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Deviant Behavior 11th Edition By Taylor – Test Bank

 

 

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CHAPTER THREE: CONSTRUCTIONIST THEORIES

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is NOT one of the constructionist theories of deviance?

a) labeling theory
b) phenomenological theory
c) control theory
d) conflict theory

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 34-51
Answer: c) control theory

2. Labeling theory interprets deviance as a(n)

a) totally subjective experience.
b) expression of human animalistic tendencies.
c) process of symbolic interactionism.
d) outcome of conflict between powerful groups.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 35-39
Answer: c) process of symbolic interactionism.

3. Which of the following statements reflects the symbolic interactionist’s view of human beings?

a) Humans are simply a medium on which social forces operate in a neutral way.
b) Humans face, deal with, and act toward the objects they encounter.
c) Human behavior largely follows well-established patterns.
d) Individuals have little awareness about what is going on around them.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 35-37
Answer: b) Humans face, deal with, and act toward the objects they encounter.

4. According to labeling theory, the focus of sociological research should be on

a) how the person who behaves in a deviant way interprets reality.
b) the historical creation of deviant and normal labels.
c) the economic structure of society.
d) the interaction between the supposed deviant and conventional people.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 36
Answer : d) the interaction between the supposed deviant and conventional people.

5. According to labeling theory, being labeled deviant produces

a) positive consequences.
b) negative consequences.
c) no consequences whatsoever.
d) some consequences whose nature cannot at present be understood.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 36-38
Answer: b) negative consequences.

6. According to labeling theory, the final step leading to secondary deviation involves

a) stronger penalties and rejections.
b) formal action taken by the community against the deviant.
c) hostilities and resentment on the part of those who penalize the deviant.
d) acceptance of and adjustment to deviant social status by the deviant.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 37-38
Answer: d) acceptance of and adjustment to deviant social status by the deviant.

7. According to Lemert, what is the first act in the sequence of interaction leading to secondary deviation?

a) primary deviation
b) a deviant impulse
c) tertiary deviation
d) the confession of deviance

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 36-37
Answer: a) primary deviation

8. Which of the following groups is most likely to be involved in imposing labels?
a) the poor
b) the criminal
c) the powerful
d) women

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 36-37
Answer: c) the powerful

9. According to Erikson and others, labeling other persons as deviant has

a) positive consequences for the community or individuals who apply the label.
b) negative consequences for the community or persons who apply the label.
c) positive consequences for the person who is labeled by the community.
d) little impact beyond the social control of the person who is deviant.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 36-38
Answer: a) positive consequences for the community or individuals who apply the label.

10. One negative criticism of labeling theory is that it

a) is not a sociological theory.
b) does not actually explain the causes of deviance.
c) is too deterministic a theory.
d) emphasizes the causes of deviance too much.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 38-39
Answer: b) does not actually explain the causes of deviance.

11. One reason why labeling theory has enjoyed tremendous popularity among sociologists is because this theory

a) supports many of the basic ideas of traditional theories of deviance.
b) firmly locates the role of the powerful in creating deviant labels.
c) is easy for students to understand.
d) has considerable data to support some of its basic ideas.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 38
Answer: d) has considerable data to support some of its basic ideas.

12. Which of the following theories examines the subjectivity of people, including their attitudes, feelings, and opinions about deviance?

a) conflict theory
b) labeling theory
c) positivist theory
d) phenomenological theory

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 39
Answer: d) phenomenological theory

13. What do phenomenologists mean by the term deviant reality?

a) the nature of deviant behavior as seen by scientific sociologists
b) the characteristics of deviance as shown by objectively acquired data
c) the reality of deviance as defined as such by the powerful
d) the subjective meaning that deviants impute to their own deviant experience

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 39-40
Answer: d) the subjective meaning that deviants impute to their own deviant experience

14. According to phenomenologists, what deviance means is

a) obvious to all observers.
b) fundamentally problematic.
c) insignificant for the understanding of deviant behavior.
d) an objective fact.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 39-40
Answer: b) fundamentally problematic.

