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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Cognitive Neuroscience The Biology of The Mind 4th Edition By Mangun – Ivry – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

Ȁ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ☀ĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ0 The case of Anne Green was remarkable in that after being falsely convicted of murdering her newborn child,

0 she survived an attempted electrocution.
1 she escaped and later married Thomas Willis, a famous neurologist.
2 she survived an attempted hanging.
3 she escaped and later became a famous neurologist.

ANS:  C     DIF:  Easy  REF:  Historical Perspective

OBJ:  LO 1  MSC: Remembering

0 Aside from saving Anne Green’s life, Thomas Willis and Christopher Wren also

0 created very accurate drawings of the brain.
1 came up with the names of a number of brain structures.
2 took the first steps that led to cognitive neuroscience.
3 all of the above.

ANS:  D     DIF:  Medium      REF:  Historical Perspective

OBJ:  LO 1  MSC: Understanding

0 Which of the following is NOT one of the principal reasons that Willis is considered one of the early figures in cognitive neuroscience?
0 he named many brain parts.
1 he dissected the brains of criminals within 21 miles of Oxford.
2 he was among the first to link behavioral deficits to brain damage.
3 he created very accurate brain images.

ANS:  B     DIF:  Difficult   REF:  Historical Perspective

OBJ:  LO 1  MSC: Evaluating

0 A central issue of modern cognitive neuroscience is whether specific human cognitive abilities

0 can be localized to particular parts of the brain.
1 are determined by the shape and size of the human skull.
2 are best studied using introspection or the scientific method.
3 can be identified using the Golgi silver method of staining.
ANS:  A     DIF:  Medium      REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2  MSC: Understanding

0 The discipline of phrenology was founded by

0 Broca and Wernicke.
1 Fritsch and Hitzig.

0 Ramón y Cajal and Sherrington.

1 Gall and Spurzheim.

ANS:  D     DIF:  Easy  REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2  MSC: Remembering

0 Phrenologists believed that the contour of the skull could provide valuable information about an individual’s cognitive capacities and personality traits. This approach was based on the assumption that

0 skull protrusions are caused by disproportionate development of the brain areas beneath them, which are responsible for different specific functions.
1 certain traits such as aggressiveness lead to life experiences and injuries that alter the shape of the skull in specific ways.

2 life experiences and injuries that alter the shape of the skull in specific ways lead to certain traits, such as aggressiveness.
3 the development of the skull bones directly influences the configuration of the soft brain areas beneath them, which are responsible for different specific functions.

ANS:
A
DIF:
Difficult
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:
LO 2
MSC: Evaluating

7.  Localizationist is to ________ as holistic is to ________.
a.
Wernicke ; Gall

c.
Flourens ; Broca
b.
Gall ; Flourens

d.
Broca ; Wernicke
ANS:  B
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:
LO 2
MSC:
Understanding

0 Gall’s method for investigating phrenology was flawed because

0 he used the wrong language to explain the characteristics he observed.
1 he did not tell Napoleon Bonaparte that he possessed noble characteristics.
2 he ought only to confirm, not disprove, the correlations he observed.
3 he used his own skull as the base model.

ANS:  C     DIF:  Easy  REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2  MSC: Remembering

11776 The view known as aggregate field theory, which stated that the whole brain participates in behavior, is most associated with
a.
Broca.

c.
Brodmann.
b.
Hughlings Jackson.

d.
Flourens.
ANS:  D
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:
LO 2
MSC: Remembering

10.  Willis is to ________ as ________ is to Broca.

a.
Flourens ; Spurzheim.

c.
Gall ; Dax.
b.
Spurzheim ; Flourens.

d.
Dax ; Gall.
ANS:  C
DIF:
Difficult
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:
LO 2
MSC: Analyzing

512 In developing phrenology, Gall’s main failure was that

512.0 he did not seek disconfirming evidence.
512.1 he was not a scientist.
512.2 his method was correlational.
512.3 all of the above.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 2

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Analyzing

REF:  The Brain Story

0 Giovanni visits his local phrenologist.  What is this person likely to tell him?

0 You are a domineering person.
1 Your father was a very domineering person.
2 Your brother is a domineering person.
3 Your mother was a very domineering person.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 2

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Applying

REF:  The Brain Story

0 The view developed by Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens, based on the idea that processes like language and memory cannot be localized within circumscribed brain regions, was known as
a.
the neuron doctrine.

c.
rationalism.
b.
aggregate field theory.

d.
the law of effect.
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Remembering

