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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Culture and Psychology 5th Edition by David Matsumoto – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3

Enculturation

 

  1. Despite similarities in the overall goals of development, cultures exhibit a tremendous degree of variability in its content.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

 

  1. Each culture has some understanding of the adult competencies needed for adequate functioning, but these competencies differ by culture and environment.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

 

  1. Socialization and enculturation mean basically the same thing.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

 

  1. The unique ability of humans to engage in shared intentionality allows us to engage in “____”—that is, learning not only from others but through others (Tomasello, Kruger, & Ratner, 1993).
  2. classical conditioning
  3. operant conditioning
  4. social learning
  5. cultural learning

ANS: d             REF: Humans Engage in Cultural Learning

NOT: www

 

  1. One useful framework to understand enculturation is Super and Harkness’ notion of a ____ (Super and Harkness, 1986, 1994, 2002). The ____ focuses on how the broader macrosystem structures the child’s immediate microsystems.
  2. physical and social niche
  3. child rearing custom
  4. developmental niche
  5. psychological caregiver microsystem

ANS: c             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

NOT: www

 

  1. Parental cultural belief systems are also known as:
  2. parental ethnotheories
  3. parental psychotheories
  4. parental developmental constructs
  5. parental dominating constructs

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

  1. ______ is the process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of the society in which we live. This process, which occurs over a long pattern of time, involves learning and mastering societal norms, attitudes, values, and belief systems. Fill in the blank.
  2. Enculturation
  3. Socialization
  4. Acculturation
  5. Adaptation

ANS: b             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

 

  1. Which of the following generally refers to the products of the socialization process – the subjective, underlying, psychological aspects of culture that become internalized through development?
  2. Enculturation
  3. Adaptation
  4. Personality
  5. Temperament

ANS: a             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

NOT: www

 

  1. The most important microsystem to a child’s development is the family, and parents are arguably the most important ____.
  2. macrocosm
  3. factor of authoritarian enculturation
  4. socialization agent
  5. postfigurative socializers

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. Which one of the following statements is correct in terms of a developmental niche?
  2. Super and Harkness suggest that enculturation occurs outside of a developmental niche
  3. The developing child is rarely influenced by the interaction of the major components of the niche
  4. The development niche ensures a child’s enculturation
  5. The developmental niche includes four major components

ANS: c             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

 

  1. Which one of the following is an example of a microsystem within the context of a developmental niche?
  2. A parent’s workplace
  3. School
  4. Religion
  5. Time

ANS: b             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

NOT: www

 

  1. Parenting styles are another important dimension of caregiving. _______ expect unquestioned obedience and view the child as needing to be controlled.
  2. Authoritarian parents
  3. Authoritative parents
  4. Involved parents
  5. Uninvolved parents

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. Baumrind (1971) has identified three major patterns of parenting: ____, ___, ____.
  2. authoritarian, authoritative, permissive
  3. uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian
  4. authoritative, involved, permissive
  5. authoritative, uninvolved, involved

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

NOT: www

 

  1. Which statement is correct in terms of extended and multigenerational families?
  2. Multigenerational families include members such as aunts, uncles and cousins
  3. In the United States, multigenerational households have been steadily decreasing in the last decade
  4. Living with extended and multigenerational families in the United States is often seen as a consequence of poor economics
  5. An extended family is one that includes grandparents in addition to both parents and children or just children

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. Margaret Mead (1978) described three types of cultures with differing levels of peer influence on the socialization of its young people. Which of the following is not one of these?
  2. Prefigurative cultures
  3. Trans-Figurative cultures
  4. Postfigurative cultures
  5. Cofigurative cultures

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

NOT: www

 

  1. In prefigurative cultures, the culture is changing so rapidly that young people may be the ones to teach adults.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Peers

 

 

 

  1. According to Geary, ______ refer to natural abilities that are shaped by evolutionary processes that all people presumably share (for example, language, counting), and ________ refer to unnatural abilities that are based in large part on primary systems.
  2. natural cognitive abilities, meta-abilities
  3. secondary abilities, math abilities
  4. primary math abilities, secondary math abilities
  5. secondary math abilities, primary math abilities

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Education

NOT: www

 

