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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3

Service Quality Approach

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. Today, most workers in the United States are employed in the ___________ sector of the economy.

*a. Service

  1. Agriculture
  2. Manufacturing
  3. Defense

Answer location: (The Role of Services in an Economy) p. 70

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The United States labor force and economy is best considered __________________.
  2. Agrarian
  3. Industrial

*c. Post-industrial

  1. Mechanical

Answer location: (The Role of Services in an Economy) p. 70

Question Type: MC

 

  1. As nations develop, they undergo a transformation in their economy following which of the following sequences (earliest to latest)?
  2. Industrial to postindustrial to agrarian

*b. Agrarian to industrial to postindustrial

  1. Industrial to agrarian to postindustrial
  2. Postindustrial to industrial to agrarian

Answer location: (The Role of Services in an Economy) p. 70

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which component of the criminal justice system accounts for the largest share of both total justice expenditures and employment, according to the 2007 Bureau or Justice Statistics Bulletin?

*a. Police

  1. Courts
  2. Corrections
  3. None of the above

Answer Location:  (The Role of Services in an Economy) p. 70

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Most employees in the criminal justice system work at the ________________ level of government.

*a. Local

  1. State
  2. Federal
  3. The workforce is about equally split across local, state, and federal levels

Answer location: (The Role of Services in an Economy) p. 70

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police department purchases in-car computers for all vehicles in its fleet. The purchase of the computers is automatically accompanied by three years of free technical support services from the manufacturer.  The technical support services fall into which category of services?
  2. Services that facilitate the purchase of goods

*b. Services that come with purchased goods

  1. Services that are pure
  2. Services that are credit-based

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 71

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Probation officers provide services that do not involve any exchange of goods. This is an example of ____________________.
  2. Services that facilitate the purchase of goods
  3. Services that come with purchased goods

*c. Services that are pure

  1. Services that are credit-based

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 71

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A family pays a monthly fee to a home security company to monitor in-home alarm systems. The service provided by the home security company is best considered a __________ service.

*a. Business-to-consumer

  1. Business-to-business
  2. Public
  3. Not-for-profit

Answer location:  (Definition of Service) p. 71

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is best considered a business-to-business service?

*a. A private security agency

  1. A victim assistance program
  2. A state prison
  3. A government sponsored public defender’s office

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 72

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A local youth midnight basketball program is run entirely by volunteers supported by donations from the community. This organization is likely providing a ________________ service.
  2. Business-to-consumer
  3. Business-to-business
  4. Public

*d. Not-for-profit

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 72

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A private prison is losing money because it is operating at only 75 percent capacity (a quarter of beds are empty). This problem results from which of the distinctive characteristics of services?
  2. Intangibility
  3. Heterogeneity
  4. Simultaneous production and consumption

*d. Perishability

Answer location: (Perishability) p. 73

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A report in a local community suggests that the police department is enforcing the traffic code differently depending upon the race of the citizen; minority motorists are stopped and cited more frequently than white motorists. This problem illustrates the fact that services are characterized by _____________.
  2. Perishability
  3. Intangibility

*c. Heterogeneity

  1. Motivation

Answer location: (Heterogeneity) p. 74-75

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following examples best illustrates the intangibility characteristic of services?

*a. A neighborhood selects a private security company based on word of mouth reputation

  1. A judge sentences males to longer sentences than females
  2. Police officers were on duty during a slow day with no calls for service
  3. A citizen challenges police leaders for treating people inequitably

Answer location:  (Intangibility) p. 74

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following groups can be considered customers of criminal justice services?
  2. victims
  3. offenders
  4. society

*d. all of the above can be considered customers of criminal justice services

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 81

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following individuals or groups is best considered the direct consumer of police services?
  2. An apprehended offender
  3. The residents of the neighborhood where the offense took place

*c. A victim who calls on police via 911

  1. The citizens of the state

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 81

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following can be considered a source of confusion in recognizing offenders as consumers of criminal justice services?
  2. Criminal justice agencies are public services