14.   John Hughlings Jackson proposed a ________organization in the cerebral cortex, based on his work with people with ________.
a.
holistic ; aphasia

c.
topographic ; epilepsy
b.
topographic ; aphasia

d.
holistic ; epilepsy
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Understanding

15.   ________ was one of the first brain scientists to realize that specific cognitive functions can be localized to specific parts of the brain and that many different functional regions can take part in a given behavior.
a.
Broca

c.
Flourens
b.
Hughlings Jackson

d.
Brodmann
ANS:  B
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Remembering

16.   Which nineteenth-century scientist suggested that the frontal lobe contributes to language and speech production?
a.
Flourens

c.
Broca
b.
Wernicke

d.
Brodmann
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Remembering

17.   Paul Broca’s first patient Leborgne was able to produce which of the following words?
a.
merci

c.
trois
b.
tan

d.
Paris
ANS:  B
DIF:   Easy
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2  MSC: Remembering

0 Which of the following things would have been the most difficult for the famous individual studied by Paul Broca, compared to before his stroke?

a.    listening to a piano recital  c.    reading a book aloud
b.    appreciating a painting d.    playing a game of cards

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 2

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Applying

REF:  The Brain Story

19.   Which of the following things would have been the most difficult for the famous individual described

by Carl Wernicke, compared to before his stroke?

a.
understanding a speech

c.
singing a song
b.
painting a picture

d.
riding a horse
ANS:  A
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Applying

0 Wernicke was an early researcher who suggested that the ________ contributes to language comprehension.
a.
right frontotemporal area

c.
right temporoparietal area
b.
left frontotemporal area

d.
left temporoparietal area
ANS:  D
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Applying

0 Wernicke is to ________ as Broca is to ________.

0 understanding speech ; speaking
1 speaking ; understanding speech
2 aggregate field theory ; topographic organization
3 aggregate field theory ; aggregate field theory

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 2

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

ĀȀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ؀ĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀऀĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ਀ĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀఀĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀഀĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ฀ĀȀ⸀ĀЀĀȀĀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀကĀȀ⸀ĀᜀĀᜀĀᜀ0 As a first approximation, individuals with damage to the left inferior frontal lobe tend to have more difficulty with ________, whereas individuals with damage to the left posterior temporal lobe tend to have more difficulty with ________.

0 fine motor control ; the sense of touch
1 the sense of touch ; fine motor control
2 the production of language ; the perception of language
3 the perception of language ; the production of language

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 2

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

23 One reason that early research on specific human cognitive capacities and the brain areas that are responsible for them developed rather slowly before the twentieth century is that

23 most early investigators were limited to postmortem studies to localize lesions.
24 investigators did not know the brain was separated into two hemispheres until the twentieth century.
25 most early investigators focused on studying the brain–behavior relationship in animals rather than in humans.

26 there was little interest in this field until the twentieth century.

ANS:  A     DIF:  Medium      REF:  The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 3  MSC: Understanding

23 Korbinian Brodmann used ________ techniques to document fifty-two regions of the brain that differed in ________.
a.
phrenological ; cytoarchitectonics
c.
tissue staining ; cytoarchitectonics
b.
phrenological ; chronometrics
d.
tissue staining ; chronometrics
ANS:  C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 3
MSC:
Remembering

25.   Which of the following individuals was NOT associated with a major histological discovery in neuroscience?
a.
Edward L. Thorndike

c.
Camillo Golgi
b.
Korbinian Brodmann

d.
Jan Evangelista Purkinje
ANS:  A
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 3
MSC:
Understanding

23 Researchers Fritsch and Hitzig found support for the idea that specific functions are localized to discrete parts of the cortex in an experiment using electrical stimulation of a dog’s brain. More specifically, they found

23 a systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific movements.

24 a systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific vocalizations.
25 no systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific movements.
26 no systematic relationship between the portion of cortex stimulated and specific vocalizations.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  The Brain Story

23 Cytoarchitectonic maps distinguish different cortical regions by

23 the structure of their surface convolutions.
24 their structure at the cellular level.
25 the complex functions they perform.
26 the basic functions they perform.

