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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Discovering Psychology The Science Of Mind 2nd Edition By John T. – Freberg – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

1. Your university is hosting an interdisciplinary conference entitled “Contemporary Perspectives on Evolution.” Two leading psychologists have been invited to debate the effects of nature and nurture on human behavior. They would most likely reach the consensus that these two entities ____.

a. are not mutually exclusive
b. maintain distinct and equal functions
c. compete to influence behavior
d. have a negative correlation

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   Why Do We Say Nature and Nurture are Intertwined?

 

2. Who is credited for first describing the contrast between heredity and environment as “nature versus nurture”?

a. Charles Darwin
b. Francis Galton
c. Gregor Mendel
d. James Watson

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   Why Do We Say Nature and Nurture are Intertwined?

 

3. As human beings, we each have a personal set of instructions, or alleles. What term best describes this set?

a. genotype
b. homotype
c. phenotype
d. heterotype

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

4. Molly, whose eyes are brown, inherited a gene for blue eyes from her mother and a gene for brown eyes from her father. Molly’s brown eyes are part of her ____.

a. phenotype
b. homotype
c. heterotype
d. allelotype

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

5. What is the relationship between a gene and DNA?

a. A gene is a helical structure, and DNA contains the regulatory elements that decode the structure.
b. A gene is the subset of “turned on” DNA.
c. A gene is a static superset of the entire DNA in a specific individual.
d. A gene is a specific segment of DNA.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

6. The process of gene expression involves ____.

a. replicating a cell’s genetic makeup during division
b. influencing the behavior of a segment of society
c. converting genetic instructions into a feature of a living cell
d. chromosomal recombination during gamete formation

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

7. Gene expression results in the synthesis of what component of a living cell?

a. proteins
b. nucleic acids
c. lipids
d. carbohydrates

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

8. Jang, who has Type A blood, inherited the gene for Type A blood from his mother and the gene for Type O blood from his father. What is the genotype for Jang’s blood type?

a. Type A
b. Type O
c. Type AO
d. Type AA

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

9. Each cell type in the human body has ____.

a. the same gene expression
b. a different set of genes
c. a different set of genes, but the same gene expressions
d. the same set of genes, but different gene expressions

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

10. Different versions of a single gene are known as ____.

a. alleles
b. chromosomes
c. homozygotes
d. heterozygotes

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

11. Recessive alleles determine a phenotype when an individual is ____.

a. neither homozygous nor heterozygous for a particular gene
b. either homozygous or heterozygous for a particular gene
c. only heterozygous for a particular gene
d. only homozygous for a particular gene

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

12. Dominant alleles determine a phenotype when an individual is ____ for that particular gene.

a. neither homozygous nor heterozygous
b. either homozygous or heterozygous
c. only heterozygous
d. only homozygous

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

13. Simon has curly hair. If he is homozygous for the gene that determines curly hair, what is true of his parents?

a. They must each have a recessive allele for straight hair.
b. They have together contributed four dominant alleles for this gene.
c. They have contributed the same type of allele for this gene.
d. One, but not both, of his parents, have contributed an allele for curly hair.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

14. Simon has curly hair. If he is homozygous for the gene that determines curly hair, what is true of his parents?​

a. ​They must each have a recessive allele for straight hair.
b. ​One must have a recessive allele for straight hair, while the other must have a dominant allele for curly hair.
c. ​They must each have a recessive allele for curly hair.
d. ​They must both have mutated dominant genes for straight hair

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

15. Vestigial wings (very small wings) are a recessive trait of the fruit fly. For a fruit fly to have a vestigial phenotype, it must inherit the gene(s) for vestigial wings from ____.

a. both parents
b. either parent
c. the mother
d. the father

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

16. The curly wing trait of the fruit fly is carried by a dominant gene. What is the minimum number of curly winged genes that a fruit fly must have to exhibit a curly wing phenotype?

a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

17. Darren suffers from fragile bone X (FBX) disorder. He inherited the FBX allele from his father and the normal allele for bone development from his mother. What can we conclude?

a. FBX is a recessive allele.
b. FBX is a dominant allele.
c. Darren’s children will most likely suffer from FBX disorder.
d. Darren’s children are unlikely to suffer from FBX disorder.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

18. Janelle inherited the allele for muscle fiber X (MFX) disorder from her mother and the normal allele for muscle fiber formation from her father. Janelle does not suffer from any variant of MFX disorder. What can we conclude?

a. Janelle’s mother has MFX disorder.
b. MFX disorder is a sex-linked disorder.
c. The MFX gene is dominant.
d. The MFX gene is recessive.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

19. Scott suffers from metabolic insufficiency X (MIX) disorder. His mother also has MIX disorder, but his father does not. What can we conclude?

a. The MIX gene must be recessive.
b. The MIX gene must be dominant.
c. Scott may or may not pass down the gene for MIX disorder to his children.
d. Scott will pass down the MIX disorder to his children, but they may not get the disease.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

20. Researchers found that specific combinations of serotonin transporter alleles affected how students reacted to being bullied. Students with the SS alleles had the strongest reaction, those with the LL alleles the mildest reaction, and those with the heterozygous SL alleles reacted somewhere in between. What do these results suggest?

a. The L allele is the dominant allele.
b. The S allele is the recessive allele.
c. The S allele is the dominant allele.
d. The L and S alleles do not have a strict dominant‑recessive relationship.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

21. When a parent’s cell divides to make an egg or sperm cell, each resulting cell contains ____.

a. 11 chromosomes
b. 23 chromosomes
c. 46 chromosomes
d. 92 chromosomes

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

22. Tara and Boris, expectant parents, wonder about the endless possibility of traits their unborn son might inherit from them (e.g., Tara’s red hair and allergies; Boris’s tall frame and poor eyesight). As a genetics expert, you tell them that after cell division, the egg or sperm contains _____ chromosomes; thus, a male or female can produce _____ different combinations of his or her chromosomes.

a. 23; 223
b. 23; 232
c. 46; 246
d. 46; 462

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

23. Harry would like to take a paternity test to determine if he is Maia’s father. He asks Maia’s mother, Julia, to provide DNA samples for both her and Maia. Which technique will most likely be used to compare the three DNA samples?

a. high performance liquid chromatography
b. immunocytochemistry analyses
c. western blots
d. autoradiographs

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

24. The probability that two people share the same allele from a common ancestor is referred to as ____.

a. familiality
b. degree of origin
c. gene lineage
d. relatedness

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

25. You are attending a family reunion of your dad’s extended family. You often wonder how you could be related to any of them based on their physical and behavioral characteristics. What is the chance you share an allele with your first cousins?

a. one sixteenth
b. one eighth
c. one fourth
d. one half

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

26. Your sister-in-law frequently comments on how many traits you seem to have in common with your eight-year-old niece. You share your extensive knowledge on genetics and explain that the chance you share an allele with your niece is ____.

a. one sixteenth
b. one eighth
c. one fourth
d. one half

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

27. What is the likelihood of your sharing an allele with a parent or with a sibling?

a. The chance that you share an allele with either a parent or a sibling is one fourth.
b. The chance that you share an allele with either a parent or a sibling is one half.
c. The chance that you share an allele with a parent is one-half and with a sibling, one fourth.
d. The chance that you share an allele with a parent is one-fourth and with a sibling, one eighth.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

28. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that sacrificing yourself for others is much more likely when the “others” are ___.

a. members of the same sex
b. members of the opposite sex
c. genetically related relatives
d. genetically diverse individuals

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

29. Which of the following statements is true of sex-linked disorders?

a. Childbirth and the stress of raising children contributes to the prevalence of sex-linked disorders in women.
b. Hormonal fluctuations lead to a great prevalence of sex-linked disorders in women than men.
c. Sex-linked disorders, which are more prevalent in males, are typically caused by recessive diseased alleles found on the X chromosome.
d. Sex-linked disorders are caused by genetic mutations on the X chromosome for females and on the Y chromosome for males.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

30. The gene for nerve deterioration X (NDX) disorder is located on the X chromosome. What can we conclude?

a. It is more prevalent in females.
b. It is more prevalent in males.
c. Only mothers can pass down the gene for NDX.
d. Only fathers can pass down the gene for NDX.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

31. Why is hemophilia more prevalent in males?

a. Fathers can only pass the diseased allele along to their sons.
b. The Y chromosome activates the diseased allele on the X chromosome.
c. There is no other X chromosome to offset the diseased gene.
d. The diseased gene is located on the Y chromosome.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

32. The study of gene-environment interactions in the production of phenotype is called ____.

a. genospherics
b. epigenetics
c. biogenics
d. phenomics

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

33. In which way does epigenetic change alter the development of a given person’s phenotype?

a. It influences gene expression, the process by which DNA forms proteins that contribute to the features of living cells.
b. It inhibits the ability of a sperm cell and an egg cell to correctly “match” each of the 23 gene pairs, leading to chromosomal distortions.
c. It enhances the “strength” of recessive or mutated genes, so that they can no longer be masked by dominant alleles of the same gene.
d. It increases the likelihood that specific genes will work in singular form to cause a specific phenotype.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

34. Which example best illustrates the concept of epigenetics?

a. Josh and Jason are identical twins; Josh is two inches taller than Jason.
b. Fareed and Asha are fraternal twins; they are often mistaken for identical twins.
c. Toby has Huntington’s disease; his son has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease.
d. Joe and Elaine have brown eyes; their youngest daughter has blue eyes.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What Are the Building Blocks of Behavior?

