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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

ISBN-13: 978-1111344689

ISBN-10: 111134468X

 

Development Through Life A Psychosocial Approach 11th by Barbara M. Newman  – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

Psychosocial Theory

 

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

 

OBJECTIVES ITEM NUMBER
  1. To explain the rationale for using psychosocial theory as an organizing framework for the study of human development.
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 87, 107, 108, 134
  1. To define the six basic concepts of psychosocial theory: stages of development, developmental tasks, psychosocial crisis, central process for resolving the crisis, radius of significant relationships, and coping.
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137

 

  1. To evaluate psychosocial theory, pointing out its strengths and weaknesses.
105, 106, 125, 126, 127, 128, 138, 139

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. As an organizing framework, psychosocial theory is useful because
  2. it focuses solely on the age ranges of adolescence and adulthood.
  3. it ignores the role of culture in a person’s development.
  4. it assumes people actively contribute to their development.
  5. it focuses only on the biological influences on human development.

 

Factual                  p. 62                       C

*CO: 1                   Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the range of applicability of psychosocial theory?
  2. Changes in unconscious processes during childhood.
  3. Patterns of psychological and social change and growth over the life course.
  4. Habits created and sustained in adulthood.
  5. Logical thinking changes from infancy through adolescence.

 

Conceptual           p. 62                       B

CO: 1                     Difficult

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is considered an assumption of psychosocial theory?
  2. At every stage of life, individuals may contribute to their own development.
  3. The direction of growth follows a genetically guided course that is impervious to cultural influences.
  4. Development is shaped largely through experiences in the first six years of life.
  5. The combination of differences among cultures and individual differences make it impossible to speak of patterns of development.

 

Factual                  p. 62                       A

CO: 1                     Difficult

 

  1. Who is considered the developer of psychosocial theory?
  2. Erik Erikson
  3. Sigmund Freud
  4. Jean Piaget
  5. Peter Blos

 

Factual                  p. 62                       A

CO: 1                     Easy

 

  1. Psychosocial theory presents human development as a product of ________.
  2. culmination of human experience calculated in older adulthood
  3. the interaction between biological and psychological needs and societal expectations
  4. infantile experiences of the id, ego, and superego
  5. genetic influences on personality development

 

Factual                  p. 62                       B

*CO: 1                   Moderate

 

  1. Psychosocial evolution is best described as _____________.
  2. gathering knowledge from ancestors and passing it to future generations
  3. strengthening groups of people through selective breeding
  4. transmitting biochemical information through the mechanisms of genetics
  5. the evolving nature of genetic counseling

 

Conceptual           p. 64                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following terms refers to the transmission of values and knowledge across generations?
  2. stages of development
  3. coping
  4. psychosocial evolution
  5. psychosocial crisis

 

Conceptual           p. 64                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Jeanette could use all of the following to illustrate the relationship between psychosocial theory and psychosocial evolution except
  2. biological evolution.
  3. emailing her children.
  4. following her parents’ childrearing techniques.
  5. passing down traditional rituals.

 

Application           p. 64                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the six basic concepts of psychosocial theory as defined by the text?
  2. operational definition
  3. a radiating network of significant relationships
  4. stages of development
  5. developmental tasks

 

Factual                  p. 64                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. A developmental stage is best defined as ________________.
  2. the ability to manage stress and emotions associated with that stress
  3. a set of skills and competencies that one performs
  4. people who are important sources of support and information at each period of life
  5. a period of life that is characterized by a specific underlying organization

 

Conceptual           p. 64                       D

*CO: 2                   Easy

 

  1. Psychosocial theory is considered a stage theory because at each stage
  2. failures at each stage prevent an individual from growing and developing past age 13.
  3. accomplishments from previous stages provide resources for mastering challenges at new stages.
  4. there is no specific direction or order for the stages.
  5. there lacks an organization underlying the stage.

 

Factual                  p. 64                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. The stage theory concept ______________________.
  2. proposes a specific direction of development
  3. follows a haphazard pattern
  4. focuses on correlations
  5. uses naturalized relationships

 

Conceptual           p. 64       A             www

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. In developing the eight stages, Erik Erikson’s utilized
  2. Jean Piaget’s cognitive development stages.
  3. Peter Blos’ theory of identity.
  4. Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual stages.
  5. Urie Brofenbrenner’s ecological context.

 

Factual                  p. 64                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. In Erikson’s original model, life stages were given names but no ages because Erikson wanted to
  2. incorporate all ages into all stages.
  3. conduct research first prior to determining ages.
  4. leave something unfinished in order to continue theorizing about life stages.
  5. emphasize an individual developmental timetable as unique, guided by biological maturation and cultural expectations.

 

Conceptual           p. 65       D

CO: 2                     Easy

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the concept of stages?
  2. Ages correspond directly to stages.
  3. Poverty can alter the sequence of stages.
  4. The length of each stage remains constant.
  5. All individuals follow the same stage sequence.

 

Factual                  p. 66                       D

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. The authors of the text, Newman and Newman, expanded the number of life stages in Erikson’s original theory to ________ stages.
  2. eight
  3. ten
  4. eleven
  5. thirteen

 

Factual                  p. 67                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements is a good description about the addition of stages to Erikson’s original theory?
  2. Erikson’s original theory did not include ages with the names of the life stages.
  3. Theories of human development can change based on cultural and historical changes.
  4. Erikson’s original theory was not based on research.
  5. Theories of human development are unstable and constantly changing.

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       B

*CO: 2                   Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements is considered a strength of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial stages?
  2. Presentation of stages makes each stage look similar in length of time to complete.
  3. Stages appear to be discreet and separate.
  4. Stages are complete; no new stages are needed.
  5. Stages incorporate biological and societal influences.

 

Conceptual           p. 66       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements reflects a psychosocial stage approach to development?
  2. Psychological growth occurs in a patterned sequence.
  3. One can reinterpret previous stages in light of new experiences.
  4. Each stage brings a unique set of problems to solve.
  5. All of these reflect a psychosocial approach.

 

Conceptual           pp. 64-65               D

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. Erikson suggested that there is a biological plan for growth which allows each function to emerge in a systematic way until the fully functioning organism is developed. What is this concept called?
  2. epigenetic principle
  3. coping
  4. psychosocial crisis
  5. moratorium

 

Conceptual           p. 65                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

  1. The epigenetic principle refers to
  2. ages and stages in psychosocial theory.
  3. a biological plan for growth.
  4. societal expectations.
  5. age-graded expectations.

 

Conceptual           p. 65                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is considered an example of how a person might anticipate the challenges and roles of a future stage?
  2. a teenager worries about taking a test
  3. a preschool child pretends to get married and have a family
  4. a middle adult women plans Thanksgiving dinner
  5. a grandfather regrets not having spent enough time with his granddaughter

 

Application           p. 66                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of developmental stages in psychosocial theory?
  2. Each new stage incorporates gains made in earlier stages.
  3. The stages reflect a biologically based plan for the nature and direction and growth.
  4. Each new stage brings a qualitatively new approach for understanding oneself and others.
  5. Once a stage is passed, there is no way to review or reinterpret events from that stage.

 

Factual                  p. 65                       D

*CO: 2                   Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements best reflects a potential risk of thinking about development as a sequence of stages?
  2. Stages highlight qualitative differences in outlook.
  3. Stages emphasize a mixture of new needs, capabilities, and expectations at each period of life.
  4. Stages may be misconstrued to assume that a person in one stage cannot function at other levels.
  5. Stages build one upon the other.

 

Conceptual           p. 66                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about psychosocial stages is most accurate?
  2. Once a stage is passed, the achievements of that period are never challenged again.
  3. At each stage, one struggles with one, and only one, major developmental issue.
  4. Once a stage is passed, the achievements of earlier stages are no longer relevant.
  5. The way one perceives and experiences life varies qualitatively from stage to stage.

 

Conceptual           p. 66                       D             www

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following terms refer to the set of skills and competencies that contribute to increased mastery over one’s environment at a particular life stage?
  2. developmental tasks
  3. psychosocial evolution
  4. psychosocial crises
  5. prime adaptive ego qualities

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

  1. Which of the following is the best definition of developmental tasks?
  2. Tasks that need to be completed around the house.
  3. Rituals that are performed at various ages.
  4. Planning for a goal and reaching that goal.
  5. Skills and competencies that contribute to increased mastery.

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       D

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Developmental tasks can be viewed as
  2. the physical challenges in a stage of development.
  3. the unfolding of the epigenetic principle.
  4. competencies that lead to mastery of the environment.
  5. unrelated to stages of a person’s development.

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       C

*CO: 2                   Moderate

 

  1. When Alana was 2 years old, she was able to burp at the dinner table because she was considered ‘a kid.’ Now at age 16, Alana is expected to be polite at the dinner table. This is an example of
  2. life stages.
  3. developmental tasks.
  4. age-graded expectations.
  5. life roles.

 

Application           p. 67                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Robert Havighurst introduced the concept of developmental tasks and argued that developmental tasks change with age because
  2. society has age-graded expectations.
  3. infants form social attachments that last throughout life.
  4. language skills change with age.
  5. children have greater physical strength at older ages.

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. According to Robert Havighurst, which of the following terms is considered a time when a person is most ready to acquire a new ability?
  2. coping situation
  3. sensitive period
  4. psychosocial conflict
  5. developmental task

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Ellie received a ‘big’ bike for her birthday without training wheels attached. She was eager and apprehensive about riding her new bike. According to Havighurst, this is considered an example of a
  2. teachable moment.
  3. developmental task.
  4. transformation.
  5. psychosocial crisis.

 

Application           p. 67                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about developmental tasks is most accurate?
  2. Developmental tasks are universal and are not related to societal expectations.
  3. Learning about team play is a developmental task for all stages of life.
  4. There is no relationship between developmental tasks of one life stage and the psychosocial crisis of previous stages.
  5. Achieving developmental tasks in one stage contributes to greater chances of achieving developmental tasks of future stages.