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

23 Yvette wants to figure out whether cells in two different layers of the occipital lobe have different functions. What would she have done if she had been a scientist in the early twentieth century?
23 look at a CAT scan
24 observe the tracts that connect each layer
25 look at patients with damage to those cells
26 look at the layers under a microscope

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Applying

REF:  The Brain Story

23 The neuroanatomist who described fifty-two distinct cortical areas based on cell structure and arrangement, and whose classification scheme is often used today, was

a.    Purkinje.   c.    Brodmann.
b.    Helmholtz.
d.    Hyde.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

23 Which of the following terms refers to the idea of a continuous mass of tissue that shares a common cytoplasm?
a.
synapse

c.
striatum
b.
syncytium

d.
claustrum
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 3
MSC:
Remembering

23 La reazione nera, or “the black reaction,” refers to

23 a cell stain developed by Golgi.
24 a perceptual phenomenon described by the Gestalt psychologists.
25 a ganglion preparation developed by Arvanitaki.
26 a type of reinforcement-based learning described by the behaviorists.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

32.   Which of the following scientists contributed to modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century?

a. Paul Broca c. Gustav Theodor Fritsch b. Sir Charles Sherrington d. Santiago Ramón y Cajal

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

23 Which of the following statements best describes the “neuron doctrine”?

23 The nervous system consists of a fused network of interconnected fibers.
24 The brain can be subdivided into regions that are distinct in cytoarchitectonics yet functionally interactive.
25 The nervous system consists of physically distinct cells that are functionally interactive.

26 The brain can be subdivided into functionally autonomous modules.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  The Brain Story

23 The neuron doctrine is usually credited to ________, who used a staining technique pioneered by

________.
a.
Purkinje ; Brodmann

c.
Golgi ; Ramón y Cajal
b.
Brodmann ; Purkinje

d.
Ramón y Cajal ; Golgi
ANS:  D
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 3
MSC:
Remembering

23 The primary contribution of Golgi to the field of cognitive neuroscience was that he

23 developed a staining technique that permitted full visualization of individual neurons.
24 showed experimentally that the nervous system is composed of a net of physically interconnected neuronal units.
25 discovered that cells in different regions of the cortex also differ in shape and size.
26 demonstrated that nerves can release chemicals that have an activating effect on nearby muscle cells.

ANS:  A     DIF:  Medium      REF:  The Brain Story
OBJ:  LO 3  MSC: Understanding

23 The term synapse, coined by Sherrington, refers to the junction between

23 a blood vessel and surrounding neurons.
24 two different cytoarchitectonic regions in the brain.
25 two adjacent neurons.
26 an axon and the cell body of a neuron.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 3

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Brain Story

23 Rationalism is the philosophical position that knowledge

23 originates from sensory experience.
24 must be experimentally tested.
25 must be deduced and justified through reason.
26 is globally distributed in the cortex.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 Empiricism is the philosophical position that all knowledge

23 must be deduced and justified through reason.
24 originates from sensory experience.
25 must be experimentally tested.
26 is globally distributed in the cortex.

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 Which of the following is NOT true of empiricism?

23 It is primarily associated with the British philosophers Hobbes, Hume, and Mill.

24 It was a foundation for the associationist–behaviorist school of psychology.
25 It postulates a special role for reason and induction in human thought.
26 It emphasizes sensory experience in the development of knowledge.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 Ebbinghaus, who is considered the father of modern memory research, was among the first to demonstrate that
23 different types of brain lesions can produce different types of memory deficits.
24 in terms of cognition, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
25 behavior is best understood in terms of stimulus–response relationships.
26 internal mental processes can be measured in rigorous and reproducible ways.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Analyzing

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 All of the following are representative of the emergence of the field of cognitive science in the second half of the 20th century EXCEPT

23 new developments in computer technology and artificial intelligence.
24 a philosophical shift in the field toward empiricism and associationism.
25 Chomsky’s work arguing that behaviorist theories cannot explain language acquisition.
26 Miller’s work showing that internal processes like short-term memory can be quantified.

ANS:  B     DIF:  Difficult   REF:  The Psychological Story
OBJ:  LO 4  MSC: Evaluating

23 Thorndike’s law of effect

23 stated that much knowledge is innately specified due to natural selection.
24 was written to oppose Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
25 stated that a behavior that is followed by a reward is likely to occur again.

26 was written to oppose the behaviorists.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 Empiricism is to ________ as rationalism is to ________.

23 Locke and Hume ; Descartes and Kant
24 Locke and Descartes ; Hume and Kant
25 Descartes and Kant ; Locke and Hume
26 Hume and Kant ; Locke and Descartes

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 John Watson famously argued that newborn babies

23 are incapable of forming memories.
24 have an intelligence comparable to our nearest primate cousins.
25 can be raised to become anything.
26 will develop different intellectual abilities according to innate differences.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Analyzing

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 According to associationist Herman Ebbinghaus, complex processes such as memory

23 can be understood by combining different pieces of information.
24 are best understood in terms of a stimulus’s emergent properties.
25 cannot be measured because they are not behaviors.
26 can be measured in an analytic fashion.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Evaluating

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 According to Edward Thorndike, which of the following is NOT true about rewards?