*b. The criminal justice system is one of several options

  1. The offender is typically cooperative
  2. Obsolete treatment

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 83-86

Question Type: MC

 

  1. An inmate is acting violently in prison. Which of the following could be considered a cause (rather than a symptom) of this conduct?
  2. The inmate is verbally threatening guards
  3. The inmate is fighting other inmates

*c. The inmate is suffering from hallucinations and drug withdrawal

  1. The inmate is assaulting prison staff

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 89

Question Type: MC

 

  1. In determining whether to consider an individual or group a customer, the authors suggest asking whether, if the individual or group did not exist, would the organization be adversely affected? If the answer is yes, then the individual or group is a customer.  Based on this information, who is/are the customer(s) of a police organization?
  2. Victim
  3. Offender
  4. General public

*d. All of the above are customers

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 91

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the five dimensions commonly used to measure the gap between customer expectations and actual services received?
  2. Reliability

*b. Validity

  1. Responsiveness
  2. Assurance

Answer location: (Defining Service Quality) p. 92-93

Question Type: MC

 

  1. An attorney meets his client for the first time wearing torn clothing and smelling of alcohol. The attorney’s appearance illustrates which of the following dimensions likely to affect the client’s perceptions of service quality?

*a. Tangibles

  1. Reliability
  2. Responsiveness
  3. Empathy

Answer Location:  (Defining Service Quality) p. 93

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Customers’ assessments of service quality are affected by the empathy displayed by the service provider. Which of the following best illustrates the empathy dimension?
  2. A prosecutor has a 99.7 percent conviction rate
  3. A patrol car responds nearly 47 minutes after 911 was called
  4. A courtroom is decorated in an ornate fashion

*d. A drug treatment counselor discloses his own struggles with addiction to a client

Answer location:  (Defining Service Quality) p. 93

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A group of neighborhood residents want police to address problems such as panhandling, loitering, and prostitution. Managers in the police department direct officers to target violent crimes such as robbery and aggravated assaults.  The disagreement illustrates a ____________ gap.

*a. Management perception-service quality specification

  1. Service quality specifications-service delivery gap
  2. Consumer expectation-management perception gap
  3. Service delivery-external communications gap

Answer location:  (Gap 2: Management Perception—Service Quality Specification Gap) p. 95

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A modest crime-reduction program adopted by a local police department is erroneously reported in the media as designed to reduce crime by 50 percent in one year. This is an example of a _________________ gap.
  2. Management perception-service quality specification
  3. Service quality specifications-service delivery gap
  4. Consumer expectation-management perception gap

*d. Service delivery-external communications gap

Answer location: (Gap 4: Service Delivery—External Communications Gap) p. 96

Question Type: MC

 

  1. One way to assess the service quality of a department of corrections is to examine the physical conditions of all prisons within the system. This approach to measuring service quality draws upon the ______________ perspective.
  2. Content
  3. Process

*c. Structure

  1. Outcome

Answer location: (Structure) p. 97

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The services of prosecutors may be assessed, in part, by examining whether they follow all legal guidelines such as turning over evidence to the accused and acting in the interests of justice. This approach to measuring service quality draws upon the _______________ perspective

*a. Content

  1. Structure
  2. Outcome
  3. Impact

Answer location: (Content) p. 96

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (15)

 

  1. Criminal justice services have generally been designed and delivered from the consumer’s or client’s perspective.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Service Quality Approach) p. 69

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Police officers patrolling a neighborhood are providing a service to the neighborhood. This service can best be considered a service that facilitates the purchase of goods.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 71

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Retail services are typically considered business-to consumer services.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 71

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Taxes are more likely to support public services than they are business-to-consumer services.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 72

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Customers are not involved in the service delivery process.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Customer involvement in the service process) p. 72-73

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Services tend to be provided the same way regardless of the customer.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Heterogeneity) p. 75

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Before purchasing services, citizens must often make assessments of their quality based on reputation.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Intangibility) p. 74

Question Type: TF

 