 

Conceptual           p. 68                       D

*CO: 2                   Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is most influential in the demands for growth based on developmental tasks?
  2. cultural values
  3. age of the individual
  4. physical maturation
  5. the sensitive period of growth

 

Conceptual           p. 68                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Izekial was preparing for his marriage at the age of 13. His upcoming marriage is typical of his peers in Iran. This example best illustrates which of the following influences of developmental tasks?
  2. biological age of individuals
  3. cultural values
  4. physical growth and development
  5. teachable moment and sensitive period

 

Application           p. 68                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. According to psychosocial theory, development occurs as a result of which of the following crises?
  2. reinforcements and punishments
  3. modeling and imitation
  4. interaction between individual needs and societal demands
  5. modification of boundaries as a result of feedback and adaptive self-regulation

 

Conceptual           p. 68                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms refer to the tension that is experienced as a person strives to adjust to societal demands at each life stage of development?
  2. psychosocial crisis
  3. radius of significant relationships
  4. epigenetic principle
  5. sensitive period

 

Conceptual           p. 68                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which phrase best describes psychosocial crisis?
  2. an unusual set of stresses and strains
  3. an absence of societal demands
  4. a normal set of stresses and strains
  5. an unpredictable life event

 

Conceptual           p. 69                       C

*CO: 2                   Easy

 

  1. According to psychosocial theory, prior to the end of each life stage, individuals try to adjust to societal demands based on their personal terms. This process produces tension that must be reduced in order to develop to the next stage. This tension produces
  2. sensitive periods of life.
  3. transformational change.
  4. teachable moments.
  5. psychosocial crisis.

 

Conceptual           p. 68                       D

*CO: 2                   Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between developmental tasks and the psychosocial crisis?
  2. Mastery of developmental tasks is not related to the resolution of the psychosocial crisis.
  3. Mastery of developmental tasks is influenced by the resolution of the psychosocial crisis.
  4. Developmental tasks are resolved independently of the psychosocial crisis.
  5. Skills learned from developmental tasks allow individuals to skip resolving the psychosocial crisis.

 

Conceptual           p. 70                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the psychosocial crisis is most accurate?
  2. Only infants and toddlers have psychosocial crises.
  3. The psychosocial crisis is expressed as polarities with positive and negative ends on a continuum.
  4. Most people do not experience a psychosocial crisis during their lifetime.
  5. The psychosocial crisis is a result of vulnerability in the biological system without societal influence.

 

Conceptual           p. 70                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Psychosocial crises arise because
  2. most people are not prepared for the level of intimacy and identity required in adult life.
  3. of the unsatisfactory relationship developed between parents and children.
  4. of a discrepancy between a person’s competence and societal expectations.
  5. society benefits when most of the people are in some kind of conflict.

 

Conceptual           p. 70                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning the resolution of psychosocial crisis is most accurate?
  2. Individuals are most likely to have a completely positive resolution of the crisis based on epigenetic principle.
  3. Individuals are most likely to have a completely negative resolution of the crisis based on societal influence.
  4. Most people resolve crisis in a generally positive direction based on developmental task achievement.
  5. Most people resolve crisis in a generally negative direction based on complex developmental tasks as one ages.

 

Conceptual           p. 70                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most accurate pertaining to the concept of psychosocial crisis?
  2. Most people resolve the crisis with a completely negative resolution.
  3. Most people never resolve the first crisis of trust versus mistrust.
  4. Most people resolve the crisis positively with some negative experience.
  5. Most people resolve the crisis with a completely positive resolution.

 

Factual                  p. 70                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the negative pole of the psychosocial crisis is most accurate?
  2. Most people experience both the negative as well as the positive poles of each psychosocial crisis.
  3. The negative pole is only relevant for understanding extreme cases of mental illness.
  4. Any exposure to the negative pole is likely to result in a negative resolution to the crisis.
  5. The negative pole is produced by individual vulnerability and genetic predisposition, not by society.

 

Factual                  p. 70                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. According to the epigenetic principle, the succession of psychosocial crises
  2. is unpredictable and haphazard in nature.
  3. occurs in a predictable sequence over the life course.
  4. is non-sequential over the life course, especially during adolescence.
  5. occurs in an unpredictable sequence over the life course.

 

Conceptual           p. 71                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the importance of the negative poles at each psychosocial crisis?
  2. The negative poles define specific types of mental illness.
  3. The negative poles reflect areas of vulnerability at each stage.
  4. The negative poles predict the possibility of criminal activity at a later stage.
  5. The negative poles highlight issues where the rights of the individual outweigh the rights of the group.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. The psychosocial crisis serves as a mechanism for development by
  2. highlighting the tension and conflict between positive and negative poles.
  3. speeding up the biological maturation process.
  4. focusing on the sensitive period of an infant’s development.
  5. experiencing only the negative of a conflict.

 

Conceptual           p. 72       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Joel just graduated from college and is about to start his first job as a family life educator. He has planned to ask his college sweetheart to marry him after about 3 months in his new job. When Joel came home last weekend, he learned that his parents are divorcing, and each parent plans to dedicate more time to career. According to psychosocial theory, a combination of Joel’s needs for development and the unexpected divorce of his parents may lead to
  2. Joel being able to resolve his current psychosocial crisis more quickly.
  3. Joel ignoring his developmental needs.
  4. Joel needing to revisit and reinterpret earlier psychosocial stages.
  5. Joel focusing only on his intimate relationship.

 

Application           p. 72                       C

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. Unpredictable life stresses, such as divorce and death, may contribute to the
  2. re-working of earlier life stages.
  3. progression to future life stages.
  4. speeding up of resolving a psychosocial crisis.
  5. sequential progression of life stage development.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       A

*CO: 2                   Moderate

 

  1. A psychosocial crisis is resolved through
  2. hard work and persistence.
  3. an orderly unfolding of functions.
  4. age-graded expectations based on biological maturity.
  5. a central process linking individuals’ needs with cultural expectations.

 

Factual                  p. 72                       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. The central process in psychosocial theory refers to
  2. stages of development.
  3. how a person resolves a psychosocial crisis.
  4. important people in an individual’s life.
  5. a dichotomy between positive and negative poles.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the central process, an organizing concept of psychosocial theory?
  2. The central process identifies a discrepancy between a developmental task and stage.
  3. The dichotomy of a psychosocial crisis is reflected in the central process.
  4. The central process helps to resolve the psychosocial crisis.
  5. The epigenetic principle allows internalization of processes central to development.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. When an individual engages in a central process, the result is
  2. a stabilization of boundaries and identity.
  3. a reworking of an individual’s psychological system.
  4. a stagnation in growth and development.
  5. a decrease in the acquisition of new skills.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       B

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. The term radius of significant others refers to
  2. a geometric pattern illustrating the life stages and psychosocial crisis.
  3. a process for resolving a psychosocial crisis.
  4. the tension between individual development and societal pressures.
  5. a network of relationships important to an individual.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       D

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the pattern of change in the radius of significant relationships from infancy through adolescence?
  2. There is a deepening and narrowing of significant relationships.
  3. There is a new focus on one’s relationship with humankind with the radius of significant others.
  4. The radius of significant relationships does not change much during these years.
  5. The range and variety of significant relationships expand.

 

Conceptual           p. 72                       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. The key function of the radius of significant relationships is to
  2. help individuals learn their spoken language.
  3. recognize the demands of society brought to bear on the individual.
  4. determine a person’s fame based on network size.
  5. determine the age of adulthood.

 

Conceptual           p. 73                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Dylan wants to drop out of high school and go to New York to be a musician. Her parents, friends, and high school teachers encourage her to graduate from high school prior to moving to New York. This encouragement is an example of what organizing principle of psychosocial theory?
  2. stages of development
  3. central process
  4. radius of significant others
  5. coping behavior

 

Application           p. 73                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following are discussed as the three primary social contexts for development?
  2. family, culture, and ethnic group
  3. school, work, and community
  4. home, neighborhood, and country
  5. friends, family, and work

 

Factual                  p. 74                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. For most children, the primary social context of childhood is
  2. family.
  3. community.
  4. nation.
  5. religion.

 

Factual                  p. 74                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Cheria wanted to attend the local community college rather than attend a prestigious college where she was awarded a full scholarship. Her decision was based on the family expectation that she would be near her parents to assist with their care. Her other siblings were unable to provide care, and she was raised to believe that it was her responsibility. Cheria’s perception is an example of
  2. core pathology.
  3. cultural context.
  4. stage of development.
  5. central process.

 

Application           p. 75                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. In terms of the context of development, culture refers to
  2. socially standardized ways of thinking, feeling, and acting shared by members of a society.
  3. a group of individuals who co-reside with one another in a community.
  4. the exclusion of technology and religion in age-graded expectations.
  5. uncommon threads of standardization of an ethnic group.

 

Conceptual           p. 75                       A

*CO: 2                   Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following terms refers to an individual’s active efforts to resolve stress and find new solutions to challenges?
  2. developmental stage
  3. coping
  4. defense
  5. equilibrium

 

Conceptual           p. 75                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. The ability to enlist affective and behavioral strategies is a key element of
  2. coping behavior.
  3. defensive behavior.
  4. core pathologies.
  5. life crises.

 

Conceptual           p. 75                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Anna started dating Chris soon after breaking up with Hayden. She wants to continue to explore intimate relationships and doesn’t like being alone. Anna strives to be with others and has acquired new skills and coping that can be classified as
  2. a psychosocial crisis.
  3. progression through stages.
  4. her radius of significant others.
  5. the central process of coping.

 

Conceptual           p. 76                       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Coping is an important concept in psychosocial theory because
  2. no other theory uses it.
  3. coping is determined by the epigenetic principle.
  4. it explains how unique and inventive behaviors occur.
  5. it always involves gathering new information that changes the biological system.

