d= 2      r = .40

 

 

3.1-65.  A student is walking through an exhibit at the science museum entitled “The Living Brain.” The exhibit takes her from the outer layers of the brain to its deepest recesses. What is the route she will follow?

 

  1. cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem

Correct: The brain has three interconnected layers. The cerebral cortex, the outer layer of the cerebrum wraps around the limbic system, which in turn wraps around the brain stem in the deepest recesses of the brain.

  1. brain stem, limbic system, cerebrum

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

  1. limbic system, cerebrum, brain stem
  2. cerebrum, brain stem, limbic system

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem

% correct 45      a= 45  b= 25  c= 6  d= 23      r = .40

 

 

3.1-66.  You are working with a friend to develop flash cards to help your study of brain structures and their functions. Your friend remembers correctly that the ________ is involved primarily in autonomic processes such as heart rate and breathing, and you remember that the ________ is involved in motivation, emotion and memory processes.

 

  1. cerebrum; cerebral cortex
  2. brain stem; limbic system

Correct: The brain stem is in the deepest recesses of the brain and contains structures primarily responsible for automatic functions that keep us alive. The limbic system envelops the brain stem.

  1. limbic system; brain stem

Incorrect: In fact, this is the opposite of the correct answer!

  1. cerebral cortex; brain stem

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. brain stem; limbic system

 

 

3.1-67.  In the brain, the ________ and its surface layer, the ________, integrates sensory information, coordinates your movements, and facilitates abstract thinking and reasoning.

 

  1. cerebrum; cerebral cortex
  2. cerebral cortex; cerebrum
  3. cerebellum; cerebral cortex
  4. cerebral cortex; cerebellum

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. cerebrum; cerebral cortex

 

 

3.1-68.  A child is having a tantrum. He tells his parents that he is going to hold his breath until he turns blue. Fortunately, the ________, which controls his breathing (along with the beating of his heart), won’t let him do so.

 

  1. pons
  2. medulla

Correct: The medulla is located at the very top of the spinal cord within the brain stem. The medulla is essential for breathing, blood pressure, and the beating of the heart, which all happen automatically, without conscious control.

  1. amygdala

Incorrect: The amygdala does not play an active role in regulation of essential tasks, including respiration.

  1. hippocampus

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. medulla

 

 

3.1-69.  All of the following are located in the brain stem EXCEPT the

 

  1. hypothalamus.
  2. medulla.
  3. reticular formation.
  4. pons.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. hypothalamus.

 

 

3.1-70.  While discussing the functions of the brain stem, the lecturer notices that many of his students appear to have fallen asleep. This reminds him of the ________, which arouses the cerebral cortex to attend to new stimulation and keeps the brain alert even during sleep.

 

  1. pons

Incorrect: While the pons does play a role in arousal and sleep, it is the reticular formation that carries messages to the cerebral cortex regarding stimulation and monitoring of our surroundings.

  1. medulla
  2. cerebellum
  3. reticular formation

Correct: This is a dense network of nerve cells that arouses the cerebral cortex to pay attention to new input even during sleep. Severe damage to this area results in a coma.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. reticular formation

% correct 40      a= 21  b= 30  c= 12  d=  40     r = .45

 

 

3.1-71.  As you read this question, the ________ is relaying information from the eyes to cortical areas for vision.

 

  1. thalamus

Correct: Fibers run from the reticular formation to the thalamus which channels incoming sensory information to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex where the information is processed.

  1. cerebellum
  2. hypothalamus

Incorrect: It is the other half of the diencephalon, the thalamus, which has this particular task.

  1. reticular formation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. thalamus

% correct  70     a= 70  b= 12  c= 16  d=  2     r = .27

 

 

3.1-72.  Imagine that the size of structures within people’s brains grow as skills are developed. If this were true, you can predict that the size of the ________ in a ballerina or gymnast would be larger than normal because of their ability to coordinate bodily movements, control posture, and maintain equilibrium.

 

  1. thalamus
  2. cerebellum

Correct: The cerebellum is attached to the brain stem. Damage to this area interrupts the flow of smooth movement causing movement to appear uncoordinated. The cerebellum is also involved in the ability to learn and perform sequences of body movements.

