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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Human Exceptionality School Community And Family 12th Edition by Michael L. Hardman – Test Bank
 
Sample  Questions

 

  1. Inclusive education paradigms for students with disabilities may be described as

 

  1. pull out services. b. push in services.

 

  1. push out services. d. left out services.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.01 – Define inclusive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                         Whereas, the traditional model for special education “pulls the student out of the general

 

education class to receive support,” inclusive education focuses on “pushing services and supports into” the general education setting for both students and teachers.

 

  1. Samuel, a student with disabilities, receives most of his instruction in his third grade general education classroom with some pullout for speech and language services. This is an example of

 

  1. full inclusion. b. partial inclusion.

 

  1. reasonable accommodation. d. segregation.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.01 – Define inclusive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Proponents of pull out programs argue that the available research does not support _________for all students with disabilities.

 

  1. part-time placement in a special education self-contained classroom

 

  1. placement in general education classes and resource rooms

 

  1. full-time placement in a general education class

 

  1. All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.01 – Define inclusive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. Inclusive schools that are successful in promoting student achievement and valued post-school outcomes

 

  1. promote values of diversity, acceptance, and belonging.

 

  1. provide a multidisciplinary school-wide support system.

 

  1. ensure access to the general curriculum while meeting the individualized needs of each student.

 

  1. promote values of diversity, acceptance, and belonging, provide a multidisciplinary school-wide support system, and ensure access to the general curriculum while meeting the individualized needs of each student.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Zara has been receiving support from family, friends, and a support network of mutual caring that promotes inclusion. This is an example of

 

  1. formal supports. b. natural supports.

 

  1. assistive technology. d. access to general education.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. The National Association of School Psychologists (2009) defined evidence-based inclusive education as the opportunity for students with disabilities to attend _____.

 

  1. public school

 

  1. the school of their choice

 

  1. the same school they would attend if not disabled

 

  1. a similar school to the one they would attend if not disabled

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. The individualized education program must describe

 

  1. high expectations

 

  1. instructional methodology.

 

  1. how general education teachers are trained.

 

  1. how the disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general curriculum.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational

 

knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards

 

to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their

 

profession.

 

NOTES:                                         A student’s IEP must describe how the disability affects the child’s involvement and

 

progress in the general curriculum.

 

  1. _____ is defined as professionals, parents, and students working together to achieve a mutual goal of delivering an effective educational program designed to meet the needs of the individual.

 

  1. Collaboration b. Collusion

 

  1. Competition d. Collateral

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with

 

families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities,

 

and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the

 

needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

NOTES:                                        Multidisciplinary collaboration is defined as professionals from across different

 

disciplines, parents, and students working together to achieve the mutual goal of delivering an evidence-based educational program designed to meet individual need and access to the general curriculum.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Kalon, a student with severe disabilities, has art in the general education classroom with nondisabled high school peers. During an observation you notice him coloring from an elementary-level coloring book while the rest of the class is working on shading. You might collaborate with the art teacher to

 

  1. move Colin back to his special education class.

 

  1. provide an age-appropriate activity.

 

  1. get more coloring books.

 

  1. train him to sit quietly during activities that are difficult for him.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. The Regular Teacher Initiative is characterized by

 

  1. the special education teacher having primary responsibility for students with disabilities.

 

  1. the general education teacher having primary responsibility for students with disabilities.

 

  1. general and special educators working independently of each other to support the student in achieving a common goal.

 

  1. general and special education teachers working as partners to achieve a common goal.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with

 

families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities,

 

and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the

 

needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

NOTES:                                         The goal of REI is for general and special educators to share responsibility in ensuring

 

an appropriate education experience for students with disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Which strategy would not support effective multidisciplinary collaborative teaming?

 

  1. A focus on individual philosophies in developing a child’s instructional program

 

  1. Team members who are viewed as collaborators not experts

 

  1. Open communication among team members

 

  1. Time set aside for regular team meetings

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

OTHER:                                        Conceptual

 

  1. The fundamental purpose of peer-mediated instruction is to

 

  1. enhance academic learning only.

 

  1. establish friendships between students with disabilities and their nondisabled peers.

 

  1. create structured interactions between students to achieve academic and social-emotional goals.

 

  1. provide the general education teacher the freedom to work with other students in the class while nondisabled peers teach students with disabilities.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                        Peer-mediated instruction involves a structured interaction between two or more

 

students under the direct supervision of a classroom teacher. The instruction may use peer and cross-age tutoring and/or cooperative learning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. A purpose of Part C for infants and toddlers in IDEA is to

 

  1. minimize the potential for future developmental delay.

 

  1. increase educational costs to society over time to ensure the child’s needs are met.

 

  1. minimize potential for the child to live in society and increase dependence on the family.

 

  1. decrease parent responsibility in meeting their children’s special needs while increasing the responsibility for professionals.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational

 

knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards

 

to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their

 

profession.

 

NOTES:                                         Carefully selected services and supports can reduce the long-term impact of the disa-

 

bility and counteract any negative effects of waiting to intervene.

 

  1. Understanding of brain development and neuroscience suggest that early intervention services

 

  1. may be more costly in the long run to provide these services if the child isn’t mature enough to learn.

 

  1. should begin as early as possible.

 

  1. are more effective if schools  wait until the child reaches a certain developmental level to provide services.

 

  1. are more effective in a center-based setting than in the home.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         As our understanding of brain development and neuroscience increases, it has be-come

 

clear that early intervention services should (1) begin as early as possible, (2) enhance the mental health, executive function skills, and self-regulation capacities of caregivers, and (3) include skill-building opportunities for a variety of service providers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. The early intervention model in the 1980s that used parents as trainers was called into question because

 

  1. professionals were unable to work effectively with parents as partners in the training of young children.

 

  1. research indicated children were learning more in center-based programs.

 

  1. families were dropping out of early intervention programs, preferring to be parents not trainers.

 

  1. there was a lack of funding available for home-based programs.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         The model of parents as trainers was called into question for several reasons: families

 

were dropping out of programs, parents did not use intervention techniques effectively, and parents simply preferred not to be trainers.

 

  1. The special education referral process involves

 

  1. ensuring that the student with a disability is educated full-time in a general education classroom.

 

  1. requiring parents to follow up with their child at home.

 

  1. a child-find system is set up in each state to locate children at risk.

