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 Developmental Psychology Childhood And Adolescence 9th Edition Shaffe – Test Bank 

 

CHAPTER 6—COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: PIAGET’S THEORY AND VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL VIEWPOINT

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. ____ refers to the activity of knowing and acquiring knowledge.
a. Horizontal decalage
b. Organization
c. Scaffolding
d. Cognition

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Introductory Section

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a main type of cognition?
a. Learning
b. Telepathy
c. Perceiving
d. Remembering

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    easy               REF:   Introductory Section

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. ____ refers to children’s changes in mental abilities over their lifetime.
a. Longitudinal decalage
b. Neo-nativistic centration
c. Phylogenetic development
d. Cognitive development

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Introductory Section

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Theorist Jean Piaget’s academic background was focused in these two subjects:
a. statistics and experimental design.
b. animal husbandry and crop science.
c. epistemology and zoology.
d. chemistry and astronomy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the
a. origins of knowledge.
b. rules of logical thinking.
c. moral principles of proper conduct.
d. relationship of religious belief and behavior.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

 

 

  1. Genetic epistemology, Piaget’s academic specialty, could be defined as the study of the
a. child’s social relations with others such as peers.
b. inheritance of mental deficiency/disability.
c. inheritance of behavioral habits.
d. development of knowledge.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Piaget’s clinical method for research resembles
a. a literature review.
b. the correlational method.
c. experimentation.
d. interviewing.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    easy               REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Professor Pompous talks to children about how they solve puzzles. The course of questioning is modified, depending on the child’s earlier answers. Pompous’s approach resembles Piaget’s ____ method.
a. representational insight
b. proximally decentrated
c. epistemological
d. clinical

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, the basic goal of intelligence is to
a. adapt to the environment.
b. enable the child to get ahead in school.
c. encourage scaffolding by relevant nearby adults.
d. discourage accommodation while encouraging assimilation.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. In Piaget’s cognitive theory, intelligence is like a(n)
a. random unpredictable series of thunderstorms.
b. counselor who helps a new arrival adjust to camp life.
c. teacher who explains everything with animal metaphors.
d. innate genetic disease that occurs at a programmed age.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    difficult         REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. A slogan of Piaget’s theory of intelligence would be,
a. “Build your vocabulary!”
b. “Look for a scaffold!”
c. “Impress others!”
d. “Adapt!”

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

  1. In Piaget’s theory, balance between the child’s thoughts and the environment is called
a. tertiary circular reaction.
b. phylogenetic scaffolding.
c. pompous constructivism.
d. cognitive equilibrium.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Dino, age 10, is a “dinosaur expert.” At a dinosaur museum, all of the most recent information matches what Dino already knows. Dino experiences
a. transitivity of mental seriation.
b. a secondary circular reaction.
c. cognitive equilibrium.
d. an A-not-B error.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. During Piaget’s process of “equilibration,” the child
a. makes mental adjustments in response to new experiences.
b. avoids scaffolding while seeking independent action.
c. rejects the possibility of hypothetical “what ifs.”
d. places phylogenetic development and ontogenetic development in contrasted opposition.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    difficult         REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. According to Piaget, the constructivism of the child’s thinking means that
a. the child builds understanding via active discovery.
b. assimilation speeds learning, while accommodation retards learning.
c. passive experience builds up knowledge quickly.
d. circular reactions are round movement sequences.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. A puppy explores and taps a rubber ball, and learns about the ball’s properties via discovery. The puppy exemplifies Piaget’s principle of
a. constructivism.
b. horizontal decalage.
c. representational insight.
d. invariant developmental sequence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In Piaget’s cognitive theory, a ____ is a mental model that represents, organizes, or interprets experience for the child.
a. concrete operation
b. centration
c. scaffold
d. scheme

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. ____ is the process by which children combine existing schemes into more complex intellectual schemes.
a. Organization
b. Conservation
c. Formal operation
d. Assimilation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. To pass an object, an infant combines one hand’s “opening scheme” with the other hand’s “grasping” scheme. This illustrates Piaget’s principle of
a. animism.
b. organization.
c. identity training.
d. avoiding the A-not-B error.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A slogan of Piaget’s organization principle would be,
a. “Respond to parental assistance!”
b. “Consider hypothetical possibilities!”
c. “Combine the simple into the complex!”
d. “Observe how others have solved similar problems!”

