Description

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Database Systems Design  Implementation And Management  12Th Edition by Carlos Coronel -Test Bank
 
Sample  Questions

 

CHAPTER 1:  DATABASE SYSTEMS

 

  1. Data and information are essentially the same thing.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

 

  1. Data processing can be as simple as organizing data to reveal patterns.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. Data is the result of processing raw facts to reveal its meaning.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. When data are entered into a form and saved, they are placed in the underlying database as knowledge.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. Data constitute the building blocks of information.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

 

 

 

  1. Metadata describe the data characteristics and the set of relationships that links the data found within the database.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. The only way to access the data in a database is through the DBMS.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. Database programming languages receive all application requests and translate them into the complex operations required to fulfill those requests.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. The DBMS reveals much of the database’s internal complexity to the application programs and users.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. One disadvantage of the DBMS is that it increases the risk of data security breaches.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.7

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

 

 

 

 

  1. An operational database is sometimes referred to as an enterprise database.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                                           REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. A data warehouse can store data derived from many sources.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                                           REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. The same data might be simultaneously structured and unstructured depending on the intended processing.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. Corporations use only structured data.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.10

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. Field refers to a collection of related records.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:    p.15

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Evolution of File System Data Processing

 

  1. Structural dependence exists when it is possible to make changes in the file structure without affecting the application program’s ability to access the data.
    1. True
    2. False

 

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.19

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. Data anomaly is defined as the condition in which all of the data in the database are consistent with the real-world events and conditions.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.21

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problem with File System Data Processing

 

  1. One disadvantage of a database system over previous data management approaches is increased costs.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:    p.28

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Database System

 

  1. An advantage of database systems is that you needn’t perform frequent updates and apply latest patches.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.28

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Database System

 

  1. One advantage of a database system over previous data management approaches is that the database system is considerably less complex.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.28

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Database System

 

  1. __is the result of revealing the meaning of raw facts.
    1. End-user data An encoded sample
    2. An encrypted bit d. Information

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

  1. ____ is the body of information and facts about a specific subject.
    1. Validation A format
    2. Knowledge d. A database

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.5

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. Accurate, relevant, and timely information is the key to
    1. data management good decision making
    2. knowledge d. understanding

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.5

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. End-user data is .
    1. knowledge about the end users raw facts of interest to the end user
    2. information about a specific subject d. accurate, relevant and timely information

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. ___provide a description of the data characteristics and the set of relationships that link the data found within thedatabase.
    1. Queries End-user data
    2. Metadata d. Schemas

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. ___ serve as the intermediary between the user and the database.
    1. DBMSs Metadata
    2. End-user data d. Programming languages

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. The database structure in a DBMS is stored as a .
    1. single file collection of files
    2. set of key/value pairs d. collection of queries

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. A(n) might be written by a programmer or it might be created through a DBMS utility program.
    1. query operating system
    2. database management system d. application

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. ____ exists when different versions of the same data appear in different places.
    1. Data inconsistency Poor data security
    2. Structural dependence d. Conceptual dependence

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.7

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. The response of the DBMS to a query is the .
    1. ad hoc query ad hoc response
    2. query result set d. integrated view of the data

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.7

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. A(n) database is used by an organization and supports many users across many departments.
    1. desktop workgroup
    2. enterprise d. transactional

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.8

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. A(n) database supports a relatively small number of users (usually fewer than 50) or a specific departmentwithin an organization.
    1. desktop workgroup
    2. enterprise d. transactional

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.8

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. A workgroup database is a(n)
    1. single-user multiuser
    2. desktop d. distributed

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.8

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. A desktop database is a
    1. single-user multiuser
    2. workgroup d. distributed

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.8

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. Data warehouse contains historical data obtained from the .
    1. operational databases desktop database
    2. enterprise databases d. workgroup databases

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. data exist in the format in which they were collected.
    1. Structured Semistructured
    2. Unstructured d. Historical

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                                  REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. ___data exist in a format that does not lend itself to processing that yields information.
    1. Structured Semistructured
    2. Unstructured d. Historical

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. __ are the result of formatting disorganized data in order to facilitate storage, use and generation of information.
    1. Structured data Raw data
    2. Unstructured data d. Obsolete data

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. Most data that can be encountered are best classified as .
    1. structured semistructured
    2. unstructured d. historical

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.10

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. An XML database supports the storage and management of XML data.
    1. structured multistructured
    2. fullystructured d. semistructured

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.10

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. The organization of data within folders in a manual file system is determined by .
    1. its date of creation its expected use
    2. the title of the documents in the folder d. the data processing specialist

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.14

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Evolution of File System Data Processing

 

  1. A is a logically connected set of one or more fields that describes a person, place, or thing.
    1. database column
    2. record d. file

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.15

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Evolution of File System Data Processing

 

  1. A is a collection of related records.
    1. schema field
    2. column d. file

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.15

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Evolution of File System Data Processing

 

 

  1. A is a character or group of characters that has a specific meaning.
    1. database field
    2. record d. file

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.15

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Evolution of File System Data Processing

 

  1. Which of the following is true of spreadsheet applications?
  2. They provide enhanced security and robust data sharing b. They do not allow manipulation of data

features.                                                                                    onceentered.

  1. They are a better alternative to databases. d. They enhance the user’s ability to understand the data.

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.17

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Evolution of File System Data Processing

 

  1. Which of the following refers to the situation where different versions of the same data are stored at different placesbecause they weren’t updated consistently?
    1. Data query Data integrity
    2. Data dictionary d. Data redundancy

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. Data is said to be verifiable if:
    1. the data always yields consistent results. the data cannot be changed or manipulated.
    2. the data is obtained from trusted sources. d. the data is stored in different places within the database.