15. At the heart of the conflict between phenomenologists and positivists is

a) different philosophical views of humanity.
b) different views on the punishment of deviants.
c) whether deviance is a primary or secondary phenomenon.
d) whether sociology should even study immoral behavior like deviance.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 39-41
Answer: a) different philosophical views of humanity.

16. According to Jack Douglas, there are two types of meanings: abstract meanings and __________ meanings.

a) immoral
b) moral
c) independent
d) situated

Difficulty: 2
Page reference: 39-40
Answer: d) situated

17. To phenomenologists, “constructs of the second degree”

a) reflect the real meaning of deviance.
b) reflect deviants’ subjective views.
c) are far removed from the reality of deviant experience.
d) are truly objective, because they are free of emotional judgment.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 40-41
Answer: c) are far removed from the reality of deviant experience.

18. To analyze how their subjects feel and think about deviance, phenomenologists use the method of

a) construction.
b) surveys.
c) ethnography.
d) introspection.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 41-42
Answer: c) ethnography.

19. Ethnography is defined as the style of research that seeks to understand

a) the meanings the people under investigation ascribe to their experiences.
b) the factual aspects of behavior that people follow.
c) the causes of behavior under study.
d) why the larger society considers some behavior as deviant and other behavior as normal.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 41-42
Answer: a) the meanings the people under investigation ascribe to their experiences.

20. Harold Garfinkel studied Agnes, who was a person seeking a sex change operation, and discovered that she considered herself

a) both a man and a woman at the same time.
b) a normal woman with a physical defect (a penis).
c) a sexual freak.
d) a normal man with several physical defects.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 41-42
Answer: b) a normal woman with a physical defect (a penis).

21. The sociologist Jack Katz studied a variety of murderers and armed robbers and discovered that they

a) felt intensely guilty about their crimes.
b) experienced a sense of powerlessness over their behavior.
c) felt morally superior to their victims.
d) labeled themselves as morally inferior.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 41-42
Answer: c) felt morally superior to their victims.

22. All of the following are criticisms of phenomenological theory EXCEPT that phenomenologists

a) cannot keep a totally open mind in understanding the essence of deviant reality.
b) cannot examine subjective experience in a totally unbiased way.
c) incorrectly assume that powerless deviants are powerless people who have little free will.
d) fail to see the relevance of the objective study of deviance.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 42
Answer: c) incorrectly assume that powerless deviants are powerless people who have little free will.

23. The incompatible interests, needs, and desires of diverse groups of people in society can lead to

a) deviant behavior.
b) social conflict.
c) cultural conformity.
d) social strain.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 43
Answer: b) social conflict.

24. The essential idea of conflict theory is that conflict as well as its resulting criminality is

a) an inherent, normal, and integral part of complex modern societies.
b) a rare and inconsequential occurrence in modern society.
c) best understood through the exploration of subjective experiences.
d) best understood through the labeling perspective.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43
Answer: a) an inherent, normal, and integral part of complex modern societies.

25. Chambliss called the observing of how legal authorities actually discharge their duties the study of

a) the law on the books.
b) the law in action.
c) the process of legal change.
d) the ideal of the law.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43-45
Answer: b) the law in action.

26. Chambliss’s analysis of the English legal system showed that the vagrancy laws

a) helped the poor to improve their lives.
b) benefited the ordinary citizens the most.
c) aggravated the crime problem.
d) served the interests of the influential members of society.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43-44
Answer: d) served the interests of the influential members of society.

27. Chambliss stated that the tendency of the police, prosecutors, and judges to become tools of power and privilege is caused by the __________, or the need of organizations to compel their members to maximum rewards.

a) phenomenal reality
b) social reality
c) organizational imperative
d) organizational dysfunction

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43-45
Answer: c) organizational imperative

28. According to Richard Quinney, there are different ways for the dominant class to define the social reality of crime. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

a) It defines as criminal those behaviors that threaten its interest.
b) It applies the laws to ensure the protection of its interests.
c) It engages in behavior that is defined as criminal.
d) It constructs and diffuses an ideology of crime.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 44-45
Answer: c) It engages in behavior that is defined as criminal.