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. “Adaptation” has many varied meanings, but to Piaget, it meant
a. minimizing parent/child conflicts through discussion.
b. habituating to the environment’s stabilities.
c. making adjustments in response to the environment’s demands.
d. modifying the organism’s genotype.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In Piaget’s cognitive theory, adaptation is the outcome of which processes?
a. Dilation and contraction
b. Centration and decentration
c. Accommodation and assimilation
d. Horizontal decalage and vertical decalage

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. An overseas tourist comments on everything new by mentioning its similarities to familiar places back home. This resembles Piagetian
a. assimilation.
b. accommodation.
c. conservation.
d. primary circular reaction.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A slogan for Piaget’s assimilation principle would be,
a. “Conform to your peers’ thoughts!”
b. “Apply your past habits!”
c. “Be flexible and modify!”
d. “Think with animism!”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Janelle sees a man (who is not her father) and calls out, “Daddy!” Janelle’s reaction demonstrates the process that Piaget referred to as
a. egocentrism.
b. assimilation.
c. accommodation.
d. organization.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. ASSIMILATION is to ACCOMMODATION as ____ is to ____.
a. CASH :: CREDIT
b. INDIVIDUAL :: GROUP
c. STABILITY :: CHANGE
d. INCREMENTAL :: STAGES

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    difficult         REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Four-year-old Britney mistakes her neighbor’s new pet rabbit for a kitten. Britney’s error illustrates the Piagetian process of
a. animism.
b. assimilation.
c. accommodation.
d. tertiary circular reaction.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. After seeing her “silly putty” bounce up to the ceiling on her first throw, Celia adjusts on the second throw to reduce the force. Celia’s adjustment illustrates
a. accommodation.
b. assimilation.
c. a zone of proximal development.
d. a representational insight.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Four-year-old Laura finds a bottle of vitamins. They look just like Easter candies, so she eats them all. Laura’s error illustrates Piagetian
a. assimilation.
b. accommodation.
c. mental seriation.
d. horizontal decalage.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. In space, astronauts must become experts at ____ because behavioral schemata that work on Earth must be adjusted for space’s weightlessness.
a. reversibility
b. accommodation
c. assimilation
d. animism

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Beanpole plays basketball. During the past month, his arm has grown an inch, and he overshoots. His error reflects ____ of the shooting scheme.
a. hypothetico-deductive reasoning
b. deferred imitation
c. assimilation
d. accommodation

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Beanpole plays basketball. After Beanpole’s arm has grown an inch and he overshoots, he shows ____ on later shots by reducing the intensity of the arm movement.
a. neo-nativism
b. assimilation
c. accommodation
d. microgenetic transitivity

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Five-year-old Charley didn’t think that dogs could talk until he saw a talking dog on TV. The change in Charley’s understanding about dogs illustrates the Piagetian principle called
a. phylogenetic development.
b. animistic magic.
c. accommodation.
d. assimilation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    difficult         REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. An expatriate living overseas says, “No matter where we live, we are flexible and try to go native, adjusting our habits to match those of the locals.” Her family is strong on ____ of their behavioral schemata
a. reflex activation
b. microgenetic development
c. assimilation
d. accommodation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of these is NOT among Piaget’s four cognitive developmental stages?
a. Formal operations stage
b. Preoperational stage
c. Proximal zone stage
d. Sensorimotor stage