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:    p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. ______ is defined as the condition in which all of the data in the database are consistent with the real-world eventsand conditions.
    1. Data integrity Data anomaly
    2. Data ubiquity d. Data quality

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

 

 

  1. The term refers to an organization of components that define and regulate the collection, storage,management and use of data within a database environment.
    1. structured data transaction
    2. management system d. database system

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.22

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Database Systems

 

  1. relates to the activities that make the database execute transactions more efficiently in terms of storage andaccess speed.
    1. Performance tuning Database design
    2. Query access d. Database management

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.25

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Database Systems

 

  1. refer to a type of database that stores most of its data in RAM rather than in hard disks.
    1. Integrated databases Cloud databases
    2. Desktop databases d. In-memory databases

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.30

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Preparing for Your Database Professional Career

 

  1. is the result of processing raw data to reveal its meaning.

ANSWER:  Information

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. To reveal meaning, information requires .

ANSWER:  context

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. Raw data must be properly for storage, processing and presentation.

ANSWER:  formatted

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

 

 

 

  1. Information is produced by processing

ANSWER:  data

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.4

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data versus Information

 

  1. is data about data through which the end-user data are integrated and managed.

ANSWER:  Metadata

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. A(n) is a collection of programs that manages the database structure and controls access to the data storedin the database.

ANSWER: DBMS (database management system)

database management system (DBMS)

database management system

DBMS

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. A(n) is a spur-of-the-moment question.

ANSWER:  ad hoc query

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.7

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. A(n) is a specific request issued to the DBMS for data manipulation.

ANSWER:  query

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.7

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Introducing the Database

 

  1. databases focus primarily on storing data used to generate information required to make tactical or strategicdecisions.

ANSWER:  Analytical

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.9

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. is a special language used to represent and manipulate data elements in a textual format.

ANSWER:   XML (Extensible MarkupLanguage)

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Extensible Markup Language

XML

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.10

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. exists when it is possible to make changes in the data storage characteristics without affecting an applicationprogram’s ability to access data.

ANSWER:  Data independence

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.19

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Problem with File System Data Processing

 

  1. The term refers to scattered locations storing the same basic data.

ANSWER:  islands of information

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. exists when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places.

ANSWER:  Data redundancy

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. exists when different and conflicting versions of the same data appear in different places.

ANSWER:  Data inconsistency

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. A(n) develops when all required changes in the redundant data are not made successfully.

ANSWER: data anomaly

anomaly

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.21

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Problems with File System Data Processing

 

  1. The DBMS uses the to look up the required data component structures and relationships, thus relievingprogrammers from having to code such complex relationships in each program.

ANSWER:  data dictionary

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:    p.25

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Database Systems

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. relates to activities that make a database operate more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed.

ANSWER:  Performance tuning

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.25

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Database Systems

 

  1. Describe what metadata are and what value they provide to the database system.

ANSWER:  The metadata describe the data characteristics and the set of relationships that links the data foundwithin the database. For example, the metadata component stores information such as the name of eachdata element, the type of values (numeric, dates, or text) stored on each data element, and whether thedata element can be left empty. The metadata provide information that complements and expands thevalue and use of the data. In short, metadata present a more complete picture of the data in thedatabase. Given the characteristics of metadata, you might hear a database described as a “collection ofself­describing data.”

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Introducing the Database

  1. What are the advantages of having the DBMS between the end user’s applications and the database?

ANSWER:  Having a DBMS between the end user’s applications and the database offers some importantadvantages. First, the DBMS enables the data in the database to be shared among multiple applicationsor users. Second, the DBMS integrates the many different users’ views of the data into a single all­encompassing data repository.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.6

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Introducing the Database

 

  1. Discuss some considerations when designing a database.

ANSWER:  Proper database design requires the designer to identify precisely the database’s expected use.

Designing a transactional database emphasizes accurate and consistent data and operational speed.Designing a data warehouse database emphasizes the use of historical and aggregated data. Designing adatabase to be used in a centralized, single-user environment requires a different approach from thatused in the design of a distributed, multiuser database.

Designing appropriate data repositories of integrated information using the two-dimensional tablestructures found in most databases is a process of decomposition. The integrated data must bedecomposed properly into its constituent parts, with each part stored in its own table. Further, therelationships between these tables must be carefully considered and implemented so the integrated viewof the data can be re-created later as information for the end user. A well-designed database facilitatesdata management and generates accurate and valuable information. A poorly designed database is likelyto become a breeding ground for difficult­to­trace errors that may lead to bad decision making—and baddecision making can lead to the failure of an organization. Database design is simply too important to beleft to luck. That’s why college students study database design, why organizations of all types and sizessend personnel to database design seminars, and why database design consultants often make anexcellent living.

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.14

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:   Why Database Design is Important

  1. What are some reasons for studying file systems?

ANSWER:  A brief explanation of the evolution of file system data processing can be helpful in understanding thedata access limitations that databases attempt to overcome. Understanding these limitations is relevant todatabase designers and developers because database technologies do not make these problems magicallydisappear—database technologies simply make it easier to create solutions that avoid these problems.

Creating database designs that avoid the pitfalls of earlier systems requires that the designer understandthese problems and how to avoid them; otherwise, the database technologies are no better (and arepotentially even worse!) than the technologies and techniques they have replaced.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.14

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:   Why Database Design is Important

 

  1. What are the problems associated with file systems? How do they challenge the types of information that can

becreated from the data as well as the accuracy of the information?

 

ANSWER: The following problems associated with file systems, whether created by DP specialists or through aseries of spreadsheets, severely challenge the types of information that can be created from the data aswell as the accuracy of the information:

Lengthy development times. The first and most glaring problem with the file system approach isthat even the simplest data-retrieval task requires extensive programming. With the older filesystems, programmers had to specify what must be done and how to do it.