 

  1. developing an individualized family service plan.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Referral programs for preschool-age children with disabilities have several important

 

components. First, a child-find system is set up in each state to locate preschool-age (ages 3 to 5) children at risk and to make referrals to the local education agency.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. An approach emphasizing the relationship between individual functioning and the environment is known as

 

  1. neurological development. b. self-determination.

 

  1. functional assessment. d. learned helplessness.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Functional assessments determine the child’s skills, the characteristics of the setting, and

 

the family’s needs, resources, expectations, and aspirations

 

  1. Developmentally appropriate practice is grounded on the belief that there has been too much emphasis on _____ for preschool-aged children.

 

  1. academic learning b. play

 

  1. exploration d. social interaction

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. A(n) _____ placement emphasizes the child’s chronological age over his or her developmental level.

 

  1. inclusive b. adapted

 

  1. age appropriate d. supported

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Functional skill instruction focuses on

 

  1. modifying student behavior to fit the norm.

 

  1. helping the child become more independent in natural settings.

 

  1. helping students to learn at the same rate as their peers.

 

  1. instruction for students with disabilities that uses the same learning sequence as for nondisabled students.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Functional skills focus on teaching and assisting the child to become more independent

 

and to interact appropriately with family, friends, and professionals

 

  1. Head Start programs

 

  1. have no provisions for the education of students with disabilities.

 

  1. are primarily for the purpose of funding school lunch programs for preschool-age children who are disadvantaged.

 

  1. require that at least 10% of enrollment be set aside for children with disabilities.

 

  1. have enrollments of about 50% of children from disadvantaged backgrounds and 50 percent children with disabilities.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for

 

young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c)

 

evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                         Under current law, Head Start programs are required to reserve 10% of their enrollment

 

for preschool-age children with disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. During the period of transition from preschool to elementary school programs for children with disabilities, professionals should focus on

 

  1. getting children into special education classes or special schools.

 

  1. shifting all responsibility to a general education kindergarten teacher.

 

  1. performance demands of the elementary school and classroom setting.

 

  1. ensuring that an instructional aide is available for every child during the transition period.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Preschool professionals responsible for transition planning should attend not only to the

 

needs and skills of the individual students, but also to how they can match the performance demands of the elementary school and classroom setting.

 

  1. Which of the following is an important characteristic of an effective consulting teacher?

 

  1. Serve as a resource to general educators and to parents

 

  1. Ability to work independently

 

  1. Specialist in a specific instructional strategy

 

  1. Trained as a generalist

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with

 

families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities,

 

and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the

 

needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

NOTES:                                        In the role of consultant, the special education teacher must be able to serve as a

 

resource to general educators and parents on effective instructional practices for stu-dents with disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Which of the following is a key component of MTSS?

 

  1. Design lessons at the average rate of learning for all students in the class.

 

  1. Teach in large groups and minimize use of real-world activities.

 

  1. Engage the multiple intelligences and learning styles of individual children.

 

  1. Use evidence-based instruction and strategies to meet student needs at each level.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         The key components of MTSS are (1) the use of evidence-based instruction designed to

 

meet the needs of students at each level, and (2) assessment and progress-monitoring procedures that measure current skills and growth over time and that are used to provide new instruction to individual students.

 

  1. Access to the curriculum is not critical for students with disabilities.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Cooperative learning has not been successful in teaching academic skills to students with disabilities.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Research in the behavioral sciences supports the claim that early stimulation is critical to the later development of language and self-worth.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Early intervention services are most effective if they begin at about age three.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Although more costly in the long run, early intervention programs are also more effective.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Early intervention services may be offered in community settings to provide comprehensive services using developmental and therapeutic models to meet the needs of young children.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Special education teachers fill multiple roles in schools, including collaborator, consultant, and coordinator.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. An Education for All approach to teaching and learning is counter to the hallmark of individualization in special education.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. The definition of assistive technology includes only high tech devices, such as computers or digital textbooks.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Curriculum-based assessment focuses on measuring critical skills that serve as benchmarks of student progress.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Define the term inclusive education.

 

ANSWER:                                     Inclusive education may be defined as placing students with disabilities in a general

 

education setting within their neighborhood school, while making available both formal and natural supports to ensure an appropriate educational experience.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.01 – Define inclusive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. What is the difference between full and partial inclusion?

 

ANSWER:                                     In full inclusion the student with a disability receives all instruction and support in the

 

general education classroom, and the services come to the student. In partial inclusion, the student receives most instruction in the general education setting but is pulled out for specialized services for a portion of the day.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.01 – Define inclusive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. Define multidisciplinary collaboration.

 

ANSWER:                                     Multidisciplinary collaboration occurs when professionals, parents, and students work

 

together to achieve the mutual goal of delivering an effective education program designed to meet individual needs. It is not about what those involved do, but how they do it.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. Describe two of the characteristics of effective collaboration in inclusive schools.

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Parents are viewed as active partners; 2) Team members share responsibility; 3)

 

Individual roles are clearly understood and valued; 4) Team members promote peer support and cooperative learning.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

 

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  1. List three of the required components of the Individualized Family Support Plan (IFSP) as required in IDEA 2004.

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Infant’s present levels of performance; 2) Family resources, priorities, and concerns;

 

  • Measurable results or outcomes to be achieved as well as criteria, procedures, and timelines used to determine progress; 4) Description of specific early intervention services; 5) The natural environment in which the intervention services are needed and an explanation of any services not delivered in the natural environment; 6) Projected dates and timelines for service delivery; 7) Identification of service coordinator; 8) Transition planning

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. Describe the roles of special education teachers in inclusive classrooms.

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Collaborator; 2) Consultant; 3) Coordinator; 4) Co-teacher

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Describe the role of the general educator in an inclusive classroom setting.

 

ANSWER: Specific roles for general educators in working collaboratively with special education
and related services personnel include
identifying and referring students who may be in need of additional support to
succeed in an inclusive setting;
understanding each student’s individual strengths and limitations, and the effects
on learning;
implementing an appropriate individualized education program that is focused on
supporting student success in the general education curriculum;
communicating and collaborating with the special education teacher; and
initiating and maintaining ongoing communication with parents.
REFERENCES: Bloom’s: Understanding
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –
Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom
setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance
learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. List three models that have been validated as effective practice in inclusive classrooms.