 

Conceptual           p. 76                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Robin has moved to a new town during her sophomore year in high school. In order to find a new group of friends, she joins the staff of the school paper and tries out for the girls’ swim team. These efforts are examples of which of the following?
  2. developmental stage
  3. core pathology
  4. psychosocial crisis
  5. coping behavior

 

Application           p. 76                       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a factor in understanding how a person copes?
  2. the range of resources available
  3. the meaning of the stressor
  4. the nature of the stressor
  5. how the situation is perceived

 

Conceptual           p. 76                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. When Lou arrived at summer camp, he was uncomfortable and began to walk around and learn where the activities were held. He next observed the boys in his age group playing a game of ball. According to psychosocial theory, Lou was
  2. negatively resolving the identity crisis.
  3. determining members of his radius of significant others.
  4. following the epigenetic principle.
  5. appraising the situation as a coping behavior.

 

Application           p. 76                       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Problem-focused coping refers to
  2. controlling emotions associated with a stressor.
  3. changing something about the source of stress.
  4. controlling the emotions of others involved.
  5. changing stages of development.

 

Conceptual           p. 76                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. An important aspect of coping is the ability to redefine the meaning or value of a stressful situation. This process is referred to as
  2. reappraisal.
  3. emotional-focused coping.
  4. stage progression.
  5. central process identification.

 

Factual                  p. 76                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Consistent efforts to cope with a psychosocial crisis result in
  2. developmental tasks.
  3. appraisal.
  4. prime adaptive ego qualities.
  5. radius significant others.

 

Factual                  p. 77                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

 

  1. _________ develop from the positive resolution of the psychosocial crisis, and _____ develop from the negative resolution of the psychosocial crisis.
  2. Worldviews; insider views
  3. Prime adaptive ego qualities; core pathologies
  4. Adaptation techniques; self-approaching techniques
  5. Core pathologies; ego qualities

 

Conceptual           p. 77                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Terms such as hope, will, competence, care, and wisdom are examples of which of the following terms?
  2. prime adaptive ego qualities
  3. psychosocial crises
  4. core pathologies
  5. central processes

 

Factual                  p. 77                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Prime adaptive ego qualities and core pathologies influence one’s
  2. physical development.
  3. subcultural or ethnic identity.
  4. worldview.
  5. generational cohort.

 

Conceptual           pp. 77-78               C

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. Core pathologies
  2. provide new resources for coping with the next psychosocial crisis.
  3. protect the person from unwanted interaction with the societal system.
  4. provide new information.
  5. promote an optimistic worldview.

 

Conceptual           p. 78                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered a strength of psychosocial theory?
  2. It provides insight into directions of healthy development across the lifespan.
  3. It identifies predictable crises.
  4. It links childhood and later life stages.
  5. Supporting research is gender neutral.

 

Conceptual           p. 78                       D

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. The emphasis on the interplay between individual development and society is considered a
  2. weakness of psychosocial theory.
  3. factor that is not considered in psychosocial theory.
  4. strength of psychosocial theory.
  5. psychosocial crisis embedded in psychosocial theory.

 

Factual                  p. 78                       C

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Longitudinal research using psychosocial theory as a framework has found
  2. general support for many of the psychosocial concepts.
  3. lack of support for many of the psychosocial concepts.
  4. that individuals do not preview themes prior to entering a life stage.
  5. mixed results focusing on developmental tasks.

 

Factual                  p. 79                       A

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. Dr. Know and Dr. No were discussing the merits of psychosocial theory while drinking lattés. Dr. Know asserted that the basic concepts of psychosocial theory were not well developed or defined. Dr. No concurred and felt that the theory was further hampered because its concepts were based on its European American male context. As a student of human development, how would you characterize these comments?
  2. Both comments are inaccurate and hinder the advancement of the theory.
  3. Both comments are accurate portrayals of the weaknesses associated with the theory.
  4. Dr. Know’s comment is accurate; Dr. No’s is inaccurate.
  5. Dr. No’s comment is accurate; Dr. Know’s comment is inaccurate.

 

Conceptual           pp. 79-80                               B

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements is considered a weakness of psychosocial theory?
  2. It focuses on childhood rather than adulthood.
  3. It hypothesizes a specific direction for healthy growth at each life stage.
  4. The process of moving from one stage to another needs more development.
  5. The psychosocial crisis is not the same from one stage to the next.

 

Conceptual           p. 79                       C

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is no longer considered a weakness of psychosocial theory?
  2. Basic concepts are presented in terms that are abstract and difficult to measure.
  3. A dynamic view of the interaction between a genetically guided plan and societal expectations is offered.
  4. The theory identifies predictable crises throughout the lifespan.
  5. The theory provides a broad societal and historical perspective within which to study development.

 

Conceptual           p. 80                       A

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. Researchers using three cohorts of college students studied psychosocial development and the concept of changes in coping as one proceeds through the life stages. The researchers found that there
  2. was no difference in the life stages and the type of coping in which individuals engage.
  3. is evidence that people do change in their resolution over time as predicted by psychosocial theory.
  4. was lack of evidence for life stages and central processes.
  5. is insignificant evidence to support prime adaptive ego qualities and core pathologies.

 

Factual                  p. 80                       B

CO: 3                     Difficult

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is most accurate concerning life expectancy and psychosocial theory?
  2. Life expectancy determines the age breakdown of the life stages.
  3. The number of life stages is based on the life expectancy age.
  4. As life expectancy increases, it is expected that developmental tasks may need reexamination.
  5. Psychosocial theory concepts will remain the same despite increases in life expectancy.

 

Conceptual           p. 80                       C

CO: 3                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following criticisms of psychosocial theory relates to the stages of development?
  2. A male, Eurocentric, individualistic perspective is utilized to create the stages.
  3. The period of adult life is not adequately differentiated.
  4. The life stage concept is abstract and difficult to measure.
  5. Movement from one stage to the next is not adequately explained.

 

Conceptual           p. 80                       B

CO: 3                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following psychosocial concepts best illustrates a sense of communion or connection?
  2. prime adaptive ego quality
  3. central process
  4. developmental tasks
  5. radius of significant others

 

Factual                  p. 80                       D

*CO: 3                   Moderate

 

 

Post-Test Questions from the Student Study Guide

 

  1. Erik H. Erikson was not influenced by which of the following researchers?
  2. Anna Freud
  3. Robert Havighurst
  4. Urie Bronfenbrenner
  5. Peter Blos

 

Factual                  p. 62                       C

CO: 1                     Easy

 

  1. Child rearing practices, education, and modes of communication are examples of_ ______________________.
  2. psychosocial crisis
  3. methods of transmitting information
  4. psychological evolution
  5. coping strategies

 

Factual                  p. 64                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. The text proposes ______ life stages.
  2. eight
  3. ten
  4. nine
  5. eleven

 

Factual  p. 67                       D

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Psychosocial theory focuses on the interaction between individual needs and abilities and ________.
  2. early adulthood
  3. experiences in a variety of other cultures
  4. social expectations and demands
  5. logical reasoning

 

Factual  p. 62                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements is considered a concept of psychosocial theory?
  2. Development is primarily a product of genetic factors.
  3. Individuals have the capacity to contribute to their own development.
  4. The basic accomplishments of development are achieved by early adolescence.
  5. Chronological age is the most significant marker of psychological maturity.

 

Conceptual           p. 62                       B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. A _________ is a period of life that is characterized by a specific underlying organization.
  2. developmental stage
  3. developmental task
  4. psychosocial crisis
  5. biopsychosocial process

 

Factual  p. 64                       A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. According to psychosocial theory, which of the following statements best describes a developmental stage?
  2. Stages follow strict age guidelines.
  3. Stages form a sequence of development based only on genetics.
  4. Stages are the same for all individuals regardless of culture.
  5. Stages can be re-experienced and offer opportunity to change a negative outcome.

 

Conceptual           p. 65                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes Erikson’s view of stages of development?

 

  1. Each stage is independent and unrelated to the next.
  2. Stages form a sequence.
  3. Stages do not follow a biological plan.
  4. The themes of one stage are not revisited or reinterpreted in future stages.

 

Conceptual           p. 65                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. In psychosocial theory, a developmental task is ________________.
  2. a stage of development in early adulthood
  3. a set of polar tensions
  4. a way of learning skills and competencies
  5. a social role based on cultural influences

 

Factual                  p. 67                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following examples best illustrates the idea of a sensitive period?
  2. At age 62, Fred is experiencing hearing loss, but doesn’t want hearing aids because they are a sign of aging.
  3. Language is more readily learned during the first four years of life; afterward it becomes more difficult to acquire language skills.
  4. Mario is 5 years old and gets his feelings hurt easily if his behavior is criticized.
  5. Each life stage has characteristics that differentiate it from the one before and the one after.

 

Conceptual           p. 67                       B

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following terms refers to the tension between an individual’s ability at the beginning of a stage and social expectations for how the person should function at that life stage?
  2. psychosocial theory
  3. psychosocial crisis
  4. psychosocial stage
  5. psychosocial environment

 

Factual                  p. 68                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Mastery of developmental tasks is most influenced by ___________.
  2. age of the individual
  3. resolution of previous psychosocial crises
  4. the physical environment
  5. teachable moments

 

Factual                  p. 68                       B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. A psychosocial crisis is best defined by which of the following?
  2. Tension state caused by discrepancies between individual competencies and society’s expectations.
  3. The loss of learning abilities because of a severe trauma.
  4. Mental state that emerges at each stage creating a positive orientation toward life experiences.
  5. An interpersonal bond that can be maintained or broken across stages of life.