29. Quinney and other conflict theorists see something terribly wrong with existing society and have called for

a) a more extensive study of the sociology of deviance.
b) political action.
c) less deviant behavior.
d) more police and stricter enforcement of the law.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 44-45
Answer: b) political action.

30. According to the Marxist explanation of deviance, the cause of deviance can be traced to

a) the gap between the goals of success and the means of achieving them.
b) the breakdown of the family and other social controls.
c) the presence of diverse cultural groups in American society.
d) the exploitative nature of capitalism.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 46
Answer: d) the exploitative nature of capitalism.

31. What Marxists call “marginal surplus population” refers to

a) employed workers.
b) those who are relatively superfluous or useless to the economy.
c) families with more than two children.
d) the capitalist elite, who need not work.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 46
Answer: b) those who are relatively superfluous or useless to the economy.

32. All of the following are the results of capitalism’s creation of economic marginality and coercive control of the workers, EXCEPT for
a) loss of self-esteem.
b) resentment.
c) a greater reliance on the family.
d) a sense of powerlessness and alienation.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 46
Answer: c) a greater reliance on the family.

33. Which of the following are ways feminist theory shifts the focus of theories of deviance?

a) a focus on women as offenders and victims related to their subordinate roles
b) a concentration on women as economically more successful
c) a focus on the greater deviance of men
d) a recognition of a new and growing goals-means gap

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 47-48
Answer: a) a focus on women as offenders and victims related to their subordinate roles.

34. Feminist theorists argue that most theories of deviance

a) stereotype women.
b) are only about men.
c) call for the exploitation of women by men.
d) are not related to gender.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 47-48
Answer: b) are only about men.

35. According to the power theory, the types of deviance and the types of persons who commit deviant acts are strongly influenced by

a) anomie.
b) world political events.
c) social equality.
d) social inequality.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 48
Answer: d) social inequality.

36. All of the following are reasons the powerful are more prone to deviance EXCEPT for
a) stronger deviant motivation.
b) greater deviant opportunity.
c) greater deviant tendencies.
d) the weaker application of social controls.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 48
Answer: c) greater deviant tendencies.

37. Which of the following is NOT a statement about the nature of postmodernist theory?

a) It is an attack on modern science’s emphasis on a search for the objective truth.
b) It leads to the deconstruction of events, revealing their contradictions and assumptions.
c) It studies “linguistic domination,” among other topics.
d) It is relatively disinterested in the most modern forms of deviant behavior.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 49-50
Answer: d) It is relatively disinterested in the most modern forms of deviant behavior.

38. When the language of the strong dominates the language of the weak, the weak experience

a) postmodern anxiety.
b) the labeling of their behavior as deviant.
c) positivistic pressures.
d) linguistic domination.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 49-50
Answer: d) linguistic domination.

39. The conflict approach contributes to our understanding of deviant behavior by showing how

a) unconscious drives and motives lead to some forms of deviance such as child molestation.
b) the subjective experiences of deviance can lead to fear and anger.
c) youth gangs are at the root of most deviance.
d) social inequality influences the making and enforcing of norms and laws.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 50
Answer: d) social inequality influences the making and enforcing of norms and laws.

40. According to this theoretical perspective, power, or the lack of it, determines the type of deviance one is likely to commit.
a) postmodernist theory
b) power theory
c) Marxist theory
d) social reality theory

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 48
Answer: b) power theory

41. This theoretical perspective attributes deviance to the unequal distribution of resources brought about by the exploitative capitalist system.

a) postmodernist theory
b) legal reality theory
c) social reality theory
d) Marxist theory

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 46
Answer: d. Marxist theory

True/False Questions

1. Labeling and phenomenological theories concentrate on understanding the causes of deviance.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 35-42
Answer: False

2. Labeling theory is based on the study of social interaction in which people actually impute meanings to each other’s acts.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 36
Answer: True

3. Labeling a person as deviant may have some consequences for the person so labeled but hardly any for the labeler.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 37-39
Answer: False

4. When a person who is labeled a deviant passively accepts the stigmatizing label and undertakes a deviant career, this behavior is called secondary deviance.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 38
Answer: False