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Multitiered System of Support (RTI); 2) Universal Design for Learning and Adaptive

 

instruction; 3) Differentiated instruction; 4) Assistive technology; 5) Curriculum-based assessment/measurement

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Discuss a rationale for providing early intervention services to infants and toddlers at risk.

 

ANSWER:                                     The early experiences of infants and children who are at risk provide the basis for

 

subsequent learning, growth, and development. These first years of life are critical to the overall development of children, including those defined as at risk. Moreover, studies have indicated that early stimulation is critical to the later development of language, intelligence, personality, and a sense of self-worth. There are several rationales for providing early intervention services to infants and toddlers at risk: (1) the importance of early environmental interactions; (2) the prevention of deterioration of the at-risk condition; (3) the needs of families of children who are disabled or at risk; and (4) the benefits of early intervention to society.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

  1. Discuss the guiding principles for the use of Developmentally Appropriate Practices.

 

ANSWER:                                     The guiding principles as outlined by NAEYC are 1) create a caring community of

 

learners; 2) teach to enhance development and learning; 3) construct an appropriate curriculum; 4) assess children’s learning and development; and 5) establish reciprocal relationships with families.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Distinguish between a tiered system of support and universal design. Describe the difference between the three characteristics of evidence based instruction, individualization, intensive instruction, and an “education for all” approach to teaching and learning.

 

ANSWER:                                                Individualization: A student-centered approach to instructional decision making.

 

The defining hallmark of special education has always been individualization—

 

developing and implementing an appropriate educational experience based on the

 

individual needs of each student.

 

Intensive instruction: Frequent instructional experiences of significant duration.

 

The instructional approach of intensive instruction involves (1) actively engaging

 

students in their learning by requiring high rates of appropriate response to the

 

material presented, (2) carefully matching instruction to student ability, interests,

 

and skill level, (3) providing instructional cues and prompts to support learning and

 

then fading them when appropriate, and (4) providing detailed feedback that is

 

directly focused on the task the student is expected to complete. Intensive

 

instruction may involve both group and one-to-one learning.

 

An “education for all” approach to teaching and learning: Developing and

adapting instruction to meet the needs of every student. Not every student learns

 

in the same way or at the same rate. Some students do not learn as quickly or as

 

efficiently as their classmates and are constantly fighting a battle against time and

 

failure. Despite these challenges, however, all students, including those with

 

disabilities, can learn the required skills that will orient them toward striving for

 

success rather than fighting against failure. Success can be achieved only when

 

educators remain flexible, constantly adjusting to meet the needs of their students.

 

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. ​_____ is an approach characterized by all supports and services coming to the student in a general education classroom.

 

  1. ​Full inclusion

 

  1. ​Partial inclusion

 

  1. ​Mainstreaming

 

  1. ​None of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.01 – Define inclusive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. ​An evidence-based inclusive school promotes

 

  1. ​harmony in the classroom between students with disabilities and their more typical peers.

 

  1. ​acceptance and belonging within a diverse culture.

 

  1. ​best educational practices in the general education classroom.

 

  1. ​academic success for students with disabilities.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. “Natural Supports” consist of:​

 

  1. ​highly effective teachers.

 

  1. ​related services personnel.

 

  1. ​the student’s family and classmates.

 

  1. ​paraprofessionals.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. The National Association of School Psychologists (2012) defines inclusive education as​

 

  1. ​the opportunity to attend the same school students would attend if not disabled.

 

  1. ​a classroom environment with a multicultural population and at least one student with a disability.

 

  1. ​the opportunity for students with disabilities to earn the same grades as their more typical peers.

 

  1. ​a general education classroom in which at least 5 percent of the students have some type of disability.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Celine is receiving support from qualified teachers and paraprofessionals, and has access to instructional materials adapted to her individual need. This is an example of​

 

  1. ​natural supports.

 

  1. ​formal supports.

 

  1. ​assistive technology.

 

  1. ​None of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. ​Your principal approaches you and asks if she can do anything to help support the inclusion of students with disabilities in the school. You respond

 

  1. ​encourage peer support and cooperative learning programs.

 

  1. ​discourage collaboration among general and special education teachers.

 

  1. ​encourage large group instruction and reduce emphasis on differentiated learning.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.02 – Describe the characteristics of evidence-based inclusive schools.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. _____ occurs when professionals come together to meet the needs of all students, including those with disabilities. ​

 

  1. ​Collaborative ethic

 

  1. ​Interdisciplinary teaching

 

  1. ​Bidisciplinary teaching

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. Effective collaboration means​

 

  1. ​parents are viewed as active partners in the process.

 

  1. ​the special education teacher has the primary responsibility for students with disabilities.

 

  1. ​there is little need for schoolwide assistance teams to support classroom teachers.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. Cooperative learning has primarily been successful in​

 

  1. ​creating learning opportunities for students with disabilities but has been ineffective for nondisabled students.

 

  1. ​teaching social skills to students but not reading or math.

 

  1. ​creating learning opportunities for both students with or without disabilities.

 

  1. ​None of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.03 – Define multidisciplinary collaboration and identify its key characteristics.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Cooperative learning has been successful in teaching academic and social interaction

 

skills to students with and without disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Which law assured a free and appropriate public education to every eligible child with a disability between three and five years of age?​

 

  1. ​Americans with Disabilities Act

 

  1. ​Handicapped Children’s Early Education Program

 

  1. ​Public Law 99-457

 

  1. ​Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. Goals for early intervention programs may include​

 

  1. ​lessening the long-term impact of the disability.

 

  1. ​communicating to parents exactly what they can expect from their child over time.

 

  1. ​helping professionals put a label on the child’s disability (such as mental retardation).

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Goals for early intervention programs include diminishing the effects of the disabling

 

condition on the child’s growth and development and preventing deterioration of the at-risk condition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Advocates for early intervention programs indicate that​

 

  1. ​it may be more costly in the long run to provide these services if the child isn’t mature enough to learn.

 

  1. ​timing is critical, the earlier the better.

 

  1. ​it is more effective to wait until the child reaches a certain developmental level to provide services.

 

  1. ​these services are more effective in a center-based setting than in the home.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                        Research suggests that the earlier the better in the delivery of early intervention

 

services. In the long run, early intervention may be less costly and more effective than providing services later in the individual’s life.

 

  1. Comprehensive services under Part C of IDEA 2004 include​

 

  1. ​family training.

 

  1. ​occupational and Physical Therapy.

 

  1. ​sign language and cued speech services.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. You are designing early intervention services for Cindy, an infant with Down syndrome. In order for your services to be most effective they should​

 

  1. ​target only the infant.

 

  1. ​target only the family.

 

  1. ​target the infant and the family.

 

  1. ​None of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

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  1. IDEA 2004 requires that the individualized family service plan include​

 

  1. ​family resources, priorities, and concerns relating to the development of the infant or toddler.

 

  1. ​requirements that services must be offered in center-based programs only.

 

  1. ​health services only until the child reaches age three.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. Adaptive fit refers to​

 

  1. ​the degree to which a student is able to cope with school requirements.

 

  1. ​the extent to which the school accommodates individual diversity.

 

  1. ​continuous negotiation between individual and environment in order to support mutual co-existence.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Adaptive fit is the compatibility between demands of a task or setting and a student’s

 

instructional needs and abilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. The five factors that contribute to successfully serving young children with disabilities in inclusive, community-based childcare settings include​

 

  1. ​child care providers willing to make inclusion work.

 

  1. ​continual problem solving with parents.

 

  1. ​access to emotional support and technical assistance.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for

 

young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c)

 

evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                        The five characteristics of successfully serving young children with disabilities in

 

inclusive, community-based settings include: 1) a willingness on the part of the child care provider to make inclusion work; 2) a realistic balance between the resources available in the program and the needs of the students; 3) continual problem solving with parents;

 

  • access to emotional supports and technical assistance from special educators and early intervention therapists; and 5) access to other supports, such as other child care providers, respite care providers, and houses of worship.

 

  1. Which of the following is an important characteristic of an effective consulting teacher?​

 

  1. ​Serve as a resource to general educators and to parents

 

  1. ​Ability to work independently

 

  1. ​Specialist in a specific instructional strategy

 

  1. ​Trained as a generalist

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with

 

families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities,

 

and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the

 

needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

NOTES:                                        Effective consultants must be able to serve as a resource to general educators and

 

parents on effective instructional practices for students with disabilities and may provide expertise in content areas (such as effective reading approaches) or problem-solving skills (such as strategies for motivating students).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. ​Davis’s teacher has assigned the class to complete some two digit addition problems. The assignment is to complete each of the problems on the board, to draw a picture representation of four of the problems, and to create an addition problem. After assigning the task to the class, David’s teacher quietly tells him to complete half of the problems on the board and not to worry if his pictures are not colored; the important thing is to work the math calculations. This is an example of

 

  1. ​UDL.

 

  1. ​differentiated instruction.

 

  1. ​multilevel instruction.

 

  1. ​assistive technology.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.05 –

 

Describe the special and general education teachers’ roles in an inclusive classroom

 

setting, and identify the characteristics of evidence-based instruction that enhance

 

learning for all students.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Discuss the comprehensive intervention services that are to be provided through Part C of IDEA 2004.​

 

ANSWER:                                     Comprehensive intervention services are broad in scope. These include:

 

* Family training, counseling, and home visits

 

* Special instruction

 

* Speech and language instruction

 

* Occupational and physical therapy

 

* Psychological testing and counseling

 

* Diagnostic and evaluate medical services

 

* Service coordination

 

* Early identification, screening, and assessment services

 

* Health services necessary to enable the infant or toddler to benefit from the other

 

early intervention services

 

* Transportation and related costs as necessary to ensure child and family receive

 

appropriate services

 

* Sign language and cued speech services.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Discuss the provisions of the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP).​

 

ANSWER:                                     The IFSP includes goals and objectives for the young child with disabilities and for the

 

family. The IFSP must contain statements pertaining to 1) the child’s present levels of development (cognitive, speech/language, psychosocial, motor, and self-help); 2) the family’s concerns, priorities, and resources related to enhancing the child’s development; 3) major outcomes expected to be achieved for the child and family and the criteria, procedures, and time frames for determining progress; 4) specific early intervention services necessary to meet the unique needs of the child and the family; 5) projected dates for initiation of services and expected duration; 6) the case manager who will be responsible for implementing the plan; and 7) procedures for transition from early intervention into a preschool program.​

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.03.04 – Describe (a) the importance of early intervention services for young children and families, (b) how Part C of IDEA supports these services, and (c) evidence-based early childhood instructional approaches.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Multicultural education evolved due to

 

  1. societal unrest due to poverty and economic recession.

 

  1. the realization that such students learn better when segregated for academics.

 

  1. a belief that the academic needs of students are best supported when teachers understand students.

 

  1. the emergence of federal funding to support the NCAA.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.04 – Describe how these population trends affect public education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                         English as a second language (ESL)/bilingual education and culturally and linguistically

 

responsive education evolved from a belief that the academic needs of children whose linguistic or cultural backgrounds differed from those of the majority are best supported when we understand who they are, what they and their families bring to the education enterprise, and how this knowledge influences our instructional decision making

 

  1. A major resistance to bilingual or multilingual educational programs in schools is based on which of the following assumptions?

 

  1. Cultural differences have no value.

 

  1. Schools are not relevant in society at large.

 

  1. Schools cannot change and promote attitudes.

 

  1. English should be taught quickly to students.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL

 

education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                         While we have solid research that bilingual or multilingual educational programs work

 

very well for our EBLs, there are two major reasons why U.S. school systems in general have resisted this approach. First, there are strongly held beliefs that people coming to the U.S. speaking languages other than English should learn English and that this should be a relatively quick process. The second reason is that these types of programs are generally feasible only with large linguistically similar groups of students. In addition, finding teachers who are dual immersion trained is also an issue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Modified cultural pluralism is the view that schools

 

  1. preserve the characteristics of groups and promote interactions between groups.

 

  1. should ignore cultural differences.

 

  1. should not push a melting pot perspective.

 

  1. should not encourage assimilation.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL

 

education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                        The theory of a modified cultural pluralism encourages the idea of cultural groups

 

retaining their unique characteristics but also building relationships across cultures.

 

  1. What is the purpose of promoting cultural pluralism?

 

  1. to teach all students about cultural diversity and how to work together to create a richer society

 

  1. to allow students to learn only what their culture values

 

  1. to require teachers to understand and speak multiple languages

 

  1. to provide a method for categorizing students for classroom placement

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL

 

education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                         Cultural pluralism promotes the philosophy that collaboration among multiple cultures

 

creates a stronger, more unified citizenry that can contribute both socially and economically to the well-being of a community and country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Which of the following terms describes the number of people in a given population with a specific characteristic?