  1. Cross-national differences in academic performance, and the other cross-cultural differences that underlie them, are solely products of culture.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. We know that cross-national differences in academic achievement are not necessarily accounted for by biological differences between people of different cultures. And differences in languages, especially related to counting systems can account for the size of the differences.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. According to Smith et al.’s (2002) cross-national study of bullying in 14 countries, across all countries: there were few gender differences in what was considered bullying, but there was a general age difference in what was considered bullying.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Peers

 

  1. Studies have shown that parenting beliefs and practices tend to be congruent with developmental goals dictated by culture; that is, cultural differences in specific values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors necessary for ____ are associated with different developmental goals so that developing members of a society can carry on culture-relevant work related to ____.
  2. survival
  3. cultural progress
  4. social needs
  5. social development

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

 

 

 

  1. An important tenet of ecological systems theory is that children are not simply passive recipients of the enculturation and socialization processes. As such, children are ____ of their own development.
  2. socialization agents
  3. active producers and architects
  4. not solely responsible
  5. passive producers

ANS: b             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

 

  1. The specific dimensions of parenting styles, such as warmth and control, may have different meanings in different cultures.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. Parenting behaviors, sleeping arrangements, educational systems, and other concrete mechanisms are all ways of ensuring that cultural values and norms are transmitted to children. In ____, these practices are ritualized so that this transmission of information can occur generation after generation.
  2. some cultures such as Japan and China
  3. traditional, intact cultures
  4. all
  5. the vast majority of cultures

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. Traditional parents in Turkey believe that their children are “brought up” rather than “grow up” and thereby believe that they play a very active, goal-directed role in the development of their children.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. ____ is(are) not only a stimulator of math, but is itself represented in math, and how a society teaches and learns it.
  2. Math abilities
  3. Society
  4. Culture
  5. Secondary abilities

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Education

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Cross-national differences that have been found appear to be related to secondary, not primary, math achievements (Geary, 1996).
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. Paik and Mix (2003) argue that using more transparent language when children are beginning to learn fractions, could facilitate children’s math learning in this area. They conclude that language differences in numerical systems can fully explain why there are wide cross-national differences in math achievement.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. The model by Caudill & Frost (1974) suggests that culture indirectly provides the structure and environment for parents, particularly mothers, to affect their children in culturally appropriate ways: culture → mother → infant.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. ____ is a style of parenting in which parents allow children to regulate their own lives and provide few firm guidelines.
  2. Authoritarian parenting
  3. Authoritative parenting
  4. Uninvolved parenting
  5. Permissive parenting

ANS: d             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. According to the view of ____, human development is a dynamic, interactive process between individuals and various ecologies that range from the proximal, immediate environment to the more distal. Furthermore, it is only by examining the child in relation to his or her contexts, can we understand how a child develops.
  2. Mead
  3. Bronfenbrenner
  4. Super and Harkness
  5. Whiting and Whiting

ANS: b             REF: Enculturation and Socialization

NOT: www

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is correct regarding the study by Harkness and Super of parental ethnotheories in 2006?
  2. American parents hold an ethnotheory of attending to the specific needs of individual children
  3. Dutch parents hold ethnotheories about the importance of spending special time with their children
  4. Dutch parents hold an ethnotheory of spending school time with their children
  5. American parents hold an ethnotheory of spending family time with their children

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. Using Baumrind’s classifications, Chinese parents have been often described as ____. However, for Chinese parents, the significance and meaning of this parenting style may originate from a set of cultural beliefs that may differ greatly from the European American cultural belief system.
  2. non-affectionate
  3. authoritative
  4. authoritarian
  5. overly involved

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

NOT: www

 

  1. In a summary of cross-cultural studies that have used the ____ (HOME) Inventory, Bradley and Corwyn (2005) describe three general areas in which cultures vary: warmth and responsiveness, discipline, and stimulation/teaching.
  2. Home Observation and Measurement of the Environment
  3. Heuristic Orientation and Measurement of the Environment
  4. Household Organization and Measurement of the Environment
  5. Heuristic Observational Measurement of the Environment