23 They indicate which creatures have malleable structures in the brain.
24 They help to stamp things into the mind.
25 They lead to adaptive learning.
26 They are part of the law of effect.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Evaluating

REF:  The Psychological Story

23 “Cells that fire together, wire together” was first proposed by Donald Hebb as an explanation for

23 epileptic seizures and their effects.
24 associations made by the law of effect.
25 the way in which the brain codes new learning.
26 amnesia caused by brain damage.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  The Psychological Story
23 Noam Chomsky argued that the structure of human languages is ________, in contrast to B. F. Skinner’s assertion that languages are ________.
a.
innate ; learned

c.
universal ; rational
b.
learned ; universal

d.
rational ; innate
ANS:  A
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Psychological Story
OBJ:  LO 6
MSC:
Remembering

49.   Which of the following people did NOT play a strong role in the theoretical shift in psychology in the latter part of the twentieth century?
a.
Noam Chomsky

c.
George A. Miller
b.
Sir Charles Sherrington

d.
Claude Shannon
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Psychological Story
OBJ:  LO 6
MSC:
Remembering

23 Which of the following people played the LEAST direct role in the development of the electroencephalogram?
a.
Hans Berger

c.
Richard Canton
b.
Willem Einthoven

d.
Hermann von Helmholtz
ANS:  D
DIF:
Difficult
REF:
Instruments of Neuroscience
OBJ:  LO 7
MSC:
Analyzing

23 You decide that you want to measure blood flow of the brain. Which of the following methods could you use?

23 listen to the blood flow across veins
24 look at red blood cells under a microscope
25 measure the amount of iron in the blood
26 none of the above

ANS:
D
DIF:
Medium
REF:
Instruments of Neuroscience
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC: Applying

52.  Computer axial tomography is to MRI as ________ is to ________.
a.
x-ray ; radio frequencies

c.
blood oxygenation ; x-ray
b.
structure ; function

d.
radiation ; dipoles
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
Instruments of Neuroscience
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC:
Analyzing

23 Which of the following methods measures the BOLD signal?

23 magnetic resonance imaging
24 functional Magnetic resonance imaging
25 computerized axial tomography
26 electroencephalogram

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 7

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  Instruments of Neuroscience

SHORT ANSWER

23 Localizationists argued that higher cognitive functions were the product of brain activity in specific areas. Give evidence that they used to support their claims.
ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Easy

REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 1

MSC: Remembering

2.    Paul Broca and Carl Wernicke discovered two different forms of aphasia. Compare and contrast them.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Medium

REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2

MSC: Understanding

23 Describe the main tenets of the Neuron Doctrine.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Easy

REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2

MSC: Remembering

23 Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens, an early neuroscientist, is believed to have been the first to make what claims about the brain?

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Easy

REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2

MSC: Remembering

23 A major question in cognitive neuroscience is the extent to which regions of the brain are independent or integrated. Which of these two viewpoints is most valid? Present evidence to support your view.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Difficult

REF:  The Brain Story

OBJ:  LO 2

MSC: Evaluating

23 Associationism and empiricism are two main philosophical positions. Pick the one you think best describes how humans come to know things and explain why you think this.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Medium

REF:  The Psychological Story

OBJ:  LO 4

MSC: Remembering

23 Describe the transition from behaviorist to cognitive approaches in psychology.

ANS:

Answers will vary
DIF:  Easy
REF:  The Psychological Story
OBJ:  LO 4

MSC: Understanding

8.    Why is Noam Chomsky seen as having a major influence on cognitive psychology?

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Medium

REF:  The Psychological Story

OBJ:  LO 4

MSC: Remembering

9.    Describe two principal methods used to measure brain structure.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Easy

REF:  Instruments of Neuroscience

OBJ:  LO 7

MSC: Remembering

23 Describe how and why the term cognitive neuroscience was chosen for this field. Be sure to mention the two fields that combined to create this new field of study.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Easy

REF:  A Historical Perspective

OBJ:  LO 4

MSC: Remembering

23 You would like to understand at what point in time an event took place in the brain. What neuroimaging method would you choose? Explain why you would choose this method and what information you would be missing.