5. Labeling theory has been most often criticized for failing to locate the actual causes of deviance.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 39
Answer: True

6. Research has consistently supported the thesis that the deviant label induces a person into further involvement with deviance.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 39
Answer: False

7. Phenomenological theory focuses on people’s subjectivity, including consciousness, perception, and opinions about deviance.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 39-43
Answer: True

8. Phenomenologists are largely in agreement with sociologists who adopt a positivist view of deviance.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 40
Answer: False

9. When phenomenologists analyze how their subjects feel and think about their deviance, they use the method of ethnography.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 41-43
Answer: True

10. To phenomenologists, the deviant’s subjective experience is the heart of deviant reality.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 38
Answer: True

11. To phenomenologists, the meanings of deviant phenomena are essentially problematic.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 40-41
Answer: True

12. Conflict sociologists begin with the idea that modern societies have achieved a high degree of social and cultural unity.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 43
Answer: False

13. There is a significant discrepancy between the law on the books and the law in action.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 43-44
Answer: True

14. By organizational imperative, Chambliss refers to the inevitable tendency of a law-enforcing agency to compel its members to create red tape.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 43-44
Answer: False

15. Quinney and other Marxist criminologists attribute the existence of crime directly to the capitalist system.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 44
Answer: True

16. Feminist theorists argue that women’s experience of deviance is essentially no different from the experience of men.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 47-48
Answer: False

17. Powerful people have less need to engage in deviance because they have so much already.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page-Reference: 48
Answer: False

18. Two reasons why the powerful are likely to commit profitable deviance are a greater deviant opportunity and a strong deviant motivation.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 48
Answer: True

19. One new approach to the study of deviance is the postmodern analysis of linguistic domination, or how the language of the powerful group dominates linguistic interaction.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 49-50
Answer: True

20. Conflict theory greatly contributes to our understanding of how social inequality influences the making and enforcing of norms, rules, and laws.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page-Reference: 50
Answer: True

21. The feminist theory attributes deviance to the exploitative capitalist system.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 47-48
Answer: False

22. Conflict theory attributes deviant behavior to the unequal distribution of resources.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43-48
Answer: True

Fill-In Questions

1. According to __________ theory, deviance is a collective action and involves the meanings imputed to people’s actions.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 35-39
Answer: labeling

2. If someone is considered a deviant by others, and comes to see him or herself in the same way, that person is called a __________ deviant.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 37-38
Answer: secondary

3. According to __________, people attach meanings to symbols.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 36-38
Answer: symbolic interactionism

4. According to phenomenologists, the most important aspect of deviant reality is the __________ meaning that the deviant person imputes to his or her own deviant experience.

Difficulty: 2
Page-Reference: 40-42
Answer: subjective

5. William Chambliss pointed out that the law __________ is different from the laws on the books.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43
Answer: in action

6. According to the __________ theory of deviance, almost all deviant theories are about the behavior of men.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 47
Answer: feminist

7. The __________ theory sees technology and innovation as intervening variables when it comes to explaining deviant behavior.

Difficulty: 2
Page-Reference: 49-50
Answer: postmodernist

8. The __________ theory pays attention to the power structure between sexes.

Difficulty: 1
Page-Reference: 47-48
Answer: feminist

9. According to the __________ theory, deviant behavior is due to the unequal distribution of limited resources.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 46
Answer: conflict

10. According to the __________ theory, power, or the lack of it, determines the type of deviance one commits.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 48
Answer: power

11. The __________ theory attributes deviant behavior to the unequal distribution of resources brought about by the exploitative capitalist system.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 46
Answer: Marxist

12. One of the weakness of the __________ theory is that it fails to answer what causes deviance in the first place.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 39
Answer: labeling

13. When it comes to the law, the __________ theory pays attention to what ought to happen, and what actually happens.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43-44
Answer: legal reality

Essay Questions

1. Choose one of the positivist theories presented in Chapter 2 and compare it to one of the constructionist theories presented in this chapter. In what ways are the two approaches the same, and how do they differ?