 

  1. Prevalence

 

  1. Disproportionality

 

  1. Overrepresentation

 

  1. Underrepresentation

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Overrepresentation means

 

  1. there is too much cultural diversity in schools today.

 

  1. there is a higher percentage of students in within a specified setting than expected based on the population.

 

  1. there is an increasing number of students in special education.

 

  1. students from culturally diverse backgrounds have a higher attendance rate.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple

 

methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

NOTES:                                        Overrepresentation is the overrepresentation or underrepresentation of a specific

 

cultural or ethnic group within a specified setting when compared to the percentage of their representation or prevalence in the general population.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Poverty is found more often in what populations?

 

  1. Mainstream populations

 

  1. Diverse cultural and linguistic populations

 

  1. Ethnic populations

 

  1. Mainstream, diverse cultural and linguistic, and ethnic populations

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Poverty is found more often in CLDL populations than in mainstream populations and is

 

also associated with higher risk of academic problems

 

  1. Students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and poverty are

 

  1. not at risk for educational difficulties.

 

  1. at a higher risk for educational difficulties.

 

  1. sure to receive special education services.

 

  1. not going to receive special education services.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Poverty is found more often in CLDL populations than in mainstream populations and is

 

also associated with higher risk of academic problems

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Culturally responsive early intervention programs provided benefits for students in

 

  1. academic performance.

 

  1. cognitive development.

 

  1. general physical health.

 

  1. academic performace, cognitive development, and general physical health.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. José is a second grader with limited English proficiency, and he has begun to show serious academic difficulties as the year progresses. The overall population of emergent bilingual learners at his school is low. He is ________to receive special education.

 

  1. less likely b. more likely

 

  1. unable d. ineligible

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.04 – Describe how these population trends affect public education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Measurement bias refers to _____ for students from culturally diverse backgrounds.

 

  1. the type of test used

 

  1. inaccurate test results

 

  1. how the test results are used

 

  1. whether the test is administered by a psychologist or by a teacher

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple

 

methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

NOTES:                                         Measurement bias produces errors during the testing, leading to unfair or inaccurate test

 

results that do not reflect the student’s actual abilities or skills.

 

  1. Funds of knowledge refers to

 

  1. multidisciplinary collaboration that is culturally responsive.

 

  1. experiences and knowledge parents and children bring to educational settings.

 

  1. monetary resources for learning.

 

  1. resources that help bridge gaps in building productive and satisfactory relationships

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Funds of knowledge are what parents and children bring from their own experiences

 

and knowledge. Funds of knowledge is a contributor to school success and encompasses the belief that all families are competent and have important and valuable knowledge based on their life experiences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Ajla, a non-English-speaking student has just been moved into your resource classroom. Reading through her file, which indicates she has a moderate learning disability, you notice that her language diversity was not considered during her assessment or educational planning. Ajla has

 

  1. received a multicultural education.

 

  1. been appropriately placed.

 

  1. not been appropriately placed.

 

  1. received culturally appropriate assessment.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Appropriate professional preparation includes training in

 

  1. culturally and linguistically responsive practices.

 

  1. avoidance of cultural concerns.

 

  1. reducing the strategies used in the classroom.

 

  1. refusing to offer intensive special education assistance.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Recognizing and understanding personal attitudes and students’ background knowledge to strengthen new learning experiences is the focus of

 

  1. discriminatory assessment.

 

  1. authentic assessment.

 

  1. culturally and linguistically responsive teaching.

 

  1. funds of knowledge.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

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  1. You are beginning the assessment process on May, a student new to your district. To get a better insight into the student, you should seek out valuable information including languages spoken at home, care outside of school and languages they speak, and activities. These can all

 

  1. confuse assessment data. b. aid in assessment administration.

 

  1. aid in assessment interpretation. d. aid in assessment administration and aid in assessment interpretation.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. The language barrier and lack of knowledge about American public schooling of a child’s parents does not influence

 

  1. their ability to fully participate in the child’s learning.

 

  1. interactions with school personnel and related systems.

 

  1. the manner is which parents are involved.

 

  1. if a child has a disability .

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         The language barrier and lack of knowledge about American public schooling make it

 

extremely difficult for these parents to fully benefit from public education, thus impacting their right to fully participate in and support their children’s learning and development.

 

  1. U.S. public education reflects the philosophy of

 

  1. cultural majority. b. linguistic minority

 

  1. cultural minority. d. linguistic minority.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

 

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  1. What is the primary focus of an IEP for a student from a culturally diverse background?

 

  1. Individual needs of the child b. Language instruction

 

  1. Decreasing cultural diversity d. Academic skills

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s:Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.06 – Describe culturally and linguistically responsive special education that supports student learning for CLDLs.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Intervention strategies that consider multicultural issues must be based on the individual

 

needs of the child.

 

  1. Susana recently moved to the United States from Spain. Her teacher has asked her to help with a lesson on Spanish history by having her tell the class about significant Spanish landmarks. This is an example of using

 

  1. responsive teaching.

 

  1. an instructional distraction.

 

  1. a tool for singling out culturally diverse students.

 

  1. inappropriate instruction.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.01 – Describe how the lives of students with disabilities from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds have changed since the advent of IDEA.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Impoverished environments may affect children because of

 

  1. inadequate nutrition. b. lack of TV.

 

  1. language diversity. d. genotypic deficiency.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

NOTES:                                         Because of environmental factors, such as nutrition, exposure to risk, and limited health

 

care, a child from an impoverished environment may be adversely affected.

 

  1. Language acquisition is aided by

 

  1. speaking only one language. b. discounting basic interpersonal

 

communication skills.

 

  1. the amount and type of language interactions between the d. limiting linguistic experiences.

 

child and parents.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.04 – Describe how these population trends affect public education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Because all learning is language-based, vocabulary knowledge is a critical element of

 

the language development and school readiness of young children. Subsequently, another major risk factor for school success in children from poverty, no matter their race, gender, or ethnic group, is their reduced number of language interactions with parents and others.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Moving from city to city can affect a child’s

 

  1. continuity of service. b. academic progress.