  1. hippocampus

Incorrect: The hippocampus is not responsible for these tasks. It is the cerebellum that controls things like posture and balance.

  1. reticular formation

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. cerebellum

% correct  81     a= 10  b= 81  c=  6 d=  4     r = .18

 

 

3.1-73.  The limbic system includes the

 

  1. medulla, hippocampus, and pons.
  2. hypothalamus, cerebrum, and cerebellum.
  3. hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.
  4. reticular formation, amygdala, and thalamus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.

% correct 77      a= 77  b= 7  c= 12  d= 4      r = .54

 

 

3.1-74.  As you leave class, you hear the professor mention that the next class will deal with the largest of the limbic system structures and one that is also implicated in the acquisition of memories. The most likely topic for the next class will be the

 

  1. hypothalamus and homeostasis.
  2. importance of the amygdala.

Incorrect: The amygdala is responsible for some of our memory functions, but the brain structure most salient in remembering is the hippocampus.

  1. characteristics of the hippocampus.

Correct: The hippocampus is the largest of the limbic structures. With damage to this area of the brain, we would likely still be able to learn new tasks but we would not be able to remember that we had learned them!

  1. thalamus: the brain’s relay station.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the characteristics of the hippocampus.

 

 

3.1-75.  A doctor on television is discussing the curious case of G.R., a patient who has suffered damage to his brain. G.R. believes that it is still 1970 and that the last Olympic games were held in Mexico in 1968, even though it is now the 21st century. Before the doctor divulges the part of the brain that is damaged in this individual, you predict that it is the

 

  1. thalamus.
  2. hypothalamus.
  3. hippocampus.

Correct: Damage to the hippocampus does not allow G.R. to put new information into long-term memory.  He can remember the distant past, before the damage to his brain occurred. He could likely learn new tasks, but knowledge of learning them would not be stored in his long-term memory.

  1. medulla.

Incorrect: The medulla does not control the acquisition and retention of memories. That is the job of the hippocampus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. hippocampus.

% correct  77     a= 0  b= 12  c= 77  d=  10     r = .51

 

 

3.1-76.  Damage to parts of this area of the brain may have a calming effect on “mean-spirited” people and has recently been implicated in the acquisition and use of knowledge related to threat and danger. It is the

 

  1. amygdala.
  2. thalamus.
  3. hippocampus.
  4. hypothalamus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. amygdala.

% correct  71     a= 71  b= 16  c= 6  d= 6      r = .40

 

 

3.1-77.  A woman is a hypochondriac. She is always reading medical journals and is constantly experiencing imagined symptoms of medical problems. Lately, she has been gaining a lot of weight, and feels that her internal physiological processes are out of balance. She is most likely to conclude that she has suffered brain damage to her

 

  1. amygdala.

Incorrect: The amygdala is not responsible for regulation of behaviors such as eating and drinking.

  1. thalamus.
  2. hypothalamus.

Correct: The hypothalamus is involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors such as eating. It maintains the body’s internal equilibrium or homeostasis. When the body’s energy reserves are low, the hypothalamus stimulates the organism to find food. Disregulation of the hypothalamus might affect both motivated eating and homeostasis.

  1. parietal lobe.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. hypothalamus.

 

 

3.1-78.  In science class, a nine-year-old is learning about how thermostats work. The teacher tells her that the furnace goes on when the temperature gets too cold, and then goes off when the temperature reaches a certain level. The student doesn’t know it, but this operation is similar to the concept of

 

  1. evolution.
  2. determinism.
  3. homeostasis.

Correct: Homeostasis is the maintenance of internal body equilibrium.  When the body is low on energy, the hypothalamus stimulates the organism to find food. When the body’s temperature drops, the hypothalamus causes blood vessel constriction or tiny involuntary movements (shivering) and motivates us to get warmer.

  1. the action potential.

Incorrect: The action potential is the neural impulse that travels down a neuron, from dendrite to terminal button.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. homeostasis.