Difficulty: 3
Page Reference: 17-50

2. Compare primary and secondary deviants. How do they differ, and how does each represent a stage of the labeling process?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 37-39

3. Evaluate the labeling perspective on deviance. What are some pros and cons of this approach? How does it relate to the more general process of social interaction?

Difficulty: 3
Page Reference: 36-39

4. Define ethnography and provide one example of how it serves as a method for the phenomenological approach to deviance. That is, how can ethnography be used to look at the subjective aspects of behavior?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 41-42

5. Evaluate the central ideas of the conflict approach to deviance. In what ways is economic and cultural conflict involved in the definition and control of deviance? Are all deviants simply oppressed workers, or is deviance caused by other factors? How so?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 43

6. Assess the strengths and weakness of the conflict theory in explaining deviance.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 41-43

CHAPTER FIVE: RAPE AND CHILD MOLESTATION

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The most conservative sources estimate that an average woman’s chance of suffering a rape are one in

a) two.
b) ten.
c) forty.
d) seventy.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 88
Answer: b) ten.

2. Until recently, almost all rapes were

a) interracial.
b) intraracial.
c) same-sexed.
d) older men raping younger women.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 88
Answer: b) intraracial.

3. Most rapists

a) commit their crime impulsively.
b) commit their crime explosively.
c) do some planning before their assaults.
d) experience intense sexual desire before a rape.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89
Answer: c) do some planning before their assaults.

4. Which of the following behavioral characteristics would a rapist NOT consider a sign of vulnerability?

a) walking slowly and tentatively
b) appearing passive or submissive
c) moving arms and legs in short, jerky motions
d) projecting confidence without appearing aggressive

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 89-90
Answer: d) projecting confidence without appearing aggressive

5. Which of the following is one way rapists attempt to determine the vulnerability of their victims?

a) joining health clubs and becoming friendly with members
b) approaching a woman on the street and asking for directions
c) asking a woman out on a date and drugging her
d) gathering a gang of friends together and grabbing a victim off the street

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 90
Answer: b) approaching a woman on the street and asking for directions

6. A majority of actual rapes

a) involve little actual violence.
b) actually never occur.
c) involve pushing, shoving, or choking the victim.
d) lead to little more than verbal threats.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 90
Answer: c) involve pushing, shoving, or choking the victim.

7. According to sociologists, participation in a gang rape

a) is an expression of latent homosexuality.
b) fulfills a social need more than a sexual desire.
c) is a psychologically disturbed act.
d) is an erotic act for the participants.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 90-91
Answer: b) fulfills a social need more than a sexual desire.

8. With acquaintance rape, the rapist mostly uses

a) physical threats.
b) actual violence.
c) verbal coercion.
d) a weapon.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 90
Answer: c) verbal coercion.

9. In a recent nationwide survey undertaken by Ms. Magazine, nearly __________ percent of the college women who had been raped by their dates did NOT identify their experience as rape.

a) 5
b) 25
c) 45
d) 75

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 91-92
Answer: d) 75

10. All of the following are factors that lead to more rape-prone campuses, except for

a) mandatory membership in fraternities.
b) a tradition of heavy drinking.
c) not seriously dealing with sexual assault.
d) rampant homophobia.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 92-93
Answer: a) mandatory membership in fraternities.

11. In the study undertaken by Amir, a common victim behavior that eventually leads to “victim-precipitated rape” involves the woman

a) submitting to the rapist who threatens her with a gun.
b) angering her assailant by resisting him.
c) inviting a stranger to have sex with her.
d) agreeing to have a drink or ride with a stranger.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 93
Answer: d) agreeing to have a drink or ride with a stranger.

12. According to the author of the text, the assertion that many rapes are victim-precipitated

a) accurately describes how a majority of rapes begin.
b) is a male’s biased view of rape.
c) is a way the feminist movement has challenged indifference to rape.
d) no longer describes how rapes occur.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 93-94
Answer: b) is a male’s biased view of rape.

13. Most rape survivors go through two phases of disorganization before regaining their ability to live normally: an acute phase of humiliation and self-blame, and a longer phase marked by

a) strong self-denial.
b) rejection of social and sexual relations with others.
c) extensive exercise and physical activity.
d) frightening dreams and phobias.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 94-95
Answer: d)  frightening dreams and phobias.