 

  1. ability to obtain services. d. continuity of service, academic progress, and ability to obtain services.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.04 – Describe how these population trends affect public education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe,

 

inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with

 

exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being,

 

positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple

 

methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

NOTES:                                         Migrancy poses significant challenges for children, families, and school systems, and

 

their learning. It is no wonder that migrant children experience major challenges in achieving solid school success and developing enduring relationships with peers, teachers, and other adults

 

  1. Which factor contributes to special education placement of students from culturally diverse backgrounds?

 

  1. Family mobility b. Maternal language deficiencies

 

  1. Lack of desire to learn d. Health factors such as toxoplasmosis

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational

 

knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards

 

to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their

 

profession.

 

NOTES:                                         Migrancy may create little access to services because of short-term enrollments that

 

they are never identified or referred as needing specialized assistance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Most children from culturally diverse backgrounds

 

  1. require special education.

 

  1. do not require special education.

 

  1. require language instruction and special education.

 

  1. cannot not be served in general education.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

HESC.HARD.17.05.07 – Identify promising changes in public education that support

 

culturally and linguistically diverse learners with disabilities.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         Most children from culturally diverse backgrounds do not require special education.

 

Although many factors may place such students at risk for special education referral, general education may meet their needs.

 

  1. Modified cultural pluralism is the idea that cultural groups maintain their unique characteristics while working across culture groups to build relationships.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.06 – Describe culturally and linguistically responsive special education that supports student learning for CLDLs.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. The melting pot perspective reflects the goals of multicultural education.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL

 

education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. Authentic assessments should not be used when making educational decisions for emergent bilingual learners.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

  1. Students who have limited English proficiency are at risk for being disproportionally placed in special education.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

 

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  1. Authentic assessment, or performance based assessment, can be a way to reduce bias when determining a student’s cognitive or language abilities.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.07 – Identify promising changes in public education that support culturally and linguistically diverse learners with disabilities.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

  1. Parents of children with disabilities who are from culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds have several advantages in interacting with the l education system in schools.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.04 – Describe how these population trends affect public education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Migrancy among culturally diverse populations may contribute to academic difficulties.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Students from culturally diverse backgrounds must always have an IEP.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.01 – Describe how the lives of students with disabilities from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds have changed since the advent of IDEA.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Most students from culturally different backgrounds will not require special education intervention.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.01 – Describe how the lives of students with disabilities from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds have changed since the advent of IDEA.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. Cultural or linguistic diversity do not have linking factors with special education.

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.04 – Describe how these population trends affect public education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. What supports will emergent bilingual learner need in schools?

 

ANSWER:                                     There is a need to provide linguistically appropriate assessments and instruction in

 

classrooms and many will require a substantial amount of supplementary assistance and support for language development, especially academic language development.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL

 

education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

HESC.HARD.17.05.07 – Identify promising changes in public education that support

 

culturally and linguistically diverse learners with disabilities.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. What is the overarching focus of culturally responsive education?

 

ANSWER:                                     The CRT model is vitally important to understanding children in the context of their

 

families. CRT focuses on the strengths, prior knowledge, and experiences of learners and their families to create rich learning environments, one of the most important elements in providing successful interventions is gathering information in a culturally responsive way by learning who the family and child are without prejudice.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

HESC.HARD.17.05.07 – Identify promising changes in public education that support

 

culturally and linguistically diverse learners with disabilities.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

United States – CEC.6.0 – Beginning special education professionals use foundational knowledge of the field and their professional Ethical Principles and Practice Standards to inform special education practice, to engage in lifelong learning, and to advance their profession.

 

  1. Describe how language diversity may contribute to assessment difficulties with students who are from a variety of cultures.

 

ANSWER:                                     When trying to decide whether a child has a language disability, professionals often

 

mistakenly identify the child as needing special education services when in fact the issue is a language learning issue. This can happen because of a lack of knowledge about the difference between language learning and language deficits.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Identify two ways in which assessment may contribute to the overrepresentation of culturally diverse students in special education programs.

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Test bias; 2) Assessment errors; 3) Measurement bias.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Describe some factors that interfere with parent involvement in the education of their children.

 

ANSWER:                                     These factors may include a lack of understanding about culture and processes of public

 

education in the United States, past negative experiences with education personnel, a perception that their involvement might place them at risk for legal action, a reluctance to attend events that do not attend to their needs for interpretation, and potentially unwelcoming school environments.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. Briefly explain the process of culturally responsive teaching.

 

ANSWER:                                     The process includes; 1) recognized personal attitudes towards differing cultural groups,

 

  • understanding and using student’s strengths, and funds of knowledge to build new learning experiences, 3) creating a caring classroom community, 4) building strong relationships with students and their families, and 5) hold students accountable for their own learning.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Describe how differing sociocultural customs may affect parental involvement in the educational process.

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Parents from some cultural backgrounds may view special assistance differently from

 

the way educational institutions do. 2) Some parents may be reluctant to take an active role. 3) Certain behaviors that may suggest a disabling condition that calls for special education are viewed as normal by some cultures.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Describe how migrancy can contribute to the academic difficulties for children.

 

ANSWER:                                     Migrancy presents a serious difficulty in that it interrupts the continuity of schooling and

 

has an impact on learning, teacher and peer relationships, and general academic progress. Children from migrant families have limited continuity and considerable inconsistency in educational programming. They often have limited access to services due to their short-term enrollments or the school’s limited capabilities to deliver services.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. List the beliefs and assumptions of multicultural education according to the text.

 

 

ANSWER:                                     Cultural differences have strength and value.

 

Schools should be models for the expression of human rights and respect for cultural

 

differences.

 

Social justice [fairness] and equal access [based on individual needs rather than the

 

same for all] for all people should be of paramount importance in the design and delivery

 

of curricula.

 

Attitudes and values necessary for the continuation of a democratic society can be

 

promoted in schools.

 

Schooling can provide the knowledge, skills, and dispositions—and the values, attitudes,

 

and commitments—to help students from diverse groups learn.

 

Educators working with families and communities can create an environment that is

 

supportive of multiculturalism [cultural responsiveness].

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL

 

education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Discuss factors that educational professionals must consider when developing and individual educational program for a children from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds.