Difficulty of getting quick answers. The need to write programs to produce even the simplestreports makes ad hoc queries impossible. Harried DP specialists who worked with mature filesystems often received numerous requests for new reports. They were often forced to say thatthe report will be ready “next week” or even “next month.” If you need the information now,getting it next week or next month will not serve your information needs.

Complex system administration. System administration becomes more difficult as the number offiles in the system expands. Even a simple file system with a few files requires creating andmaintaining several file management programs. Each file must have its own file managementprograms that allow the user to add, modify, and delete records; to list the file contents; and togenerate reports. Because ad hoc queries are not possible, the file reporting programs canmultiply quickly. The problem is compounded by the fact that each department in the organization“owns” its data by creating its own files.

Lack of security and limited data sharing. Another fault of a file system data repository is alack of security and limited data sharing. Data sharing and security are closely related. Sharingdata among multiple geographically dispersed users introduces a lot of security risks. In terms ofspreadsheet data, while many spreadsheet programs provide rudimentary security options, theyare not always used, and even when they are, they are insufficient for robust data sharing amongusers. In terms of creating data management and reporting programs, security and data-sharingfeatures are difficult to program and consequently are often omitted from a file systemenvironment. Such features include effective password protection, the ability to lock out parts offiles or parts of the system itself, and other

measures designed to safeguard data confidentiality.Even when an attempt is made to improve system and data security, the security devices tend tobe limited in scope and effectiveness.

Extensive programming. Making changes to an existing file structure can be difficult in a filesystem environment.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                      REF:   p.18-19

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        Problem with File System Data Processing

 

  1. Describe the five types of users identified in a database system.

 

ANSWER:       1.  System administrators oversee the database system’s general operations.

 

  1. Database administrators, also known as DBAs, manage the DBMS and ensure that the databaseis functioning properly.

 

  1. Database designers design the database structure. They are, in effect, the database architects. Ifthe database design is poor, even the best application programmers and the most dedicated DBAscannot produce a useful database environment. Because organizations strive to optimize their dataresources, the database designer’s job description has expanded to cover new dimensions andgrowing responsibilities.

 

  1. System analysts and programmers design and implement the application programs. They designand create the data-entry screens, reports, and procedures through which end users access andmanipulate the database’s data.

 

  1. End users are the people who use the application programs to run the organization’s dailyoperations. For example, sales clerks, supervisors, managers, and directors are all classified asend users. High-level end users employ the information obtained from the database to maketactical and strategic business decisions.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                      REF:   p.23-24

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        Database Systems

 

  1. What are the disadvantages of database systems?

 

ANSWER:  Although the database system yields considerable advantages over previous data managementapproaches, database systems do carry significant disadvantages:

Increased costs. Database systems require sophisticated hardware and software and highlyskilled personnel. The cost of maintaining the hardware, software, and personnel required tooperate and manage a database system can be substantial. Training, licensing, and regulationcompliance costs are often overlooked when database systems are implemented.

 

 

Management complexity. Database systems interface with many different technologies and havea significant impact on a company’s resources and culture. The changes introduced by theadoption of a database system must be properly managed to ensure that they help advance thecompany’s objectives. Because database systems hold crucial company data that are accessedfrom multiple sources, security issues must be assessed constantly.

Maintaining currency. To maximize the efficiency of the database system, you must keep yoursystem current. Therefore, you must perform frequent updates and apply the latest patches andsecurity measures to all components. Because database technology advances rapidly, personneltraining costs tend to be significant.

Vendor dependence. Given the heavy investment in technology and personnel training,companies might be reluctant to change database vendors. As a consequence, vendors are lesslikely to offer pricing point advantages to existing customers, and those customers might be limitedin their choice of database system components.

Frequent upgrade/replacement cycles. DBMS vendors frequently upgrade their products byadding new functionality. Such new features often come bundled in new upgrade versions of thesoftware. Some of these versions require hardware upgrades. Not only do the upgradesthemselves cost money, it also costs money to train database users and administrators to properlyuse and manage the new features.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.28

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:   Database Systems

 

  1. Discuss any three functions performed by the DBMS that guarantee the integrity and consistency of the data in thedatabase.

ANSWER:  (answers may vary)

 

Data dictionary management. The DBMS stores definitions of the data elements and their relationships (metadata) in a data dictionary. In turn, all programs that access the data in the database work through the DBMS. The DBMS uses the data dictionary to look up the required data component structures and relationships, thus relieving you from having to code such complex relationships in each program. Additionally, any changes made in a database structure are automatically recorded in the data dictionary, thereby freeing you from having to modify all of the programs that access the changed structure. In other words, the DBMS provides data abstraction, and it removes structural and data dependence from the system.

Data storage management. The DBMS creates and manages the complex structures required for data storage, thus relieving you from the difficult task of defining and programming the physical data characteristics. A modern DBMS provides storage not only for the data but for related data-entry forms or screen definitions, report definitions, data validation rules, procedural code, structures to handle video and picture formats, and so on. Data storage management is also important for database performance tuning. Performance tuning relates to the activities that make the database perform more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed. Although the user sees the database as a single data storage unit, the DBMS actually stores the database in multiple physical data files. Such data files may even be stored on different storage media. Therefore, the DBMS doesn’t have to wait for one disk request to finish before the next onestarts. In other words, the DBMS can fulfill database requests concurrently.

Data transformation and presentation. The DBMS transforms entered data to conform torequired data structures. The DBMS relieves you of the chore of distinguishing between thelogical data format and the physical data format. That is, the DBMS formats the physicallyretrieved data to make it conform to the user’s logical expectations.