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. What do Mayan parents have in common with parents of Eastern Kentucky according to the study by Willinger, Hoffman, Kessler, & Corwin (2003)?
  2. Authoritarian parenting styles
  3. Authoritative parenting styles
  4. An un healthy dependence of children on their parents
  5. Co-sleeping

ANS: d             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. The anthropologist Scheper-Huges (1992) describes an impoverished community in ____, where, if the infant is weak, mothers show little responsiveness and affection, and sometimes even neglect to the point of death, to the infant.
  2. Berlin, Germany
  3. New Delhi, India
  4. Northeast Brazil
  5. Turkey

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. When economic status was controlled for in Abbott’s (1992) study, locally born women were more likely to have their babies sleep with them compared to mothers who were born in another state, suggesting that there were indeed ____ reasons that led to different sleeping arrangements.
  2. financial
  3. cultural
  4. biological
  5. historical

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

NOT: www

 

  1. LeVine (1977, 1997) has theorized that the caregiving environment reflects a set of goals that are ordered in importance. Which of the following are examples of these (in the correct order)?
  2. Survival, self-sufficiency, prestige
  3. Self-efficiency, morality, physical health
  4. Morality, self-sufficiency, physical health
  5. Physical health, survival, morality

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. In only one culture, ____, were siblings less likely to be present with the young child than the mother.
  2. India
  3. the Kwara’ae in the Solomon Islands
  4. Western Kenya
  5. the United States

ANS: d             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. What can we learn through our interactions with our siblings according to Parke (2004)?
  2. Independence
  3. Prosocial and antisocial behaviors
  4. Self-image
  5. Sexual orientation

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

 

  1. ____ teenagers spend much more time per week (18 hours) with their peers outside of school compared with ____ (12 hours).
  2. Taiwanese, American
  3. Taiwanese, Japanese
  4. Japanese, American
  5. American, Japanese

ANS: d             REF: Culture and Peers

NOT: www

 

  1. In ____, in which cultural change occurs more rapidly, adults continue to socialize their children, but peers play a greater role in socializing each other.
  2. prefigurative cultures
  3. figurative cultures
  4. cofigurative cultures
  5. postfigurative cultures

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Peers

 

  1. Olweus (1999) outlined three criteria to define bullying. Which of the following is one of these?
  2. unintentional physical harm
  3. unintentional psychological harm
  4. harm that is based on a power balance
  5. harm that is repeated over time

ANS: d             REF: Culture and Peers

NOT: www

 

  1. Bullying occurs in equally roughly percentages in most cultures around the world.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Peers

 

  1. According to Stigler and Baranes (1988), ____ and ____ have a very special relationship because math skills “ are not logically constructed on the basis of abstract cognitive structures, but rather are forged out of a combination of previously acquired (or inherited) knowledge and skills, and new cultural input.”
  2. math, the Korean language
  3. mathematical reasoning, language
  4. math, culture
  5. math, science

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. Which of the following refer to natural abilities that are shaped by evolutionary processes that all people presumably share?
  2. Primary math abilities
  3. Secondary math abilities
  4. Secondary abilities
  5. Tertiary abilities

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Education

NOT: www

 

 

 

 

 

  1. That cross-national differences in math achievement are related to ____ rather than ____ implies that social and cultural factors play a major role in producing those differences.
  2. primary, secondary math abilities
  3. secondary, primary math abilities
  4. natural abilities, secondary math abilities
  5. unnatural abilities based on primary systems, secondary math abilities

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Education

 

  1. Researchers found that children were much more likely to correctly identify a fraction when ____ language was used.
  2. accurate
  3. transparent
  4. the English
  5. strict

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Education

NOT: www

 

  1. One major finding of the Six Cultures Study was that the work roles of ____ contributed to children’s social behaviors. In cultures where ____ contributed greatly to the subsistence base of the family, the children scored low on dependence; in cultures where ____ did not, the children scored high on dependence.
  2. older siblings
  3. parents
  4. men
  5. women

ANS: d             REF: Culture, Parenting, and Families

NOT: www

 

  1. Which statement regarding the following two models of cultural development is most accurate?

culture —> mother —> infant

genes —> infant —> mother —> culture

  1. The first is accurate and complete.
  2. The second is accurate and complete.
  3. Both are accurate and complete.
  4. Both are incomplete on their own.

