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Introduction To Criminology Why Do They Do It? 1nd Edition By Pamela J. – Test Bank
Sample  Questions  

 

Schram, Introduction to Criminology  

Chapter 1

  1. Crimes that are considered “an act which is not inherently immoral, but become so because its commission is expressly forbidden by positive law” are called ________.

 

  1. mala in se

*b. mala prohibita

  1. illegal
  2. civil wrongs

 

General Feedback:

Page 1; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Once an offender is convicted and sentenced, they can be given all of the following EXCEPT:

 

  1. transferred to some type of community-based corrections facility

*b. parole

  1. probation
  2. incarcerated

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The _________ has been used to collect information annually on the use of illegal drugs by individuals in the United States and is one of the largest surveys of drug use ever conducted in the United States.

 

*a. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

  1. Monitoring the Future
  2. National Youth Gang Survey
  3. National Youth Survey

 

General Feedback:

Page 18; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. As social constructs change, some acts move from being deemed ________ to being declared _________, such as cell phone use while driving.

 

  1. legal; deviant
  2. illegal; deviant
  3. deviant; legal

*d. deviant; illegal

 

General Feedback:

Page 3; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. Participating law enforcement agencies are required to report on officers who are killed or assaulted and meet all of the following criteria EXCEPT:

 

  1. being paid from governmental funds allocated for payment of sworn law enforcement representatives

*b. wearing a uniform, with or without a badge

  1. working in an official capacity
  2. having full arrest powers

 

General Feedback:

Page 15; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. According to conflict perspective, conflict is often resolved when the group in power achieves _________.

 

*a. control

  1. rank
  2. order
  3. status

 

General Feedback:

Page 4; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. When other factors (Z) are actually causing two variables (X and Y) to occur at the same time. When this happens, it may appear that as if X is causing Y, when in fact they are both being caused by Z.

 

  1. covariation
  2. temporal ordering
  3. correlation

*d. spuriousness

 

General Feedback:

Page 28; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The general purpose of the criminal justice system includes all of the following EXCEPT:

 

  1. control crime
  2. prevent crime

*c. community support

  1. provide and maintain justice

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________ conditions of probation are those that require the offender to regularly report to their supervising officer, obey the laws, submitting to searches, and not possessing a firearm or using drugs.

 

*a. general

  1. shock
  2. specific
  3. supervision

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Courts of ____________ jurisdiction do not have power that extends to the overall administration of justice; thus, they do not try felony cases and do not have appellate authority.

 

*a. limited

  1. appellate
  2. general
  3. concurrent

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The term criminal justice often refers to all of the following EXCEPT:

 

  1. corrections

*b. investigations

  1. police
  2. courts

 

General Feedback:

Page 3; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _________ is an example of residential sanctions (alternatives to jail or prison sentences).

 

  1. electronic monitoring
  2. day reporting centers
  3. house arrest

*d. halfway houses

 

General Feedback:

Page 7; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. All of the following are types of prisons EXCEPT:

 

  1. maximum

*b. standard

  1. supermax
  2. medium

 

General Feedback:

Page 7; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The term criminology was first coined by ___________.

 

*a. Raffaele Garafalo

  1. Paul Topinard
  2. Edwin Sutherland
  3. Joanne Belknap

 

General Feedback:

Page 3; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The ___________ case ruled that the standard of proof in juvenile delinquency proceedings is proof beyond a reasonable doubt.

 

  1. In re Gault

*b. In re Winship

  1. Kent v. United States

 

General Feedback:

      Page 8; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The state police have the additional function of _________ as compared to highway patrol.

 

  1. enforcing state laws

*b. the development of intelligence units

  1. investigating crimes in their jurisdiction
  2. motor vehicle operations

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

 

 

  1. All of the following are considered federal law enforcement agencies EXCEPT:

 

  1. U.S. Secret Service
  2. U.S. Marshals Service
  3. Drug Enforcement Administration

*d. Special Weapons and Tactics Teams

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The federal court stem is a three-tired model including all of the following EXCEPT:

 

*a. U.S. claims court

  1. U.S. Supreme Court
  2. U.S. district courts
  3. U.S. courts of appeals

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Courts of ____________ jurisdiction are limited in their jurisdiction decisions on matters of appeal from lower courts and trial courts.

 

  1. limited

*b. appellate

  1. general

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. In 2002, President George W. Bush created the ______________ in an effort to protect and defend the United States from terrorist threats.

 

  1. Drug Enforcement Administration

*b. Department of Homeland Security

  1. Federal Bureau of Investigation
  2. U.S. Secret Service

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. _____________ postulates that the influence of close peer groups or other role models may cause criminality.

 

  1. social structure theory

*b. differential association theory

  1. Chicago Area Project theory
  2. disorganized theory

 

General Feedback:

Page 29; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The predictor variable X is also known as the __________ variable.

 

  1. spurious

*b. independent

  1. control
  2. dependent

 

General Feedback:

Page 26; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. According to UCR data, violent crime in the United States has _________ in 5 and 10 year pattern comparisons.