 

Conceptual           p. 68                       A

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

 

  1. The _______________ for resolving the psychosocial crisis at each life stage provides personal and societal mechanisms for acquiring new information and modifying existing information.
  2. developmental stage
  3. core pathology
  4. central process
  5. social support

 

Factual                  p. 72                       C

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. The radius of significant relationships in psychosocial theory ______________.
  2. places age-related demands on individuals that are communicated through a growing number of social relationships
  3. is a network of distant acquaintances
  4. has little impact on an individual’s development
  5. incorporates the genetic influence on development into increasingly complex biological systems

 

Factual  p. 72                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Contexts of development can be identified in each of the following except _____________.
  2. historical
  3. economic
  4. societal
  5. technological

 

Conceptual           p. 74                       D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Stefan grew up celebrating Kwanza and Christmas based on cultural influences on his family. His family shared socially standardized ways to celebrate these holidays based on their _____________.
  2. stage of development
  3. teachable moments
  4. ethnic group membership
  5. coping mechanisms

 

Application           p. 75                       C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. After five years of marriage, Ken recently divorced his wife. After a period of grief and withdrawal, Ken decided to join a support group. He is also taking college classes to focus on a career and has started a regular exercise program to relieve stress and improve his confidence. Which of the following concepts best describe Ken’s behaviors?
  2. coping
  3. psychosocial development stage
  4. central processing
  5. significant relationship construction

 

Application           p. 76                       A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following is considered a strength of psychosocial theory?
  2. It highlights the dynamics of family development.
  3. Psychosocial crises allow for the examination of the tension between socialization and maturation.
  4. Infancy and toddlerhood are key periods of development.
  5. The stages of development are patterned after non-Western theories of self and society.

 

Factual                  p. 79                       B

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. The phenomena that psychosocial theory is trying to explain are changes in _____________.
  2. problem solving capacity and intelligence.
  3. sexual motivation and drives.
  4. habits and other behavior modifications
  5. self-understanding, social relationships, and worldview.

 

Factual                  p. 82                       D

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

 

 

  1. Psychosocial theory predicts that self-concept and worldview are reorganized at each stage of life.

 

CO: 1                     p. 62                       T

 

  1. Psychosocial theory is unconcerned with the effect of culture on the individual.

 

CO: 1                     p. 62                       F

 

  1. Psychosocial evolution allows us to pass information from generation to generation through education.

 

CO: 2                     p. 64                       T

 

  1. Erikson initially proposed eight stages of psychosocial development.

 

CO: 2                     p. 64                       T

 

  1. Psychosocial stages of life may be partially described through autobiographical memories.

 

CO: 2                     p. 73                       T

 

  1. Imitation is the central process for psychosocial growth during adolescence.

 

CO: 2                     p. 72                       F

 

  1. Children imitate only adults and siblings.

 

CO: 2                     p. 72                       F

 

  1. Imitation can help toddlers exercise some control over potentially confusing events.

 

CO: 2                     p. 72                       T

 

 

  1. Imitation moves a child toward autonomy.

 

CO: 2                     p. 72                       T

 

  1. Coping is a process that begins with appraising a situation.

 

CO: 2                     p. 75                       T

 

  1. The major coping task of survivors is to reconcile with the situation and carry on with their own lives.

 

CO: 2                     p. 76                       T

 

  1. Socioeconomic status does not affect a person’s ability to cope.

 

CO: 2                     p. 76                       F

 

  1. The importance of some prime adaptive ego qualities, such as love and wisdom, has been verified by research.

 

CO: 2                     p. 77                       T

 

  1. Core pathologies can lead to a paralysis of action and thought that prevents productivity.

 

CO: 2                     p. 78                       T

 

  1. We can tell someone has entered a new psychosocial stage when the person feels comfortable and does not have new worries.

 

CO: 2                     p. 66                       F

 

  1. Erikson suggested that previous stages can be reinterpreted later.

 

CO: 2                     p. 65                       T

 

  1. Development tasks contribute to increased mastery over our environment.

 

CO: 2                     p. 65                       T

 

  1. One of the developmental tasks of later adolescence is membership in a peer group.

 

CO: 2                     p. 69                       F

 

  1. Terms such as hope and personal identity are too abstract to be empirically researched.

 

CO: 3                     p. 79                       F

 

  1. Psychosocial crises are predictable tensions between socialization and maturation.

 

CO: 3                     p. 79                       T

 

  1. Longer life expectancy is causing developmental psychologists to reexamine later stages.

 

CO: 3                     p. 80                       T

 

 

  1. There are 11 stages of development according to the text.

 

CO: 3                     p.82                        T

 

MATCHING QUESTIONS

 

  1. Match each term with an example.

Term

  1. life stage
  2. developmental task
  3. psychosocial crisis

 

Example

  1. managing a career
  2. middle adulthood
  3. generativity versus stagnation

 

CO: 2                     pp. 67-70               a-2, b-1, c-3

 

  1. Match the term and its definition.

Term

  1. psychosocial crisis
  2. prime adaptive ego quality
  3. core pathology

 

Definitions

  1. tension produced by one’s level of development at the beginning of a stage and society’s demands for a new level of functioning by the end of it
  2. coping resources that result from the positive resolution of a psychosocial crisis
  3. a destructive force that emerges as a result of a negative resolution of a psychosocial crisis

 

CO: 2                     pp. 68, 77, 78                       a-1, b-2, c-3

 

  1. Match the life stage and its prime adaptive ego quality.

Life stage

  1. toddlerhood
  2. middle adulthood
  3. elderhood

 

Prime adaptive ego quality

  1. confidence
  2. will
  3. care

 

CO: 2                     p. 77                       a-2, b-3, c-1

 

 

  1. Match the life stage and its core pathology.

Life stage

  1. infancy
  2. early adolescence
  3. elderhood

 

Core pathology

  1. diffidence
  2. dissociation
  3. withdrawal

 

CO: 2                     p. 78                       a-3, b-2, c-1

 

  1. Match the life stage with the psychosocial crisis.

Life stage

  1. infancy
  2. middle childhood
  3. middle adulthood

 

Psychosocial crisis

  1. industry vs. inferiority
  2. trust vs. mistrust
  3. generativity vs. stagnation

 

CO: 2                     p. 70                       a-2, b-1, c-3

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Describe the three features of psychosocial theory that provide a rationale for its use as the framework for the text.

 

CO: 1                     p. 62

 

  1. Explain radius of significant relationships and how it influences development. Give at least one example.

 

*CO: 2                   pp. 72-73

 

  1. Define the concept of psychosocial crisis. Give an example. Explain how the crisis contributes to psychosocial growth.

 

CO: 2                     pp. 68-70

 

  1. Define the concept of coping behavior. Explain how coping contributes to development. Give two examples of coping, one for a toddler aged 2-4 years and one for a person in middle adulthood, aged 34-60.

 

*CO: 2                   pp. 75-77

 

  1. Explain how psychosocial theory accounts for positive and negative development over the life span.

 

CO: 3                     pp. 77-78

 

  1. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of psychosocial theory.

 

*CO: 3                   pp. 78-80

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Infancy (First 24 Months)

 

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

 

OBJECTIVE ITEM NUMBER
1.      To describe characteristics of newborns and the challenges facing low-birth-weight babies.

 

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 105, 106, 107, 108, 125, 126, 153
2.      To identify important milestones in the maturation of the sensory and motor systems, and to describe the interactions among these systems during the first 2 years of life.

 

7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 109, 111, 112
3.      To describe the development of sensorimotor intelligence, organize experiences, conceptualize causality, and understand the properties and functions of objects.

 

23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 113, 114, 115, 127, 128, 129, 130, 154
4.      To characterize forerunners of language competence from birth through the first 2 years of life. 39, 116, 149
5.      To understand social attachment as the process through which infants develop strong emotional bonds with others, and to describe the dynamics of attachment formation during infancy.

 

40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68,  69, 110, 117, 118, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 150, 151, 155, 156
6.      To examine the nature of emotional development, including emotional differentiation, the interpretation of emotions, and emotional regulation. 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 119, 120, 121, 123, 138, 152, 157
7.      To describe the psychosocial crisis of trust versus mistrust; the central process through which the crisis is resolved, mutuality with the caregiver; the prime adaptive ego quality of hope; and the core pathology of withdrawal. 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 124, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 158, 159
8.      To evaluate the critical role of parents and caregivers during infancy, with special attention to issues of safety and nutrition; optimizing cognitive, social, and emotional development; and the role of parents and caregivers as advocates for their infants with other agencies and systems. 102, 103, 104, 122, 160

 

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

  1. The evaluation that is performed twice within the first five minutes of birth is called
  2. Babynski reflex test.
  3. Bayley Scales of Infant Development.
  4. the Infant Visual Perception Test.
  5. Apgar scoring method.

 

Factual  p. 139                     D

CO: 1     Easy

 

  1. The purpose of the Apgar score which is calculated twice within the first five minutes of birth is to
  2. measure infant intelligence.
  3. measure the quality of parental investment in the newborn at birth.
  4. assess an infant’s life signs to determine the need for intervention at birth.
  5. decide whether the newborn infant has been exposed to prenatal teratogens.

 

Factual                  p. 139                     C

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. Which one of the following weights would be considered a low birth weight baby?
  2. 5 pounds, 8 ounces
  3. 6 pounds, 8 ounces
  4. 7 pounds, 8 ounces
  5. none of these

 

Factual                  p. 139                     A

*CO: 1                   Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following conditions places an infant at greater risk for developmental problems?
  2. low weight for gestational age
  3. low birth weight
  4. late birth
  5. prematurity

 

Factual                  p. 140                     A

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. What is the current technological limit to fetal viability? In other words, what are the smallest babies we keep alive?
  2. about 500 grams (slightly over 1 pound)
  3. 1000 grams (about 2 pounds, 8 ounces)
  4. 2500 grams (about 5 pounds, 8 ounces)
  5. 3300 grams (about 7 pounds)

 

Factual                  p. 140                     A

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. A typical characteristic of very low birth weight baby is
  2. calm and easily soothed.
  3. unpleasant, high-pitched cries.
  4. delicate, physically attractive features.
  5. easily establish a rhythmic pattern of interaction.