 

 

3.1-79.  A child is playing an educational game called Brain Power. He reads clues about a part of the brain that occupies two-thirds of its total mass and that regulates higher thinking and emotional functions. He should recognize this part to be the

 

  1. cerebrum.

Correct: The cerebrum dwarfs the rest of the brain and is divided into two hemispheres by the corpus callosum.

  1. hypothalamus.
  2. corpus callosum.
  3. cerebral cortex.

Incorrect: The outer surface of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex. This is not the best answer to this question.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. cerebrum.

 

 

3.1-80.  The cerebrum is divided into two almost symmetrical halves, called the ________, which are connected by a mass of fibers called the ________.

 

  1. nuclei; nerve fibers
  2. lobes; cerebral connector
  3. cerebral cortices; equator
  4. cerebral hemispheres; corpus callosum

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. cerebral hemispheres; corpus callosum

% correct 74      a= 3  b= 16  c= 6  d= 74     r = .53

 

 

3.1-81.  With respect to the lobes of the brain, the frontal lobe is involved in ________ and the occipital lobe is the final destination for ________.

 

  1. motor control; visual information
  2. pain sensations; auditory sensations
  3. planning activities; touch sensations
  4. touch sensations; cognitive activities

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        68-69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. motor control; visual information

% correct  81     a= 81  b= 2  c= 7  d= 7      r = .37

 

 

3.1-82.  While going for the ball in the soccer league championship, a player slips and hits the back of his head so hard that he “sees stars.” Which lobe of the brain was stimulated when he hit his head?

 

  1. frontal
  2. temporal
  3. parietal

Incorrect: It is the occipital lobe of the cerebrum where visual information is processed.

  1. occipital

Correct: This lobe is the final destination for visual information.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. occipital

 

 

3.1-83.  Which statement most accurately describes what is going on in the brain when you are engaged in an everyday activity?

 

  1. Each activity is associated with only one lobe.

Incorrect: There are many activities that require multiple brain areas to be active, working in a coordinated fashion.

  1. For most activities, only the frontal lobes are active.
  2. Although the brain operates as a whole, some functions are associated with specific areas.

Correct: The structures of the brain work as a smoothly integrated unit. While each lobe has specific functions that may be interrupted or lost if the lobe is damaged, each lobe also contributes to the action of the brain in its entirety by interacting and cooperating with all other lobes.

  1. The brain operates as a unit, and no single area is necessary for any specific function.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. Although the brain operates as a whole, some functions are associated with specific areas.

% correct   94    a=  0 b= 0  c= 94  d=  6     r = .20

 

 

3.1-84.  A friend is having trouble locating the motor cortex, so you try to help her out. You should explain that the motor cortex is located

 

  1. below the lateral fissure, in the temporal lobes.
  2. above the lateral fissure, in the occipital lobes.
  3. in front of the central sulcus, in the frontal lobes.
  4. just behind the central sulcus, in the left and right parietal lobes.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. in front of the central sulcus, in the frontal lobes.

% correct  42     a= 15  b= 12  c= 42  d= 31      r = .16

 

 

3.1-85.  Imagine that you have been asked to give a short talk on the functioning of the auditory cortex. Make sure NOT to tell your audience that

 

  1. the auditory cortex is located in the two temporal lobes.

Incorrect: This is a correct statement, so there would be no reason not to tell this to your audience!

  1. the auditory cortex in each hemisphere receives information from both ears.
  2. the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere receives information only from the right ear.

Correct: The auditory cortex in each hemisphere receives information from both ears.

  1. different areas of the auditory cortex are involved in language comprehension and production of language.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. the auditory cortex of the left hemisphere receives information only from the right ear.

 

 

3.1-86.  You are looking at a drawing that represents the relationship between the motor cortex and different parts of the body. What strikes you is that

 

  1. the shoulders are missing from the drawing.
  2. only the areas related to the eyes, ears, and nose are larger than normal.
  3. the feet are huge, compared to the rest of the body.

Incorrect: The feet may be bigger than some areas, but overall this is not an accurate statement.

  1. the areas related to the fingers, thumb, and the muscles that control speech are quite large.