14. Anger, revenge, and courage to keep a rapist in jail are _____ ways rape survivors react after being raped.

a) inward
b) outward
c) irrational
d) psychological

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 95
Answer: b) outward

15. The “feeling of being raped again” refers to the woman victim’s

a) recollection of the rape.
b) encounter with her assailant.
c) feelings if her rapist is released from custody.
d) encounter with the police.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 96-97
Answer: d) encounter with the police.

16. Which of the following statements reflects how a rape case is actually handled in court?

a) The accused is presumed guilty of the crime until proven innocent.
b) The accuser is presumed guilty of “asking for it” until proven innocent.
c) The accuser is presumed innocent of “asking for it” until proven guilty.
d) The judge prevents the defense lawyer from suggesting how “loose” a woman the accuser is.

Difficulty: 2
Page-Reference: 101
Answer: b) The accuser is presumed guilty of “asking for it” until proven innocent.

17. All of the following are types of legal reforms designed to help women in court, EXCEPT for

a) renaming rape as criminal sexual assault.
b) enacting rape shield laws.
c) requiring all rape cases to be heard by female judges.
d) preventing defense attorneys from admitting any evidence of a victim’s previous sexual experiences.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 96
Answer: c) requiring all rape cases to be heard by female judges.

18. All of the following are part of America’s culture of rape, EXCEPT for

a) the formation of anti-rape organizations like rape crisis centers.
b) the myth that women want to be raped.
c) using women in men’s masculinity contests.
d) treating women like men’s property.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 97-99
Answer: a) the formation of anti-rape organizations like rape crisis centers.

19. Influenced by the culture of rape, a man whose wife has been raped tends to

a) respect or love her more than before.
b) respect or love her as much as before.
c) respect or love her less than before.
d) scold her for having cheated on him.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 98
Answer: c) respect or love her less than before.

20. One reason why many rapists felt they would never go to prison for rape is that they believed that

a) they were too clever to get caught.
b) the police would never really respond to the claim of rape.
c) women were sexual objects for men to use for pleasure.
d) their lawyers would be able to get a not-guilty conviction.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 98-99
Answer: c) women were sexual objects for men to use for pleasure.

21. In order to win the “masculinity contest,” men tend to see women as

a) worthy of deep respect.
b) equal to men.
c) fellow participants in the contest.
d) if they were objects.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 99-100
Answer: d) if they were objects.

22. All of the following are ways men learn to play the “masculinity game,” except for

a) learning dehumanizing images of women.
b) learning basic pointers about how to play the game.
c) experiencing social pressures to play the game.
d) experiencing the absence of referees to manage the game.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 99-100
Answer: d) experiencing the absence of referees to manage the game.

23. All of the following are ways that pornography is implicated in the problem of rape, EXCEPT that it

a) trivializes the problem of rape.
b) tends to incite violent, angry men to rape.
c) provides an erotic sexual outlet.
d) treats women as men’s sex objects.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 98-99
Answer: c) provides an erotic sexual outlet.

24. Which of the following traits is part of the traditional masculine social role that leads to rape?

a) The male should take an active part in achieving social and sexual relations with females.
b) The male should share in housekeeping and in the rearing of children.
c) The male should see sexuality as a form of a wider relationship with women who are the male’s sexual equals.
d) The male should exercise in order to keep in shape and have a desirable body.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 97-98
Answer: a) The male should take an active part in achieving social and sexual relations with females.

25. The myth that women want to be raped is

a) partly based on facts.
b) a male blame-the-victim rationalization.
c) no longer a widely held belief.
d) no longer a part of the assumptions held by the courts.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 101
Answer: b) a male blame-the-victim rationalization.

26. The feminine qualities conducive to becoming a victim of rape are

a) softness, gentleness, and consideration.
b) activity, confidence, and assertion.
c) aggression, forcefulness, and violence.
d) spirituality, anger, and defiance.

Difficulty: 1 Page-Reference: 101-102
Answer: a) softness, gentleness, and consideration.