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Piaget’s principle of the invariant developmental sequence means that
a. animals of closely related species (e.g., apes/monkeys) have identical developmental stages.
b. every child goes through the stages in the same order.
c. if well nourished, children will develop at the same rate.
d. smart children can sometimes skip one of the stages.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Piaget’s four developmental stages
a. differ qualitatively from each other.
b. are voluntarily chosen by the child’s parents.
c. are experienced in different sequences by children.
d. can be skipped in instances where the child is a precocious early achiever.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. A chef says, “The recipe for goo-rolls is specific. You must do all 15 steps in the exact stated order.” This recipe illustrates the principle of
a. invariant sequence.
b. symbolic and behavioral schemes.
c. transitivity.
d. egocentrism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    easy               REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Piaget asserted that cultural and environmental influences on the child’s development affected
a. the developmental rate and also the stage sequence.
b. the developmental rate but not the stage sequence.
c. the stage sequence but not the developmental rate.
d. neither the stage sequence nor the developmental rate.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    difficult         REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Piaget’s sensorimotor stage includes the period of
a. infancy.
b. early childhood.
c. middle childhood.
d. adolescence.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    easy               REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following aspects of cognitive development were NOT part of Chapter 6’s discussion of sensorimotor development?
a. Growth of the object concept
b. Problem-solving skills
c. Self-awareness
d. Imitation

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Factual           NOT:  New

 

  1. The neonate’s main sensorimotor activity is
a. exercising its innate reflexes.
b. doing primary circular reactions.
c. doing secondary circular reactions.
d. responding to classical conditioning.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Factual

  1. According to Piaget’s theory, infants coordinate the information they gather through their senses with their motor behavior during the ____ stage of cognitive development.
a. concrete operations
b. sensorimotor stage
c. formal operations
d. fetal

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    easy               REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What is “circular” about a Piagetian circular reaction?
a. The path of the eye movements resembles a circle.
b. The path of a limb’s movements resembles a circle.
c. “Circular” means that the action is repetitious.
d. The action helps attract circular stimuli to the senses.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The main difference between primary and secondary circular reactions is
a. whether the action is toward the infant or an object.
b. the geometric accuracy of the circle pattern.
c. the relative sizes of the circles produced.
d. the speeds of the repetitive motions.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTION is to SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTION as ____ is to ____.
a. HORIZONTAL :: VERTICAL
b. APPEARANCE :: REALITY
c. RANDOM :: PURPOSIVE
d. SELF :: OTHER

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    difficult         REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Lolly is three months old, and she loves to suck her big toe, which she does repeatedly. This exemplifies
a. an abstract rectangular reaction.
b. a decentered targeted behavior.
c. a tertiary circular reaction.
d. a primary circular reaction.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of these is an example of a Piagetian primary circular reaction?
a. A baby pokes her own elbow repeatedly.
b. A toddler draws a circle on paper with a crayon.
c. A baby points her hand at a mobile above her crib.
d. A woman kisses her boyfriend in a circular pattern on his cheek.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. A primary circular reaction is a(n)
a. cognition of disgust when English is heard in France.
b. imagined movement that is not actually performed.
c. repetitive movement toward one’s own body, such as thumb sucking.
d. persistent search to find a missing object.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Cuddles is a beagle who bites her toy rubber cat repeatedly to hear the “meow” sound it makes. This illustrates the Piagetian principle called
a. predatory sensorimotor practice.
b. secondary circular reaction.
c. tertiary circular reaction.
d. feline prey symbolism.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Among four- to eight-month-old infants, secondary circular reactions will most often be directed toward
a. the infant’s memories of prenatal life in the womb.
b. an imagined caregiver who is absent.
c. external objects such as toys.
d. the infant’s own body.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Secondary circular reactions are
a. unique motions done without a target.
b. unique motions directed toward the infant’s own body.
c. repetitive motions directed toward the infant’s body.
d. repetitive motions directed toward external objects.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Multiple actions are first planned and done together during which substage of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage?
a. Reflex activity
b. Primary circular reactions
c. Coordination of secondary reactions
d. Symbolic problem-solving

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    easy               REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The infant’s curiosity becomes especially evident during Piaget’s ____ substage of the sensorimotor stage, as infants begin to actively experiment with objects.
a. reflex activity
b. primary circular reactions
c. coordination of secondary schemes
d. tertiary circular reactions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. “Inner experimentation” becomes possible during Piaget’s ____ substage of the sensorimotor stage.
a. secondary circular reactions
b. coordination of secondary schemes
c. tertiary circular reactions
d. symbolic problem-solving

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    moderate        REF:   Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

MSC:  Conceptual