Security management. The DBMS creates a security system that enforces user security anddata privacy. Security rules determine which users can access the database, which data itemseach user can access, and which data operations (read, add, delete, or modify) the user canperform. This is especially important in multiuser database systems.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.25-26

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        Database Systems

CHAPTER 3:  THE RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL

 

  1. The practical significance of taking the logical view of a database is that it serves as a reminder of the simple file concept of data storage.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:     p.73

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Comprehension      TOP:   A Logical View of Data

 

  1. You can think of a table as a persistent representation of a logical relation.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                              DIF:       Difficulty: Easy                                     REF.   p.74

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology             STATE: DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge                TOP:      A Logical View of Data

 

  1. The order of the rows and columns is important to the DBMS.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:      p.74

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        A Logical View of Data

 

  1. Character data can contain any character or symbol intended for mathematical manipulation.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:      p.75

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        A Logical View of Data

 

  1. The row’s range of permissible values is known as its domain.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:      p.75

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Knowledge        TOP:        A Logical View of Data

 

 

 

  1. The idea of determination is unique to the database environment.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                                  REF:   p.76

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        Keys

 

  1. Only a single attribute, not multiple attributes, can define functional dependence.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:      p.76

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:   Keys

 

  1. If the attribute (B) is functionally dependent on a composite key (A) but not on any subset of that composite key, the attribute (B) is fully functionally dependent on (A).
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.77

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        Keys

 

  1. A null is created when you press the Enter key or the Tab key to move to the next entry without making a prior entry of any kind.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:    p.78

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. Depending on the sophistication of the application development software, nulls can create problems when functions such as COUNT, AVERAGE, and SUM are used.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:     p.78

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. RDBMSs enforce integrity rules automatically.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                          REF:   p.80

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Integrity Rules

 

  1. Relational algebra defines the theoretical way of manipulating table contents using relational operators.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.82

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. The SELECT operator yields a vertical subset of a table.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:      p.83

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge             TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. The DIFFERENCE operator subtracts one table from the other.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.85

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge             TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. In a natural join, the column on which the join was made occurs twice in the new table.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.88

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge        TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

 

 

 

  1. The DIVIDE operation uses one single­column table (e.g., column “a”) as the divisor and one two­column table (e.g., columns “a” and “b”) as the dividend.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                          REF:   p.90

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge        TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. A data dictionary is sometimes described as “the database designer’s database” because it records the design

decisions about tables and their structures.

  1. True
  2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                        REF:    p.91

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology          STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge       TOP:        The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

  1. The one­to­many (1:M) relationship is easily implemented in the relational model by putting the foreign key of the “1” side in the table of the “many” side as a primary key.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.94

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic               STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. As rare as 1:1 relationships should be, certain conditions absolutely require their use.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.96

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology         STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge       TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. Each table in a relational database must have a primary key.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                        REF:     p.20

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:         A Logical View of Data

 

 

  1. __ logic, used extensively in mathematics, provides a framework in which an assertion (statement of fact) canbe verified as either true or false.
    1. Predicate Database
    2. Relational d. Index

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:     p.73

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:       A Logical View of Data

 

  1. Each table represents an attribute.
    1. column row
    2. dimension d. value

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:     p.74

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        A Logical View of Data

 

  1. Date attributes contain calendar dates stored in a special format known as the date format.
    1. Epoch calendar
    2. Julian d. logical

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                          REF:   p.75

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        A Logical View of Data

 

  1. In the relational model, are important because they are used to ensure that each row in a table is uniquelyidentifiable.
    1. relations keys
    2. indexes d. logical structures

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.76

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. A is any key that uniquely identifies each row.
    1. superkey special key
    2. foreign key d. candidate key

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.77

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

 

 

  1. A key can be described as a minimal superkey, a superkey without any unnecessary attributes.
    1. secondary candidate
    2. primary d. foreign

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:      p.78

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. A is the primary key of one table that has been placed into another table to create a common attribute.
    1. superkey composite primary key
    2. candidate key d. foreign key

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.79

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. A key is defined as a key that is used strictly for data retrieval purposes.
    1. lookup foreign
    2. candidate d. secondary

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.79

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

 

  1. Referential dictates that the foreign key must contain values that match the primary key in the related table,or must contain null.
    1. integrity uniqueness
    2. model d. attribute

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:      p.79

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Keys

 

  1. The CUSTOMER table’s primary key is CUS_CODE. The CUSTOMER primary key column has no null entries, and all entries are unique. This is an example of
    1. entity referential
    2. relational d. null

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                                 REF:    p.81

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Keys

 

 

  1. The constraint can be placed on a column to ensure that every row in the table has a value for that column.
    1. UNIQUE NOT NULL
    2. VALUE d. EMPTY

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.81

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Keys

 

  1. To be considered minimally relational, the DBMS must support the key relational operators , PROJECT, andJOIN.
    1. INTERSECT UNION
    2. DIFFERENCE d. SELECT

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.82

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. __ , also known as RESTRICT, yields values for all rows found in a table that satisfy a given condition.
    1. INTERSECT UNION
    2. DIFFERENCE d. SELECT

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.83

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. __ returns only the attributes requested, in the order in which they are requested.
    1. PROJECT SELECT
    2. UNION d. DIFFERENCE

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.83

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. When two or more tables share the same number of columns, and when their corresponding columns share the sameor compatible domains, they are said to be .
    1. intersect-compatible union-compatible
    2. difference-compatible d. select-compatible

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.84

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. A(n) join links tables by selecting only the rows with common values in their common attribute(s).
    1. attribute unique
    2. foreign d. natural

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.87

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. _ are especially useful when you are trying to determine what values in related tables cause referential integrityproblems.
    1. Inner joins Outer joins
    2. Theta joins Equijoins

 

ANSWER:  b

PPTS:    1                                         DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.89