27. Which of the following is a problem psychologists feel can lead men to become rapists?

a) the threats created by the existence of sexual equality
b) the culture of rape
c) being raised in a sexually permissive community
d) feelings of sexual inadequacy

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 103-104
Answer: d) feelings of sexual inadequacy
28. According to a study undertaken by Chappel and his associates, which of the following kinds of sexual environments might most hurt a man’s failures to win sexual favors?

a) a religious environment
b) an alcoholic environment
c) a permissive environment
d) a restrictive environment

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 104-105
Answer: c) a permissive environment

29. The author of the text concludes that psychological theories of rape

a) explain about one-half of all acts of rape.
b) are superior to sociogenic theories of rape.
c) can explain only a few unusual cases of rape.
d) have no relationship to the rape problem.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 104
Answer: c) can explain only a few unusual cases of rape.

30. Feminist theory states that rape is caused by sexual inequality because rape is

a) an expression of men’s dominance over women.
b) the result of relative sexual frustration.
c) the result of a culture of violence.
d) the result of a man afraid to admit his homosexual tendencies.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 105-106
Answer: a) an expression of men’s dominance over women.

31. In her analysis of 156 tribal societies, Peggy Sanday found that rape-prone societies are marked by

a) interpersonal violence.
b) male dominance.
c) sexual separation.
d) all of the above.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 105-106
Answer: b) male dominance.

32. Which of the following is most likely to be a victim of same-sex rape in prison?

a) a strong black man
b) a weak but husky black man
c) a slightly built young white man
d) a slightly built old white man

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 106-107
Answer: c) a slightly built young white man

33. The strongest motivation for rape in prison appears to be

a) homosexual tendencies.
b) relief of sexual deprivation.
c) the need to avoid boredom and alienation.
d) the drive for power.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 107
Answer: d) the drive for power.

34. One of the outcomes of same-sex rape is that the male victim

a) breaks down and cries.
b) experiences trauma for many years.
c) feels a loss of masculinity.
d) experiences a sense of femininity.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 108
Answer: c) feels a loss of masculinity.

35. Some men can be raped by some women because rape is basically
a) an expression of sexual desire.
b) an expression of power.
c) a crime of opportunity.
d) deviant.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 108-109
Answer: b) an expression of power.

36. Child molesting is considered a form of rape because

a) the victims are under the control and supervision of the parents.
b) the victims are too young to give their consent.
c) it is the same as raping a woman.
d) most parents who engage in these activities are sick perverts.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 109-110
Answer: b) the victims are too young to give their consent.

37. Child molesters are likely to

a) be strangers to their victims.
b) be their victim’s relatives or neighbors.
c) be dangerously violent to their victims.
d) always resort to actual acts of sexual intercourse.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 109-110
Answer: b) be their victim’s relatives or neighbors.

38. According to the social profile of molesters, which of the following traits is most likely associated with a child molester rather than a rapist?

a) toughness and aggressiveness
b) old age
c) gentleness and passivity
d) having a way with adult women

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 110
Answer: c) gentleness and passivity

39. Which of the following statements about pedophile priests is NOT true?

a) Almost half of all priests have been involved in molesting children.
b) Only a few priests are child molesters.
c) The cause of child molesting among priests is not their celibate, sexless life.
d) The large majority of priests, both straight and gay, keep their vows of celibacy and lead productive lives.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 111-112
Answer: a) Almost half of all priests have been involved in molesting children.

40. One reason why Church leaders failed to dismiss offending priests from their jobs is

a) a lack of trust in the verifiability of children’s testimonies.
b) a belief that the behavior was not sinful.
c) a fear that women and married men would have to become priests.
d) the church’s culture of secrecy and forgiveness.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 111-112
Answer: d) the church’s culture of secrecy and forgiveness.

41. Women have a _____ percent probability of being raped.

a) fifteen
b) ten
c) fifty
d) twenty-five

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 88
Answer: b) ten

42. Most rapes are

a) committed on impulse.
b) committed explosively.
c) premeditated.
d) determined by strong sexual desires before a rape.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89
Answer: c) premeditated.