ANS:

Answers will vary

DIF:  Easy

REF:  Instruments of Neuroscience

OBJ:  LO 7

MSC: Understanding
Chapter 2: Structure and Function of the Nervous System

MULTIPLE CHOICE

LEARNING OUTCOMES

23 Understand the structure of neurons and synapses

24 Explain the role of ion channels in changing neuronal membrane potential

25 Describe the impact of depolarization on the resting potential, and on the likelihood of subsequent action potentials

26 Describe the influence of myelin and voltage-gated ion channels on action potentials

27 Understand electrical and chemical transmission at the synapse, including the use and removal of neurotransmitters after binding

28 Explain the roles of different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, and microglial cells

29 Define and recognize differences between the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, sympathetic system, parasympathetic system, cerebral cortex, gray and white matter, and corpus callosum

30 Understand the functions of the spinal cord, brainstem, and cerebellum

31 Understand the functions of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland

32 Understand the functions of the limbic system and basal ganglia

33 Define and describe anatomical structures and principles that include gyri, sulci, Brodmann areas, lobes, topography, and association cortices

34 Explain the developmental process of the nervous system and the mechanisms behind neurogenesis

1.    The two main classes of cell in the nervous system are
a.
dendrites and axons.

c.
neurons and glial cells.
b.
axons and neurons.

d.
glial cells and dendrites.
ANS:  C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Structure of Neurons
OBJ:  LO 1
MSC:
Remembering

2.    In the nervous system, these cells provide structural support and insulation for neurons.
a.
glia

c.
mitochondria
b.
dendrites

d.
Purkinje cells
ANS:  A
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Structure of Neurons
OBJ:  LO 1
MSC:
Remembering

23 Two main types of projections extend from the cell body of a neuron. ________ receive inputs from other neurons, while ________ send information to other neurons.

a.    synapses ; glia   c.    glia ; synapses
b.    axons ; dendrites
d.    dendrites ; axons

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 1

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Structure of Neurons

23 Within a neuron, the transmission of information is usually ________. Between neurons, the transmission of information is usually ________.
a.
chemical ; chemical

c.
electrical ; chemical
b.
electrical ; electrical

d.
chemical ; electrical
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Structure of Neurons
OBJ:  LO 1
MSC:
Remembering

5.    The ________, which is comprised of astrocytes, protects the brain from chemical compounds circulating in the body that might otherwise interfere with neuronal activity.
a.
sodium–potassium pump

c.
myelin sheath
b.
blood–brain barrier

d.
lipid bilayer
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Role of Glial Cells
OBJ:  LO 6
MSC:
Remembering

23 Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis disrupt normal neural communication by

23 destroying receptors on postsynaptic cells so that neurotransmitters cannot bind normally.
24 creating lesions in the blood–brain barrier that allow toxic substances to enter the brain from the bloodstream.
25 causing deterioration of the fatty substance that normally coats and insulates axons.
26 diminishing the activity of the sodium–potassium pumps that usually maintain the resting potential of neurons.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

7.    Which of the following cells produce myelin in the peripheral nervous system?
a.
astrocytes

c.
oligodendrocytes
b.
microglia

d.
Schwann cells
ANS:  D
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Role of Glial Cells
OBJ:
LO 6
MSC: Remembering

8.  Which of the following cells devour and remove damaged brain cells?
a.
astrocytes

c.
oligodendrocytes
b.
microglia

d.
Schwann cells
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Role of Glial Cells
OBJ:
LO 6
MSC: Remembering

23 If you were to insert a microelectrode through the cell membrane of a neuron, you would be able to demonstrate that
23 the region inside the cell membrane contains more positive ions than the region outside the membrane.
24 the region inside the cell membrane contains more negative ions than the region outside the membrane.
25 there is a greater concentration of potassium ions outside the cell membrane than inside the membrane.

26 there is a greater concentration of potassium ions inside the cell membrane than outside the membrane.
ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 1 | LO 2
DIF:  Medium

MSC: Applying
REF:  Neuronal Signaling

23 The nodes of Ranvier are

23 vesicles of neurotransmitters, stored in presynaptic neurons.
24 points along axons where sodium–potassium pumps are found.

25 vesicles of calcium ions, stored in postsynaptic neurons.
26 points along axons that are not surrounded by myelin.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

11.   The ease with which a cell membrane will permit ions to cross it is referred to as
a.
the concentration gradient.
c.
the action potential.
b.
permeability.

d.
conductivity.
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Neuronal Signaling
OBJ:  LO 2
MSC:
Remembering

23 If you inserted a micropipette into a neuron without harming the cell, and pumped in a small quantity of calcium ions, each of which carried two positive charges, how would this affect the membrane potential?

23 The membrane potential would become depolarized relative to the resting potential.
24 The membrane potential would become hyperpolarized relative to the resting potential.
25 There would be no change because calcium does not contribute to the resting potential.
26 There would be no change because the sodium–potassium pump would remove excess calcium from the cell.