 

35. In one study, rats licked frequently during infancy by their mothers were calmer than rats licked infrequently when faced with stress later in life. What is the most likely explanation for this?

a. The rat pups that were frequently licked learned to engage in the licking behavior as a coping strategy during times of stress.
b. Because mothers who chose to lick their pups had a calmer demeanor, their pups were raised in less stressful environments.
c. By licking their pups, these mothers had influenced the expression of genes that influenced responses to a stress hormone.
d. The “licking” prone mothers only cared for the calmest pups of the litter, causing the more aggressive pups to die prematurely.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

36. Leena and Leia are identical twins. Which of the following is true of their genetic makeup?​

a. ​They have identical genotypes and identical phenotypes.
b. ​They have identical genotypes but not identical phenotypes.
c. ​They have identical phenotypes but not identical genotypes.
d. ​They have neither identical phenotypes nor genotypes.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

37. What do humans share that allows them to be so similar to one another, but different from other animals?

a. alleles
b. genes
c. number of chromosomes
d. structure of DNA

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

38. What allows for variation within the human species?

a. alleles
b. genes
c. number of chromosomes
d. structure of DNA

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

39. Which gene is thought to play a major role on distinctly human behaviors, including the development of language?

a. Sp1
b. Nrf2
c. FoxP2
d. HIF-1a

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

40. Humans share what percent of their genes with mice?

a. 18%
b. 26%
c. 44%
d. 92%

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

41. Humans share what percent of their genes with fruit flies?

a. 18%
b. 26%
c. 44%
d. 92%

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

42. The statistical likelihood that variations observed in a population are due to genetics is referred to as ____.

a. inheritance
b. selectability
c. covariation
d. heritability

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

43. Which statement best illustrates the concept of heritability?

a. Dara is outgoing, just like her father and older sisters.
b. Mario is the first person in his family in three generations to have blue eyes.
c. Naomi inherited the mutated BRCA1 gene, increasing her risk for certain cancers.
d. Selma has a 50% chance of passing the gene for curly hair to her children.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

44. If genes play no part in producing phenotypical differences between individuals, heritability is ____.

a. .0
b. .25
c. .5
d. 1.0

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What Is the Field of Behavioral Genetics

 

45. Why does Huntington’s disease have a heritability ratio of 1.0?

a. The gene that causes Huntington’s disease is dominant.
b. In families where Huntington’s disease is prevalent, it tends to appear at least once every generation.
c. If someone inherits the gene for Huntington’s disease, it is inevitable that he/she will acquire the disease.
d. Because of environmental influences, it is difficult to predict if someone will acquire the disease despite having the diseased allele.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

46. Heritability of most human traits is typically in the range of ____.

a. .10 to 0.40
b. .30 to 0.60
c. .50 to 0.80
d. .70 to 1.0

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics

 

47. The heritability ratio of having a liver is ____.

a. .0
b. .25
c. .75
d. 1.0

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

48. Heritability takes into account ____.

a. only environmental factors
b. only genetic factors
c. both environmental and genetic factors
d. neither environmental nor genetic factors

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

49. What is an argument against using adoption studies for assessing the relative influences of genetics and environment on child development?

a. Adoptive parents go through a rigorous screening process, decreasing their diversity.
b. Because adoptive parents are under constant scrutiny, they tend to downplay the negative behaviors of their children.
c. Children who are adopted are more likely to feel out of place in their adopted home and community.
d. The mere knowledge of knowing they were adopted will alter the behavior of a child.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

50. Dr. Pohlson is studying the heritability of self-confidence. Because all of his research participants are upper-middle class adolescents from the same private school in New York City, the heritability of self-confidence will appear to be ____.

a. low
b. high
c. nondiscrete
d. constant

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

51. Dr. Mahr is studying the heritability of shyness. Because her research participants are adolescents from different socioeconomic groups across the county, the heritability of self-confidence will appear to be ____.

a. low
b. high
c. variable
d. constant

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

52. Two groups of students (Group A and Group B) participate in standardized agility tests. The results show that Group A is considerably more agile than Group B and that agility is heritable. What can we conclude?

a. The genetic variability between the two groups is high.
b. Genetic factors play a role in agility.
c. The genetic variability within each group is low.
d. Environment has no effect on agility.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

53. Which statement regarding the role of genes on human behavior is accurate?

a. In general, a single gene drives behavior and small differences in auxiliary genes modify that behavior.
b. Typically, one to two particular genes drive specific patterns of human behavior.
c. Small differences in a cluster of genes typically drive specific behaviors.
d. Genes play a negligible role in driving human behavior.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What Is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

54. What do modern biologists describe as the “descent with modification from a common ancestor”?

a. genetic lineage
b. heritability
c. the human genome
d. evolution

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

55. The process by which survival and reproduction pressures act to change the frequency of alleles in subsequent generations is referred to as ____.

a. coercive inheritance
b. natural selection
c. randomized lineage
d. genetic exclusion

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

56. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of natural selection?

a. The gene for sickle cell anemia has been passed down for generations because those with sickle cell anemia are typically resistant to malaria.
b. Farmers typically breed only their strongest animals to ensure that the offspring will retain the most desirable characteristics.
c. The gene for brown eyes is dominant; therefore, the most common eye color in the world is brown.
d. As identical twins age, they typically show more physical differences because of epigenetic processes.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

57. Which early scientist was the first to develop a method to account for variations observed in particular traits?

a. Charles Darwin
b. Francis Galton
c. James Watson
d. Gregor Mendel

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

58. Which early scientist described how species change in an orderly manner?

a. Charles Darwin
b. Francis Galton
c. James Watson
d. Gregor Mendel

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

59. An error that occurs when DNA is replicated is referred to as a ____.

a. mutation
b. migration
c. splicing event
d. genetic drift

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

60. A change in a population’s genes from one generation to the next due to chance or accident is referred to as a ____.

a. mutation
b. migration
c. splicing event
d. genetic drift

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

61. What is true of genetic mutations?

a. They typically lead to disease.
b. They are a rare occurrence.
c. They typically cause no phenotypical change.
d. They generally lead to a survival advantage.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

62. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of genetic drift?

a. Twelve thousand years ago Native Americans traversed the Bering Strait to settle in the Americas, causing different genetic traits to be favored over others.
b. The genetic mutation that causes sickle cell anemia also increases resistance to malaria, increasing the frequency of the diseased allele in the general population.
c. The prevalence of depression is greater in populations where the serotonin transporter gene translocated to position q21 along chromosome 17.
d. There is a higher than average rate of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in the Amish community because the diseased allele was introduced by some of the original Amish settlers.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

63. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of migration?

a. Twelve thousand years ago Native Americans traversed the Bering Strait to settle in the Americas, causing different genetic traits to be favored over others.
b. The genetic mutation that causes sickle cell anemia also increases resistance to malaria, increasing the frequency of the diseased allele in the general population.
c. The prevalence of depression is greater in populations where the serotonin transporter gene translocated to position q21 along chromosome 17.
d. There is a higher than average rate of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in the Amish community because the diseased allele was introduced by some original Amish settlers.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

64. The ability of one genotype to reproduce more successfully relative to other genotypes is referred to as ____.

a. fitness
b. malleability
c. adaptation
d. exclusivity

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

65. The concept of fitness includes survival to adulthood, the ability to find a mate, and ____.

a. the loss of recessive traits
b. diversification of the genetic pool
c. adaptation to multiple environments
d. successful reproduction

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

66. The process or result of change due to natural selection is referred to as ____.

a. fitness
b. malleability
c. adaptation
d. exclusivity

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

67. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of adaptation?

a. Plant “A” produces either large fruit or small fruit; farmers breed only the large fruit plants, causing them to outnumber the small fruit variant.
b. Plant “B” has a rare waxy leaf variant; as the environment becomes more arid, the waxy leaf variant becomes more prevalent.
c. Plant “C” has a genetic mutation that creates a taller variant; this variant is able to survive and reproduce.
d. Plant “D” has a recessive allele that causes a higher rate of photosynthesis; plants with this phenotype have a higher energy reserve.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

68. Over the 7-million-year period of hominin evolution, ____.

a. brains grew very rapidly
b. quadrupeds became bipeds
c. agriculture replaced hunting
d. ecological complexity shaped modern intelligence

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

69. The major factor distinguishing human intelligence from the intelligence of other species is the ____.

a. ability to recognize the self
b. size of the human brain
c. ability to combat environmental factors
d. richness and complexity of social behaviors

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

70. ​Why is it thought that advances such as agriculture, literacy, and urbanization have not been accompanied by additional increases in brain size?

a. ​The earliest Homo sapiens were as intelligent as contemporary humans.
b. ​Although brain size has remained constant, brain density has increased.
c. ​The physiological cost of a bigger brain exceeds its benefit.
d. ​More efficient neuronal connections account for modern human advancements.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

71. While the human brain makes up only _____% of the body’s weight, it requires about _____% of the body’s resources when at rest.