True/False Questions

1. More and more today, rapes follow an intraracial pattern.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 88
Answer: False

2.    Most rapes are committed on impulse.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89
Answer: False

3. Most rapists choose strangers as their victims.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89
Answer: False

4. Most rapists do not randomly, compulsively, or explosively assault their victims; instead, they do some planning before they strike.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 89-90
Answer: True

5. The objectification of women in our culture plays a role as to why men commit rape.
True
False

Difficulty: 3
Page Reference: 97-98
Answer: True

6. A friendly and helpful woman is less likely to be raped than an unfriendly and unhelpful one.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89-90
Answer: False

7. Participation in a gang rape fulfills a social need rather than sexual desire.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page-Reference: 90-91
Answer: True

8. The idea of victim-precipitated rape is more a male’s biased view rather than an accurate description of the crime.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 94
Answer: True

9. Most rape victims go through an acute phase of disorganization and then resume a pretty normal life.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 95
Answer: False

10. Almost all rape victims express their feelings inwardly and rarely display anger or seek revenge against their attackers.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 95-96
Answer: False

11. Many rape victims feel that involvement with the police and courts is worse than that of the rape itself.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 96-97
Answer: True

12. Even societies that condemn rape as a serious crime have a culture of rape.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 97
Answer: True

13. One sign of the culture of rape is that when a man’s wife has been raped, he tends to feel as if she is less lovable than before.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 97-98
Answer: True

14. Most convicted rapists admit that they are guilty of their crimes and express sorrow for what they did.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 98-99
Answer: False

15. Most rapists would admit to their crimes.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 110
Answer: False

16. The relative sexual frustration of males is much higher in sexually restrictive environments.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 103-104
Answer: False

17. Most rapists, particularly those who are not in prison, are not emotionally disturbed.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 103-104
Answer: True

18. From the feminist perspective, rape is primarily an expression of men’s dominance over women.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 105-106
Answer: True

19. The primary motive for rape in prison is to relieve one’s sexual deprivation.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 106-107
Answer: False

20. It is impossible for a woman to rape a man: such a case of rape has not been known to take place except in the movies or some men’s fantasies.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 108-109
Answer: False

21. Various data seem to suggest that child molesters fail disastrously to meet the cultural standards of masculinity.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 109-110
Answer: True

22. Most child molesters admit their guilt, while most rapists refuse to do so.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 110
Answer: True

23. The main cause of pedophile priests is their celibate, sexless life imposed by the church.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 111-112
Answer: False

24. Two reasons why the church failed to report pedophile priests was its culture of secrecy and its culture of forgiveness.
True
False

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 111-112
Answer: True

25. A woman who is publicly unfriendly stands a lesser chance of being raped.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89-90
Answer: True

26. Most rapes are committed on impulse.
True
False

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 89-90
Answer: False

Fill-In Questions

1.  ___________ rape is common because it appears to be an extension of the conventional pattern of male sexual behavior.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 90-91
Answer: Acquaintance

2. One expression of the U.S. culture of rape is when women are treated as men’s __________.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 97
Answer: property

3. ___________ theory explains that because rape serves to preserve male dominance, men are likely to assault women.

Difficulty: 2
Page-Reference: 105-106
Answer: Feminist

4. Most child molesters are __________ with their victims.

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 109
Answer: acquainted

5. Most male-against-male rape occurs in __________.

Difficulty: 1
Page Reference: 106-107
Answer: prison

Essay Questions

1. Describe and compare some of the patterns of sexual assault in U.S. society. How do these patterns reflect forces such as social class and gender?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 88-94

2. What are some consequences of rape for victims and for society? Why does this kind of assault have such a deep impact on victims? How is the overall society hurt by the widespread occurrence of sexual assaults?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 95-97

3. What is meant by the “culture of rape”? How does the culture work, and what are its consequences?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 97-100

4. Contrast and compare the psychological and sociological views of why men rape. Are these men abnormal or driven by society? Which view seems to provide the best explanation?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 103-106

5. Choose either same-sex rape or child molestation, and then describe and discuss this special type of sexual assault. What patterns exist and what causes them?

Difficulty: 2
Page Reference: 106-112