  1. As public service agencies, most criminal justice agencies are paid for their services by customers at the time it is delivered.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 81

Question Type: TF

 

  1. For public goods and services, customers can be identified solely by looking at who pays for the service.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 84

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Police officers confront a disorderly person in the street and immediately arrest the person. In this example, the disorderly behavior is best considered a cause of the problem rather than a symptom of a problem.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 87

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A caused-based treatment approach is likely to be more effective than a symptom-based treatment approach.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Noncooperation by the offender) p. 89

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Reliability refers to the ability of a service provider to deliver those services the same way repeatedly and dependably.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Defining Service Quality) p. 92

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The condition of the physical infrastructure and the appearance of personnel represent tangibles in assessing service quality.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Defining Service Quality) p. 93

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A group of prosecutors is unable to meet the high standards of management leading to a problem with service quality. This example illustrates the service quality specifications-service delivery gap.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Gap 3: Service Quality Specifications—Service Delivery Gap) p. 95

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Organizations that ignore customers and operate in isolation from other organizations are best considered closed-systems organizations.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Impact) p. 98

Question Type: TF

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. The components of the criminal justice system—police, courts, corrections, and security agencies—often operate independently and in isolation from one another even though they co-dependent upon one another from a systems perspective. What are some of the consequences of ignoring these interrelationships if agencies continue viewing themselves as separate from the larger criminal justice system?

 

Duplication of services, inefficiency, excessive costs, mismanagement, and failure to provide quality services to clients.

Answer location: (Service Quality Approach) p. 69

Question type: SA

 

  1. Identify and briefly define 4 of the 5 distinctive characteristics of services.

Customer involvement, simultaneous production and consumption of services, perishability, intangibility, and heterogeneity.

Answer location: (Characteristics of Services) p. 72-75

Question type: SA

 

  1. What is a positive externality? Define the term and provide an example drawn from the criminal justice system.

Examples will vary but positive externalities occur when services delivered to voluntary customers also extend to others indirectly.  Imprisoning one offender (a service received by the offender) actually has positive externalities to the public at-large via enhanced public safety.

Answer location: (Direct and indirect customers due to externalities) p. 83

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Criminal justice actors are encouraged to address non-compliance of customers by addressing the causes rather than the symptoms of the non-compliance. What is the difference between a cause and a symptom of a problem?

Symptoms are immediate indicators of a problem rather than the things/events that are giving rise to the problem to begin with.  Treating symptoms alone is only likely to relieve the problem temporarily.

Answer location: (Noncooperation by the offender) p. 87-90

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Five different “gaps” have been used to identify problems in service delivery. List and briefly describe three of these gaps, offering an example to illustrate each.

Examples will vary but gaps include consumer expectation-service delivery gap, consumer expectation-management perception gap, management perception-service quality specification gap, service quality specification-service delivery gap, and service delivery-external communications gap.  Answer location: (Managing Service Quality) p. 94-96

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (3)

 

  1. Services can be grouped into one of three categories according to the degree and type of bundling with goods. What are these three different categories of services? For each category, provide an example that illustrates the concept.

Examples may vary but services that come with purchased goods (firearm or fleet maintenance), services that facilitate the purchase of goods (home security monitoring), pure services (probation supervision, police patrol, drug treatment).

Answer location: (Definition of Service) p. 71

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Services are said to be produced and consumed simultaneously. What does this mean?  What challenges does this feature of services present for criminal justice agencies seeking to provide quality services?  Provide an example of a possible problem in service delivery to illustrate your point.

Examples will vary but this means that the service is provided and used at the same time.  This feature of services provides little opportunity to correct mistakes as they have occurred immediately at the time of production and are not easily fixed.

Answer location: (Simultaneous Production and Consumption) p. 73

Question Type: ES

 

  1. In developing a strategic plan, a police chief argues that there is no need to consider the needs of the offender. After all, the offender is not a customer of police services like a shopper is of a retail establishment.  As the deputy chief, your job is to explain to the chief why he/she is overlooking the importance of the offender as a customer.  What are features of public services that may contribute to the chief neglecting offenders as customers?