a. .75; 8
b. 2; 15
c. 4; 25
d. 7; 30

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

72. Which of the following is evidence of the adaptation of the contemporary human brain?

a. Brain size has gradually increased over the last 6,000 years.
b. Genes involved with brain development appear to have changed as recently as 6,000 years ago.
c. Compared with non-human primates, the human brain uses oxygen more efficiently.
d. Although the brain comprises only about 2% of the body’s weight, it requires about 15% of the body’s resources when at rest.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

73. Which of the following best describes the relationship between evolutionary forces and behavior?

a. Evolutionary forces influence simple physical traits and simple behaviors, but not complex behaviors.
b. Although behavior is complex, evolutionary forces influence both physical traits and behavior.
c. Because behaviors have no genetic component, evolutionary forces are irrelevant in shaping behavior.
d. The idea that evolutionary forces can mold behavior has come to light only in the last decade.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

74. What psychological perspective assumes that our current behavior exists because it provided survival and reproductive advantages to our ancestors?

a. adaptive psychology
b. evolutionary psychology
c. biological psychology
d. behavioral genetics

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

75. The field of evolutionary psychology directly descends from which early school of thought?

a. functionalism
b. dualism
c. gestaltism
d. structuralism

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

76. Which statement is most consistent with the evolutionary psychology perspective?

a. Men are promiscuous because of increasing societal pressures.
b. Men are promiscuous because of the need to spread their genes.
c. Men are promiscuous because of the high levels of testosterone in Western culture.
d. Men are promiscuous because they have adapted to low impulse control behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

77. Steve and Allie, who work at the same research institute, are competing to be the first scientist to isolate novel protein X from cancer cells. They run into one another while signing up for the same lab microscope and discuss their research progress. The end result is that Steve’s research project benefited from the interaction but Allie’s did not. Which set of interactional styles could have occurred between Steve and Allie?

a. cooperative or altruistic
b. spiteful or selfish
c. altruistic or spiteful
d. altruistic or selfish

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

78. Which type of interaction is most likely to result in a negative outcome for both parties in a relationship?

a. spitefulness
b. altruism
c. selfishness
d. cooperation

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

79. Sandra rushes over to her friend Denise’s house because Denise is distraught over a recent breakup with her boyfriend. Even though Sandra has a term paper due the next day, she wants to console Denise because she knows Denise would do the same for her. This is an example of ____.

a. mutual kinship
b. anticipatory cooperation
c. atypical selflessness
d. reciprocal altruism

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

80. Reciprocal altruism is best described as helping someone who ____.

a. has helped you in the past
b. you expect will help you in the future
c. makes a promise to help you with a specific task in return
d. has an advantageous position with which to return the favor

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

81. Reciprocal altruism is likely to flourish in situations ____.

a. of extreme stress
b. where individuals are in regular contact
c. that have a high cost-benefit ratio
d. where the reward is more emotional than physical

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

82. From an evolutionary psychological perspective, why would social structures be more important for humans than for other animals?

a. Humans are highly intelligent.
b. Humans lack impressive claws or teeth.
c. Humans are able to express emotions.
d. Humans are able to empathize.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

83. The development of traits that help an individual compete for mates is referred to as ____.

a. fertility fitness
b. procreative agility
c. sexual selection
d. reproductive ratio

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

84. What is an argument against the idea that promiscuity is an ideal way to pass one’s genes onto successive generations?

a. Parental care suffers when a parent has too many children.
b. Fertility rates typically decrease when sexual activity goes beyond a threshold level.
c. Increased sexual activity introduces a variety of fatal infections to the individual.
d. The quality of the selected mate tends to decrease with increased promiscuity.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

85. According to evolutionary psychologists, what traits do women subconsciously look for in a potential mate to maximize the survival of their children?

a. low levels of testosterone
b. high levels of testosterone
c. low levels of progesterone
d. high levels of progesterone

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

86. According to evolutionary psychologists, which male would be most interested in sharing child rearing responsibilities with his wife?

a. Chung, who has a strong brow ridge and square chin
b. Milan, who has a soft brow ridge and square chin
c. Jonathan, who has strong brow ridge and round chin
d. Ahmed, who has a soft brow ridge and round chin

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

87. The term intrasexual selection refers to ____.

a. homosexual behavior
b. procreation within the same family
c. choosing a mate from a genetically similar population
d. same-sex competition for a mate

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

88. On a field assignment with her students, Professor Miller observes two male elephant seals engaged in a fierce battle. She explains to her students that they are fighting for mating control of the female harem, a process termed ____.

a. intersexual selection
b. intrasexual selection
c. sexual fitness
d. sexual adaptation

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

89. Which of the following best describes a characteristic of intersexual selection?

a. the tendency to view close relatives as unattractive
b. ensuring species continuation via heterosexual behavior
c. having characteristics that are likely to attract a mate of the opposite sex
d. choosing a mate with genetic diversity

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

90. Deandra and her son Jake are visiting the local petting zoo. Deandra points out a peacock spreading his feathers, and explains to him that the peacock is attempting to attract a mate. What is this process called?

a. intersexual behavior
b. intrasexual behavior
c. sexual fitness
d. sexual adaptation

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

91. Researchers believe that humor attracts potential mates because it signifies ____.

a. intelligence
b. empathy
c. the ability to nurture
d. self-confidence

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

92. Research finds that in human beings, dominant and successful males are likely to attract more females, and dominance among males is often decided on the basis of

a. physical strength to hypothetically kill other males.
b. intrasexual competition in risky endeavors.
c. occupational stature and financial earnings.
d. external details, such as the clothes one wears or the type of car one drives.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

93. The practices, values, and goals shared by groups of people is referred to as ____.

a. civilization
b. mores
c. culture
d. society

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

94. Which statement reflects how culture has influenced the reproductive success of the Waorani and Yanomamö people of the Amazonian Basin?

a. Although aggression is highly valued for both Waorani and Yanomamö men, the high mortality rates amongst aggressive males is causing these tribe populations to dwindle.
b. Although male aggression is highly valued in both societies, aggressive Yanomamö men are more successful than Waorani men in passing along their genes because Yanomamö men stand down between conflicts.
c. In contrast to other tribes of the same region, the Waorani and Yanomamö people value peace and tranquility and thus have had the greatest success in passing along their genes.
d. In contrast to other tribes of the same region, the Waorani and Yanomamö people value peace and tranquility; however, because the Waorani, but not the Yanomamö people, refuse to defend themselves, their gene pool is dwindling.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

95. Approximately 10,000 years ago humans experienced a dramatic change in their social structure because of the advent of ____.

a. monogamy
b. religion
c. new hunter-gatherer tools
d. agriculture

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

96. Compared with hunter-gatherer societies, agricultural societies are more ____.

a. matriarchal
b. patriarchal
c. egalitarian
d. homogenous

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

97. How did early industrialization impact the male-female dynamic?

a. Men and women interacted in a manner more consistent with the hunter-gatherer model than the agricultural model.
b. Although the power differential between men and women still existed, it was less pronounced.
c. The power differential between men and women was further accentuated.
d. Society turned toward a more egalitarian model.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

98. As societies became larger, humans devised new cultural systems to ____.

a. weed out the weakest members
b. foster innovation
c. promote rugged individualism
d. maintain group cohesion

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

99. An evolutionary psychologist would suggest that the function of a tradition, such as wearing green on St. Patrick’s day, is to ____.

a. enhance the sense of group membership
b. show pride in one’s native culture
c. intimidate others who are considered outsiders
d. attract a mate by showing commitment to a group

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

100. In a study where participants rated the pleasantness of T-shirt odors, what gene alleles influenced their odor preference?

a. serotonin transporter
b. major histocompatibility complex
c. blood type
d. phosphatase enzyme

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   Interpersonal Relationships from an Evolutionary Perspective

 

101. Which statement best reflects the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) theory of sexual selection?

a. People tend to choose mates with similar MHC genotypes to prevent their offspring from acquiring autoimmune disorders.
b. People tend to choose mates with similar MHC genotypes to increase the immune capacity of their offspring.
c. People tend to choose mates with different MHC genotypes to prevent their offspring from acquiring autoimmune disorders.
d. People tend to choose mates with different MHC genotypes to increase the immune capacity of their offspring.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   Interpersonal Relationships From an Evolutionary Perspective

 

102. Explain what behavioral geneticists mean by the term heritability and why it is frequently misunderstood. Provide one example of low heritability and one example of high heritability.

ANSWER:   Heritability is the statistical likelihood that variations observed across individuals in a population are due to genetics. Heritability is usually presented as a ratio of the amount of variation observed in a population due to genetics relative to the total amount of variation due to both genetic and environmental influences. Heritability is a concept that is frequently misunderstood. Heritability always refers to populations, not to individuals. Saying that a trait such as shyness is 40% heritable does not say that 40% of one individual’s shyness is produced by genes and the other 60% by the environment. Instead, a 0.40 heritability ratio suggests that the variations in shyness we see across the population (from very high to very low) are influenced moderately by both genetic and environmental factors.

If genes play no part in producing phenotypical differences between individuals, heritability is zero. For example, genes are responsible for us having hearts, but there is no individual variation in the population in terms of the presence of a heart—we all have one. Consequently, the heritability of having a heart is 0.0. If genes are totally responsible for all phenotypical differences between individuals, heritability is 1.0. All variation in the population in terms of having or not having a fatal neurological condition known as Huntington’s disease is entirely due to genetics. If you inherit a Huntington’s gene from one parent, you will develop the condition, so the heritability of Huntington’s is 1.0.