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. A(n) only returns matched records from the tables that are being joined.
    1. outer join inner join
    2. equijoin d. theta join

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                       REF:      p.89

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. A contains at least all of the attribute names and characteristics for each table in the system.
    1. data dictionary relational schema
    2. logical schema d. database

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.91

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

  1. The is actually a system-created database whose tables store the user/designer-created databasecharacteristics and contents.
    1. database tuple systematic database
    2. unique index d. system catalog

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.91

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

 

  1. In a database context, the word indicates the use of the same attribute name to label different attributes.
    1. redundancy homonym
    2. duplicate d. synonym

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:     p.91

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

  1. In a database context, a(n) indicates the use of different names to describe the same attribute.
    1. entity duplicate
    2. synonym d. homonym

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.93

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

  1. The relationship is the “relational model ideal.”
  2. 1:1 b. 1:M
  3. M:1 d. M:N

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.93

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. The relationship should be rare in any relational database design.
  2. 1:1 b. 1:M
  3. M:1 d. M:N

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.93

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. _____ relationships can be implemented by creating a new entity in 1:M relationships with the original entities.
    1. 1:N M:1
    2. M:N d. 1:1

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF: p.96

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. Another name for a composite entity is a(n)
    1. bridge linked
    2. directive d. associative

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.98

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. A(n) is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table.
    1. primary rule superkey
    2. relationship d. index

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.103

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Indexes

 

  1. When you define a table’s primary key, the DBMS automatically creates a(n) index on the primary key column(s) you declared.
    1. key composite
    2. unique d. primary

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.104

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Knowledge             TOP:        Indexes

 

  1. According to Codd’s rule of relational database, “Application programs and ad hoc facilities are logicallyunaffected when changes are made to the table structures that preserve the original table values (changing order ofcolumns or inserting columns).”
    1. nonsubversion logical data independence
    2. comprehensive data sublanguage d. integrity independence

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.105

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Knowledge             TOP:   Codd’s Relational Database Rules

 

  1. A table is also called a(n) because the relational model’s creator, E. F. Codd, used the two terms as synonyms.

ANSWER:  relation

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.74

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        A Logical View of Data

 

  1. In a relational table, each column has a specific range of values known as the

ANSWER:  attribute

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.74

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        A Logical View of Data

  1. In a relational model, are also used to establish relationships among tables and to ensure the integrity of thedata.

ANSWER:  keys

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.76

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. A primary key is a(n) key chosen to be the primary means by which rows of a table are uniquely identified.

ANSWER:  candidate

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.78

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Keys

 

  1. To avoid nulls, some designers use special codes, known as , to indicate the absence of some value.

ANSWER:  flags

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.81

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:       Integrity Rules

 

  1. The relational operators have the property of ; that is, the use of relational algebra operators on existingrelations (tables) produces new relations.

ANSWER:  closure

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.83

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:  Knowledge           TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. PRODUCT yields all possible pairs of rows from two tables, also known as the

ANSWER:  Cartesian

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                                 REF:    p.86

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Comprehension      TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. __ is the real power behind the relational database, allowing the use of independent tables linked by commonattributes.

ANSWER:  JOIN

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.87

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relational Algebra

 

  1. A(n) links tables on the basis of an equality condition that compares specified columns of each table.

ANSWER:  equijoin

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:  p.89

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relational Algebra

  1. A(n) provides a detailed description of all tables found within the user/designer-created database.

ANSWER:  data dictionary

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                                              REF:   p.91

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge               TOP:       The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

  1. The catalog can be described as a detailed system data dictionary that describes all objects within thedatabase, including data about table names, the table’s creator and creation date, the number of columns in eachtable, the data type corresponding to each column, index filenames, index creators, authorized users, and accessprivileges.

ANSWER:  system

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                                               REF:   p.91

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology             STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge       TOP:        The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog

 

  1. The relationship is the relational database norm.

ANSWER:  1:M

PTS:    1                                              DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                                  REF:   p.93

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology             STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. ______relationships cannot be implemented as such in the relational model.

ANSWER:  M:N

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.93

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. If one department chair—a professor—can chair only one department, and one department can have only one department chair. The entities PROFESSOR and DEPARTMENT exhibit a(n)

ANSWER:  1:1

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:      p.95

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. One characteristic of generalization hierarchies is that they are implemented as

ANSWER:  1:1

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.96

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s:Knowledge             TOP:        Relationships within the Relational Database

 

  1. The proper use of keys is crucial to controlling data redundancy.

ANSWER:  foreign

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.101

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data Redundancy Revisited

 

  1. Proper data design requires carefully defined and controlled data redundancies to function properly.

ANSWER:  warehousing

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.101

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data Redundancy Revisited

 

  1. A(n) index is an index in which the index key can have only one pointer value (row) associated with it.

ANSWER:  unique

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                      REF:     p.104

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Indexes

 

  1. An index key can have multiple (a composite index).

ANSWER:  attributes

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.104

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Indexes

 

  1. Codd’s rule of relational database states that every value in a table is guaranteed to be accessible through a combination of table name, primary key value, and column name.

ANSWER:  Guaranteed Access

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                                         REF:   p.105

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Codd’s Relational Database Rules

 

  1. What is a key and how is it important in a relational model?

ANSWER:  In a relational model, keys are important because they are used to ensure that each row in a table isuniquely identifiable. They are also used to establish relationships among tables and to ensure theintegrity of the data. A key consists of one or more attributes that determine other attributes. Forexample, an invoice number identifies all of the invoice attributes, such as the invoice date and thecustomer name.