 

ANSWER:                                     For all children identified for special education, the first consideration in developing an

 

individual education program (IEP) are the educational strengths and needs of the child as established by a collaborative team of professionals in concert with parents. Education professionals should avoid making conventional assumptions about a child’s cultural background, which means getting to know the child and their family well. IEPs written for children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds as well as the systematic monitoring of language and academic progress must accurately be attended to in an individualized fashion, perhaps even more so than for children with disabilities who come from the cultural majority. The guiding principle is that instruction for students with disabilities should take place in an environment as similar to that of the educational mainstream as possible, however, supplemental language or cultural instruction may be needed in addition. Collaboration is absolutely essential in creating supports and effective interventions for CLDLs with disabilities.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. ​Multicultural education is a concept that addresses cultural diversity and is based on which of the following assumptions?

 

  1. ​Cultural differences have no value.

 

  1. ​Schools are not relevant in society at large.

 

  1. ​Schools cannot change and promote attitudes.

 

  1. ​Schools must include recognition of the roles of many peoples.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. ​________ education values and promotes cultural pluralism or the cultural or linguistic differences of individuals and how those differences work together to create a richer society.

 

  1. ​Inclusional

 

  1. ​Multicultural

 

  1. ​Pluralistic

 

  1. ​Diversified

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. ​The idea of a modified cultural pluralism approach to multicultural education encourages the idea of various cultural groups retaining their separate identities within society as parts of a “patchwork quilt,” rather than giving way to the dominant culture as a(n) ________ that promotes assimilation or homogenization.

 

  1. ​merger

 

  1. ​one size fits all

 

  1. ​law of averages

 

  1. ​”melting pot”

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. ​Which of the following statements is accurate?

 

  1. ​Students from some cultural backgrounds are disproportionately placed in special education.

 

  1. ​A tension that exists between multicultural and special education is the role of educating students who are failing in general education.

 

  1. ​Asian/Pacific Islander students are underrepresented in special education, but overrepresented in gifted education.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Which of these statements about prevalence figures is true?​

 

  1. ​A high percentage of special education students are from culturally divergent backgrounds.

 

  1. ​There is no difference in dropout rates for minority youngsters.

 

  1. ​Students from culturally divergent backgrounds are equally represented in gifted and talented programs.

 

  1. ​Dropout rates are not associated with level of income.

 

ANSWER:                                     a

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how

 

exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to

 

provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with

 

exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                        A high percentage of all special education students are from culturally divergent

 

backgrounds. Concern is expressed regarding the overrepresentation of students of color in groups labeled as having disabilities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. ____________ is the over- or underrepresentation of a specific cultural group within a specified setting when compared to the percentage of representation or prevalence in the general population.​

 

  1. ​Presence

 

  1. ​Prevalence

 

  1. ​Disproportionality

 

  1. ​Proportionality

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. The increase of students from linguistically different backgrounds highlights the need for school districts to provide​

 

  1. ​special education.

 

  1. ​interpreters in classrooms.

 

  1. ​textbooks in every language.

 

  1. ​linguistically appropriate instruction.

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and

 

use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of

 

individuals with exceptionalities.

 

NOTES:                                         There is insufficient training of teachers in providing appropriate instruction for students

 

who are EBLs.

 

  1. Nondiscriminatory assessment seeks to eliminate​

 

  1. ​test bias.

 

  1. ​assessment bias.

 

  1. ​measurement errors.

 

  1. ​All of the answers are correct.

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

 

 

 

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  1. Which lawsuit addressed unfair assessment practices on behalf of African American students?​

 

  1. Brown v. Board of Education

 

  1. Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

 

  1. Lau v. Nichols

 

  1. Larry P. v. Riles

 

ANSWER:                                     d

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple

 

methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

NOTES:                                         Some educational and psychological assessments are based on standardized evaluation

 

of intellectual and social functioning and may discriminate or be biased against children from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. This issue was presented to the courts where determination was made that such evaluations were discriminatory to African-American students in Larry P. v. Riles, (1972, 1979).

 

  1. ​The case of Diana v. State Board of Education established which precedent that is very prominent in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)?

 

  1. ​Only psychologists from culturally divergent backgrounds should test minority youngsters.

 

  1. ​Although culturally biased, IQ tests can determine placement of minority youngsters in special education.

 

  1. ​Children tested for potential placement must be assessed in their native or primary language.

 

  1. ​Students from culturally divergent backgrounds are not eligible for special education services.

 

ANSWER:                                     c

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple

 

methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

NOTES:                                        Two prominent precedents in IDEA were established in the case of Diana v. State

 

Board of Education. They were: (1) that children tested for potential placement in special education must be assessed in their native or primary language, and (2) that children cannot be placed in special classes on the basis of culturally biased tests.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Jenny, a Speech and Language Pathologist, was assessing a student’s expressive language ability. The student was known to have limited English proficiency, so Jenny must ensure that _____ are not masking the child’s true abilities or the assessment would be invalid.​

 

  1. ​phoneme clusters

 

  1. ​language differences

 

  1. ​language disorders

 

  1. ​pragmatic problems

 

ANSWER:                                     b

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Applying

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.4.0 – Beginning special education professionals use multiple methods of assessment and data sources in making educational decisions.

 

  1. It can be said that general education, special education, and multicultural education share the same purpose.​

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     False

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. Students who have limited English proficiency are at risk for being disproportionally placed in special education. ​

 

  1. True

 

  1. False

 

ANSWER:                                     True

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. What is the overarching goal of multicultural education?​

 

ANSWER:                                     Multicultural education sees the school as a powerful tool for promoting cultural

 

differences and cultural pluralism. This may be seen as being at odds with the goals of general education.​

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. Describe culturally and linguistically responsive teaching (CRT).​

 

ANSWER:                                     CRT focuses on the strengths, prior knowledge, and experiences of the learner to create

 

an effective learning environment. ​

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.02 – Describe the purposes and approaches of bilingual/ESL education and culturally and linguistically responsive education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

  1. List two areas that need special attention in the development of an IEP for a student from a culturally diverse background.​

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Coordination of services and professionals, 2) Cultural stereotypes that should not be

 

perpetuated by inappropriate assumptions​

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.06 – Describe culturally and linguistically responsive special education that supports student learning for CLDLs.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.5.0 – Beginning special education professionals select, adapt, and use a repertoire of evidence-based instructional strategies to advance learning of individuals with exceptionalities.