POINTS:   10
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   What is the Field of Behavioral Genetics?

 

103. Explain how mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection affect evolutionary processes. Provide a specific example for each.

ANSWER:   Mutations are errors that occur when DNA is replicated. The average human baby is born with about 130 new mutations, but the vast majority have no effect. Mutant alleles that provide some advantage often spread through the population, but most mutant alleles that result in a disadvantage disappear from future generations. Example: The original appearance of the allele for blonde hair was probably the result of a random mutation that occurred in Northern Europe some 10,000 years ago.

Migration occurs when organisms move from one geographical location to the next. Phenotypical traits that are advantageous in one environment might be less so in another. Example: Migration, or rather the lack of it, might account for the relatively restricted area in Northern Europe populated by blondes until fairly recent times. Geographical barriers of mountain and ocean contained the blonde allele for many centuries.

Genetic drift produces change from one generation to the next through chance or accident. Example: Genetic drift undoubtedly reduced the global frequency of the blonde allele between 1300 and 1700, as waves of Bubonic plague decimated the European population, which at that time contained nearly everyone carrying the blonde allele. If by chance every single person carrying the blonde allele had died from the plague before reproducing, the allele would have disappeared from the human genome.

Natural selection is the process by which survival and reproduction pressures act to change the frequency of alleles in subsequent generations. Example: The continuation of the blonde hair allele may have been influenced by natural selection. When a person has a choice of mates of equal value, he or she will select the one that “stands out from the crowd.” Individuals with blonde hair color, which was different and more rare, might have enjoyed more reproductive success than those with more common, darker hair colors.

POINTS:   10
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Occur?

 

104. If altruism can result in the destruction of the individual with altruistic genes, why does this behavior not disappear? Provide a specific example.

ANSWER:   From an evolutionary psychological perspective, altruism is beneficial because sacrificing your life to save a close blood relative might actually increase the likelihood that your alleles would be passed along to subsequent generations. In other cases where altruism is not directed toward a blood relative, reciprocal altruism may be beneficial. With reciprocal altruism it is customary to help another individual when you can reasonably expect the other individual to return the favor at some future date. Reciprocal altruism is likely to flourish in situations where individuals are in regular contact with one another.
Altruism can extend to entire social organizations, regardless of the degree of relatedness. Among the Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), survival of the chicks in the hostile Antarctic cold depends not only on an individual parent but on the larger huddle formed by other parents. Human survival similarly depends on collective abilities, rather than individual success. Because of our long period of dependency in childhood, along with our rather puny fighting equipment in the form of teeth or claws, we humans are especially in need of our social structures for survival. To the extent that genes build structures consistent with social tendencies, they are more likely to survive into future generations. Darwin noted that tribes that worked together to aid one another and to sacrifice for the common good would be victorious over other tribes – exemplifying natural selection.
POINTS:   10
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Evolution Influence Behavior?

 

1. ​Noreen gazes out at the city lights from her 23rd floor apartment; Jonah feels a stinging pain after falling from his bike and scraping his elbow; Maher hears the loud wail of sirens outside his dorm room window. The process that allows Noreen, Jonah, and Maher to detect these external or internal stimuli is termed ____.

a. ​transduction
b. ​perception
c. ​adaptation
d. ​sensation

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

2. ​College roommates Michelle, Renee, and Kecia are curtain shopping for their new off-campus apartment. They find the perfect set of curtains, but disagree as to their actual color. Michelle states that they are jade; Renee is leaning toward teal; and Kecia insists that they are turquoise. What causes each roommate to have a different interpretation of the color of the curtains?

a. ​transduction
b. ​perception
c. ​sensory adaptation
d. ​sensation

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

3. How do sensory systems differ for humans versus nonhuman animals?​

a. ​Because of a highly developed cerebral cortex, humans have highly diverse sensory systems in comparison to most other animals.
b. ​In contrast to contemporary humans, nonhuman animals use their sensory systems to enhance survival.
c. ​Industrialization has had a negative effect on the sensory systems of humans; as human sensory systems declined, the sensory systems of other animals became more efficient.
d. ​Developed out of natural selection, sensory systems are used in unique ways by individual species (human or nonhuman) and work to maximize the survival of that species.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

4. What is true of light detection across species?​

a. ​For all known species, the eye has evolved to see only visible light.
b. ​Visible, infrared, and ultraviolet rays are detected by most species, including humans.
c. ​Humans can see visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light; many nonmammalian species, such as insects and snakes, can see only in the visible light range.
d. ​Visible light is only detected by humans; some insects can see in the ultraviolet range and snakes can see in the infrared range.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

5. Manu suffers from a rare genetic disorder that does not allow incoming light from her eyes to be transmitted to her brain. Because of Manu’s disorder, which process is directly disrupted?​

a. ​transduction
b. ​perception
c. ​sensory adaptation
d. ​sensation

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

6. The process of transduction is analogous to ____.​

a. ​a person using social media to communicate with friends
b. ​a rocket ship breaking through the Earth’s atmosphere
c. ​taking a letter from your mailbox into the house before opening it
d. ​a sailboat utilizing the wind’s energy to glide along the water

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

7. Thad returns home from class on a hot summer’s evening, turns on the air conditioner full blast, and sits down to watch television. His roommate Sean returns home an hour later and wonders how Thad can hear the television above the loud noise of the air conditioner. Thad remarks that he doesn’t even notice the sound. Which process causes the air conditioner to seem louder to Sean than to Thad?​

a. ​transduction
b. ​perception
c. ​sensory adaptation
d. ​sensation

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

8. An important gateway to perception is the process of ____, defined as a narrow focus of consciousness.​

a. ​interpretation
b. ​cognition
c. ​adaptation
d. ​attention

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

9. Professor Radcliffe prepares an exam for her Sensation and Perception class. In a rush, she writes: Proivde the corrcet answres for the following questoins. While quickly proofreading the exam, she misses her mistakes. What caused this oversight?​

a. ​bottom-up processing
b. ​top-down processing
c. ​outward-in processing
d. ​inward-out processing

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

10. Celeste moved into her college dorm room today. She turns off her light before going to bed and notices glow-in-the-dark stickers on the ceiling, presumably left behind from the previous occupant. What process best exemplifies her recognition of the light generated by these stickers?​

a. ​bottom-up processing
b. ​top-down processing
c. ​outward-in processing
d. ​inward-out processing

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

11. Top-down processing involves the ____.​

a. ​brain’s use of incoming signals to construct perceptions
b. ​brain tuning into select information
c. ​brain’s ability to integrate several stimuli simultaneously
d. ​brain imposing its own structure on incoming information based on previous experience

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

12. Bottom-up processing involves the ____.​

a. ​brain’s use of incoming signals to construct perceptions
b. ​brain tuning into select information
c. ​brain’s ability to integrate several stimuli simultaneously
d. ​brain imposing its own structure on incoming information based on previous experience

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

13. In the most general terms, the study of sensation and perception is called ________, a term that was first coined by Gustav Fechner.​

a. S-P psychology
b. sensory psychology
c. psychobiology
d. psychophysics

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

14. In the most general terms, the study of sensation and perception is called psychophysics, a term that was first coined by ________.

a. ​Hermann von Helmholtz
b. ​Gustav Fechner
c. ​Ernst Weber
d. ​Thomas Young

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

15. The smallest amount of stimulus that can be detected at least 50% of the time is known as the ________ threshold.​

a. ​difference
b. ​fixed
c. ​absolute
d. ​distinct

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

16. Seven-year-old Sangram is not allowed to touch the television remote. Nevertheless, he uses the remote to change the volume from level 15 to 17. His parents, who are in the next room, seem unaware. The next day, Sangram becomes bold and turns the volume from level 15 to 30. His father yells at him, “Stop playing with the remote!” What prevented Sangram’s father from noticing the volume change on the previous day?​

a. ​The change on the first day failed to exceed his father’s difference threshold.
b. ​The change on the second day failed to exceed his father’s fixed threshold.
c. ​The change on the first day exceeded his father’s absolute threshold.
d. ​The change on the second day was higher than his father’s distinct threshold.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

17. What are the two steps of signal detection?​

a. ​the category of stimulus and the observer’s criteria
b. ​the category of stimulus and the conduction velocity
c. ​the intensity of stimulus and the observer’s criteria
d. ​the intensity of stimulus and the conduction velocity

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

18. Which scenario is likely to result in many hits and a high rate of false alarms?​

a. ​Siobhan wants to lose weight, so she decides to alternate between several exercise routines each morning: aerobics, yoga, and weight training.
b. ​Derek would like to complete his bachelor’s degree in 3 years, so he takes extra courses during his summer breaks.
c. ​Willow is eager to find a summer internship, so she sends her resume to every local business looking for an intern.
d. ​Carlton is applying to several colleges, and at the last minute, he decides to withdrawal his applications from his “safety” schools.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