Varies but may include the benefits to others (positive externalities), the non-compliance/non-voluntary nature of offender-agency interaction, and the monopoly on public safety services held by the police department (offenders cannot choose other agencies).

Answer location: (Customer Involvement in the Criminal Justice System) p. 83-86

Question Type: ES

 

Chapter 7

Leadership

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. ____________ approaches to leadership assume that leaders are born rather than made.

*a. Trait

  1. Behavior
  2. Contingency
  3. Transactional

Answer location: (Traits Approach) p. 225

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Trait theories of leadership were most popular in the ________________.
  2. Latter half of the 1800s

*b. First half of the 1900s

  1. Latter half of the 1900s
  2. 2000s

Answer location: (Traits Approach) p. 225

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Studies conducted at ______________ identified the leadership behaviors of consideration and initiating structure.

*a. Ohio State University

  1. Florida State University
  2. UCLA
  3. University of Illinois

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of a “consideration” behavior?
  2. A police sergeant expresses empathy toward subordinates
  3. A chief prosecutor encourages two-way communication between himself and followers

*c. A prison warden sets strict performance standards and goals

  1. A probation supervisor tends to his employees emotional needs

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: MC

 

  1. “There is no one best style of leadership; it depends on the situation” is a statement that sums up ____________ of leadership.
  2. Trait theories
  3. Behavioral theories

*c. Contingency/situational

  1. Transformational

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: MC

 

  1. According to Fielder’s contingency theory, a warden who scores high on the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale will likely behave in which of the following ways?
  2. High in both relationship and task behavior
  3. Low in both relationship and task behavior
  4. High in task behavior but low in relationship behavior

*d. High in relationship but low in task behavior

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Members of a SWAT team accept, trust, and are loyal to their team leader. This suggests that the _________ contingency is favorable for the leader.

*a. Group atmosphere

  1. Task structure
  2. Position power
  3. All of the above

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police sergeant bases his style of leadership on the readiness level of followers. His approach to leadership fits which of the following contingency theories?
  2. Fielder’s contingency theory
  3. Path-goal theory

*c. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency model

  1. Vroom and Yetton’s model

Correct Answer: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police officer is able (has a great record of accomplishment) and willing to perform the job. The sergeant should assume which style of leadership?
  2. Telling
  3. Selling
  4. Participating

*d. Delegating

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police trainer instructs recruits on the law, the tasks they are to complete, and the standards they are to uphold. He then allows them to ask questions in order to clarify expectations and further their understanding of the work.  The trainer is using a __________style of leadership.
  2. Telling

*b. Selling

  1. Participating
  2. Delegating

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A prison warden regularly consults with her staff regarding key policy decisions, soliciting their input and asking them to vote on major changes. This suggests that the warden’s leadership style is, according to path-goal theory, ____________________.
  2. Directive
  3. Supportive

*c. Participative

  1. Achievement-oriented

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 230

Question Type: MC

 

  1. According to path-goal theory, it is appropriate to engage in friendly _____________ behavior with new recruits who may lack confidence.

*a. Supportive

  1. Directive
  2. Participative
  3. Achievement-oriented

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 230

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Vroom and Yetton’s model of leadership is based on the leader’s responsibility to _______________.

*a. Make decisions

  1. Clear paths for employees to achieve personal goals
  2. Provide compensation to subordinates
  3. Discipline and punish

Answer location:  (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 231

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A decision tree is used to determine the appropriate leadership style in what theory?
  2. Path goal theory
  3. Fielder’s contingency theory
  4. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory

*d. Vroom and Yetton’s model

Answer location:  (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 232

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A correctional supervisor informs a correctional officer that she is not meeting expectations when they meet during the annual performance appraisal period. This is an example of __________.