 

  1. Describe how poverty can contribute to the academic difficulties of children from diverse backgrounds, often resulting in their referral to special education.​

 

ANSWER:                                     1) Disadvantaged prenatal development, 2) Environmental characteristics such as

 

malnutrition and the presence of toxic agents​

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Remembering

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

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  1. List the ways in which the cultural background of parents influences their reactions to a child with a disability.​

 

ANSWER:                                     Families from some cultures often have great difficulty accepting disabilities, and

 

religious beliefs and values tend to have a considerable impact on how well a culturally diverse family can accept a child’s disability. The extended family structures common in African American and Hispanic cultures are the foundation for differing beliefs regarding the provision of care from a larger community as well as anxieties about adjusting to the new or alien cultural influences that may be represented by special education. Parents of children with disabilities who are poor, who are from a minority background, and who have a primary language other than English face enormous disadvantages interacting with the special education system.​

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.05 – Identify ways that public schools can decrease the

 

disproportionality of culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CDLs) in special

 

education and significantly improve their education.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.7.0 – Beginning special education professionals collaborate with families and other educators, related services providers, individuals with exceptionalities, and personnel from community agencies in culturally responsive ways to address the needs of individuals with exceptionalities across a range of learning experiences.

 

  1. What five major elements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (I.D.E.A.) are relevant to multicultural education? Briefly describe each of these elements.​

 

ANSWER:                                     The four major elements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

 

relevant to multicultural education are as follows: (1) nondiscriminatory and multidisciplinary assessment; (2) parental involvement in developing each child’s educational program; (3) education in the least restrictive environment; (4) a free and appropriate public education; and (5) an individualized education plan.

 

Two precedents that are prominent in IDEA were established in the case of Diana v. State Board of Education. They were (1) that children tested for potential placement in special education must be assessed in their native or primary language and (2) that children cannot be placed in special classes on the basis of culturally biased tests. In order to prevent discriminatory evaluation practices, IDEA includes several safeguards against discriminatory assessment. To comply with the law, students must be tested in their native or primary language whenever possible. The evaluation procedures used must be selected and administered to prevent cultural or racial discrimination, and assessment tools must be validated for the purpose for which they are being used. Finally, evaluation should involve a multidisciplinary team using several sources of information to formulate a placement decision. To place these safeguards in a proper context, it is necessary to discuss the assessment process generally and examine how cultural bias can occur.

 

Parental involvement in the educational process is specifically provided for by IDEA, and parents have the right to a variety of levels of participation. However, it should be noted that these rights are based on certain assumptions. Perhaps the most fundamental assumption is that parents are proactive and inclined to challenge the school if their child is not being treated properly. While this is true for many parents of children in special education, the assumption is not universally a good one. Many parents are reluctant or afraid to interact with the educational system in any way but a passive manner. Most professional educators agree that parental involvement in the educational process is beneficial. This is one reason that legislators included such participation as a major

 

 

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element in IDEA. What is not considered in this perspective, however, is that all parents do not view the educational system in the same way. For whatever reasons, some parents may not interact effectively with the schools. It is possible that some parents may be misinterpreting behaviors that reflect differing cultural mores. People from divergent cultures view the world from a variety of perspectives, and participation in matters such as planning their child’s education may not be viewed similarly by all cultures.

 

Education in the least restrictive environment (LRE) involves a wide variety of placement options. The guiding principle is that instruction should take place in an environment that is as similar to that of the educational mainstream as possible. IDEA required that students with disabilities be taught in settings with non-disabled peers to the maximum extent appropriate. For the child who is culturally diverse who is also receiving appropriate special education services, the same is true. However, some unique circumstances arise that require additional attention. Exceptional children who also have language differences may well require further consideration, since they may also receive assistance from bilingual education staff. In some cases, the language instruction may be incorporated into other teaching that focuses on remediation of a learning problem. In situations where the disability is more severe or the language difference is extreme (perhaps little or no English proficiency), the student may be placed in a separate setting for a portion of the instructional time.

 

IDEA requires the development of an individualized education plan (IEP) for each student with a disability. Most school districts have considerable experience in this process. However, addressing the needs of a child with cultural and/or linguistic differences will present an additional challenge. Depending on the student’s background and capabilities, he or she may need remediation for a specific learning disability, catch-up work in academic subjects, and instruction in English as a second language. The IEP must consider cultural factors, such as language differences, as well as learning and behavior problems. FAPE is ensured when the other elements are appropriate.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Analyzing

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.01 – Describe how the lives of students with disabilities from culturally and/or linguistically diverse backgrounds have changed since the advent of IDEA.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.2.0 – Beginning special education professionals create safe, inclusive, culturally responsive learning environments so that individuals with exceptionalities become active and effective learners and develop emotional well-being, positive social interactions, and self-determination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  1. Living conditions can cause children from culturally different backgrounds to experience academic difficulties and to be referred to special education. Discuss two major contributors to the development of a child’s learning problem.​

 

ANSWER:                                     It is important to note that the study of culture and associated variables, such as poverty

 

and migrancy, is complicated when one attempts to identify simple causal relationships (e.g., depression occurs more frequently in people of certain ethnic backgrounds, which may be due to poverty, not culture). In many cases the study of race and culture involves complex and interacting variables that defy certain simple causative conclusions. As children develop during the important early years, living in an impoverished environment places them further at risk due to factors such as malnutrition, the presence of toxic agents (e.g., lead), and generally insufficient parental care. The conditions of poverty often contribute to poor academic performance, place children in at-risk situations, and generate special education referrals. For example, there is less access to adequate health care and particularly prenatal care, among cultural minorities, which can present at-risk circumstances. Conditions of poverty are found more often in populations having multicultural education needs and are associated with homelessness and academic risk.

 

Migrancy presents a serious difficulty in that it interrupts the continuity of schooling and has an impact on learning, teacher and peer relationships, and general academic progress. Children from migrant families have limited continuity and considerable inconsistency in educational programming. They often have limited access to services due to their short-term enrollments or the school’s limited capabilities to deliver services.

 

REFERENCES:                         Bloom’s: Understanding

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  HESC.HARD.17.05.03 – Describe population trends among culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially prevalence by race and ethnicity, speakers of other languages, poverty, and migrancy.

 

NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – CEC.1.0 – Beginning special education professionals understand how exceptionalities may interact with development and learning and use this knowledge to provide meaningful and challenging learning experiences for individuals with exceptionalities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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