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.76

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP: Keys

  1. Define entity integrity. What are the two requirements to ensure entity integrity?

ANSWER:  Entity integrity is the condition in which each row (entity instance) in the table has its own uniqueidentity. To ensure entity integrity, the primary key has two requirements:

  • all of the values in the primary key must be unique.
  • no key attribute in the primary key can contain a null.

 

PTS:    1                                                    DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:      p.78

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic                     STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension               TOP:        Keys

  1. Describe the use of null values in a database.

ANSWER:  Null values are problematic in a relational model. A null is the absence of any data value, and it is neverallowed in any part of the primary key. From a theoretical perspective, it can be argued that a table thatcontains a null is not properly a relational table at all. From a practical perspective, however, some nullscannot be reasonably avoided. For example, not all students have a middle initial. As a general rule, nullsshould be avoided as much as reasonably possible. In fact, an abundance of nulls is often a sign of a poordesign. Also, nulls should be avoided in the database because their meaning is not always identifiable.

For example, a null could represent:

  • An unknown attribute value.
  • A known, but missing, attribute value.
  • A “not applicable” condition.

 

PTS:    1                                          DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                                 REF:    p.78

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic           STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension    TOP:        Keys

 

  1. Describe the use of the INTERSECT operator.

ANSWER:   INTERSECT yields only the rows that appear in both tables. As with UNION, the tables must be union-compatible to yield valid results. For example, you cannot use INTERSECT if one of the attributes isnumeric and one is character-based. For the rows to be considered the same in both tables and appear inthe result of the INTERSECT, the entire rows must be exact duplicates.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:     p.85

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic               STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension            TOP:         Relational Algebra

  1. Define an index. Explain the role of indexes in a relational database.

ANSWER:  An index is an orderly arrangement used to logically access rows in a table. From a conceptual point ofview, an index is composed of an index key and a set of pointers. The index key is, in effect, the index’sreference point. More formally, an index is an ordered arrangement of keys and pointers. Each keypoints to the location of the data identified by the key. DBMSs use indexes for many different purposes.An index can be used to retrieve data more efficiently. Indexes can also be used by a DBMS to retrievedata ordered by a specific attribute or attributes. For example, creating an index on a customer’s lastname will allow you to retrieve the customer data alphabetically by the customer’s last name.

Also, an index key can be composed of one or more attributes. Indexes play an important role in DBMSsfor the implementation of primary keys. When you define a table’s primary key, the DBMSautomatically creates a unique index on the primary key column(s) you declared.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.103-104

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension            TOP:        Relational Algebra

CHAPTER 14: BIG DATA ANALYTICS AND NOSQL

 

  1. Much ambiguity exists in defining Big Data.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.649

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

 

  1. For a data set to be considered Big Data, it must display all the “3 Vs” – volume, velocity and variety.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.650

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. Scaling out is keeping the same number of systems, but migrating each system to a larger one.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.651

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. In many ways, the issues of associated with volume and velocity are the same.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.652

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. The analysis of data to produce actionable results is feedback loop processing.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.653

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

 

 

 

  1. Relational databases rely on unstructured data.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.653

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. One tenet of Big Data is that all data that is capable of being captured should be.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. The ability to graphically data in a way that makes it understandable is the concept of value.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. Characteristics that are important in working with data in the relational database model also apply to Big Data.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.655

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. Hadoop is a database that has become the de facto standard for most Big Data storage and processing.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                           REF:    p.655

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

 

  1. Under the HDFS system, using a write-one, ready-many model simplifies concurrency issues.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.656

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. A block report is used to let the name node know that the data mode is still available.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.657

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. A reduce function takes a collection of key-value pairs with the same key value and summarizes them into a single result.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.658

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Hive is a good choice for jobs that require a small subset of data to be returned very quickly.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.660

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Hadoop is a high-level tool that requires little effort to create, manage and use.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.660

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

  1. Flume is a tool for converting data back and forth between a relational database and the HDFS.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                           REF:    p.661

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Most NoSQL products run only in a Linux or Unix environment.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.662

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. Key-value and document databases are structurally similar.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.663-664

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. A column-family database is a NoSQL database model that organizes data in key-value pairs with keys mapped to a set of columns in the value component.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.666

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. Interest in graph databases can be tied to the area of social networks.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                           REF:    p.668

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. Explanatory analytics uses predictive analytics as a stepping stone to create explanatory models.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  False

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.670

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Data Analytics

 

  1. Data mining focuses on the discovery and explanation stages of knowledge acquisition.
    1. True
    2. False

 

ANSWER:  True

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                           REF:    p.671

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Data Analytics

 

  1. __is NOT one of the “3 Vs” of Big Data.
    1. Volume Velocity
    2. Validation d. Variety

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.649

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. ____ is keeping the same number of systems, but migrating each system to a larger system.
    1. Clustering Scaling up
    2. Streaming d. Scaling out

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.651

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. __ ___ focuses on filtering data as it enters the system to determine which data to keep and which to discard.
    1. Scaling up Feedback loop processing
    2. Stream processing d. Scaling out

 

ANSWER:  C

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.652

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Big Data

 

  1. A(n) __ is a process or set of operations in a calculation.
    1. algorithm feedback loop
    2. stream d. structure

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.653

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. Big Data:
    1. relies on the use of structured data captures data in whatever format it naturally exists
    2. relies on the use of unstructured data d. imposes a structure on data when it is captured

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:        Big Data

 

 

  1. In the context of Big Data, _____ relates to differences in meaning.
    1. variety variability
    2. veracity d. viability

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. In the context of Big Data, _____ refers to the trustworthiness of a set of data.
    1. value variability
    2. veracity d. viability

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Big Data

 

  1. By default, Hadoop uses a replication factor of:
    1. one two
    2. three d. four

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.656

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a key assumption of the Hadoop Distributed File System?
    1. High volume          Write-many, read-once
    2. Streaming access d. Fault-tolerance