Correct: The greater brain area coincides with the importance of different body parts in terms of manipulating objects, using tools, eating, and talking.

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: d. the areas related to the fingers, thumb, and the muscles that control speech are quite large.

 

 

3.1-87.  The majority of the cerebral cortex is involved in

 

  1. language behavior.
  2. processing sensory information.
  3. commanding the muscles to action.
  4. interpreting and integrating information.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: d. interpreting and integrating information.

 

 

3.1-88.  After having suffered a stroke, a man is unable to plan his daily activities and finds it difficult to decide what to do for that day. You suspect that he has most likely suffered damage to his

 

  1. visual cortex.
  2. association cortex.

Correct: Processes such as planning and decision-making are believed to occur in the association cortex, a part of the cerebral cortex.

  1. primary motor area.
  2. primary somatosensory area.

Incorrect: The somatosensory area does not have the responsibility of higher-level functions, such as planning and sequencing of one’s daily activities.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. association cortex.

% correct  64     a= 4  b= 64  c= 2  d=  30     r = .39

 

 

3.1-89.  When Paul Broca carried out his autopsy on the patient known as “Tan,” he discovered damage in the ________ hemisphere; other patients studied by Broca who showed similar disruption of their language abilities had damage on the ________ side of their brains.

 

  1. left; left
  2. left; right
  3. right; left
  4. right; right

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. left; left

% correct  67     a= 67  b= 4  c= 17  d= 8      r = .51

 

 

3.1-90.  All you know about someone is that she is a “split-brain” patient. You can conclude that she

 

  1. has had her corpus callosum severed.
  2. will be unable to eat or walk unassisted.
  3. will probably demonstrate multiple personalities.
  4. has been born with the equivalent of half of a brain.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        71

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. has had her corpus callosum severed.

% correct  70     a= 70  b= 16  c= 14  d= 0      r = .55

 

 

3.1-91.  A friend has been told by his girlfriend that his hormones are out of balance, so he decides to do a little research. He is compiling a list of all of the characteristics of hormones. Which of the following statements should you tell him to remove from his list?  Hormones

 

  1. help fight infections and disease.

Correct: Hormones do not play a role in the body’s immune response to infections and diseases.

  1. serve as the basis for mood changes.
  2. have general, rather than specific or targeted effects.

Incorrect: Hormones are released into the blood and travel to distant target cells. Hormones exert their influences only at places that are genetically predetermined to respond to them. They influence diverse but specific target organs or tissues, thereby regulating an enormous range of biochemical processes.

  1. initiate, maintain, and stop development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        73

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. help fight infections and disease.

 

 

3.1-92.  In the brain, the ________ serves as a relay station between the endocrine system and the central nervous system.

 

  1. thalamus
  2. hippocampus
  3. hypothalamus
  4. cerebral cortex

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. hypothalamus

% correct  29     a= 42  b= 8  c= 29  d=  21     r = .37

 

 

3.1-93.  The endocrine glands produce hormones that regulate various bodily functions. Which gland-function pair is mismatched?

 

  1. thyroid; metabolism
  2. parathyroid; glucose metabolism
  3. anterior pituitary; reactions to stress
  4. posterior pituitary; uterus contraction

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. parathyroid; glucose metabolism

 

 

3.1-94.  A classmate is working on her presentation on the endocrine system for class. You overhear her as she says, “This gland is often called the ‘master gland’ because it has an effect on the secretions of all the other endocrine glands.” It sounds as though she is talking about the

 

  1. adrenals.
  2. pancreas.

Incorrect: The pancreas is important in your ability to metabolize glucose, but it is not the “master gland.”

  1. pituitary.

Correct: The pituitary gland produces ten different kinds of hormones that influence the secretions of all the other endocrine glands, as well as a hormone that influences growth.

  1. hypothalamus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. pituitary.

 

 

3.1-95.  A young man has begun to look and sound more physically mature, with the beginnings of a beard and a deeper voice. These changes can be attributed to the secretions of the

 

  1. ovaries.
  2. pancreas.
  3. pituitary.

Correct: In males, secretions of the pituitary gland activate the testes to secrete testosterone, which stimulates the production of sperm and secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, voice change, and physical maturation.