 

Factual                  p. 140                     B

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. Plasticity means
  2. the neurons in the infant’s brain are connected in a random manner, and all the patterns depend on experience.
  3. the basic organization of areas of the brain depend on early experience.
  4. there is no relationship between experience and neural development.
  5. sensory experiences can strengthen certain neural pathways; less used pathways may disappear.

 

Conceptual           p. 142                     D

*CO: 2                   Difficult

 

  1. What would provide evidence that habituation has occurred?
  2. The infant opens her mouth to mimic the mother’s open mouth.
  3. The infant visually follows the caregiver who is walking across the room.
  4. The infant’s response decreases each time she sees the same red teddy bear.
  5. The infants loses interest in sucking her thumb.

 

Application           p. 142                     C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. The fetus often hears what while still in utero?
  2. the fetus cannot hear
  3. television programs
  4. the telephone ringing
  5. the mother’s heartbeat

 

Factual                  p. 144                     D

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. By age 6 to 8 months, babies can use sounds to
  2. locate an object and guide reaching toward it.
  3. distinguish a foreign language from the native language spoken at home.
  4. recognize distinct language sounds.
  5. all of these

 

Factual                  p. 145                     D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. The age at which infants see objects as well as adults do (although perhaps with varying cognitive perceptions than the adults) is
  2. 2 months.
  3. 4 months.
  4. 7 months.
  5. 9 months.

 

Factual                  p. 145                     B

*CO: 2                   Moderate

 

  1. Caroline holds her newborn baby in her arms and watches as the baby gazes at her. The baby seems to be staring at a spot on Caroline’s forehead. She wonders what is so interesting about her forehead. What explanation can you give for this?
  2. Babies tend to gaze at the eyes and mouth of a face.
  3. Babies recognize an inner eye just above the eyebrows.
  4. Babies tend to focus attention on borders and contours; the hairline is a type of border.
  5. Babies are looking for a sign of contentment on the mother’s face which is expressed on the forehead.

 

Application           p. 146                     C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. What effect do sweet-tasting substances have on newborns?
  2. They have a calming effect.
  3. They increase the baby’s irritability.
  4. They increase activity level.
  5. They give babies the hiccups.

 

Factual                  p. 147                     A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Which is the largest sensory organ and the first organ to develop during the prenatal period?
  2. nose
  3. skin
  4. ears
  5. eyes

 

Factual                  p. 147                     B

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. By the age of 3 months, most infants are able to
  2. distinguish a parent’s face from the face of a stranger.
  3. pick up a toy from a basket and put it back.
  4. sit up alone without support.
  5. speak well enough to be understood.

 

Factual                  p. 147                     A

*CO: 2                   Easy

 

 

  1. Early strategies for tactile exploration, which then leads to the ability to identify objects visually include
  2. smiling and cooing.
  3. sucking and mouthing.
  4. listening and watching.
  5. chewing and swallowing.

 

Factual                  p. 148                     B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. The reflexive motor responses of the newborn infant serve to
  2. facilitate the infant’s survival.
  3. allow the infants to control their muscles.
  4. enable the infant to exhibit voluntary movement.
  5. allow the infant to communicate with the caregiver.

 

Factual                  p. 148                     A

CO: 2                     Easy

 

  1. Motor reflexes undergo some transformations during infancy. What is the typical pattern of change? Think about reaching and grasping as an example.
  2. Motor control begins in the hands and fingers and moves toward the trunk.
  3. Motor control shifts from the feet to the hands and shoulders.
  4. Involuntary behavior disappears and voluntary behavior emerges with practice.
  5. Voluntary behavior becomes involuntary behavior.

 

Application           p. 148                     C

*CO: 2                   Difficult

 

  1. In the development of reaching and pushing, which of the following is the earliest behavior likely to be observed?
  2. grasping a moving object
  3. holding an object in both hands
  4. picking up a piece of yarn using index finger and thumb
  5. reaching into a jar to pull out a candy

 

Factual                  p. 149                     B

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Cultures such as Africa and Central America hold infants upright rather than lying them down in a cradle or crib. Infants in these cultures tend to
  2. walk at an earlier age than western infants.
  3. walk at a later age than western infants.
  4. speak at a later age than western infants.
  5. do none of these.

 

Conceptual           p. 151                     A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. How does culture influence motor development during infancy?
  2. Cultures provide different opportunities for motor exploration in infancy.
  3. Cultures differ in how babies move through the sequence of motor accomplishments from rolling over to sitting and standing.
  4. Cultures differ in the role that genetics plays in guiding individual differences in motor skills.
  5. Motor development is largely a matter of genetically guided pathways; culture has little impact on motor development.

 

Conceptual           p. 151                     A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Researchers now regard the regularities in motor behavior as the result of a dynamic process of exploration in which infants coordinate their physical actions with the demands and opportunities of the situation. What contributes to this process?
  2. maturing of the central nervous system
  3. opportunities for various types of movement
  4. emergence of conditions to understand and anticipate actions
  5. all of these

 

Conceptual           p. 151                     D

CO: 2                     Difficult

 

  1. An infant who is able to use different techniques for sucking from a breast and sucking from a bottle is demonstrating
  2. sensorimotor intelligence.
  3. social referencing.
  4. object permanence.
  5. internalization.

 

Conceptual           p. 151                     A

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. According to Piaget, the primary mechanism underlying the growth of intelligence during infancy is
  2. reciprocity.
  3. social attachment.
  4. trust versus mistrust.
  5. sensorimotor adaptation.

 

Conceptual           p. 152                     D

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. According to the Theory theory, infants start out with some basic sensory, motor, and cognitive structures. What might modify these structures?
  2. experiences that provide new information
  3. experiences that support and confirm the structures
  4. gazing and concentrating
  5. parental warmth

 

Conceptual           p. 153                     A

*CO: 3                   Moderate

 

  1. How do infants grow in their understanding of causality?
  2. through sensory and motor investigation
  3. through pointing and naming
  4. through visual gazing
  5. through memory and recall

 

Factual                  p. 153                     A

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. Babies discover that if they drop a spoon while sitting in the high chair, the spoon will fall to the floor and make a noise. This is an example of
  2. emotional differentiation.
  3. introspection.
  4. reflexive behavior.
  5. sensorimotor causality.

 

Application           p. 154                     D

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. The example given in the text of the emergence of the use of a spoon as a tool for eating illustrates which concept?
  2. Motor skills become integrated into purposeful problem-solving strategies.
  3. Motor skills develop independently from causal relations.
  4. Infants are limited in their exploration of spoons by what they have observed in their home

environment.

  1. Infants are unable to coordinate means and ends.

 

Conceptual           p. 154                     A

*CO: 3                   Difficult

 

  1. Piaget considered ___________ to be adaptive learning systems where cause and effect are linked through involuntary responses.
  2. circular reactions
  3. coordination of means and ends
  4. first habits
  5. reflexes

 

Conceptual           p. 154                     D

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. What are the first and last phases in the development of causal schemes during the sensorimotor period?
  2. reflexes; experimentation with new means
  3. reflexes; insight
  4. first habits; insight
  5. first habits; experimentation with means

 

Conceptual           p. 154                     B

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

 

  1. In what way do the last two phases in the development of causal schemes and experimentation with new means and insight differ? In the last phase,
  2. there is no experimentation, just direct solution of a problem.
  3. there is no planning.
  4. babies use novel means to achieve novel goals.
  5. experimentation is carried out mentally rather than directly.

 

Conceptual           p. 155                     D

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. Objects do not cease to exist when they are out of reach or view. This concept is referred to as
  2. scheme.
  3. primitive causality.
  4. means-end relationship.
  5. object permanence.

 

Conceptual           p. 156                     D

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. How does one assess an infant’s grasp of object permanence?
  2. Give a baby a new object, something he has never seen before, and observe how he plays with it.
  3. Remove an object from a baby’s view and observe whether or not the baby pursues the object.
  4. Take an object away from a baby and place it among two or three other objects. See if the baby can select the familiar object.
  5. Tell the baby “bye-bye” and then see if he/she waves bye-bye to you.

 

Conceptual           p. 156                     B

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. Piaget’s view of object permanence required the infant to _____ an object; Baillargeon’s view observed _____.
  2. pursue; change in looking time
  3. grasp; habituation
  4. use; asking for an object
  5. ask for; crying time

 

Conceptual           p. 156                     A

CO: 3                     Difficult

 

  1. Renee Baillargeon has conducted a number of studies to examine infants’ reactions to objects that are hidden from view. Infants as young as 4 months appear to be surprised when a toy car emerges from behind a screen when it should have been blocked. What is the basic purpose of her studies?
  2. to detect dimensions of visual acuity in infants
  3. to determine an infant’s ability to track a moving object
  4. to demonstrate that infants have a mental image of an object even when it is out of view
  5. to present information about infants sense of touch to soft objects

 

Conceptual           p. 156                     C

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. One cognitive explanation for an infant’s experience of separation anxiety is the
  2. baby lacks object permanence.
  3. baby is insecurely attached.
  4. baby has not yet learned to crawl after the caregiver.
  5. baby has no ability to distinguish the caregiver from a stranger.

 

Conceptual           p. 156                     A

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following categorization tasks can be performed by infants who are about 18 months old?
  2. sorting insects into butterflies and bees
  3. sorting words into nouns and verbs
  4. sorting yellow triangles and human figures into two separate groups
  5. none of these

 

Conceptual           p. 157                     C

*CO: 3                   Moderate

 

  1. What is the adaptive role of the capacity for categorization?
  2. It allows you to approach each object as if it were completely novel.
  3. It offers a channel for the expression and interpretation of emotions.
  4. It allows for sensory and motor exploration of new objects in the environment.
  5. It reduces the amount of information that must be processed for each instance of the category.