ANS:  A     DIF:

OBJ:  LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 4

Medium

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

MSC: Applying

23 Ouabain is a toxin that works by permanently inhibiting the activity of sodium–potassium pumps embedded in neuronal membranes. How would ouabain administration affect the resting potential of a neuron?

23 The magnitude of the resting potential would shift toward zero.
24 The resting potential would hyperpolarize toward a more negative value.
25 The resting potential would reverse to a positive, rather than a negative, value.
26 Application of ouabain would not affect the resting potential.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 2

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Applying

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

23 The term concentration gradient refers to a difference in the

23 number of two different ion types within the neuron.
24 number of ions found on opposite sides of the cell membrane.
25 permeability of the membrane to one kind of ion compared to another.
26 permeability of the membrane at rest compared to during an action potential.

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 1 | LO 2

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

15.   At the resting state, a higher concentration of ________ is found outside a neuron and a higher concentration of ________ is found inside a neuron.

a. K+ ; Na+ c. dopamine ; serotonin b. Na+ ; K+ d. serotonin ; dopamine
ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 1 | LO 2
DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering
REF:  Neuronal Signaling

23 The value of the membrane potential to which an axon must be depolarized to initiate an action potential is called the ________ potential for that neuron.
a.
graded

c.
threshold
b.
resting

d.
refractory
ANS:  C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Neuronal Signaling
OBJ:  LO 3
MSC:
Remembering

23 The poison tetraethylammonium (TEA) interferes with normal neural communication. The toxin binds to and blocks voltage-gated potassium channels in the neuron cell membrane. Which of the following best describes the effects of TEA on the action potential?

23 The depolarization phase of the action potential fails to occur.
24 The repolarization phase of the action potential is blocked.
25 The refractory period of the action potential is shortened.
26 The action potential fails to be regenerated at the nodes of Ranvier.

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Applying

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

23 The Hodgkin–Huxley cycle describes how the depolarization of the membrane causes voltage-gated sodium channels to ________, allowing ________ sodium ions to enter the cell. This change in
sodium concentration then causes ________ of the cell.
a.   close ; fewer ; further depolarization
c.
open ; more ; further depolarization
b.  close ; fewer ; repolarization
d.  open ; more ; repolarization
ANS:  C
DIF:   Medium
REF:
Neuronal Signaling
OBJ:  LO 2 | LO 3 | LO 4
MSC:
Understanding

23 The primary reason why neurons are refractory for a short period after firing action potentials, and the reason underlying the absolute refractory period, is that the
23 voltage-gated sodium channels are inactivated.
24 voltage-gated potassium channels are inactivated.
25 sodium–potassium pump has to remove sodium ions from inside the cell.
26 sodium–potassium pump has to retrieve potassium ions from outside the cell.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

23 In myelinated axons, action potentials are generated

23 at the nodes of Ranvier only.
24 along the entire length of the axons.
25 underneath the myelinated portions of the axons only.

26 only at the axon hillocks and axon terminals.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

23 The term saltatory conduction refers to the fact that

23 action potentials travel faster when extracellular salt concentration is high.
24 action potentials evoked by strong stimuli travel faster than those evoked by weaker stimuli.
25 action potentials occur only at the nodes of Ranvier of axons.
d.    action potentials are generated only by myelinated portions of axons.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

5888 The most important function of myelin in the nervous system is to

5888 form the blood–brain barrier.
5889 trigger the release of neurotransmitters from axon terminals.
5890 produce cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles.
5891 facilitate conduction of action potentials in axons.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

0 The primary benefit that the nervous system gains from myelination is

0 generation of currents actively (action potentials) rather than passively (electrotonic conduction).

1 decreased membrane resistance.
2 increased resting potentials.
3 faster neural communication.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 4

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Neuronal Signaling

0 Which of the following statements best describes the immediate consequence of neurotransmitter molecules binding to postsynaptic receptors?

4 Voltage-gated channels in the cell membrane open and permit ion flow through the membrane.
5 The activity of the sodium–potassium pumps increases.
6 Calcium absorption into the axon terminal cell is triggered.
7 Neurotransmitter-containing vesicles bind to the inside of the axon terminal membrane.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 2 | LO 5

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  Synaptic Transmission

0 The role of calcium ions (Ca2+) in synaptic transmission is to
4 bind neurotransmitter molecules to the postsynaptic membrane.
5 mediate the release of neurotransmitter molecules from the presynaptic neuron.

6 repolarize the postsynaptic cell after transmission has been completed.
7 increase the activity of the sodium–potassium pumps in the presynaptic cell.