*a. Passive management by exception

  1. Active management by exception
  2. Overt management by exception
  3. Implicit management by exception

Answer location: (Transactional Leadership Theory) p. 233

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following theories is not part of the group collectively known as “outstanding leadership theories”?
  2. Transformational leadership
  3. Visionary leadership

*c. Transactional leadership

  1. Charismatic leadership

Answer location:  (New Wave of Change Leadership Theories) p. 234

Question Type: MC

 

  1. William Bratton, former head of both the New York City and Los Angeles Police Departments, had personality characteristics that allowed him to transform both organizations. His leadership, if driven by these characteristics, fits into which of the following approaches?
  2. Transactional leadership

*b. Charismatic leadership

  1. Visionary leadership
  2. Generational leadership

Answer location:  (Charismatic leadership theory) p. 234

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Transformational leadership can be considered an extension of __________________ of leadership.
  2. Trait theories
  3. Behavioral theories
  4. Contingency theories

*d. Transactional theories

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 234-235

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police chief likes to view himself as a transformational leadership. He works to follow a high moral code and model appropriate behaviors for his force to emulate.  He is trying to develop _________.

*a. Idealized influence

  1. Intellectual stimulation
  2. Inspirational motivation
  3. Individualized consideration

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 235

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A prison warden, upset with the warehousing of drug offenders, encourages subordinates to question the status quo and ask questions about current policies. He is trying to generate ____________.
  2. Idealized influence

*b. Intellectual stimulation

  1. Inspirational motivation
  2. Individualized consideration

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) pg. 235

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A leader scores high on both the concern for results and concern for people dimensions of the managerial grid. His/her leadership style would be classified as ________________.

*a. Contribute and commit

  1. Control and dominate
  2. Yield and comply
  3. Evade and elude

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) p. 244

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The public defender tries to run a friendly office. He works to build relationships with all employees and is attentive to their needs.  His leadership style, according to the managerial grid, may be described as ________________.
  2. Contribute and commit
  3. Control and dominate

*c. Yield and comply

  1. Evade and elude

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) p. 245

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Supportive communication and other effective interpersonal skills can be grouped under the skill area of __________________.

*a. Clan skills

  1. Adhocracy skills
  2. Hierarchy skills
  3. Market skills

Answer location: (Leadership as a Skill) p. 245

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The knowledge and ability necessary to complete a task are referred to as ____________.

*a. Technical skills

  1. Human resource management skills
  2. Conceptual skills
  3. External positioning skills

Answer location:  (Leadership as a Skill) p. 247

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Compared to most other public organizations, police and correctional organizations tend to be characterized by ___________ forms of leadership.
  2. Participative
  3. Democratic
  4. People-oriented

*d. Authoritarian

Answer location: (Leadership and the Criminal Justice System) p. 253

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (15)

 

  1. Scholars have reached a consensus and produced a consistent definition of the term “leadership.”
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Leadership Versus Management) p. 223

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Informal leaders can be easily identified by looking at an organizational chart.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Leadership Versus Management) p. 224

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A prison warden believes in trait theories of leadership. As a result, he should focus on developing new prison leaders through training.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Traits Approach) p. 225

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Behavioral theories suggest that selecting leaders is as simple as finding individuals with the desirable traits.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 225

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A person is said to have position power if they have earned their position and they have the ability to offer rewards such as desirable assignments and punishments such as demotions.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory states that the best leadership style is based on the readiness level of the leader.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory does not consider the various situations/tasks that the leader might encounter.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A directive leadership style is characterized by a leader who tells subordinates what to do, when to do it, and how to do it.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 230

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A SWAT team leader is forced to make a decision in a matter of minutes. Due to the short amount of time available, Vroom and Yetton’s model of leadership would predict that the leader should use a style that involves little subordinate participation.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: True (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 232

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The department’s police commissioner is leading subordinates by supporting them, offering them ways to achieve their goals, providing them with structure and direction, and administering appropriate awards. According to transactional leadership theory, the commissioner is managing by exception.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Transactional Leadership Theory) pg. 233

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A transformational leader deals with followers as a group, tending to avoid any type of individualized consideration.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 234