 

Conceptual           p. 157                     D

CO: 3                     Difficult

 

  1. What is one contribution of emotions to survival?
  2. the first indication of sensorimotor adaptation
  3. to provide a mechanism for species variability
  4. to serve as adult-infant communication
  5. to enhance fitness

 

Conceptual           p. 158                     C

CO: 4                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is the process through which people develop specific, positive, emotional bonds with others?
  2. attachment
  3. social referencing
  4. emotional differentiation
  5. categorization of social objects

 

Conceptual           p. 161                     A

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. When infants begin to be able to modify their needs for security to include the needs and goals of their caregiver, we say they are achieving a
  2. disorganized attachment.
  3. goal-corrected partnership.
  4. capacity fore categorization.
  5. reactive temperament.

 

Conceptual           p. 162                     B

CO: 5                     Moderate

  1. Anthony is 4 months old. What behaviors might suggest the formation of a preference for the object of his attachment?
  2. Anthony smiles more at the object of attachment than at a stranger.
  3. Anthony asks to go along whenever the object of attachment goes on an errand.
  4. Anthony follows the object of attachment around the house by creeping and crawling.
  5. Anthony finds comfort in holding a scarf that belongs to the object of attachment.

 

Application           p. 162                     A

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. At about what age do infants form an internal, mental representation of the object of attachment?
  2. 9 to 12 months
  3. 6 to 9 months
  4. 3 to 6 months
  5. birth to 3 months

 

Factual                  p. 162                     A

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. After 6 months of age the infant may cling more to his parents in the presence of strangers. This is an example of
  2. fear syndrome.
  3. separation anxiety.
  4. stranger anxiety.
  5. negative attachment.

 

Application           p. 163                     C

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is likely to influence the way a baby reacts to an unfamiliar adult?
  2. whether or not the mother works outside the home
  3. the mother’s reaction to the adult
  4. the adult’s height
  5. the adult’s occupation

 

Application           p. 163                     B

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. What is one important conclusion drawn from research comparing the attachments of Israeli children to mother, father, and special caregiver (metapelet)?
  2. Babies can only form one true attachment.
  3. The attachment to one’s mother is more important than the other attachments.
  4. Infants can have a variety of attachment relationships that all contribute to social development differently.
  5. All attachment relationships are the same.

 

Conceptual           p. 164                     C

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Under which conditions would you expect a 9-month-old baby to make the strongest protest over separation?
  2. The mother leaves the baby in a laboratory room and closes the door behind her.
  3. The mother leaves the baby’s sight but calls out to the baby from another room.
  4. The mother leaves the living room and walks into the kitchen while the baby stays in the living room.
  5. The mother walks from one laboratory room to an adjoining room while the baby watches.

 

Conceptual           p. 162                     A

*CO: 5                   Moderate

 

  1. What is the purpose of the Strange Situation as an experimental procedure?
  2. to stimulate the attachment system and observe it under controlled conditions
  3. to stimulate alternative approaches to emotional regulation and control
  4. to help babies reduce their fear of separation
  5. to help parents learn to handle separation from their infants

 

Conceptual           p. 164                     A

CO: 5                     Difficult

 

  1. In the Strange Situation, which of the following behaviors are generally not subjected to systematic observations?
  2. interactions between the baby and the stranger
  3. interactions between the baby and the mother
  4. interactions between the baby and the observer
  5. the baby’s behavior

 

Conceptual           p. 164                     C

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of babies who have a disorganized attachment?
  2. At home, they cry less than other babies.
  3. They actively explore the environment when their mothers are present.
  4. They are more distressed when separated from their mothers.
  5. They interact with strangers while mothers are present.

 

Conceptual           p. 166                     C

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. Babies who avoid contact with their mothers after separation or who ignore her efforts to interact have a(n) _____________ attachment.
  2. secure
  3. insecure
  4. anxious-resistant
  5. anxious-avoidant

 

Conceptual           p. 165                     D

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which attachment pattern is linked with the most serious mental health problems in later childhood?
  2. anxious-avoidant
  3. anxious-resistant
  4. secure
  5. disorganized

 

Conceptual           p. 166                     D

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. Babies who show a(n) ________ attachment appear to cry the most in the home situation.
  2. anxious-avoidant
  3. anxious-resistant
  4. secure
  5. undeveloped

 

Factual                  p. 166                     A

*CO: 5                   Difficult

 

  1. Infants who show an anxious-resistant attachment appear to have an internal, mental representation of the mother as
  2. skewed and simplistic.
  3. rejecting.
  4. accessible and responsive.
  5. unpredictable.

 

Conceptual           p. 165                     D

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. When mothers are inconsistent in responsiveness to their babies, the babies are characterized as
  2. anxious-avoidant.
  3. anxious-resistant.
  4. secure.
  5. disorganized.

 

Conceptual           p. 165                     B

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. A mother who can accurately interpret her baby’s signals and respond appropriately is said to demonstrate
  2. sensitivity.
  3. good temperament.
  4. inhibited attachment.
  5. organized security.

 

Conceptual           p. 167                     A

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. What experiences from the past are most likely to interfere with an adult’s ability to form a secure attachment with an infant?
  2. having a mother who responds promptly to signs of distress
  3. being an only child
  4. disruption of early attachment relationship
  5. lack of a high school diploma

 

Conceptual           p. 168                     C

CO: 5                     Moderate

  1. In considering the role of culture in attachment formation, cultural beliefs about infants might be evident in which of the following?
  2. the caregiver’s interpretation of the urgency of a baby’s cry
  3. the caregiver’s age at birth of first child
  4. the caregiver’s marital status
  5. the caregiver’s participation in a traditional marriage ceremony

 

Conceptual           p. 168                     A

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. Which statement best reflects the apparent connection between infant temperament and attachment?
  2. The infant’s temperament influences the kinds of parental responses needed to help the infant form a secure attachment.
  3. An infant’s temperament is a strong predictor of the type of attachment that will be formed.
  4. The infant’s temperament influences the caregiver’s self-esteem.
  5. Only sociable babies form secure attachments.

 

Conceptual           p. 169                     A

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. A model of factors affecting a caregiver’s sensitivity to an infant’s needs includes 4 factors. Which of the following is not included in this model?
  2. a caregiver’s own personal life story
  3. characteristics of the infant
  4. urban, rural, or suburban community context
  5. contemporary factors

 

Factual                  p. 168                     C

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the role of early attachments for later behavior?
  2. Attachments formed in infancy are not relevant for understanding relationships in childhood or adolescence.
  3. The attachment formed at 12 months may change dramatically by age 2.
  4. A secure attachment can become insecure but an insecure attachment cannot become secure.
  5. Secure attachments are associated with positive adaptive capacities at 3 to 5 years.

 

Conceptual           p. 169                     D

CO: 5                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following has been consistently observed to be a consequence of secure attachments formed in infancy?
  2. success in job placement after college
  3. positive, close peer relationships in childhood and adolescence
  4. meaningful relationships with one’s grandchildren in later adulthood
  5. an ability to face one’s death without great fear

 

Factual                  p. 169                     B

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Two expressions of reactive attachment disorder are
  2. inhibited and uninhibited type.
  3. expressive and unexpressive type.
  4. inhibited and expressive type.
  5. none of these.

 

Factual                  p. 159                     A

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. A person that is very withdrawn, hypervigilant in social contacts, and resistant to comfort is considered a(n)
  2. nonsociable type.
  3. unexpressive type.
  4. inhibited type.
  5. slow-to-warm-up type.

 

Factual                  p. 169                     C             www

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. Childhood attachment has been found to be associated with
  2. self-esteem.
  3. peer relationships.
  4. romantic relationships.
  5. all of these.

 

Factual                  p. 170                     D

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. The sensitive period is
  2. the period of maximal readiness to achieve a behavior pattern or skill.
  3. the age of 2 months for establishing infant/caregiver attachment.
  4. not critical to humans.
  5. the age of 2 months for establishing trust.

 

Conceptual           p. 166                     A

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. Konrad Lorenz applied the concept of critical periods to social development. He identified

the process of ____________ in young birds.

  1. adaptation
  2. developmental tasks
  3. stranger anxiety
  4. imprinting

 

Factual                  p. 166                     D

*CO: 5                   Moderate

 

  1. Observations of naturally occurring disruptions in the parent-infant relationship suggest that the onset of a sensitive period for attachment occurs at which age?
  2. 18 months
  3. 12 months
  4. 6 months
  5. 3 months

 

Conceptual           p. 167                     C

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. What aspect of the question regarding a critical period for attachment remains unanswered?
  2. Is there a point after which a secure attachment can no longer be formed?
  3. What is the time of onset for the critical period for attachment?
  4. How stable are attachments formed by the end of the first year of life?
  5. When do infants express a preference for an object?

 

Conceptual           p. 167                     A

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. The relatively stable characteristics of a child’s response to the environment including activity level, sociability, and emotionality are called
  2. temperament.
  3. reflexes.
  4. attachment.
  5. personality.

 

Conceptual           p. 174                     A

CO: 6                     Easy

 

  1. Although there are many definitions and explanations about the concept of temperament, theorists tend to agree about 2 points. What is one of these?
  2. Theorists focus on the 3 concepts of easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm up.
  3. Theorists agree that temperament is stable across the lifespan.
  4. Theorists agree that a primary feature of temperament is the child’s positive or negative reaction to environmental stimuli.
  5. Theorists agree that a primary feature of temperament is the recognition of causal schemes.

 

Application           p. 174                     A

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. What theme related to temperament is illustrated in the case of the Cotton family?
  2. Anna’s temperament was a good fit with that of her parents, which made parenting more satisfying.
  3. Nancy and Paul had to make many changes in their lifestyle in order to adapt to Anna’s temperament.
  4. Nancy and Paul found it impossible to soothe Anna. They had to hire help in order to find someone who could calm Anna and comfort her.
  5. Anna’s difficult temperament made Nancy and Paul regret their decision to have children.