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.655-656

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

  1. When using a HDFS, the _____ node creates new files by communicating with the ____ node.
    1. client, name name, client
    2. client, data d. data, client

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.657

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. When using a HDFS, a heartbeat is sent every _____ to notify the name node that the data mode is still available.
    1. 3 hours 3 seconds
    2. 6 hours d. 6 seconds

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.657

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

  1. When using MapReduce, a _______ function takes a collection and data and sorts and filters it into a set of key-value pairs.
    1. reduce map
    2. data d. block

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.658

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. When using MapReduce, best practices suggest that the number of mappers on a given node should be:
    1. 100 or more 100 or less
    2. 50 or less d. at least 300

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.659

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

  1. processing occurs when a program runs from beginning to end without any user interaction.
    1. Hadoop Block
    2. Hive d. Batch

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.660

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Two of the most popular applications to simplify the process of creating MapReduce jobs are Hive and
    1. Flume Pig
    2. Sqoop d. Impala

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.660

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

  1. ___ is a tool for converting data back and forth between a relational database and the HDFS.
    1. Flume Pig
    2. Sqoop d. Impala

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.661

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

 

  1. ___ was the first SQL-on-Hadoop application.
    1. Flume Pig
    2. Sqoop d. Impala

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.662

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the standard NoSQL categories?
    1. document databases column-oriented databases
    2. graph databases d. chart databases

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.662

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. To query the value component of the pair when using a key-value database, use get or:
    1. store fetch
    2. retrieve d. gather

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.663

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. Document databases group documents into logical groups called:
    1. buckets sets
    2. collections d. blocks

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.664

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. ______minimizes the number of disk reads necessary to retrieve a row of data.
    1. Column-oriented database Row-centric storage
    2. Column-family database d. Column-centric storage

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.665

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        NoSQL

 

  1. Modeling and storing data about relationships is the focus of:
    1. key-value databases column-oriented databases
    2. document databases d. graph databases

 

 

ANSWER:  d

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.668

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. uses statistical analysis to answer questions about the how and why of relationships.
    1. Explanatory analytics Data mining
    2. Predictive analytics d. Knowledge acquisition

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.670

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Data Analytics

 

  1. uses statistical tools to answer questions about future data occurrences.
    1. Explanatory analytics Data mining
    2. Predictive analytics d. Knowledge acquisition

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.670

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data Analytics

 

  1. The goal of the _____ phase of data mining is to identify common data characteristics or patterns.
    1. data preparation             data analysis and classification
    2. knowledge acquisition d. prognosis

 

ANSWER:  b

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.672

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Data Analytics

 

  1. The end user decides what techniques to apply to the data when using the _____ mode of data mining
    1. guided prognosis
    2. directed d. automated

 

ANSWER:  a

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.673

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Data Analytics

 

  1. Most BI vendors are dropping the term “data mining” and replacing it with the term:
    1. explanatory analytics data analytics
    2. predictive analytics d. knowledge acquisition

 

ANSWER:  c

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.674

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data Analytics

 

 

  1. is the Big Data “3 V” that relates to the speed at which data is entering the system.

ANSWER:  Velocity

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.649

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. Scaling out is also referred to as .

ANSWER:  clustering

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:    p.649

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. ______ refers to the analysis of the data to produce actionable results.

ANSWER:  Feedback loop processing

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.653

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. A method of text analysis that attempts to determine if a statement conveys a positive, negative, or neutral attitude is referred to as ___

ANSWER:  sentimental

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. isthe coexistence of a variety of data storage and data management technologies within an organization’s infrastructure.

ANSWER:  Polyglot persistence

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.655

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Big Data

 

  1. Within MapReduce, a runs maps and reduces functions.

ANSWER: task tracker

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.659

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Most organizations that use Hadoop also use a set of other related products that interact and complement each other to produce an entire ______ of applications and tools.

ANSWER:  ecosystem

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.660

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Hadoop

 

 

  1. languages allow the user to specify what they want, not how to get it which is very useful for query processing.

ANSWER:  Declarative

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.661

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Within Hadoop, is used for producing data pipeline tasks that transform data in a series of steps.

ANSWER:  Pig

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.661

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Within Hadoop, can transfer data in both directions – into and out of HDFS.

ANSWER:  Sqoop

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.661

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. databases simply store data with no attempt to understand the contents of the value component or its meaning.

ANSWER:   Key-value                                                                                                                                        KV        

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.663

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. is a human-readable text format for data interchange that defines attributes and values in a document.

ANSWER:  JavaScript Object Notation

JSON

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.664

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. do not store relationships as perceived in the relational model and generally have no support for join operations.

ANSWER:  Document databases

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.665

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. refers to traditional, relational database technologies that use column-centric, not row-centric storage.

ANSWER:  Column-oriented database

Columnar database

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.665

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. In a column family database, a column that is composed of a group of other related columns is called a(n) ______.

ANSWER:  super column

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.667

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. In a graph database, the representation of a relationship between nodes is called a(n)

ANSWER: edge

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.668

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. A query in a graph database is called a(n)

ANSWER: traversal

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.668

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        NoSQL

 

  1. A database model that attempts to provide ACID-compliant transactions across a highly distributed infrastructure is _____.

ANSWER:  NewSQL

PTS:    1                                           DIF:    Difficulty: Easy                               REF:    p.669

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. is a continuous spectrum of knowledge acquisition that goes from discovery to explanation to prediction..

ANSWER:  Data analytics

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                           REF:    p.670

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:   Data Analytics

 

  1. In the ____         phase of data mining, findings are used to predict future behavior and forecast business outcomes.