ANS: d             REF: Putting it All Together

[1]

7/24/11 8:09 PM

 

is(are) or is/are

 

 

Chapter 5

Culture and Cognition

 

  1. Studies that examine cross-ethnic group differences within a country are known as:
  2. cross-strata studies
  3. multicultural studies
  4. domestic group studies
  5. difference studies

ANS: b             REF: Glossary

NOT: www

 

  1. ____ refers to our initial interpretations of sensations.
  2. Attention
  3. Focus
  4. Perception
  5. Cognition

ANS: c             REF: Introduction

 

  1. ____ (1980) called culture “mental programming” and likened it to computer software.
  2. Campbell
  3. Hofstede
  4. Mueller-Lyer
  5. Hudson

ANS: b             REF: Culture as Cognition

NOT: www

 

  1. Norms, opinions, beliefs, values, and worldviews are all ____ products and as such, one can view the contents of culture as being essentially ____.
  2. deliberate
  3. biological
  4. cognitive
  5. higher functioning

ANS: c             REF: Culture as Cognition

 

  1. ____ is a method used to determine if one stimulus affects another.
  2. Priming
  3. Pinging
  4. Stimulus testing
  5. Proving

ANS: a             REF: Culture as Cognition

 

  1. Perceptions that involve an apparent discrepancy between how an object looks and what it actually is are known as:
  2. discrepant perception
  3. optical illusions
  4. focal point illusions
  5. apparent perception

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. In the Muller-Lyer illusion:
  2. subjects typically judge the line with the arrowheads pointing out as longer
  3. subjects typically judge the line with the arrowheads pointing in as longer
  4. subjects typically respond that the horizontal line is longer
  5. subjects typically respond that the vertical line is longer

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

NOT: www

 

  1. In a horizontal-vertical illusion, subjects usually respond that:
  2. the horizontal line is longer
  3. the vertical line is longer
  4. the lines are the same length
  5. they cannot decide

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. In which illusion do the subjects typically report that the horizontal line closer to the origin of the diagonals is longer than the one away from the origin?
  2. Origin of diagonals illusion
  3. Figure 8 illusion
  4. Ponzo illusion
  5. Horizontal line illusion

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. If we see a house from an angle and the light reflected off it does not form a right angle on the eye, we still perceive it as a house with square corners. The theory that best fits this is:
  2. Carpentered world theory
  3. Rectangular perception theory
  4. Right angle perception theory
  5. Theory of conservation

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

NOT: www

 

  1. Which theory suggests that we interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance?
  2. Front-horizontal foreshortening theory
  3. Front extension theory
  4. Vertical extension theory
  5. Dimensional space theory

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

 

 

  1. All humans have a blind spot in each eye but there is no blind spot in our conscious perception; with the help of ____, our brains fill this spot in so it looks as if we see everything.
  2. a trick of our brains that ignores this spot
  3. macro eye movements called macrocascades
  4. micro eye movements called microcascades
  5. micro eye movements called microsaccades

ANS: d             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. W.H.R. Rivers (1905) compared the responses to optical illusions using groups in England, rural India, and New Guinea. Regarding the results from the study, he found that:
  2. primitive peoples are more ignorant and thus more easily fooled by illusions
  3. education was the factor creating the difference in results
  4. something other than education was involved in explaining the differences
  5. the results showed that the effect of the illusion did not differ by culture

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

NOT: www

 

  1. People in New Guinea and India are less likely to be fooled by the Mueller-Lyer illusion because it is more “foreign” to them. This can be explained by:
  2. the Great Divide theory
  3. the symbolizing three dimensions in two theory
  4. the foreign concept theory
  5. cultural differentiation

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. Segall and colleagues (1963, 1966), found some evidence that did not fit with any of the three theories—namely, that the effects of the illusions declined and nearly disappeared with ____.
  2. older subjects
  3. younger subjects
  4. continued studies with the same subjects
  5. cultural assimilation

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. Problem solving refers to the process by which we attempt to discover ways of achieving goals that do not seem readily attainable. Psychologists have tried to isolate the process of problem solving by asking people from different cultures to solve familiar problems in natural settings.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Thinking