  1. parathyroid.

Incorrect: The parathyroid is not responsible for the production of hormones that stimulate primary and secondary sexual characteristics.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: c. pituitary.

 

 

3.1-96.  A magazine article describes a new drug that blocks the production of a hormone, preventing the release of ova and resulting in infertility in women. The hormone that is being blocked is most likely

 

  1. estrogen.

Correct: Estrogen production is stimulated by the pituitary gland.  Estrogen is essential for the chain reaction that triggers the release of ova from the ovaries making a woman fertile.

  1. dopamine.
  2. adrenaline.

Incorrect: Estrogen is what prompts the release of ova in women, not adrenaline.

  1. testosterone.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: a. estrogen.

% correct 100      a=100   b=0   c=0   d= 0      r = .00

 

 

3.1-97.  If we can apply Mark Rosenzweig’s research on rats raised in impoverished or enriched environments to humans, then we would encourage humans to live in a(n)

 

  1. environment that is deprived of unnecessary stimulation.
  2. environment that is full of stimulation when children, but not when adults.

Incorrect: In the research discussed in your textbook, even adults would benefit from enriched environments.

  1. enriched environment even after childhood.

Correct: Researchers have now determined that enriched environments not only affect the weight and thickness of young animals but continue to have this effect with adult animals.

  1. stressful environment in order to strengthen the functioning of the hippocampus.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: c. enriched environment even after childhood.

 

 

3.1-98.  It has been reported that the production of new brain cells from naturally occurring stem cells occurs in the brains of adult mammals. This process is called

 

  1. plasticity.
  2. transformation.
  3. neurogenesis.
  4. reuptake.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        75

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: c. neurogenesis

% correct 70      a= 20  b= 4  c= 70  d= 6      r = .29

 

 

True/False Questions

 

3.2-1.  Charles Darwin wrote The Origin of Species.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        47

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-2.  Your observable characteristics are known as your genotype.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-3.  DNA is organized into units called genes.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-4.  The human genome contains about four million genes.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-5.  Interneurons are one type of neuron.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        54

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-6.  An inflow of sodium causes a nerve cell to become depolarized.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        56-57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-7.  The all-or-none law states that the size of the action potential is unaffected by increases in the intensity of stimulation beyond the threshold level.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        57

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-8.  During the absolute refractory period, further stimulation, no matter how intense, cannot cause another action potential to be generated.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-9.  GABA is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-10.  Broca’s area of the brain is most closely associated with emotional behavior.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-11.  A patient is given a radioactive substance that eventually travels to the brain and allows for the production of detailed pictures of activity in the living brain. This individual has been given an MRI scan.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        63

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-12.  The procedure known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) should only be used in life-threatening situations, as it produces small but irreversible brain damage.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        62

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Applied

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-13.  The peripheral nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves that connect the body’s sensory receptors to the central nervous system.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-14.  The somatic nervous system is a subdivision of the peripheral nervous that regulates the actions of the body’s skeletal muscles.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-15.  The medulla and pons are two structures found within the cerebellum of the brain.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        67

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-16.  The amygdala is the part of the limbic system that controls emotion, aggression, and the formation of emotional memory.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-17.  One of the functions of the hypothalamus is to maintain the body’s homeostasis.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

3.2-18.  The parietal lobe is located at the front of the head and is the final destination for visual information.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        69

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-19.  The size of a particular region of the body is directly related to the amount of space in the cerebral cortex devoted to that region. For example, the arms and legs occupy nearly one hundred times the space devoted to the fingers and hand.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        70

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: b. false

 

 

3.2-20.  In males, the testes secrete testosterone, which stimulates production of sperm and may increase aggression and sexual desire.

 

  1. true
  2. false

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: a. true

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

 

3.3-1.  Due to favorable adaptations to features of the environment, some members of a species reproduce more successfully than others.  This captures the essence of the process called  __________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        47-48

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: natural selection

 

 

3.3-2.  The biological units of heredity are called  __________. They are responsible for the transmission of traits and are tiny sections of  __________.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        51

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: genes; chromosomes

 

 

3.3-3.  The relative influence of genetics versus environment in determining patterns of behavior is called __________.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        52

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer:  heritability

 

 

3.3-4.  The gap between one neuron and another is called a(n)  __________.