ANSWER:  prognosis

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.672

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data Analytics

 

  1. The origins of ____        can be traced back to the banking and credit card industries.

ANSWER:  predictive analytics

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Easy                          REF:    p.674

NAT:   BUSPROG: Technology       STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Knowledge            TOP:        Data Analytics

 

  1. Discuss the “3 Vs” of Big Data. How has the definition of Big Data regarding these items changed over time?

ANSWER:  The three V’s are Volume, Velocity and Variety

Volume is the quantity of data to be stored and a key characteristic of Big Data.  The storage capacities associated with Big Data are very large.  As storage needs increase, they can be handled by scaling up or scaling out.  Scaling up is keeping the same number of systems but migrating each to a larger system.  Scaling out involves distributing data storage structures across a cluster of commodity servers.

Velocity is the speed at which data enters the system and is another key characteristic. In many ways, the issues of velocity mirror those of volume. The velocity of processing can be broken down into two categories: stream and feedback loop.

Variety refers to the vast array of formats and structures in which the data may be captured.  Big Data requires that the data be captured in whatever format it naturally exists.

The lack of specific values associated with these characteristics is what leads to ambiguity in defining Big Data. What is considered Big Data changes over time, but the key is the characteristics are present to an extent that the current relational database technology struggles with managing the data.

There is also some disagreement about which of the 3 Vs must be present for a data set to be considered Big Data.  Originally it was conceived as a combination of the 3 Vs.  Recent changes in technology have led to Big Data being redefined as involving any, but not necessarily all of the 3 Vs.

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.649-654

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Big Data

  1. Define the four key assumptions of the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).

ANSWER:  High volume: The volume of data in Big Data applications is expected to be in terabytes, petabytes or larger.  Hadoop assumes HDFS files will be extremely large

                  Write-once, ready-many: This model simplifies concurrent issues and improves overall data throughput.  Using this model, a file is created, written to the file system and then closed.  Once the file is closed, changes cannot be made to its contents which improves overall system performance and works well for the types of tasks performed by many Big Data applications.

                  Streaming access: Unlike transaction processing systems, Big Data applications typically process entire files. Hadoop is optimized for batch processing of entire files as continuous streams of data.

                  Fault tolerance: Hadoop is designed to be distributed across thousands of low-cost, commodity computers.  The HDFS is designed to replicate data across many devices so that, when one fails, the data is still available from another device. By default, Hadoop uses a replication factor of three, meaning that each block of data is stored on three devices.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                               REF:    p.655-656

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technologies

KEY:   Bloom’s: Comprehension     TOP:   Hadoop

 

  1. Discuss the need for a Hadoop ecosystem and identify the key components.

ANSWER: Because Hadoop is a very low-level tool requiring considerable effort to create, manage, and use,

it presents quite a few obstacles.  This has resulted in a host of related applications that attempt to    make Hadoop easier to use and more accessible to users who are not skilled at complex Java programming. Most organizations that use Hadoop also use a set of other related products that interact and complement each other to produce an entire ecosystem of applications and tools.

 

MapReduce simplification applications have been developed to simplify the process of creating MapReduce jobs.  Two of the most popular are Hive and Pig.

 

Data ingestion applications help to “ingest” or gather data into Hadoop from existing systems and include Flume.  Sqoop is a tool for converting data back and forth between a relational database and HDFS.

 

Direct query applications attempt to provide faster query access than is possible through MapReduce and include HBase and Impala.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                      REF:   p.660-662

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:   Hadoop

  1. What is NoSQL and what are the major NoSQL approaches (categories)?

ANSWER:  NoSQL is the unfortunate name given to a broad array of nonrelational database technologies that have developed to address Big Data challenges.  The name is unfortunate because it does not describe what the NoSQL technologies are, but rather what they are not.  Even that explanation is poor.  Literally hundreds of products can be considered as NoSQL. Most of them fit into one of four categories: key-value data stores, document databases, column-oriented databases and graph databases.

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                   REF:      p.

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:   NoSQL

 

  1. Discuss NewSQL and what does it attempts to do.

 

ANSWER:  NewSQL is a database model that attempts to provide ACID-compliant transactions across a highly distributed infrastructure and are the latest technologies to appear to appear in the data management arena to address Big Data problems.  As a new category of data management products, NewSQL databases have not yet developed a track record of success and have been adopted by relatively few organizations.

                  Because no technology can perfectly provide the advantages of both RDBMS and NoSQL, NewSQL has disadvantages, principally centered around its heavy use of in-memory storage.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                      REF:   p.669-670

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        NoSQL

 

 

 

  1. Explain the concept of data analytics. What are the various tools of data analytics?

ANSWER:   Data analytics is a subset of business intelligence (BI) functionality that encompasses a wide range ofmathematical, statistical, and modeling techniques with the purpose of extracting knowledge from data.Data analytics is used at all levels within the BI framework, including queries and reporting, monitoringand alerting, and data visualization. Hence, data analytics is a “shared” service that is crucial to what BIadds to an organization. Data analytics represents what business managers really want from BI: theability to extract actionable business insight from current events and foresee future problems oropportunities. Data analytics tools can be grouped into two separate (but closely related and oftenoverlapping) areas:

  • Explanatory analytics focuses on discovering and explaining data characteristics and relationships based on existing data. Explanatory analytics uses statistical tools to formulate hypotheses, test them, andanswer the how and why of such relationships.
  • Predictive analytics focuses on predicting future data outcomes with a high degree of accuracy.Predictive analytics uses sophisticated statistical tools to help the end user create advanced models thatanswer questions about future data occurrences.

 

PTS:    1                                           DIF:         Difficulty: Moderate                      REF:   p.669-670

NAT:   BUSPROG: Analytic            STATE:   DISC: Information Technology

KEY:   Bloom’s Comprehension      TOP:        Data Analytics