 

Application           p. 176                     A

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. ___________________ combines fearfulness and a general cautiousness.
  2. Behavioral inhibition
  3. Problem temperament
  4. Terrible two
  5. Stranger anxiety

 

Conceptual           p. 175                     A

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Juanita is anxious and sings to herself to ease the feelings of fear while waiting for a doctor’s appointment. She is showing what capacities?
  2. reactivity
  3. coping
  4. emotional regulation

d              self-monitoring

 

Application           p. 174                     C

CO: 6                     Difficult

 

  1. Children’s outcomes are linked with
  2. children’s temperament.
  3. parent’s temperament.
  4. social experiences.
  5. all of these.

 

Factual                  p. 175                     D

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Infants who exhibit a pattern of withdrawal from unfamiliar objects, negative mood, and low level of activity are called
  2. difficult.
  3. shy.
  4. uninhibited.
  5. slow to warm up.

 

Conceptual           p. 174                     D

CO: 6                     Easy

 

  1. The percentage of infants who do not clearly fit into one of the three categories of temperament is
  2. 10%.
  3. 20%.
  4. 35%.
  5. 50%.

 

Factual                  p. 174                     C

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. In the case of the Cotton family, how did the baby Anna contribute to family well-being?
  2. She increased her father’s sense of competence as a caregiver.
  3. She brought enjoyment to her mother.
  4. She helped her grandmother cope with the bereavement of having a daughter who died.
  5. All of these contribute.

 

Application           p. 176                     D

CO: 6                     Easy

 

 

 

  1. Peter Wolff described seven states of arousal among newborn infants. Which of the following is not one of these?
  2. pride
  3. crying
  4. waking activity
  5. irregular sleep

 

Conceptual           p. 172                     A

CO: 6                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is the pattern of development of emotion along the rage-anger dimension?
  2. distress, anger, guilt
  3. guilt, anger, distress
  4. guilt, distress, anger
  5. anger, guilt, distress

 

Conceptual           p. 173                     A

CO: 6                     Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is most accurate about infant emotion in the first 2 years of life?
  2. Emotions are tied to internal states of pain and pleasure during the first 2 years of life.
  3. Emotions change in stage-like progression from internal physical expressions to differentiation of self in relation to others in the environment.
  4. Infant emotional expressions remain limited and unchanging during the first 2 years with no stage-like progression.
  5. Infant emotions are primarily negative in the first 2 years, reflecting wariness, anger, and defiance.

 

Factual                  p. 173                     B

CO: 6                     Difficult

 

  1. Social smiles begin to be observed
  2. at about 1 year.
  3. at about 20 weeks.
  4. at about 5 weeks.
  5. 12 hours after birth.

 

Factual                  p. 173                     C

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Which is an example of a cognitive or mastery smile?
  2. smile at being tickled
  3. smile at making a bell jingle
  4. smile at seeing a favorite toy
  5. smile at seeing mommy in the morning

 

Conceptual           p. 173                     B

CO: 6                     Easy

 

 

  1. What is the relationship of high levels of motor activity and frequent crying at 4 months of age to later development?
  2. There is no relationship to later behavior.
  3. These babies become high exploring, curious toddlers.
  4. These babies show greater fearfulness and shyness at later ages.
  5. These babies have fewer behavior problems than the quiet, less active infants.

 

Factual                  p. 174                     C

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Japanese parents try to regulate anger by
  2. displacing their feelings of anger toward an acceptable target such as a doll.
  3. minimizing their children’s exposure to anger or frustration.
  4. encouraging their children to express anger when they feel it.
  5. talking about their feelings when they are angry.

 

Factual                  p. 177                     B

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following family factors is tied to increases in an infant’s negative emotionality?
  2. being a first born child
  3. high levels of marital dissatisfaction for mother or father
  4. low educational level of mother
  5. lack of grandparent involvement in childcare

 

Factual                  p. 177                     B

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. When parents and infants can understand each other’s emotions, creating and modifying shared interactions in response to each other, this is called
  2. intersubjectivity.
  3. conformity.
  4. equivalence.
  5. self-recognition.

 

Conceptual           p. 177                     A

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. On her first birthday, Emily looks at her mother as they observe the clown coming to her party. At first Emily is crying. Then her mother smiles and acts very happy, so Emily smiles, too. This is an example of
  2. empathy.
  3. attachment.
  4. visual acuity.
  5. social referencing.

 

Application           p. 177                     D

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which term refers to caregiver-infant interactions that are rhythmic, well-timed, and mutually rewarding?
  2. synchrony
  3. ethology
  4. differentiation
  5. behavioral system

 

Conceptual           p. 181                     A

*CO: 7                   Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following behaviors is not used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?
  2. greater relaxation and expressions of comfort with the caregiver
  3. greater fretfulness with the caregiver than with strangers
  4. expressions of distress when the caregiver is absent
  5. efforts by the infant to maintain contact with the caregiver

 

Conceptual           p. 181                     B

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. The psychosocial crisis of infancy is
  2. initiative versus guilt.
  3. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  4. industry versus inferiority.
  5. trust versus mistrust.

 

Conceptual           p. 178                     D

CO: 7                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements captures the sense of trust?
  2. A trusting relationship links confidence about the past with faith about the future.
  3. A trusting relationship has nothing to do with the past, only the present.
  4. A trusting relationship is only about the other person; not about oneself.
  5. A trusting relationship can only be experienced once in a lifetime.

 

Conceptual           p. 178                     A

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. If the caregiver is unable to differentiate the infant’s needs or responds harshly to those needs, the infant is likely to develop a sense of
  2. mutuality.
  3. synchrony.
  4. mistrust.
  5. hope.

 

Conceptual           p. 179                     C

CO: 7                     Easy

 

  1. In the normal pattern of development, mother-infant interactions become increasingly
  2. rigid.
  3. disengaged.
  4. fussy.
  5. coordinated.

 

Conceptual           p. 181                     D

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. Coordination of infant-caregiver interaction involves two related characteristics, which are
  2. causality and categorization.
  3. matching and synchrony.
  4. crying and smiling.
  5. trust and hope.

 

Conceptual           p. 181                     B

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. Trust develops as parents
  2. make up innovative games to play with their baby.
  3. give their child more time to explore the environment.
  4. get older.
  5. interpret their children’s signals correctly.

 

Conceptual           p. 181                     D

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. When infants pay attention to their caregivers, the caregivers attempt to stimulate them. When infants withdraw attention, caregivers reduce their efforts at stimulation. This illustrates the concept of
  2. synchrony.
  3. trust.
  4. communication repair.
  5. soothability.

 

Conceptual           p. 181     A

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. Within the process of communication, which of the following patterns builds a sense of mutuality between the infant and the caregiver?
  2. attend, protest, anger
  3. trust, mistrust, withdrawal
  4. coordination, mismatch, repair
  5. coordination, mismatch, protest

 

Conceptual           p. 181                     C

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. The prime adaptive ego quality of infancy is
  2. caring.
  3. fidelity.
  4. will.
  5. hope.

 

Conceptual           p. 182                     D

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

 

  1. The infant’s sense of self as __________ combined with the caregiver’s sensitivity create the context for the emergence of hope.
  2. emotional regulator
  3. a permanent object
  4. an animate category
  5. causal agent

 

Conceptual           p. 182                     D

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. _________________ refers to a general orientation of wariness toward people and objects.
  2. Anxiety
  3. Withdrawal
  4. Fear
  5. Apprehension

 

Factual                  p. 183                     B

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

  1. Cross-cultural observations suggest that infants are likely to be carried for longer periods during the day and for more months during infancy when
  2. women marry at younger ages.
  3. families live in extended family groups.
  4. men help with childcare.
  5. there are more physical dangers on the ground.

 

Conceptual           p. 186                     D

CO: 8                     Moderate

 

  1. According to the text, many parental behaviors that are important for the development of strong emotional bonds between parents and infants are also important for
  2. fostering intellectual growth.
  3. achieving autonomy.
  4. fostering communication mismatch.
  5. producing early signs of depression.

 

Conceptual           p. 187                     A

CO: 8                     Moderate

 

  1. In what way are fathers’ interactions likely to differ from mothers’ interactions with their infants?
  2. Fathers are more likely to respond to the infants’ signals.
  3. Fathers do more care giving, such as feeding and bathing.
  4. Fathers interact in more physically playful ways.
  5. Fathers focus more on fostering a sense of comfort and trust.

 

Conceptual           p. 188                     C

CO: 8                     Moderate

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-Test Questions from Student Study Guide

 

  1. Sensory experiences can strengthen certain neural pathways in the infant brain while less used pathways may disappear. This is called ____.
  2. habituation
  3. intersubjectivity
  4. visual acuity
  5. plasticity

 

Factual                  p. 142                     D

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following sensory/motor systems is least well developed in newborns?
  2. voluntary motor activity b. hearing
  3. vision
  4. taste

 

Factual                  p. 148                     A

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following motor skills is not acquired during the first year of life?
  2. standing alone
  3. rolling over
  4. running
  5. crawling

 

Factual                  p. 150     C

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. Infants who are inactive and have mild, low-key reactions to new environmental stimuli, are generally negative in mood, and have a hard time adjusting to new situations are considered to fall within which temperament category?
  2. insecure
  3. difficult
  4. secure
  5. slow-to-warm-up

 

Factual                  p. 174                     B

CO: 1                     Moderate

 

  1. During the second half of the first year, two signs of a child’s growing attachment to a specific other person are ____.
  2. rooting and grasping
  3. first habits and circular reactions
  4. stranger anxiety and separation anxiety
  5. intersubjectivity and matching

 

Factual                  p. 163     C

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Three critiques of the attachment paradigm are presented in the text and focus on the __________ aspect of parenting behaviors. (pp. 170-171)
  2. socioeconomic
  3. cultural
  4. nutritional
  5. educational

 

Factual                  p. 170-171            B

CO: 5                     Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is used as evidence that an attachment has been formed?
  2. An infant calls to his or her attachment figure by name.
  3. An infant shows distress when the loved person comes near.
  4. An infant acts fussier in the afternoons than in the evenings.
  5. An infant tries to maintain physical contact with the object of attachment.