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Autocratic leaders have great confidence in the abilities of their followers to get the job done.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) pg. 242

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The managerial grid only took into account the positive motivating effects of leadership.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Styles of Leadership) p. 243-244

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A police sergeant is rated as having strong human resource management skills. This means that he can effectively work with other people.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Leadership as a Skill) p. 247

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A growing amount of research conducted from the 1980s to the present suggests that law enforcement officers prefer authoritative leadership styles.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Leadership and the Criminal Justice System) p. 253

Question Type: TF

 

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. While it has been difficult for researchers to identify a single, consistent definition of the term “leadership”, most scholars have agreed that leadership involves two characteristics. What are those two characteristics?

Influencing members of a group and directing their efforts toward the achievement of organizational goals.

Answer location: (Leadership Versus Management) p. 223

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Researchers suggested that the behaviors of consideration and initiating structure were complementary and independent. What is meant by these terms with respect to leadership behaviors?

Leaders may engage in both types of behaviors (complementary) and can engage in one without being at the expense of the other (independent).

Answer location: (Behavioral Approach) p. 226

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Fielder uses a scale called the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale to determine a person’s leadership behavior. What is the LPC and how does it indicate leadership behavior?

The LPC scale asks individuals to describe the coworker with whom they had the most difficult time working.  Those who describe the person in more favorable terms are said to be relationship-oriented (high LPC).  Those who describe the person in less favorable terms are said to be task-oriented (low LPC).

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227

Question Type: SA

 

  1. For each of the situations below, describe which leadership style would be most appropriate according to Hersey and Blanchard’s contingency theory.
    1. You are the lieutenant: A police sergeant has just been promoted to his new position and does not quite understand his new role.  In addition, he tends to avoid work and blames others for any mistakes rather than take responsibility himself.  What leadership style should you assume?
    2. You are a chief prosecutor: A deputy prosecutor has tremendous trial skills and knowledge of the law.  He would be an asset to your team on a particularly difficult case but she lacks confidence.  What leadership style should you assume?

 

  1. (telling) since the worker is unable (lacks skills) and unwilling (blames others). B. (participating) since the deputy prosecutor is able but lacks confidence. She needs some support but does not need to be told what to do.

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 229

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Identify and briefly describe four separate skills that research indicates are required to become an effective leader?

Varies, but may include human resource manager skills, clan skills, technical skills, conceptual skills, hierarchy skills, market skills, and/or adhocracy skills.

Answer location: (Leadership as a Skill) p. 245-247

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (3)

 

  1. Describe the evolution of leadership theories from trait to behavioral to contingency theory. Specifically, address how each new approach advanced limitations of the previous approach.

Varies.  Trait theories addressed what were largely inborn characteristics that could not be taught or developed through training.  Leaders were born.  Thus, some people were leaders and others were not.  Behavioral theories advanced the study of leadership by suggesting that it was how leaders behaved rather than what they were that mattered.  Yet, there was still the limitation that behavior was perhaps shaped by situational criteria.  This led to contingency theories which argued that the best leadership behavior depended upon certain contingency variables.

Answer location: (Traits Approach and Behavioral Approach and Contingency Theories of Leadership) p. 225-233

Question Type: ES

 

  1. What are the three contingency variables relevant in Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership? Under what circumstances would a leader adopt a task-oriented approach?

Variables include group atmosphere (relationship), task structure (clarity of task), and position power.  Leaders should adopt a task-oriented approach when the three factors are either all favorable (positive relations, clear task, a lot of position power) or unfavorable (poor relationships, unclear task, and little position power).

Answer location: (Contingency Theories of Leadership (Situational Leadership Models)) p. 227-228

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Transformational leaders are said to use a variety of methods to inspire subordinates to perform at higher levels. According to this approach, what can leaders do to inspire workers?

Leaders can make subordinates see that the work is important, that they (the workers) have growth and development needs, and that these needs can be satisfied and the worker can be a part of the success of the organization.

Answer location: (Transformational leadership theory) p. 234-236

Question Type: ES