 

Difficulty:       1

Page Ref:        58

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual

Answer: synapse

 

 

3.3-5.  Due to its precision and clarity, researchers use a brain imaging technique known as __________.  It combines benefits of both MRI and PET scans by detecting changes in the flow of blood to cells in the brain.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

 

 

3.3-6.  The autonomic nervous system has two divisions.  The __________ subdivision deals with emergency response and the mobilization of energy, and the __________ subdivision monitors the routine operation of the body’s internal functions and conserves and restores body energy.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        65

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: sympathetic; parasympathetic

 

 

3.3-7.  The  __________ is the part of the limbic system that is involved in the acquisition of explicit memories.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: hippocampus

 

 

3.3-8.  The two hemispheres of the brain are connected by a thick mass of nerve fibers collectively referred to as the  __________.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        68

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer: corpus callosum

 

 

3.3-9.  The  __________ system manufactures and secretes chemical messengers called hormones into the bloodstream.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        73

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: endocrine

 

 

3.3-10.  The  __________ gland is often called the “master gland.”

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        74

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Factual

Answer:  pituitary

 

 

Essay Questions

 

3.4-1.  One day, you take your teenage niece to the zoo and she becomes particularly fascinated with the birds in the aviary. She asks you why they all seem to have differently shaped beaks. Use the research of Charles Darwin and Peter and Rosemary Grant to explain why animals look the way they do today, incorporating a discussion of natural selection.

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        47-49

Topic:  Heredity and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: The theory of natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin suggests that organisms that are well adapted to their environments will produce more offspring and therefore survive longer than those not so well-adapted. The Grants studied finches, their habits, environment, and population size. They took note of the ones that survived a terrible drought and why they survived when others didn’t.

 

 

3.4-2.  Diagram a neuron, label its parts, and describe how it works. In your description, be sure to provide a brief explanation of the resting potential and the action potential. Then, explain how information flows from neuron to neuron. How does information transmission in the nervous system differ from the information transmission that takes place in the endocrine system?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        54-59; 73

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action; Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual/Factual

Answer: Include soma, dendrites, axon, terminal buttons, synapse, neurotransmitters, electrochemical action, and resting and action potentials. Glia and myelin sheath are also suggested. The endocrine system is a network of glands whose hormones are transmitted throughout the body in the bloodstream. The endocrine and nervous systems form complex communication systems in the body.

 

 

3.4-3.  Describe and discuss four major neurotransmitters and their effects. Discuss how neurotransmitters are released from the neuron and the importance of neural transmission.

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        59-60

Topic:  The Nervous System in Action

Skill:    Factual/Conceptual

Answer: Include discussion of four of the following: acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, endorphins.  Discuss how these neurochemical messengers are released from the terminal buttons of the axon into the synapse and taken up by the receiving neuron.

 

 

3.4-4.  Neuroscientists have developed a variety of techniques for studying the workings of the brain and the relationship between the brain and behavior. Describe these methods along with the pros and cons of each. Why are these new imaging techniques so important to understanding the functions of the brain as they relate to behavior?

 

Difficulty:       3

Page Ref:        60-64

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual

Answer: Neuroscientists want to understand the brain at many levels, from visible structures to the properties of nerve cells. Researchers have developed a number of ways to produce lesions in order to study functioning of the brain. Give examples. Include discussion of PET scans, MRI, EEG, fMRI, and repetitive transcranial stimulation.

 

 

3.4-5.  Draw a diagram of the organization of the nervous system, including the divisions and subdivisions. Give a brief description of the function of each of the parts of your diagram. What is the overall significance of having two major divisions of the nervous system?

 

Difficulty:       2

Page Ref:        64-66

Topic:  Biology and Behavior

Skill:    Conceptual/Factual

Answer: Include the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, with the autonomic and somatic, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.  Briefly define each. The CNS is vitally important, but it would be isolated from the outside world without the actions of the PNS.