 

Factual                  p. 162                     D

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. Jackie actively explores the room at her aunt’s house while her mother is sitting on the couch. When mom leaves to get a drink in the kitchen, Jackie fusses, but she calms down quickly as soon as mom returns. Jackie may be best described as having a(n) __________ attachment.
  2. secure
  3. anxious-avoidant
  4. disorganized
  5. anxious-resistant

 

Factual                  p. 165                     A

CO: 2                     Moderate

 

  1. According to Piaget’s theory, what is the primary mechanism underlying the growth of intelligence during infancy?
  2. synchrony
  3. intersubjectivity
  4. sensorimotor adaptation
  5. assimilation

 

Factual                  p. 152     C

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

  1. The first phase in the development of causal schemes is the phase of _______.
  2. insight
  3. circular reactions
  4. reflexes
  5. smiling

 

Factual                  p. 154                     C

CO: 3                     Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of sensorimotor intelligence?
  2. pulling Dad’s beard so he looks at infant
  3. shaking rattle to get Mom’s attention
  4. rolling over on tummy
  5. cooing to elicit smile from caregiver

 

Conceptual           p. 155     C

CO: 3                     Easy

 

  1. Amanda, who is 5 1/2 months old, discovers that if she lets her spoon drop it will fall to the floor and make a noise. She repeatedly drops her spoon and expresses great delight. This behavior is an example of ___________.
  2. imprinting
  3. sensorimotor causality
  4. attachment
  5. object permanence

 

Application           p. 156                     D

CO: 4                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is among the earliest emotions to be expressed in infancy before 6 months of age?
  2. pride
  3. pleasure
  4. defiance
  5. guilt

 

Factual                  p. 172                     B

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. ____________ illustrates how members of a cultural group build a shared view of reality during infancy.
  2. Primary circular reactions
  3. Social referencing
  4. Self-regulation
  5. none of these

 

Application                           p. 178                     B

CO: 5                     Moderate

 

  1. In infancy, trust refers to the infant’s sense that he or she is ___________.
  2. skillful and resourceful
  3. creative
  4. intelligent
  5. valued

 

Conceptual           p. 178                     D

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Mistrust may develop if a caregiver is unusually harsh while meeting an infant’s needs or if ____________.
  2. the caregiver responds too quickly
  3. the caregiver talks to the infant too much
  4. the caregiver caters to the child’s every whim
  5. the caregiver cannot identify the child’s needs and respond appropriately to them

 

Factual                  p. 180                     D

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is the central process for resolving the psychosocial crisis of infancy?
  2. education
  3. social support
  4. mutuality with the caregiver
  5. imitation

 

Conceptual           p. 180                     C

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. Social support is viewed as effective when _____________________.
  2. parents feel isolated
  3. parents are unable to interpret childrearing problems
  4. validation of parental roles is present
  5. it is offered by strangers

Conceptual           p. 189                     C

CO: 8                     Moderate

 

  1. Within the process of communication the pattern of coordination, mismatch, and repair builds a sense of ___________ between the infant and the caregiver.
  2. mistrust
  3. causality
  4. anxiety
  5. mutuality

 

Conceptual           pp. 181  D

CO: 6                     Moderate

 

  1. In their parental roles, fathers in the United States tend to emphasize ______ while mothers tend to emphasize _________.
  2. physical play; caregiving
  3. the process of development; product
  4. object permanence; the development of causal schemes
  5. intersubjectivity; communication repair

 

Factual                  p. 188                     A

CO: 7                     Moderate

 

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

  1. The average full-term baby in the United States weighs about 7 to 7.5 pounds and is 20 inches long.

 

CO: 1                     p. 139                     T

 

  1. Vagal tone is the sound a neonate hears at birth.

 

CO: 1                     p. 140                     F

 

  1. Babies as young as 4 months display object permanence.

 

CO: 3                     p. 156                     T

 

 

  1. Infants cannot categorize since they do not have enough words in their vocabulary yet.

 

CO: 3                     p. 157                     F

 

  1. Classification of objects becomes more sophisticated over the childhood years.

 

CO: 3                     p. 157                     T

 

  1. People with damage to the prefrontal cortex are unable to respond impulsively to environmental stimuli.

 

CO: 3                     p. 153                     F

 

  1. If a mother speaks in a positive tone of voice to her baby about a stranger, the baby will cry because of stranger anxiety.

 

CO: 5                     p. 163                     F

 

  1. Separation anxiety can be displayed when a 9 month-old baby is separated from its mother for 30 minutes.

 

CO: 5                     p. 163                     T

 

  1. When a toddler reverts to more immature forms of behavior, it may be a sign of stress.

 

CO: 5                     p. 163                     T

 

  1. Infants in a poor quality care center-based setting are more likely to develop secure attachments with their mothers.

 

CO: 5                     p. 164                     F

 

  1. No matter what culture an infant is raised in, mothers will respond just as quickly to a crying baby.

 

CO: 5                     p. 164                     F

 

  1. Depressed mothers are less verbally stimulating and less playful when interacting with their infants.

 

CO: 5                     p. 169                     T

 

  1. Children who spend infancy in institutions with a high turnover in caregivers have difficulty forming close relationships later.

 

CO: 5                     p. 167                     T

 

  1. Research supports the idea that child outcomes are a product of child temperament and parenting strategies.

 

CO: 6                     p. 175                     T

 

  1. Infant cries communicate a different level of need through pitch, tempo, and duration.

 

CO: 7                     p. 181                     T

 

  1. High levels of marital dissatisfaction are correlated with infant negative behavior.

 

CO: 7                     p. 181                     T

 

  1. For infants, trust is an emotion.

 

CO: 7                     p. 178                     T

 

  1. Oxytocin has been shown to decrease trust in humans.

 

CO: 7                     p. 179                     F

 

  1. Mothers who were mistreated as children are more involved with their own child.

 

CO: 7                     p. 182                     F

 

  1. The only effect of a parent’s mental illness on a child is if the parent becomes violent.

 

CO: 7                     p. 182                     F

 

  1. Non-depressed mothers typically engage in touching, talking, soothing, and comforting their infants more than depressed mothers.

 

CO: 7                     p. 182                     T

 

  1. People who have higher levels of hopefulness undertake more goals and more difficult tasks in life.

 

CO: 7                     p. 182                     T

 

  1. African cultures carry infants longer than industrialized countries because they care more about infant safety.

 

CO: 7                     p. 186                     F

 

  1. Optimal infant development includes being available when your child needs you.

 

CO: 7                     p. 187                     T

MATCHING QUESTIONS

 

  1. Match the term with its definition.

Term

  1. Productive language
  2. Receptive language
  3. Holophases
  4. Baby signs

 

Definitions

  1. ability to understand words
  2. gesture training in language development
  3. single word utterance accompanied by gestures

4              ability to produce words

 

CO: 4                     pp. 159 – 160        a-4, b-1, c-3, d-2

 

 

  1. Match the stage in the development of social attachment with the best description of what happens during that stage.
Stage in the Development of Social Attachment
  1. Stage 1 (birth to 3 months)
  2. Stage 2 (3 to 6 months)
  3. Stage 3 (6 to 9 months)
  4. Stage 4 (9 to 12 months)
  5. Stage 5 (12 months and older)

 

Description of What Happens in a Stage
  1. infant forms internal mental representation of object of attachment
  2. infant uses sucking, rooting, gazing, smiling, cuddling, and visual tracking to maintain closeness
  3. infant seeks physical proximity and contact with caregiver
  4. infant more responsive to familiar figures than to strangers
  5. child uses a variety of behaviors to influence the behavior of objects of attachment in ways that will satisfy needs for safety and closeness

 

CO: 5                     p. 162                     a-2, b-4, c-3, d-1, e-5

 

  1. Match the pattern of attachment with the behaviors that accompany it.
Patterns of Attachment
  1. Secure attachment
  2. Anxious-avoidant attachment
  3. Anxious-resistant attachment
  4. Disorganized attachment

 

Behaviors
  1. show less distress at being alone than other babies
  2. no consistent strategy for managing the stress of separation
  3. very cautious in the presence of strangers and hard to soothe upon caregiver’s return
  4. actively explore their environment and interact with strangers when mothers are present

 

CO: 5                     pp. 165-166                          a-4, b-1, c-3, d-2

 

  1. Match the infant temperament to the description.

Infant Temperament

  1. easy
  2. slow to warm up
  3. difficult

 

Description

  1. 10% of sample
  2. slow to adapt
  3. low or moderate intensity of reaction

 

CO: 6                     p. 174                     a-3, b-2, c-1

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Give three reasons why very-low-birth-weight babies are at risk for cognitive delays.

 

*CO: 1                   pp. 140-141

 

 

  1. Explain how infants use their sensorimotor experience to organize experience and communicate with their caregivers.

 

CO: 3                     pp. 152-153

 

  1. What are two characteristics of mothers whose babies develop anxious-avoidant attachment?

 

*CO: 5                   p. 166

 

  1. Give two examples of relationships formed in adolescence or adulthood that may be influenced by the quality of early attachments.

 

CO: 5                     pp. 169-170

 

  1. Discuss some ways that culture influences emotional expression and emotional regulation during infancy.

 

CO: 6                     p. 177                     www

 

  1. What are some ways mistrust may be expressed in behavior?

 

CO: 7                     p. 179

 

  1. What are three ways that the prime adaptive ego qualities influence a person’s outlook on life?

 

*CO: 7                   pp. 182-183

 

  1. Discuss the role of parents in promoting optimal development for their infants. How does the psychosocial perspective influence the way the parent role is analyzed in this text?

 

CO: 8                     pp. 187-189          www