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  Synaptic Transmission

0 Which of the following sequences of steps best represents the order of events that occur during synaptic transmission?

4 binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane -> diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse -> release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell
5 diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse -> binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane -> release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell
6 release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell -> binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane -> diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse

7 release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic cell -> diffusion of neurotransmitter across the synapse -> binding of neurotransmitter at the postsynaptic membrane

ANS:  D     DIF:  Medium      REF:  Synaptic Transmission
OBJ:  LO 5  MSC: Understanding

0 Consider the synapse shown schematically here. If neuron A causes neuron B to become hyperpolarized relative to B’s resting state,

4 neuron B is more likely to fire its own action potential.

5 neuron B is less likely to release neurotransmitter molecules from its own axon terminal.
6 neuron B is more likely to absorb extracellular potassium through voltage-gated channels.

7 neuron B is less likely to absorb extracellular sodium through the sodium–potassium pump.

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  Synaptic Transmission

0 A gap junction is

23 the point where a neurotransmitter vesicle binds to the presynaptic membrane.
24 a connection between two sections of a G protein that plays a role in second-messenger cascades.
25 a transmembrane channel that connects the cytoplasm of two cells at an electrical synapse.

26 more likely to be found on the amino acids than on the biogenic amines.

ANS:
C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Synaptic Transmission
OBJ:
LO 5
MSC: Remembering

29.  Which of the following is a catecholamine?

a.
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
c.
serotonin
b.
glutamate

d.
norepinephrine
ANS:  D
DIF:
Medium
REF:
Synaptic Transmission
OBJ:
LO 5
MSC:
Remembering

0 The effect of a particular neurotransmitter on postsynaptic neurons

4 is always either excitatory or inhibitory.
5 depends on the properties of the postsynaptic neuron.
6 may be modulated by the presence or absence of another neurotransmitter.
7 Both b and c are true.

ANS:  D

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Understanding

REF:  Synaptic Transmission

0 Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for removing a neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft?

23 diffusion of the neurotransmitter away from the synapse
24 active reuptake of the neurotransmitter back into the presynaptic terminal
25 enzymatic breakdown of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft
26 transport of the neurotransmitter by ion channels into neighboring glial cells

ANS:  D

DIF:  Medium

REF:  Synaptic Transmission

0 Many drugs produce their effects by facilitating or interfering with neurotransmitters at synapses. Which of the following drugs would most likely increase the effect of serotonin?
0 a drug that binds to directly coupled serotonin receptors but does not change membrane permeability

1 a drug that prevents the activity of an enzyme that breaks down serotonin molecules in the synaptic cleft

2 a drug that blocks the effect of Ca2+ ions
3 a drug that blocks the effect of a conditional neurotransmitter that normally facilitates the effect of serotonin

ANS:  B

OBJ:  LO 5

DIF:  Difficult

MSC: Applying

REF:  Synaptic Transmission

0 The morphology of the brain of Albert Einstein revealed an unusual Sylvian fissure—the division that separates the ________ lobe from the ________ lobes.
a.
occipital ; frontal and parietal
c.
frontal ; temporal and occipital
b.
temporal ; frontal and parietal
d.
parietal ; temporal and occipital
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:
LO 11
MSC: Remembering

34.  The thick outer membrane that encloses the brain within the skull is the
a.
gray matter.

c.
myelin sheath.
b.
white matter.

d.
dura mater.
ANS:  D
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC: Remembering

0 The difference between gray matter and white matter is that gray matter refers to ________, whereas white matter refers to ________.

4 protruding rounded surfaces ; fissures and invaginations
5 fissures and invaginations ; protruding rounded surfaces
6 cell bodies ; axons and glial cells
7 axons and glial cells ; cell bodies

ANS:
C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC: Remembering

36.  Gray matter is to white matter as ________ are to ________.
a.
gyri ; sulci

c.
cell bodies ; axon tracts
b.
glial cells ; neurons

d.
oligodendrocytes ; Schwann cells
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC:
Understanding

0 Neurons in two different regions of Brodmann’s cytoarchitectonic map always

4 use different types of neurotransmitters to communicate.
5 differ in cell morphology and organization.
6 lie inside different lobes of the cerebral cortex.
7 are separated by fissures in the cortex.

ANS:
B
DIF:   Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:
LO 11
MSC: Remembering

38.  The two main divisions of the central nervous system are the
a.
forebrain and brainstem.
c.
brain and spinal cord.
b.
white matter and gray matter.
d.
cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum.
ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 7
DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering
REF:  Overview of Nervous System Structure

4 All of the following are advantages of a folded cerebral cortex EXCEPT

23 the need for blood vasculature in the cortex is eliminated.
24 neural conduction time between areas is reduced.
25 neurons are brought into closer three-dimensional relationships.
26 more cortical surface can be packed into the skull.