NOT: www

 

 

 

  1. Which researchers showed that the effects of the Mueller-Lyer illusion are related to the ability to detect contour, and that this ability declines with age?
  2. Wagner et al (1977)
  3. Pollack and Silvar (1967)
  4. Ponzo et al (1977)
  5. Matsumoto and Kitayama (1998)

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. According to the research, there is no link between retinal pigmentation and contour-detecting ability.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

NOT: www

 

  1. Stewart (1973) first tested the effects of the Mueller–Lyer illusion on both black and white

children living in one American town and later tested children in Zambia and found:

  1. differences between white and black children
  2. the effects of the illusion depend on the degree of carpentered environment
  3. the effects of the illusion increased with age
  4. the Zambian children were less fooled by the illusions than American children

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. Hudson (1960) studied cultural perception with Bantu tribe members and found that:
  2. Bantu members did not use relative size as a cue to depth
  3. differences in depth perception were related to exposure to European cultures but not education
  4. Western people do not often use relevant size and cue depth in pictures
  5. older people were more accurate at cue depth perception

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. Masuda and Nisbett (2001) conducted a cross cultural study with Japanese and American students and found that:
  2. there were minor differences in recalling the focal object in the picture
  3. there were major differences in recalling the focal object in the picture
  4. Japanese students remembered more of the background objects
  5. American students remembered more of the background objects

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

NOT: www

 

  1. ____ is a constellation of lay beliefs about the nature of the world. ____ is characterized by the doctrine of the mean, or the belief that the truth is always somewhere in the middle.
  2. Lay compromise
  3. Dialectical thinking
  4. Lay dialectivism
  5. Naïve dialectivism

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Thinking

NOT: www

 

  1. Scarr and Weinberg (1976) offer evidence for a(n) ____ basis of intelligence. They showed that black and interracial children adopted by white families scored above the IQ and school achievement means for whites.
  2. environmental
  3. cultural
  4. genetic
  5. racial

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Intelligence

NOT: www

 

  1. People in Western cultures tend to engage in context-independent and ____ processes by focusing on a salient object (or person) independently from the context in which it is embedded.
  2. analytic holistic
  3. holistic
  4. analytic perceptual
  5. perceptual

ANS: c             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. People in East Asian cultures tend to engage in context-dependent and ____ perceptual processes by attending to the relationship between the object and the context in which the object is located.
  2. analytic holistic
  3. holistic
  4. analytic perceptual
  5. perceptual

ANS: b             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. The process of categorization is universal to all humans.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture, Attention, Sensation, and Perception

 

  1. Creating mental categories helps us sort out all the complex stimuli that we are exposed to every day. Some categories appear to be universal across cultures, such as:
  2. the grouping of colors
  3. the grouping of sounds and speech
  4. the categorization of tastes
  5. the categorization of smells

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

 

 

  1. Verbal language is based on _____; words are merely symbols for objects in our physical environment.
  2. stratification and biological disposition
  3. categorization and concept formation
  4. rational thought and stereotyping
  5. linguistic morphology and symbolism

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Thinking

NOT: www

 

  1. ____ are a type of category, and ____ is probably a universal psychological process.
  2. Linguistic stratifications, linguistic stratification
  3. Symbols, symbolic categorization
  4. Stereotypes, stereotyping
  5. Functional groupings, functional grouping

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Children in all cultures tend to group primarily by color. As they grow older, they group by shape, and then by function.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Humans seem to be predisposed to prefer certain shapes, colors, and facial expressions.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. In an early study by Chiu (1972) with Chinese and American children, the American children tended to group objects according to ____, whereas the Chinese children tended to group objects according to ____.
  2. shared features, shared contextual or functional relationships
  3. shared contextual or functional relationships, shared features
  4. color or size and later by function, similar features and later by dissimilar attributes
  5. similar features and later by dissimilar attributes , color or size and later by function

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Ji, Zhang, and Nisbett (2004) conducted tests with Americans and bilingual Chinese (mainland and Taiwan) participants, having them group sets of three words and in either English or Chinese, and found similar results, suggesting that the cultural differences in categorization styles ____.
  2. were not deemed significant
  3. were not affected by culture
  4. were not affected by language
  5. were affected by language