19. Devinder is a participant in a research study. She is asked to look at a series of images of black dots scattered in a random order and then identify which images contain at least one gray dot. She ends up greatly underestimating the number of “gray dot” images, illustrating a high number of ____.​

a. ​cautious picks
b. ​false alarms
c. ​defeats
d. ​misses

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

20. Saul is a cytotechnologist in training. He is asked to screen a series of tissue samples for precancerous cells. His supervisor checks his work and determines that Saul greatly overestimated the number of samples containing precancerous cells. This may be due to the fact that Saul lost his mother to cancer early in life, and is extra cautious about missing indications of cancerous cells in the samples. This illustrates ____.​

a. ​false alarms
b. ​sham hits
c. ​loss aversion
d. ​erroneous judgment

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

21. Maria is the victim of an armed robbery. She is called into the police station to identify her assailant from a line-up of men. She correctly reports that none of the men were her attacker. This illustrates the concept of a(n) ____.​

a. ​non-choice
b. ​elimination
c. ​correct rejection
d. ​accurate refusal

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

22. Hugo is running an experiment to determine if a specific DNA allele is present in a new transgenic mouse line. He glances through numerous data sets and identifies the correct DNA “band” in the majority of his experiments. This illustrates the concept of a ____.

a. ​hit
b. ​random result
c. ​target
d. ​correct assumption

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

23. What important fact supports the idea that vision is one of the most important sensory systems in humans?​

a. ​From an evolutionary perspective, the eyeball was one of the last sense organs to develop.
b. ​The eyeball is controlled by more muscles than any other body part.
c. ​Fifteen percent of our body’s oxygen is utilized by our eyes.
d. ​Approximately 50% of our cerebral cortex processes visual information.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

24. Visible light is a type of ____.​

a. ​radiation
b. ​molecule
c. ​potential energy
d. ​chemical

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

25. The best analogy for light energy is: ____.​

a. ​a rabbit hoping along a path
b. ​a plane flying through the air
c. ​raindrops falling from the sky
d. ​the propagation of waves in the ocean

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

26. Adele is planning to paint the walls in her room over spring break. She studies several color samples and is trying to decide between yellow, green, and blue hues. What light wave attribute allows Adele to differentiate between these colors?​

a. ​the types of waves
b. ​the number of waves
c. ​the amplitude of waves
d. ​the wavelength of the waves

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

27. Adele decides to paint her room green. She studies several bright green and pastel green color samples. What attribute of the light wave allows Adele to differentiate between these light intensities?​

a. ​the types of waves
b. ​the number of waves
c. ​the amplitude of waves
d. ​the wavelength of the waves

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

28. ​The clear surface at the front of the eye that begins the process of directing light to the retina is the ____.

a. ​pupil
b. ​iris
c. ​retina
d. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

29. Marcella gets up early, turns on the light in the bathroom, and watches herself in the mirror as the blue ring of her eyes constrict. What is this blue ring called?​

a. ​pupil
b. ​iris
c. ​retina
d. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

30. Which feature of the eye is analogous to a hole in the center of a donut?​

a. ​pupil
b. ​iris
c. ​retina
d. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

31. Which structure of the eye is responsible for detecting light?​

a. ​pupil
b. ​iris
c. ​retina
d. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

32. After suffering an eye injury during a lacrosse match, Gregg is forced to wear an eye patch. In addition to problems with depth perception, Gregg’s ophthalmologist tells him that his blind spot will be more evident. Which structure of the eye has been affected with regard to his blind spot?

a. ​fovea
b. ​lens
c. ​optic disk
d. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

33. An area of the retina that is specialized for fine detailed vision is referred to as the ____.​

a. ​fovea
b. ​lens
c. ​optic disk
d. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

34. In what orientation are images projected onto the retina?​

a. ​mirrored but right side up
b. ​upside down and reversed
c. ​upside down but not reversed
d. ​tilted left in the right eye, and tilted right in the left eye

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

35. How do rods differ from cones in the retina?​

a. ​Rods are less sensitive to light than cones.
b. ​In contrast to cones, rods are optimally activated by light entering the center of the eye.
c. ​Unlike cones, rods cannot detect color.
d. ​Rods provide the ability to see sharper images than cones.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

36. Of the following, who is likely to have the most rods activated in the retina?​

a. ​Blake, who is reading a book while sunbathing at the park
b. ​Yasmeen, who is searching for her keys under the bed
c. ​Gavin, who is painting a mural as part of a community outreach program
d. ​Dale, who is working on a detailed pen and ink drawing

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

37. How does the brain process visual information?​

a. ​Information travels from the retina to the thalamus and then simultaneously to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe and the amygdala.
b. ​Information travels from the cornea to the amygdala and then simultaneously to the primary visual cortex in the parietal lobe and the thalamus.
c. ​Information travels from the lens to the hippocampus and then sequentially to the primary visual cortex in the temporal lobe and the hypothalamus.
d. ​Information travels from the pupil to the reticular formation and then sequentially to the primary visual cortex in the frontal lobe and the pons.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

38. Where does the optic nerve cross the midline?​

a. ​corpus callosum
b. ​primary visual cortex
c. ​optic chiasm
d. ​midbrain

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

39. What is the role of the amygdala in processing visual information?​

a. ​It decodes the color of the stimulus.
b. ​It makes quick emotional judgments about visual stimuli.
c. ​It perceives the intensity of the stimulus.
d. ​It interprets the contours of an object.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

40. Seth is involved in an automobile accident and suffers damage to his parietal lobe. How may this affect his ability to process visual information?​

a. ​He may have difficulty seeing low contrast objects.
b. ​He may have difficulty processing movement.
c. ​He may have difficulty recognizing faces.
d. ​He may have difficulty distinguishing colors.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

41. The primary colors of light are ____.​

a. ​red, green, and blue
b. ​red, yellow, and blue
c. ​red, yellow, and green
d. ​yellow, green, and blue

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

42. One theory of color vision is based on the existence of different types of cones for the detection of short, medium, and long wavelengths. What is this theory?​

a. ​the tricolor detection scheme
b. ​the primary paradigm
c. ​the trichromatic theory
d. ​the tiered wavelength model

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

43. The world perceived by Matteo is very different than the world perceived by most; he can only see black, white, or shades of gray. What can we conclude about Matteo?​

a. ​His retina is void of at least one type of rod.
b. ​His retina is void of at least two types of rods.
c. ​His retina is void of at least one type of cone.
d. ​His retina is void of at least two types of cones.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

44. As a young child, Terrence struggled in school. After being diagnosed with “colorblindness”—meaning that he perceives colors differently—his teachers were able to address his learning difficulties. What can we conclude about Terrence?​

a. ​His retina is void of at least one type of rod.
b. ​His retina is void of at least two types of rods.
c. ​His retina is void of at least one type of cone.
d. ​His retina is void of at least two types of cones.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

45. Our perception of color is best described by which of the following processes?​

a. ​the response of individual cones to either red, green, blue, yellow, purple, or white light
b. ​a comparison of the responses of the red, green, and blue cones to light
c. ​the transmission of information from the primary red, green, or blue cones to secondary yellow, purple, or white cones
d. ​the sensation and transmission of light by rods to more specialized red, green, or blue cones

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

46. What anatomical feature of the retina supports the opponent theory of color recognition?​

a. ​Groups of cells that process yellow and blue or red and green are located together.
b. ​Cells that process red and green occupy different clusters within the center of the retina; blue and yellow cells occupy different clusters within the periphery of the retina.
c. ​Cones are more efficient at processing yellow and blue; rods are more efficient at processing red and green.
d. ​Cells responsible for detecting yellow, blue, red, or green are located in opposing clusters within the retina.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

47. While attempting to overcome writer’s block, Devin stares at her yellow, green, and white striped journal. When she finally returns to her blank computer screen, she sees a blue, red, and black striped afterimage. Which theory best explains the afterimage that Devin sees?​

a. ​negative illusion theory
b. ​excitation emission theory
c. ​trichromatic theory
d. ​opponent process theory

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

48. What is a critique of the feature detector model of object recognition?​

a. ​Specific neurons that respond to round, square, or irregular shapes do not integrate their signals to recognize multi-shaped objects.
b. ​It accounts only for the recognition of simple two-dimensional shapes, not more complex three-dimensional shapes.
c. ​Feature detector neurons have been found in nonhuman primates, but not in humans themselves.
d. ​Feature detector neurons have been found in nonhuman primates, but not in humans themselves.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

49. The mathematical approach to object recognition suggests that we ____.​

a. ​consolidate hues and saturation
b. ​subtract background images
c. ​analyze patterns of lines
d. ​integrate gradients of light

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

50. In terms of object recognition, the simplest patterns of lines are gratings, which can vary in two dimensions: ____.​

a. ​frequency and depth
b. ​frequency and contrast
c. ​hue and depth
d. ​hue and contrast

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

51. Pamela watches her cat Mr. Big swat his paw at the wall and calls out, “Crazy Big, what are you swatting at; nothing is there.” How would you explain the fact that Mr. Big can see something that Pamela cannot?​

a. ​Cats see low-frequency, low contrast objects better than humans.
b. ​Cats see low-frequency, high contrast objects better than humans.
c. ​Cats see high-frequency, low contrast objects better than humans.
d. ​Cats see high-frequency, high contrast objects better than humans.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