ANS:
A
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC: Understanding

40.  The most caudal lobe of the cerebral cortex is the ________ lobe.
a.
frontal

c.
occipital
b.
temporal

d.
parietal
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ:
LO 7 | LO 11

MSC:
Understanding

0 The temporal lobe likely bears this name because

4 it is the brain’s center for temporal processing.
5 its functions are particularly susceptible to the effects of aging.
6 it lies beneath the area of the scalp where hair grays with age.
7 its neurons fire more quickly than neurons in other brain regions.

ANS:  C

OBJ:  LO 11

DIF:  Easy

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Cerebral Cortex

0 The central sulcus is an anatomical landmark that separates the ________ lobe from the ________

lobe.
a.
temporal ; frontal

c.
parietal ; occipital
b.
frontal ; parietal

d.
occipital ; temporal
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:  LO 11
MSC:
Remembering

0 The term cytoarchitectonics refers to

4 how cells in one brain region appear morphologically and how they are arranged with respect to each other.
5 how assemblies of neurons function together and how they communicate with neighboring ganglia.

6 how different brain regions differ in volume and how they interact to produce complex cognitive phenomena.
7 how the brains of different animals differ from each other in gross anatomy and the evolutionary bases of these differences.

ANS:  A

OBJ:  LO 11

DIF:  Medium

MSC: Remembering

REF:  The Cerebral Cortex

0 Of the following choices, the most anterior portion of the frontal lobes—the prefrontal cortex—is most critical to

23 processing information about pain, touch, and temperature.
24 executive functions.
25 the “what” visual pathway.
26 the “where” visual pathway.
ANS:
B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:
LO 11
MSC: Remembering

45.  Communication between the two hemispheres of the brain occurs mainly through the
a.
basal ganglia.

c.
corpus callosum.
b.
cingulate gyrus.

d.
limbic system.
ANS:  C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC:
Remembering

0 The corpus callosum

23 permits communication between the two cerebral hemispheres.
24 is the area of the cortex in which information about touch, pain, temperature, and limb position is processed.
25 separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes.
26 is a fluid-filled chamber that cushions and supports the brain.

ANS:
A
DIF:
Easy
REF:
Overview of Nervous System Structure
OBJ:
LO 7
MSC: Remembering

47.  The primary visual cortex, or V1, is located in

a.
the striate cortex.

c.
the calcarine fissure.
b.
Brodmann area 17.

d.
all of the above.
ANS:  D
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:
LO 11
MSC:
Remembering

0 The neocortex typically contains ________ cortical layers, with ________ typically being the input layer.
a.
10
; layer IV

c.
6
; layer IV
b.
10
; layer I

d.
6
; layer I
ANS:
C
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:
LO 11
MSC:
Remembering

0 The frontal lobe is ________ to the occipital lobe, whereas the temporal lobe is ________ to the parietal lobe.
a.
posterior ; superior

c.
superior ; caudal
b.
anterior ; inferior

d.
inferior ; rostral
ANS:  B
DIF:
Easy
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:  LO 11
MSC:
Remembering

50.   All of the following terms refer to the same cortical region that processes visual input EXCEPT
a.
striate cortex.

c.
Heschl’s gyrus.
b.
area V1.

d.
Brodmann area 17.
ANS:  C
DIF:
Medium
REF:
The Cerebral Cortex
OBJ:  LO 11
MSC:
Remembering

51.   Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced in the lateral and third ventricles by the
a.
dura mater.

c.
globus pallidus.
b.
substantia nigra.

d.
choroid plexus.
ANS:  D
DIF:
Easy
REF:
A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ:  LO 7
MSC:
Remembering

52.   A patient reports that she is functionally blind after a focal brain injury, even though her eyes and optic

nerves are completely intact. Of the structures listed here, the most probable location for the brain injury is the
a.
inferior colliculus.

c.
superior temporal lobe.
b.
lateral geniculate nucleus.
d.
postcentral gyrus.
ANS:  B
DIF:
Difficult
REF:
A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ:  LO 9
MSC:
Applying

53.   The part of the thalamus that is most important in relaying information to the primary visual cortex is the
a.
lateral geniculate nucleus.
c.
medial geniculate nucleus.
b.
superior colliculus.

d.
inferior colliculus.
ANS:  A
DIF:
Easy
REF:
A Guided Tour of the Brain
OBJ:  LO 9
MSC:
Remembering