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Ross and Millson (1970) suspected that reliance on an oral tradition might make people better at remembering. The findings of their study suggest that cultural differences in memory as a function of oral tradition ____.
  2. are significant and the result of using or not using lists
  3. prove that nonliterate people have better memories
  4. may not be limited to meaningful material
  5. may be limited to meaningful material

ANS: d             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Which of the following suggests that we remember things better if they are either the first or last item in a list of things to remember?
  2. The order effect
  3. The primacy effect
  4. The recency effect
  5. The serial position effect

ANS: d             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. A study involving participants from Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America found no cultural differences in hindsight bias, providing evidence for its universality.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

NOT: www

 

  1. Choi and Nisbett (2000) found that Koreans exhibited ____ hindsight bias than Americans, but Heine and Lehman (1996) reported no differences between Japanese and Canadians.
  2. more
  3. slightly less
  4. far less
  5. the same

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. ____ refers to the recollection of specific events that took place at a particular time and place in the past.
  2. Semantic memory
  3. Episodic memory
  4. Declarative memory
  5. Procedural memory

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Differences in number base systems in certain languages may contribute to differences in math abilities.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Research in the United States has shown that regrets related to thoughts of action are more prevalent than regrets related to inaction (Gilovich & Medvec, 1995).
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. If you got a bad grade on a test and thought, “if I had only studied harder,” this would be an example of:
  2. counterfactual thinking related to action
  3. counterfactual thinking related to inaction
  4. the forfeiting effect
  5. hindsight bias

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Thinking

NOT: www

 

  1. Gilovich et al. (2003) found that when it comes to regret:
  2. Japanese experienced more regret over action than inaction
  3. Russians experienced more regret over action than inaction
  4. the emotion of regret appears to be universal
  5. the emotion of regret does not appear to be universal

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Research has demonstrated cultural similarity in the nature of counterfactual thinking although cultural differences has emerged in specific domains.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: a             REF: Culture and Thinking

 

  1. Today there is widespread agreement that at least ____ percent of intelligence can be attributed to heredity.
  2. 25
  3. 33
  4. 40
  5. 55

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Intelligence

 

  1. One recent theory that offers an alternative interpretation of the differences in IQ scores between African American and European American individuals is Claude Steele’s work on ____.
  2. different beliefs about what intelligence is
  3. stereotype threat
  4. the relationship between social class and IQ scores
  5. culturally inappropriate measures of intelligence

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Intelligence

NOT: www

 

  1. Steele and Aronson (1995) report that when black students were asked to record their race on a demographic questionnaire before taking a standardized test:
  2. they performed the same as compared to black students who were not primed

to think about their race before taking the test

  1. they performed significantly better compared to black students who were not primed

to think about their race before taking the test

  1. when the exam was presented as a measure of intellectual ability, black students performed worse than white students
  2. when the same test was presented as unrelated to intellectual ability, the detrimental effects of the stereotype threat remained the same

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Intelligence

 

  1. Cross-cultural research on intelligence has discovered that every language has a word that corresponds to our idea of intelligence.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Intelligence

 

  1. ____ (1986) has proposed a theory of intelligence based on three separate “subtheories”: contextual, experiential, and componential intelligence. ____’s theory focuses more on the processes that underlie thought than on specific thought outcomes.
  2. Aronson
  3. Jensen
  4. Sternberg
  5. Nenty

ANS: c             REF: Culture and Intelligence

NOT: www

 

  1. Interestingly, ____ was not strongly correlated with the average or maximum intelligence of the group members, but with the average social sensitivity of group members, the equality in distribution of conversational turn-taking, and the proportion of females in the group.
  2. individual intelligence
  3. collective intelligence
  4. logical thought
  5. deductive reasoning

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Intelligence

 

  1. One of the most important contributions of cross-cultural psychology has been in expanding our theoretical understanding of intelligence in mainstream American psychology. Unfortunately, creativity is still not considered a part of intelligence, however, despite studies suggesting that this important human ability is a type of intelligence.
  2. True
  3. False

ANS: b             REF: Culture and Intelligence