 

  1. the UCR cannot determine violent crime trends
  2. stayed the same
  3. increased

*d. decreased

 

General Feedback:

Page 22; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. ____________ surveys 8th, 10th, and 12thgrade students about substance and alcohol use to develop patterns.

 

  1. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse

*b. Monitoring the Future

  1. National Youth Gang Survey
  2. National Youth Survey

 

General Feedback:

Page 17; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Social science is a difficult field in terms of establishing _________ in relation to postulated theories.

 

*a. causality

  1. temporal ordering
  2. spuriousness
  3. covariation

 

General Feedback:

Page 28; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, evaluation

 

 

  1. Individuals awaiting trial are housed in prisons.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; they are housed in jails; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. An example of a mala prohibita crime is prostitution.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 1; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application

 

 

  1. Almost all federal agencies have some police power, with the exception of the Postal Service and the Forest Service.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; these agencies do have police power; Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

 

 

  1. One major advantage to using the National Crime Victims Survey data is it provides insight into the dark figure of crime.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 16; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. Deviant acts are against the law or considered illegal.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 1; deviant acts are not illegal but atypical; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Ensuring that predictor variable (X) comes before an explanatory variable (Y) is termed correlation.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 26; this is termed temporal ordering; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. According to the text, journalists play a key role in examining crime by exploring what is happening in criminal justice and revealing injustices as well as new forms of crime.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 3; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application

 

 

  1. When a judge combines probation and incarceration it is called shock incarceration.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. The question, “Why are some behaviors defined as criminal while others are not?” is considered part of the conflict perspective.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 4; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 amended the original act to include crimes based on only physical disabilities, which should also be viewed as hate crimes.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 14; should also include mental disabilities; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Statutory exclusion provisions exclude certain juvenile offenders from juvenile court jurisdiction; cases originate in criminal rather than juvenile court.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 9; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. Conflict perspective believes that people obey laws not for fear of punishment but, rather, because they have internalized societal norms and values and perceive these laws as appropriate to observe rather than disobey.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 4; This is consensus perspective; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The earliest form of state police agency to emerge in the United States was the Texas Rangers.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Courts of general jurisdiction have the power and authority to try and decide any case, including appeals from lower courts.

 

*a. True

  1. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. The United States has one judicial system.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; There are 52 different judicial systems; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Highway patrol can investigate any major crime in the state they operate within.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 5; they can only investigate those on state highways or state property; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Every court, not including the U.S. Supreme Court, is limited in terms of jurisdiction.

 

  1. True

*b. False

 

General Feedback:

Page 6; even the U.S. Supreme Court is limited; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension

 

 

  1. Give an example of a mala in se act.

 

Correct Answer:

murder
Page 1; Bloom’s Taxonomy: application

 

 

  1. The text states that it is important to realize that criminal behavior does not occur in a vacuum. What does this mean?

 

Correct Answer:

criminal activity is not outside of society, but is part of it and various aspects of society intersect with criminal behavior, such as class and gender
Page 2; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application

 

 

  1. Criminology is not only the study of crime, but also what?

 

Correct Answer:

reasons why people engage or don’t engage in criminal behavior
Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

 

 

  1. Who generally operates jails (two entities)?

 

Correct Answer:

counties and municipalities
Page 7; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. What are the two (2) models of state police departments?

 

Correct Answer:

state police and highway patrol
Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. What is a judicial waiver?

 

Correct Answer:

the authority to waive juvenile court jurisdiction and transfer the case to criminal court
Page 8; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Give an example of a deviant act that is not illegal.

 

Correct Answer:

belching in public, coughing without covering your mouth, putting your elbows on the table at a meal, etc.
Page 3; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, synthesis

 

 

  1. What is the primary law enforcement office for most counties?

 

Correct Answer:

county sheriff
Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Probation is an arrangement between what 2 entities or individuals?

 

Correct Answer:

sentencing authorities and offender
Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge

 

 

  1. Why is measuring crime necessary according to the text (list two of the three reasons)?

 

Correct Answer:

describing crime, explaining why crime occurs, evaluating programs and policies
Page 11; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, evaluation

 

 

  1. Give one (1) example of a specific condition that could be imposed upon an individual on probation.

 

Correct Answer:

house arrest, urine testing, methadone maintenance, vocational training, psychological or psychiatric treatment
Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application, analysis

 

 

  1. Why is the United States judicial system referred to as a dual court system?

 

Correct Answer:

separate but interrelated systems of federal and state courts
Page 6; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, analysis

 

 

  1. Where do the duties of state police and highway patrol overlap?

 

Correct Answer:

Traffic regulation and enforce laws on public roads and highways
Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: evaluation, analysis

 

 

  1. Explain how some mala prohibita acts are not necessarily viewed as highly deviant.

 

Correct Answer:

Even though these acts may be considered illegal, they may not be deviant, as in the case with speeding or minor traffic violations. This is the case because many people engage in these acts and do not see them as necessarily wrong or deviant.
Page 3; Bloom’s Taxonomy: evaluation, application

 

 

  1. Explain what comparative criminology is and how it is used.

 

Correct Answer:

Comparative criminology is the study of crime across various cultures to identify similarities and differences in crime patterns. This is used to compare crime rates across nations and countries. This helps us determine the nature and extend of crime across different societies and different criminal justice systems.
Page 10; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, analysis

 

 

  1. Mapping crimes (part of spatial analysis) can provide information on four different things. Name two (2) of the four (4). Which of the four are the most important?