52. Which statement is most consistent with the Gestalt psychology point of view?

a. ​The whole is something else than the sum of its parts.
b. ​The world is best understood by breaking it down into individual elements.
c. ​We perceive our environment through separate but equal senses.
d. ​Where one sense is lost, another is gained.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

53. According to Gestalt psychologists, we recognize objects in part by ____.​

a. ​understanding the function of an object
b. ​integrating visual input with our other sense
c. ​differentiating the gratings of an object
d. ​dividing a scene into figure and ground

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

54. ​On a class trip to the Art Institute of Chicago, Sami is entranced by the painting, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, by Georges-Pierre Seurat. He is amazed that although the painting is constructed of individual dots of color, the objects in the painting are easily recognizable. According to Gestalt psychology, which of the following best explains this phenomenon?

a. ​differentiation and allocation
b. ​proximity and allocation
c. ​differentiation and similarity
d. ​proximity and similarity

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

55. At the House of Reptiles, 3-year-old Sinead is intrigued by a motionless python snake in a large cage with three parallel viewing windows. Sinead cries out, “Look mommy, a snake!” According to Gestalt psychology, how does Sinead know that the snake is not broken into individual segments?​

a. ​the principle of continuity
b. ​the principle of familiarity
c. ​the principle of order
d. ​the principle of fragmentation

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

56. Leo works tirelessly on a new logo for his flower shop. He decides on a simple pattern: five petal shapes (set in a circular path) and a long stem. Despite the fact that Leo does not include a center circle and his shapes are disconnected, the logo is easily recognizable as a flower with a large center disk. What Gestalt principle best explains this phenomenon?

a. ​the principle of aggregation
b. ​the principle of absoluteness
c. ​the principle of closure
d. ​the principle of familiarity

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

57. Constructed by Adelbert Ames, the Ames room illustrates vulnerabilities in our perception of ____.​

a. ​color
b. ​depth
c. ​contrast
d. ​motion

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

58. To construct a three-dimensional image, we ____.​

a. ​integrate trinomial inputs
b. ​make assumptions about the continuity of objects
c. ​use monocular and binocular cues
d. ​divide scenes into figure and ground

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

59. Persis is a summer intern at a new video game software company, Generation Z Gamers. She is working on three-dimensional landscapes for a new role-playing video game Submarine Adventures. As her supervisor, what advice can you give Persis to help her create the illusion of three dimensions?​

a. ​Reds and blues make objects appear closer than yellows and greens.
b. ​Use more texture on background rather than foreground objects.
c. ​Continuous lines should only be used for distant objects.
d. ​Converge parallel lines at the horizon to create a linear perspective.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

60. One of the most powerful monocular depth cues is ____.​

a. ​occlusion
b. ​proximity
c. ​simplicity
d. ​continuity

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

61. The best term to describe how the monocular depth cue of occlusion works would be ________.​

a. continuity
b. parallel
c. overlapping
d. perpendicularity

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

62. According to the Müller-Lyer illusion, we tend to see lines with outward-pointing arrowheads as ____.

a. ​the focal point of an image
b. ​the secondary object of an image
c. ​being farther away from us
d. ​being closer to us

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

63. Ginger examines a painting of a stone path extending into the horizon of a field. Two sticks lie horizontally across the path: one in the beginning of the path and the other near the horizon. Each stick measures 10 cm in length, but the stick near the horizon appears much larger than the stick at the beginning of the path. Which illusion explains this phenomenon?​

a. ​Roger Shepard parallelogram illusion
b. ​Munker illusion
c. ​Müller-Lyer illusion
d. ​Ponzo illusion

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

64. Why does the moon appear to be much larger when it is just above the hills on the horizon than when it is straight overhead?​

a. ​This is primarily due to the curve of the earth.
b. ​This is primarily due to the change in brightness.
c. ​This is primarily due to comparisons with the sizes of familiar objects.
d. ​This is primarily due to the refractory index.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

65. Tarik is designing a new race car video game. To create the illusion of depth, how should Tarik design the backdrop in relationship to the first person driver?

a. ​Show distant objects traveling in the opposite direction of the first person driver; show closer objects moving with the driver.
b. ​Show distant objects traveling with the first person driver; show closer objects moving in the opposite direction of the driver.
c. ​Show peripheral objects traveling with the first person driver; show central objects moving in the opposite direction of the driver.
d. ​Show central objects traveling with the first person driver; show peripheral objects moving in the opposite direction of the driver.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

66. The difference between the images projected onto each eye is referred to as ____.

a. ​planar overlap
b. ​three-dimensional subtraction
c. ​binocular differential
d. ​retinal disparity

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

67. Why is the binocular depth system advantageous for predators?

a. ​It helps with the perception of continuity, even when an animal is well hidden.
b. ​It helps an animal stand out against its background, even when it is well camouflaged.
c. ​It helps colors appear more vibrant, even in very low light.
d. ​It helps with motion detection, even for the slightest of movements.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

68. The ability of an infant to use a binocular depth cue to use the relative size of objects to determine their distance first appears around _______ months of age.

a. ​1 to 3
b. ​4
c. ​5 to 7
d. ​10

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

69. Ruth is 78 years of age, and recently reported to her ophthalmologist that she has developed some changes in the way she sees colors. Which of the following age-related changes to the eye might best explain her experience?​

a. ​The corneas in her eyes are changing in their thickness.
b. ​The lenses in her eyes are beginning to yellow.
c. ​The irises in her eyes are losing their elasticity.
d. ​The retinas of her eyes are losing photoreceptors.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

70. ​For his creative writing class, Dorian writes a short story about the adventures and perils of space travel. As he describes an epic space battle between two enemy ships, Dorian portrays the battle fought in an eerie silence. Why is Dorian correct that an otherwise noisy battle would produce no sound in space?

a. ​Sound waves cannot be generated in a vacuum.
b. ​Sound waves are too diffuse in the absence of gravity.
c. ​In the absence of matter, sounds waves travel in a multipath direction.
d. ​Sound waves are readily absorbed by gamma particles.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

71. A high-amplitude, high-frequency sound wave is perceived as ____.​

a. ​loud and high-pitched
b. ​loud and low-pitched
c. ​soft and high-pitched
d. ​soft and low-pitched

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

72. What type of sound is particularly effective for many marine mammals because it allows sound to travel for very long distances in water?​

a. ​ultrasound
b. ​infrasound
c. ​parasound
d. ​durasound

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

73. Before entering the auditory canal, sound waves are funneled into the outer ear via the ____.​

a. ​cochlea
b. ​eustachian tube
c. ​oval window
d. ​pinna

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

74. ​In the middle ear, the purpose of three tiny bones located in the middle ear is to ____.

a. ​buffer sound waves before entering the inner ear
b. ​decode the frequency and amplitude of sounds waves
c. ​transfer sound energy to the fluid of the inner ear
d. ​directly stimulate the auditory nerve

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

75. Which structure of the ear contains the auditory receptors?​

a. ​cochlea
b. ​tympanic membrane
c. ​pinna
d. ​auditory nerve

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

76. ​What portion of the organ of Corti transduces sound energy into neural signals?

a. ​ossicles
b. ​hair cells
c. ​flagella
d. ​microvilli

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

77. Dr. Tanner is studying the effects of continuous pesticide exposure on auditory function. Using a rodent model, Dr. Tanner monitors the organ of Corti in rats with long-term pesticide exposure via two-photon microscopy. Based on his observations, he suspects that pesticides do indeed disrupt auditory function in the organ of Corti. What did Dr. Tanner observe?​

a. ​Pesticide exposure caused the organ of Corti to fill with fluid, preventing the transmission of sound waves.
b. ​Pesticide exposure caused the eustacian tube to constrict, restricting the passage of sound waves.
c. ​Pesticide exposure caused the ossicles to fracture and fail to vibrate in response to sound waves.
d. ​Pesticide exposure caused damage to hair cells, preventing them from bending in response to sound.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

78. How do hair cells stimulate the auditory nerve?​

a. ​neurotransmitter release
b. ​direct mechanical stimulation
c. ​direct electrical stimulation
d. ​stimulate muscle contractions

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

79. Kathy, a neuroscience graduate student, is running the final experiments for her thesis, The Effects of Loud Noise on Auditory Perception. Kathy stimulates the auditory nerve of rodents exposed to loud noise and records the activity of neurons in the primary and secondary cortices. Through which brain pathway is sound input processed prior to arriving at the primary and secondary cortices?​

a. ​cerebellum—substantia nigra—amygdala
b. ​striatum—hippocampus—hypothalamus
c. ​pons—reticular formation—hippocampus
d. ​medulla—midbrain—thalamus

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

80. ​When Genaya drops a plate in the kitchen, her roommate Kayla in the next room quickly turns her head toward the kitchen. What brain structure is responsible for Kayla reflexively turning her head toward the loud noise?

a. ​primary auditory cortex
b. ​secondary auditory cortex
c. ​pons
d. ​midbrain

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

81. According to the place theory of pitch perception, how do sound waves affect the basilar membrane?​

a. ​High-frequency tones stiffen the membrane; low-frequency tones relax the membrane.
b. ​High-frequency tones relax the membrane; low-frequency tones stiffen the membrane.
c. ​High-frequency tones produce maximum movement at the base; low-frequency tones produce maximum movement near the apex.
d. ​High-frequency tones produce maximum movement near the apex; low-frequency tones produce maximum movement at the base.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

82. ​The place theory of perception uses the analogy of ____ to explain how we hear different pitches.

a. ​sonar technology
b. ​stringed instruments
c. ​a raindrop hitting a puddle
d. ​a jet producing a sonic boom

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

83. What is a critique of the place theory of sound perception?​

a. ​Place theory does not account for sounds that are below 60 dB.
b. ​Place theory only works well for sounds that are above 60 dB.
c. ​Place theory does not account for frequencies below 8000 Hz.
d. ​Place theory only works well for sounds above 4000 Hz.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

84. ​How does our perception of sound change with intensity of the stimulus?

a. ​Our sound perception changes at the same rate than the change of the intensity.
b. ​Our sound perception changes at a higher rate than the change of the intensity.
c. ​Our sound perception changes at a smaller rate than the change of the intensity.
d. ​Our sound perception changes at a variable rate than the change of the intensity.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

85. ​Over the summer break, Jed earns extra cash working as a salesman at Sensational Sound Systems. As one of the most knowledgeable salesmen on staff, Jed tells a young couple shopping for a sound system that the more expensive models are worth the money because they ____.

a. ​amplify sound up to 160 dB
b. ​boost frequencies below 80 Hz
c. ​buffer sounds that reach 60 dB
d. ​filter out frequencies below 10000 Hz

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

86. Our primary method for localizing sound in the horizontal plane is ____.​

a. ​via undulation differentiation in the basilar membrane
b. ​by echolocation at the tympanic membrane
c. ​via sound waves funneling through the pinna
d. ​to compare the arrival time of sound at each ear

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

87. ​According to research studies, what heavily skews our perception of the localization of sound?

a. ​watching a moving object
b. ​pitch and amplitude of a sound wave
c. ​density of the atmosphere
d. ​absorbent matter

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

88. What plays an especially significant role in the perception of music and speech?​

a. ​rhythm
b. ​fragmentation
c. ​tone
d. ​grouping

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

89. Which is an example of top-down processing in the perception of speech?​

a. ​Brie’s father yells, “Take out the . . . .”; before he can finish his sentence, Brie jumps up from the couch to take out the garbage.
b. ​While watching 8-year-old Tyler practice his ventriloquist act, his sister states drily, “I can see your lips moving, so you’re not fooling anyone.”
c. ​When 5-year-old Lucretia screeches “Ice cream!” at the top of her lungs, her little brother covers his ears as the sound waves are processed by his auditory system.
d. ​Terrence sits at the piano and composes a song for his band that is dissonant and uses unconventional chord progressions that will be difficult for most listeners to enjoy.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

90. Sensations of body position, touch, skin temperature, and pain are referred to as ____.​

a. ​sympathetic sensation
b. ​autonosensation
c. ​somatosensation
d. ​parietal sensation

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

91. How do somatosensory stimuli differ from visual or auditory stimuli?​

a. ​Somatosensory stimuli are processed by the periphery not the central nervous system.
b. ​Somatosensory stimuli are specialized; visual and auditory stimuli are general.
c. ​Somatosensory stimuli simultaneously activate several senses.
d. ​Somatosensory stimuli arise from within the body.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

92. ​How did the transition from walking on four legs to two legs influence the evolution of human somatosenses?

a. ​There was more evolutionary pressure for the development of somatosenses and less pressure on vision and audition.
b. ​There was less evolutionary pressure for the development of somatosenses and more pressure on vision and audition.
c. ​Somatosenses evolved from top-down to bottom-up processing.
d. ​Somatosenses evolved from bottom-up to top-down processing.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

93. Alicia climbs into the passenger side of her boyfriend Bo’s car. In an attempt to impress Alicia, Bo speeds away from the curb as Alicia’s head presses against the headrest. What allows Alicia to sense this linear acceleration?​

a. ​When thrust backward, the medulla sends signals to the cortex.
b. ​When thrust backward, the cerebellum sends signals to the cortex.
c. ​Hair cells in the cochlea bend with the forward motion.
d. ​Hair cells in the vestibular system bend with the forward motion.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

94. The movement of hair cells in the vestibular system results in the production of signals in the auditory nerve. Where do the axons of the auditory nerve then form connections?​

a. ​somatosensory cortex and cerebellum
b. ​medulla and cerebellum
c. ​somatosensory cortex and thalamus
d. ​medulla and thalamus

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

95. In humans, information from the vestibular system is tightly integrated with ____ processing.​

a. ​gustatory
b. ​olfactory
c. ​auditory
d. ​visual

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

96. While working to restore the roof of his house, Stan feels the rough surfaces of the roof’s shingles. What allows Stan to sense the roughness of the shingles?​

a. ​Small vibrations caused by the rough surface generate contractions in the underlying muscle.
b. ​When the skin is perturbed by a rough surface, blood vessels in the skin begin to constrict.
c. ​Specialized neurons in the skin generate action potentials when distorted by the rough surface.
d. ​Specific chemicals in the skin are released in response to the physical pressure of the rough surface.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

97. Information about touch travels from the skin directly to the ____.​

a. ​medulla
b. ​somatosensory cortex
c. ​spinal cord
d. ​thalamus

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

98. The ________ cortex in the brain contains the primary somatosensory cortex which, among other jobs, processes one’s perception of touch.​

a. ​occipital
b. ​frontal
c. ​temporal
d. ​parietal

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

99. What is the purpose of a sensory homunculus?​

a. ​It maps out the somatosensory cortex in relationship to the corresponding motor outputs.
b. ​It delineates which areas of the somatosensory cortex require the greatest oxygen and glucose supply.
c. ​It demonstrates how our sensory inputs are connected to the central nervous system.
d. ​It shows how areas of the body are represented in the primary somatosensory cortex on the basis of sensitivity.

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

100. ​Doug lost his left leg in an automobile accident several months ago. He tells his wife that when he was shaving his face one morning, he felt the same scraping sensation on his missing leg. What may account for Doug’s phantom limb sensation?

a. ​reorganization of the somatosensory cortex
b. ​misappropriated top-down processing
c. ​spinal cord axons attempting to reinnervate the site of the injury
d. ​motor cortex redirecting its outputs

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

101. ​While hanging up a picture, Joy hits her thumb with a hammer, causing agonizing pain. Joy immediately puffs out her cheeks and blows air onto her thumb over and over again. Her roommate Bethany laughs and then remarks, “Are you drying nail polish or hoping to blow away the pain?” However, Joy’s thumb does in fact feel better. Why?

a. ​She is simply buying time until the pain receptors enter a refractory period; blowing air onto the thumb plays only a psychological role.
b. ​She is hyper-stimulating the pain receptors in her skin, causing the sensation of pain to fade away quicker.
c. ​She is activating a competing sensory pathway, which dilutes the amount of pain information getting to the brain.
d. ​She is redirecting her attention toward a random behavior, which will activate areas of the cortex involved in higher order processing.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

102. ​Which theory suggests that input from touch fibers competes with input from pain receptors, possibly preventing pain messages from reaching the brain?

a. ​gate theory
b. ​auxiliary theory
c. ​obstruction theory
d. ​buffer theory

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

103. After you rough bump part of your body—say your shin or your “funny bone”—into something and experience pain as a result, you may help to decrease that sense of pain by rubbing the injured area. The _______ theory provides some insight as to why rubbing the area helps to lower the pain that you feel.​

a. ​auxiliary theory
b. ​gate theory
c. ​obstruction theory
d. ​buffer theory

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

104. What evidence best illustrates that the perception of pain is influenced by experience?​

a. ​When men think that other men are watching them, they report feeling less pain in response to an injury.
b. ​Surgery patients whose family members were allowed to be by their side shortly after surgery reported less pain during recovery.
c. ​Women who participated in childbirth classes reported less pain during the birthing process.
d. ​Women reported less pain after receiving an electrical shock if they were allowed to look at pictures of their families.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Feel Body Position, Touch, Temperature, and Pain?

 

105. Of the five different human sensory systems, famed philosopher Immanuel Kant considered ________ to be the most dispensable.​

a. ​vision
b. ​audition
c. ​olfaction
d. ​gustation

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

106. What type of stimuli are responsible for olfaction and gustation?​

a. ​mechanical
b. ​chemical
c. ​electrical
d. ​waveform

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

107. How does the input of olfactory information to the brain differ from other sensory input pathways?​

a. ​It does not require the cortex for higher order processing.
b. ​Direct connections to the thalamus are not made before information reaches the cortex.
c. ​The first direct connection is to the thalamus and not to the medulla.
d. ​Prior to making connections with the medulla, sensory input travels through the spinal cord.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

108. Isabella is a judge at the campus’s annual Fine Foods Fair. She has an excellent palate and is able to easily distinguish between the four major categories of taste (sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) as well as the fifth, less familiar category of taste, known by the ____.​

a. ​Japanese term umami
b. ​French term gourmand
c. ​German term geschmack
d. ​Indian term raita

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

109. Small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds are referred to as ____.​

a. ​keratin protrusions
b. ​corpuscles
c. ​papillae
d. ​gustatory bulbs

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

110. Heather considers herself a “chocoholic.” When she is having a bad day, she knows that a few bites of chocolate will always make her feel better. Which area of her brain is responsible for this effect?​

a. ​somatosensory cortex
b. ​orbitofrontal cortex
c. ​thalamus
d. ​medulla

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

111. Kevin is a participant in a taste-off as part of his campus’s Greek Week. He is blindfolded and his nose is pinched off with a clothespin. He is asked to taste a slice of apple and a slice of raw potato. Kevin is likely to ____.​

a. ​perceive the tastes as pleasant because he is having fun at Greek Week
b. ​recognize the apple but not the potato because the apple is acidic
c. ​think that the apple and the potato are the same
d. ​perceive the tastes as aversive because he can’t see the food

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

112. Juliet is only 2 days old. She is shown several different pictures. Which would she be most likely to stare at for the longest?​

a. ​a picture of her mother’s face
b. ​a picture of random shapes
c. ​a picture of a spiral
d. ​a picture of herself

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

113. As people age, what alters their perception of color?​

a. ​Rods begin to outnumber cones.
b. ​The iris loses elasticity.
c. ​The lens begins to turn yellow.
d. ​The shape of the cornea becomes distorted.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

114. Cavin recently began wearing prescription glasses after her ophthalmologist informed her that she is affected by astigmatism. She learns that this is caused by ____.​

a. ​the loss of elasticity of the lens
b. ​the degeneration of the retina
c. ​an irregular eyeball shape
d. ​an uneven surface of the cornea

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

115. Why are Westerners more likely than people from New Guinea or India to see the Müller-Lyer illusion?​

a. ​Western philosophy maintains that spatial or mathematical problems have only one correct answer.
b. ​Westerners are more accustomed to environments that consist of right angles, rectangles, and straight lines.
c. ​Those of Western descent tend to have more cones than rods, decreasing their ability to see faint contrast.
d. ​Westerners tend to rely more on their visual senses than their auditory or olfactory senses.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

116. What were the results of a study that tracked the eye movements of American and Chinese college students as they scanned photographs?​

a. ​The American students sporadically surveyed several images with their eyes, regardless of the image; Chinese students used the same pattern of eye movement.
b. ​The Chinese students sporadically surveyed several images with their eyes, regardless of the image; American students used the same pattern of eye movement.
c. ​The Americans were more likely to focus on the figure; the Chinese gave approximately equal viewing time to figure and background.
d. ​The Chinese were more likely to focus on the figure; Americans gave approximately equal viewing time to figure and background.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

117. What is the evidence that hearing begins well before birth?

a. ​Fetuses as young as 6 months move more often when their mothers’ speak than in response to a stranger’s voice.
b. ​Hours after birth, newborns begin to curl their tongues in preparation for generating specialized sounds.
c. ​Newborns as young as 2 days old recognize their mother’s voice.
d. ​Ultrasound waves stimulate the auditory nerve in fetuses as young as 7 months.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

118. Jenni’s 72-year-old grandfather has difficulty understanding her when she speaks, but he seems to understand her father much better. Why might this be?​

a. ​People over 70 typically have difficulty with sounds over 6000 Hz.
b. ​People over 70 typically have difficulty with sounds over 9000 Hz.
c. ​People over 70 typically have difficulty with sounds over 12000 Hz.
d. ​People over 70 typically have difficulty with sounds over 15000 Hz.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

119. Noel has perfect pitch, which means that she can name any musical tone that she hears. Compared with other people, Noel is likely to have ____.​

a. ​areas of her left hemisphere that are larger
b. ​areas of her right hemisphere that are larger
c. ​less white matter
d. ​more white matter

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

120. When scientists artificially alter recordings of speech to resemble regular, repeating sine waves, people typically interpret this as ____.​

a. ​foreign language speech
b. ​tones from a musical instrument
c. ​tweeting birds
d. ​infants babbling

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?

 

121. Three-year-old-Joshua spits out his broccoli, scrunches his face and shouts, “Yuck!” His mother can’t understand why he has such a distaste for broccoli, because she finds it to be rather bland. Why might Joshua and his mother have such different reactions to the taste of broccoli?​

a. ​As we get older, the overall number of taste buds decreases.
b. ​The orbitofrontal cortex loses a significant number of neurons as we age.
c. ​Myelinated axons connecting to the medulla become unmyelinated as we age.
d. ​Hyperstimulation of taste buds in young children may produce the sensation of burning.

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

122. In combat veterans, the experience of posttraumatic stress disorder appears to interact with which sense?

a. ​taste
b. ​vision
c. ​audition
d. ​olfaction

 

ANSWER:   d
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

123. Compared with other cultures, how do Americans tend to differ in their odor categorization?​

a. ​Americans tend to separate odor into broader categories.
b. ​Americans tend to find body odor offensive.
c. ​Americans are not as skilled at sorting odors into fruit or flower categories.
d. ​Americans tend to clump all natural odors into one category.

 

ANSWER:   b
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Understand
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

124. What is the evidence that the effects of experience on taste begin in the prenatal environment?​

a. ​Fetuses with higher than normal levels of sodium in their amniotic fluid preferred food with at least some salt as infants.
b. ​Mothers with high glucose levels during pregnancy reported having a more difficult time getting their infants to consume vegetable purees, but not fruit purees.
c. ​Infants whose mothers consumed carrot juice during pregnancy showed stronger preferences for carrot flavor.
d. ​Mothers who drank coffee during pregnancy reported that their infants were more accepting of bitter foods.

 

ANSWER:   c
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
REFERENCES:   How Do We Process Smells and Tastes?

 

125. Describe the concepts of sensory adaptation, bottom-up processing, and top-down processing, and provide an example of how perception is shaped by each of these processes.​

ANSWER:   ​Sensory adaptation is the tendency to pay less attention to a nonchanging source of stimulation. Students may provide a number of examples. For instance, a student may describe a scenario where an appliance is first turned on, such as a dishwasher. At first, the sound of the dishwasher attracts our attention by engaging our auditory senses. However, as our auditory senses become accustomed to the noise, our senses adapt and we no longer hear the drone of the dishwasher.

Bottom-up processing is perception based on building simple input into more complex perceptions. Students may use examples of visual, auditory, or chemical stimuli. For example, visible light generated from a bright red apple is transmitted to the eye. The visual system then decodes information from this light wave: The distance between two peaks of the light wave is decoded as the color of the apple and the amplitude of the wave is decoded as its brightness.

Top-down processing is the perceptual process in which memory and other cognitive processes are required for interpreting incoming sensory information. Students may use examples of receiving incomplete sensory information that requires top-down processing to make sense of a particular stimuli. For example, a train conductor makes an announcement over a PA system that keeps cutting in-and-out: “Please have your [static] ready. Next [static] is Grand Central Terminal.” Despite the missing words, one may easily perceive this statement as, “Please have your tickets ready. Next stop is Grand Central Terminal.”

POINTS:   10
DIFFICULTY:   Apply
Understand
REFERENCES:   How Does Sensation Lead to Perception?

 

126. ​Describe how light enters the eye and how the major structures of the eye process this light. Include a brief description of how information from light is sensed by the eye before transmission to the brain.

ANSWER:   ​Light first passes through the cornea, which begins the process of bending light to form an image on the back of the eye. Traveling light next enters the pupil, which is actually an opening formed by the muscles of the iris. The iris adjusts the opening of the pupil in response to the amount of light present in the environment and to signals from the autonomic nervous system. Directly behind the pupil and iris is the main optical instrument of the eye, the lens. Muscles attached to the lens can change its shape, allowing us to adjust our focus to see near or distant objects. Behind the lens is the main chamber of the eye, and located on the rear surface of this chamber is the retina, a thin but complex network of neurons specialized for the processing of light.

Located in the deepest layer of the retina are the specialized receptors, the rods and cones, which transduce the light information. These rods and cones are responsible for different aspects of vision. The rods are predominantly localized to the periphery and are more sensitive to light than the cones. Rods excel at seeing in dim light, but do not provide information about color, nor do they provide clear, sharp images. In contrast cones, which are predominately found in the fovea (center of retina), function best under bright light and provide the ability to see both sharp images and color.

POINTS:   10
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We See?

 

127. Describe how sound waves are transmitted from the outer ear to the auditory nerve.​

ANSWER:   ​Sound waves enter the outer ear at the pinna, which collects and focuses sounds. Sounds collected by the pinna are then channeled through the auditory canal, which ends at the tympanic membrane, or eardrum, at the boundary between the outer and middle ear. The sound waves then reach three tiny bones in the middle ear known as ossicles. The ossicles amplify sound wave input by transferring sound energy from the air of the outer and middle ear to the fluid found in the inner ear via the oval window.

The inner ear contains a fluid filled cavity known as the cochlea, which contains specialized receptor cells that respond to vibrations transmitted to the inner ear. Vibrations transmitted by the bones of the middle ear to the oval window produce waves in the fluid of the vestibular canal of the cochlea that travel around the apex and back through its tympanic canal. As waves travel through the cochlea, the basilar membrane responds with its own wavelike motion. The movement of the basilar membrane causes the hair cells of the organ of Corti to move back and forth within the fluid of the cochlear duct. Bending the hair cells stimulates the release of neurotransmitters onto the cells of the auditory nerve.

POINTS:   10
DIFFICULTY:   Think Critically
REFERENCES:   How Do We Hear?