 

Correct Answer:

location, distance, direction, pattern; most important: location
Page 20; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

 

 

  1. According to several criminologists, we should shift focus from explaining criminal behavior to explaining criminal law. Do you believe this to be true? Why or why not?

 

Correct Answer:

Student should give original answer as to why we should focus on explaining criminal law. This may be along the lines of understanding process by which certain behaviors and individuals are designated as criminal.
Page 4; Bloom’s Taxonomy: synthesis, evaluation

 

 

  1. Why is defining crime a difficult task? Give your definition of crime and give two (2) examples to illustrate your definition.

 

Correct Answer:

scholars disagree on what should be considered a crime; it could be anything that violates a law or that causes harm; student will give their definition of crime and 2 examples to illustrate their point
Page 1; Bloom’s Taxonomy: synthesis, analysis

 

 

  1. Explain what a mala prohibita crime is and how it differs from mala in se crimes. How do mala prohibita crimes differ around the world and why?

 

Correct Answer:

Mala prohibita crimes are not inherently immoral but become so because its commission is expressly forbidden by positive law. Mala in se crimes are inherently and essentially evil, like murder. Therefore, mala prohibita crimes differ all over the world. What is established as a crime in the United States may not be in another country because of differences in social norms and folkways.
Page 1; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, synthesis, application

 

 

  1. Explain the difference between consensus and conflict perspectives and how they relate to the formation of laws. How would each of these perspectives view the formation of a new law, such as a “no texting while driving” law?

 

Correct Answer:

Consensus perspective assumes virtually everyone is in agreement on the laws and therefore assumes no conflict in attitudes regarding the laws and rules of society. This perspective would view the formation of this new law as incorporating societal norms and that everyone agrees with the new law. Conflict perspective assumes most people disagree on what the law should be and that law is used as a tool by those in power to keep down other groups. This perspective would view the new law as a way to keep a group of the population down and that not everyone agrees with the new law.
Page 4; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, synthesis, analysis

 

 

  1. Why does the text state that local police are the nuts and bolts of law enforcement responsibilities? Is policing primarily reactive or proactive in nature? Give examples of each.

 

Correct Answer:

Local police investigate most crimes and engage in crime prevention activities such as patrol duties. They are also responsible for providing social services and responding to calls coming in for assistance from the public. Policing is primarily reactive in nature because society calls in to ask for their assistance on matters in the public. The student must give examples of a reactive and proactive activity. Proactive: community policing or holding community meetings; Reactive: responding to a call for assistance from an individual.
Page 5; Bloom’s Taxonomy: evaluation, analysis

 

 

  1. What is the difference between jails and prisons? Give two (2) examples of the kinds of offenses you would expect to find in each one.

 

Correct Answer:

Jails are designed to hold individuals convicted of minor crimes and house individuals awaiting trial. The types of offenses found here should be minor offenses, such as petty theft, traffic violations, or prostitution. Prisons are designed for more serious crimes with longer sentences. The types of offenses found here would be murder, rape, aggravated assault, etc.
Page 7-8; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

 

 

  1. How is the concept of parens patriae related to the juvenile justice system? Why do we, as a nation, treat juveniles differently then adults?

 

Correct Answer:

We treat juveniles differently because they are different not only physically but psychologically as well. The term parens patriae means the parent of the country, recognizing the state has both the right and obligation to intervene on behalf of and to protect its citizens who are impaired or have an impediment. Because juveniles lack psychological maturity, they fall within these boundaries.
Page 7-8; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, application

 

 

  1. Explain the similarities and differences between Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), Supplemental Homicide Reports (SHR), and National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS).

 

Correct Answer:

UCR- annual report published by FB in DOJ, which is meant to estimate most of the major street crimes in the United States, 7 main classifications of crime and placed into part 1 and 2 classifications, concentrates on conventional crimes, may have problems with clerical error or reporting issues
SHR- homicides less likely to be underreported, FBI developed, collects information on just homicides, record additional information like relationships, weapons, circumstances, etc., used to develop patterns and trends
NIBRS- incident-based reporting system, set up by FBI and other agencies, includes greater degree of detail in reporting as compared with UCR, six possible units of analysis
Page 11-14; Bloom’s Taxonomy: comprehension, analysis

 

 

  1. Good theories are made up of five (5) characteristics. Name these characteristics and explain each one as it related to good theories.

 

Correct Answer:

Parsimony- the simplest way of explaining a phenomenon; Scope- refers to range of criminal behavior that a theory attempts to explain; Logical consistency- extent to which concepts and propositions of a theoretical model make sense in terms of face value and consistency with what is readily known about crime rates and trends; Testability- extent to which a theoretical model can be empirically or scientifically tested through observation and empirical research; Empirical validity- refers to the extent to which a theoretical model is supported by scientific research.
Page 25- 26; Bloom’s Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension