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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Leadership Research Findings Practice and Skills 8th Edition by Andrew J. DuBrin – Test Bank
 
Sample  Questions

 

True / False

 

1. Charismatic leaders are easy-going, natural people who tend to minimize impression management.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Charismatic leaders use impression management to deliberately cultivate a certain relationship with group members. In other words, they take steps to create a favorable, successful impression, recognizing that the perceptions of constituents determine whether they function as charismatic leaders. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

2. One of the effects of charismatic leadership is the creation of a wide gap between the beliefs of the leader and those of group members.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Charismatic leadership is possible under certain conditions. The constituents must share the leader’s beliefs and must have unquestioning acceptance of and affection for the leader. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

3. Being perceived as charismatic can often be important for a top-level leader to hold on to his or her position.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Not being charismatic enough can sometimes make it difficult to hold on to a high-level leadership position. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

4. A socialized charismatic leader is concerned primarily with using power for the good of other people.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A socialized charismatic leader is concerned primarily with using power for the good of other people. See “Three Types of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Three Types of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

5. An essential part of being a charismatic and transformational leader is to offer constituents a vision of the future.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   An essential part of being a charismatic and transformational leader is to offer constituents a vision of the future. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

6. Charismatic leaders are much more conservative than average with respect to risk taking.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   As great opportunists, charismatic people yearn to accomplish activities others have never done before. Risk taking adds to a person’s charisma because others admire such courage. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

7. To be truly effective for the purpose of charismatic leadership, a metaphor should appeal to the intellect, imagination, and values.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   To be truly effective for the purpose of charismatic leadership, a metaphor should appeal to the intellect, imagination, and values. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

8. Management by storytelling is a method used by charismatic and transformational leaders to discipline employees and involves telling them stories about what happened to other employees who stepped out of line.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Leadership by storytelling is the technique of inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories. The technique is a major contributor to building a strong company culture.See “The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

9. Brain research suggests that people who are perceived to be visionaries have much higher levels of activity in certain areas of the brain than do non-visionaries.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Brain research suggests that people who are perceived to be visionaries have much higher levels of activity in certain areas of the brain than do non-visionaries. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

10. An effective vision is aligned with the goals and dreams of group members.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   An effective vision is aligned with the goals and dreams of group members. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

11. To develop your personal brand, it is recommended that you focus on patching up your weaknesses.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   A current trend in career advancement is to build a personal brand. Understanding your basket of strengths forms the basis for developing your personal brand. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

12. Displaying an in-your-face attitude can contribute to a person’s charisma.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Displaying an in-your-face attitude can contribute to a person’s charisma. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

13. To highly motivate organizational members, the transformational leader attempts to get constituents to focus on their self-interest.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Transformational leaders help bring about major, positive changes by moving group members beyond their self-interests and toward the good of the group, organization, or society. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

14. The effective transformational leader deliberately creates distrust throughout the organization so he or she will be needed to decrease the confusion.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   A useful process for transforming a firm is to build trust between leaders and group members, particularly because distrust and suspicion are rampant during a company revival. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

15. An effective strategy for a transformational leader is to concentrate resources on the areas most in need of change and with the biggest possible payoff.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   An effective strategy for a transformational leader is to concentrate resources on the areas most in need of change and with the biggest possible payoff. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

16. Despite the urgency of turning around an organization, the transformational leader is likely to encourage the personal development of staff members.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Although transformational leaders are often greatly concerned with organizational survival, they also take the time to encourage the personal development of their staff. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

17. Transformational leaders who are also charismatic will typically establish a vision for constituents to follow.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Transformational leaders who are also charismatic will typically establish a vision for constituents to follow. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

18. A synthesis of studies showed that laissez-faire leadership is more likely to produce positive results for than the organization than will transformational leadership.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   A synthesis of studies showed that transformational leadership is more likely to produce positive results for than the organization than will laissez-faire leadership. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

19. A study indicated that transformational leadership of teams is likely to help the team feel more capable, and also perform better.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A study indicated that transformational leadership of teams is likely to help the team feel more capable, and also perform better. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

20. A recommended way of enhancing your charisma is to make others feel unimportant so you will appear strong in contrast.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Transformational leaders, like most effective leaders and managers, practice empowerment by involving team members in decision making. Empowerment is a key component of developing group members. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

Multiple Choice

 

21. A study showed that attributions of charisma are heavily influenced by:

a. the network to which the leader belonged.
b. a person’s mood at the time.
c. the leader’s sex, ethnicity, and race.
d. members of a person’s network.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A study of attributions and charisma found that the network a person belongs to influences the attributions he or she makes. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

22. A key point about charisma is that it is a(n):

a. relationship between the leader and the group members.
b. substitute for leadership skill.
c. exploitation of group members.
d. characteristic of democratic leaders.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A key dimension of charismatic leadership is that, like all leadership, it involves a relationship or interaction between the leader and the people being led. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

23. Charismatic leaders are likely to cultivate relationships with group members by means of

a. threats of punishment for noncompliance.
b. deliberately appearing manipulative and unforgiving.
c. revealing their true selves to others.
d. impression management.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The relationship between group members and the leader is important because of these attributions. Charismatic leaders frequently manage their impressions to cultivate relationships with group members. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

24. We know that charismatic leadership has taken place when

a. group members feel manipulated even though the cause is important.
b. the leader feels good about his or her accomplishments.
c. extraordinary levels of devotion, identification, and emulation are aroused in group members.
d. the leader is highly accepted by group members and superiors.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Charisma applies to leader–constituent relationships in which the leader has an exceptional gift for inspiration and non-rational communication. At the same time, the constituents’ response is characterized by awe, reverence, devotion, or emotional dependence. See “The Meanings of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

25. The personalized charismatic leader uses power to:

a. further his or her own interests.
b. benefit others.
c. heal organizational wounds.
d. divinely inspire others.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Personalized charismatic individuals serve primarily their own interests and so exercise few restraints on their use of power. See “Three Types of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

26. A transformational leader is one who:

a. transforms his or her style to fit the situation.
b. makes major changes in the organization.
c. changes his or her personality characteristics to meet the needs of group members.
d. moves up the corporate ladder rapidly.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A transformational leader is one who brings about positive, major changes in an organization. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Meanings of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

27. A vitally important part of being a charismatic leader is:

a. asking group members perceptive questions.
b. being emotionally expressive and warm.
c. being laid back and emotionally supportive.
d. having a large network of contacts.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A vitally important part of being a charismatic leader is being emotionally expressive and warm. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

28. Charismatic leaders are characterized as:

a. having considerable internal conflict.
b. creating distrust among constituents.
c. minimizing risks.
d. being willing to use unconventional strategies.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Risk taking adds to a person’s charisma because others admire such courage. In addition to treasuring risk, charismatic leaders use unconventional strategies to achieve success. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

29. A charismatic leader will often:

a. be low key about his or her accomplishments.
b. be a low risk taker.
c. procrastinate about major decisions.
d. challenge, prod, and poke other people.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A characteristic observed in many charismatic leaders is that they challenge, prod, and poke. They test your courage and self-confidence. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

30. A vision deals mostly with:

a. a forecast of future business conditions.
b. seeing clearly what needs to be done to fix organizational problems.
c. the ability to imagine different and better conditions and the ways to achieve them.
d. finding creative ways to reward organizational members.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   A major buzzword in leadership and management is vision, the ability to imagine different and better future conditions and ways to achieve them. A vision is a lofty, long-term goal. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

31. Brain research about visions suggests that visionaries in contrast to non-visionaries:

a. have different levels of brain activity.
b. are less intelligent.
c. have less capacity for visual processing.
d. show less brain activity.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Brain research about visions suggests that visionaries in contrast to non-visionaries, have different levels of brain activity. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

32. Which of the following would most likely be a vision for Avon Products?

a. Get more men to purchase our products.
b. Become the ultimate relationship marketer of products and services for women.
c. Increase sales to underdeveloped countries by 5 percent per year.
d. Develop five new products per year.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   According to organizational change specialist Peter M. Senge, a mission is a purpose, and reason for being, whereas a vision is a picture or image of the future we seek to create. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

33. Charismatic leaders use visions for the important purpose of:

a. keeping team members in line.
b. conducting transactions with people.
c. celebrating accomplishments.
d. inspiring group members.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Charismatic leaders use visions for the important purpose of inspiring group members. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadershi
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

34. Which one of the following is not particularly recommended as a method of formulating a vision?

a. Searching out vision statements formulated by others
b. Gathering input on what might delight group members
c. Studying historical precedents
d. Using your intuition about developments in your field

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Studying historical precedents is not particularly recommended as a method of formulating a vision. See “The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

35. To apply “management by storytelling,” the leader should

a. tell stories about unsuccessful competitors.
b. tell fascinating stories about the company to employees.
c. reward and punish group members based on anecdotal evidence.
d. evaluate morale based on anecdotal evidence.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Leadership by storytelling is the technique of inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories. The technique is a major contributor to building a strong company culture. See “The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

36. Charismatic leaders use metaphors and analogies primarily to:

a. convince group members that they are confident.
b. inspire team members.
c. craft an articulate and highly emotional message.
d. gear language to different audiences.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A well-chosen analogy or metaphor appeals to the intellect, to the imagination, and to values. Charismatic leaders use visions for the important purpose of inspiring group members. See “The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

37. A leader who is personally charismatic is likely to:

a. attract people to him or her.
b. push away other people based on annoying personal characteristics.
c. rule with an iron hand.
d. rely on cognitive skills to impress people.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A leader who is personally charismatic is likely to attract people to him or her. See “Three Types of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Three Types of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

38. An effective vision should

a. replace the company goal-setting system.
b. focus on day-to-day responsibilities instead of the future.
c. fulfill the dreams of the leader.
d. connect with the goals and dreams of constituents.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A characteristic of an effective vision formulated by a leader is that it connects with the goals and dreams of constituents. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

39. Marcie is a charismatic leader. When she encounters Salvatore, a work associate she met once two years ago, Marcie is likely to say,

a. “Hello Salvatore, good to see you again.”
b. “Hello there. It’s nice to meet somebody new.”
c. “Hello, I vaguely recall us meeting before.”
d. “Hello there buddy. Could you give me your name again?”

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Charismatic leaders, as well as other successful people, can usually remember the names of people they have seen only a few times. This ability is partly due to the strong personal interest charismatic leaders take in other people. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

40. Max wants to develop a personal brand, so he

a. develops a second identity on the Internet.
b. attempts to wear as much clothing of the same brand as feasible.
c. give himself a nick name such as “Corporate Warrior Max.”
d. studies his basket of personal strengths.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A current trend in career advancement is to build a personal brand. Understanding your basket of strengths forms the basis for developing your personal brand. Your identity as shown on the Internet, including social networking sites such as Facebook, is also part of your personal brand. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

41. A transactional leader in contrast to a transformational one is more likely to:

a. inspire group members with a compelling vision.
b. help group members reach self-fulfillment.
c. emphasize the growth of group members.
d. emphasize rewards for good performance.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A transactional leader in contrast to a transformational one is more likely to emphasize rewards for good performance. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

42. One technique a leader uses to bring about transformations is to get people:

a. focused on minor satisfactions.
b. not to worry that the organization’s future is threatened.
c. to accept early retirement, if appropriate.
d. to look beyond self-interest.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A transformational leader helps bring about major, positive changes by moving group members beyond their self-interests and toward the good of the group, organization, or society. The essence of transformational leadership is developing and transforming people. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

43. Melissa wants to bring about transformations in her organization. Which one of the following would be the best recommendation for her?

a. Get people to develop a short-term perspective.
b. Help people understand the need for change.
c. Commit people to slightly better than average performance.
d. Get people to think in terms of self-interest.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The transformational leader must help group members understand the need for change both emotionally and intellectually. The problem is that change involves dislocation and discomfort. An effective transformational leader recognizes this emotional component to resisting change and deals with it openly. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

44. A recommended strategy for a transformational leader attempting to help a troubled organization is to concentrate resources where

a. good results will bring him or her the most publicity.
b. change is needed the most and the potential payoff is big.
c. subordinates will be surprised.
d. promises have been broken in the past.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A recommended strategy for a transformational leader attempting to help a troubled organization is to concentrate resources where change is needed the most and the potential payoff is big. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

45. Which one of the following is the least typical characteristic of a transformational leader?

a. low standing on moral reasoning
b. encouraging personal development of staff
c. practicing empowerment
d. charisma

 

ANSWER:   a
POINTS:   1
REFERENCES:   p. 94

 

46. A synthesis of studies about transformational leadership and performance found that this type of leadership

a. was positively associated with a group of criteria.
b. was negatively associated with a group of criteria.
c. was less effective than laissez-fire leadership.
d. was good for performance but not satisfaction.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   A synthesis of studies about transformational leadership and performance found that this type of leadership was positively associated with a group of criteria. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.6 – 3. 6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

47. A study of team leadership found that transformational leadership helped the group

a. members work more independently.
b. question whether their team had the “right stuff.”
c. feel more potent, leading to better performance.
d. feel less potent, leading to poorer performance.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   A study of team leadership found that transformational leadership helped the group feel more potent, leading to better performance. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.6 – 3. 6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

48. The concept of leadership polarity suggests that group members

a. tend to intensely like or dislike leaders.
b. prefer opposite traits in the same leader.
c. prefer leaders much like themselves.
d. prefer leaders quite opposite to themselves.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The concept of leadership polarity suggests that group members tend to intensely like or dislike leaders. See “Concerns about Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Concerns about Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

49. A challenge to the validity of charismatic leadership is that leaders might be

a. coached to be charismatic.
b. charismatic on the basis of inborn characteristics.
c. relying too heavily on an autocratic style.
d. perceived as charismatic because of their accomplishments.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A challenge to the validity of charismatic leadership is that leaders might be perceived as charismatic because of their accomplishments. See “Concerns about Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Concerns about Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

50. A major concern about charismatic leadership is that

a. there are not enough job openings for all the charismatic leaders.
b. charismatic leaders are not really so effective.
c. group members sometimes follow a charismatic leader down an unethical path.
d. charismatic leaders place unreasonable expectations on group members.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   A major concern about charismatic leadership is that group members sometimes follow a charismatic leader down an unethical path. See “Concerns about Charismatic Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Concerns about Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

51. ​Sawyer, a manager at an IT security firm, firmly believed in using his professional power for the welfare of the organization. His group members were empowered to suggest ideas and were made accountable and responsible for their actions. This shows that Sawyer is:

a. ​a personalized charismatic.
b. ​a socialized charismatic.
c. ​a laissez-faire leader.
d. ​a transactional leader.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A socialized charismatic is a leader who restrains the use of power in order to benefit others. This type of leader also attempts to bring group members’ values in line with his or her values. The socialized charismatic formulates and pursues goals that fulfill the needs of group members and provide intellectual stimulation to them. Followers of socialized charismatics are autonomous, empowered, and responsible. See “Three Types of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Three Types of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

52. ​Collin, an executive of a telecom company, has an inclination to acquire more power to further his own interests. He spends lavishly on sports cars and branded watches to exhibit his power and stature. Which of the following best describes Collin’s leadership style?

a. ​Laissez-faire leadership
b. ​Socialized charismatic
c. ​Personalized charismatic
d. ​Leadership by storytelling

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Personalized charismatic are individuals who serve primarily their own interests and exercise few restraints on their use of power. Personalized charismatics impose self-serving goals on constituents, and they offer consideration and support to group members only when it facilitates their own goals. Followers of personalized charismatics are typically obedient, submissive, and dependent. See “Three Types of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Three Types of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

53. ​Stephen, the CEO of an automotive company, addressed his employees in his company’s annual meeting. He remarked that the company should acquire 60 per cent of the global market share in the next 10 years, and continue to provide quality products and services to all its consumers. Stephen is a:

a. ​personalized charismatic.
b. ​transactional leader.
c. ​laissez-faire leader.
d. ​visionary leader.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Charismatic leaders are visionary because they offer an exciting image of where the organization is headed and how to get there. A vision is more than a forecast; it describes an ideal version of the future of an entire organization or an organizational unit. See “Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

54. Tyson is a supervisor at an agro processing industry. He commands respect, confidence, and loyalty of group members by virtue of his honest and transparent policies. Tyson is:​

a. ​likely to score high on emotional intelligence.
b. ​experiencing leadership polarity.
c. ​an effective storyteller.
d. ​a laissez-faire leader.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Transformational leaders have the respect, confidence, and loyalty of group members. One reason is that managers who use the transformational leadership style tend to score higher on emotional intelligence. A specific attribute here is that transformational leaders read emotions well. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

55. ​Courtney is the finance head of a tourism company. Recognizing that the company is hard-pressed financially, she decides to cancel the projects that are riskier in nature, and concentrated more on developing its reliable projects. Which of the following strategies has been adopted by Courtney?

a. ​Romanticizing risk
b. ​Creating a vision for the organization
c. ​Developing a personal brand and building trust
d. ​Concentrating resources on areas that need the most change

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The turnaround artist or transformational leader cannot take care of all problems at once in a troubled organization. A practical strategy is to get around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on problem areas that are most in need of change and have the biggest potential payoff. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

56. ​Darren, the CEO an airlines company, is widely regarded as a transformational leader who experiments with new innovations and managerial styles. Which of the following would be an outcome of Darren’s activities?

a. ​It results in an increase in administrative expenses in the organization.
b. ​It can arouse employees to a higher level of thinking.
c. ​Employees become less responsible for their actions
d. ​It leads to pessimistic thinking in employees.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The general picture of the impact of transformational leadership is that it can arouse followers to a higher level of thinking. Transformational leaders appeal to the ideals and values of their constituents, thereby enhancing commitment to a carefully crafted vision. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

57. Davis is the CEO of a group of luxury hotels. As a committed and authentic leader, he brought major changes in the company to attract new customers and ensure quality services. In addition, he also executed major changes in employee relations and satisfaction causing an increase in employee productivity. Which of the following best describes Davis’ leadership style?​

a. ​Transformational
b. ​Laissez-faire
c. ​Polarizing
d. ​Transactional

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Transformational leadership focuses on what the leader accomplishes, yet it still pays attention to the leader’s personal characteristics and his or her relationship with group members. The transformational leader helps bring about major, positive changes by moving group members beyond their self-interests and toward the good of the group, organization, or society. See “Transformational Leadership.”
POINTS:   1
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5 – 3. 5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

58. ​Jonathan, the head of a technology firm, is known for his authentic leadership practices. He created a unique identity for himself in the world of successful business leaders. In this scenario, Jonathan:

a. ​has imposed self-serving goals on constituents.
b. has developed a personal brand.​
c. ​is projected as a laissez-faire leader.
d. ​is experiencing leadership polarity.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A current trend in career advancement is to build a personal brand. Understanding your basket of strengths forms the basis for developing your personal brand. Your personal brand makes you unique, thereby distinguishing you from the competition. Your personal brand also helps you attract people to accept your leadership. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

59. ​Chandler is the head of a pulp and fibre manufacturing company. Despite his keen interest in closing a deal with a distributor in a developing country, he was convinced of the emerging surveys that show a lack of demand for the company’s products. Hence, he decides to drop the project in spite of his personal interest. This shows that Chandler is:

a. ​a personalized charismatic.
b. ​lacks confidence.
c. ​sensibly persistent.
d. ​pessimistic.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Closely related to the high energy level of charismatics is their almost-never-accept-no attitude or being sensibly persistent. Outstanding leaders and individual contributors also know when to cut their losses. If an idea or a product will not work, the sensible charismatic absorbs the loss and moves in another, more profitable direction. See “The Development of Charisma.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

60. ​A charismatic leader goes beyond the ordinary use of public social networking sites. Which of the following messages is an example of a charismatic use of social networking sites?

a. ​“This new breakthrough in our drug formulation could serve as a key to destroy all our competitors completely and emerge as the number one brand in the industry.”
b. ​“Our company has achieved a 25 per cent annual growth in the recently declared estimates of the previous financial year. I would like to thank all the employees for their contribution and hard work.”
c. ​“Dear Wilson, I would like to inform you that your contract will be terminated from the company effective June 31st, 2015, owing to the proposal by your competitor to supply products at a lower price.”
d. ​“Heading off to the beautiful island nation of Madagascar! A much needed break from this monotonous work schedule”

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A more charismatic use of social networking sites would be to post messages designed to inspire, motivate, and make group members feel good about themselves and the organization. Despite the positive use of social networking sites to project charisma, the leader has to guard against posting sensitive information, such as an idea fora new product or service, or legal problems the company might be facing. See “The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

Essay

 

61. ​Richard, the CEO of an oil and gas exploration company, indulges in excessive risk taking behaviour and adopts unconventional strategies to achieve higher profits. Though it helped him initially to acquire quick wealth and fame, it became unsustainable to latch on to the same strategy for long. If you were Richard’s advisor, what would you suggest Richard for him to be considered a charismatic leader?

ANSWER:  

As a leader, Richard seems to have embraced too much of risk taking qualities. He needs to bring this quality under control, despite the fact that

charismatic leaders romanticize risk. They enjoy risk so much that they feel empty in its absence. Jim Barksdale, now a venture capitalist for online startup companies and former CEO of Netscape, says that the fear of failure is what increases your heart rate. As great opportunists, charismatic people yearn to accomplish activities others have never done before. Risk taking adds to a person’s charisma because others admire such courage. In addition to treasuring risk, charismatic leaders use unconventional strategies to achieve success.

Richard, to be perceived as a charismatic leader, should channelize his efforts in developing vision for his organization. A major buzzword in leadership and management is vision, the ability to imagine different and better future conditions and ways to achieve them. A vision is a lofty, long-term goal. An effective leader is supposed to have a vision, whereas an ineffective leader either lacks a vision or has an unclear one. Being a visionary is far from an ordinary task, and recent research in neuroscience suggests that visionary leaders use their brain differently than others.

Creating a vision is one of the major tasks of top management, yet quite often vision statements fail to inspire constituents. According to Jim Collins, a vision statement is likely to be more inspirational when it combines three elements:

1. A reason for being beyond making money

2. Timeless, unchanging core values

3. Ambitious but achievable goals

Mechanisms should then be established that set the values into action. After vision statements have been formulated, a wide range of employees must be involved in implementing the vision.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.1, 3.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders, The Vision Component of Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

62. ​Enrique is the CEO of a leading information technology firm. His organization was largely successful owing to his excellent technical and strategic skills. Despite his company having an impressive story to tell the world, an introverted Enrique was not able to narrate his business success effectively. What would you suggest Enrique to improve his charismatic personality?

ANSWER:  

A significant aspect of the communication style of charismatic and transformational leaders is that they make extensive use of memorable stories to get messages across. Enrique should develop his storytelling abilities. Leadership by storytelling is the technique of inspiring and instructing team members by telling fascinating stories. The technique is a major contributor to building a strong company culture. Storytelling also helps bring out the need for organizational change.

Also, Enrique should deliberately act in order to overcome his introverted nature. A major behavior pattern of charismatic people is their combination of enthusiasm, optimism, and high energy. Without a great amount of all three characteristics, a person is unlikely to be perceived as charismatic by many people. A remarkable quality of charismatic people is that they maintain high enthusiasm, optimism, and energy throughout their entire workday and beyond. Elevating energy level takes considerable work, but here are a few feasible suggestions:

1. Get ample rest at night, and sneak in a fifteen-minute nap during the day when possible. If you have a dinner meeting where you want to shine, take a shower and nap before the meeting.

2. Exercise every day for at least ten minutes, including walking. No excuses are allowed, such as being too busy or too tired or the weather being a handicap.

3. Switch to a healthy, energy-enhancing diet.

4. Keep chopping away at your To Do list, so you do not have unfinished tasks on your mind—they will drain your energy.

An action orientation helps you be enthusiastic, optimistic, and energetic. “Let’s do it” is the battle cry of the charismatic person. An action orientation also means that the charismatic person prefers not to agonize over dozens of facts and nuances before making a decision.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.3, 3.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Communication Style of Charismatic Leaders, The Development of Charisma
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

63. Gilbert, a successful business leader, finds that his employees have become complacent following initial business success. This has resulted in a reduction in profits and market share. If you were Gilbert, what steps will you take to tackle complacency in employees and improve your role as a charismatic leader? Considering yourself as a charismatic leader, what do you think are the risks associated with this kind of leadership?​

ANSWER:  

Peter Koestenbaum argues that business can be an opportunity for individual and organizational greatness. By adopting this greatness attitude, leaders can ennoble human nature and strengthen societies. Greatness encompasses striving for business effectiveness such as profits and high stock value, as well as impeccable ethics. An emphasis on ethical leadership instills a desire for customer service and quality and fosters feelings of proprietorship and involvement. A commitment to greatness is, of course, important for all leaders, not just those who are transformational.

Another way in which transformational leaders bring about transformations is to facilitate proactive behavior on the part of subordinates. By being proactive, subordinates take the initiative to bring about positive change. Proactive behavior is facilitated by giving group members more autonomy, or the opportunity to make decisions independently. In addition to being granted autonomy, workers are more likely to be proactive if they have self-perceived ability to perform proactive tasks successfully (role breadth self-efficacy).

Some people believe that charismatic leadership can be exercised for evil purposes. Some charismatic leaders are unethical and lead their organizations and outsiders toward illegal and immoral ends. People are willing to follow the charismatic leader down a quasi-legal path because of his or her personal magnetism.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   3.5, 3.7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Transformational Leadership, Concerns about Charismatic Leadership
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

True / False

 

1. Contingency theories of leadership specify the personal characteristics of the leader that will contribute to effectiveness in a wide variety of situations.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are three times as strong as the leader’s personal characteristics in shaping his or her behavior.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

2. An example of a situational force in leadership is group member characteristics.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

3. According to Fiedler’s theory, task-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of high control and low control.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   According to Fiedler’s theory, task-motivated leaders perform best when they have the most control and the least control. See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

4. According to Fiedler’s theory, relationship-motivated leaders perform the best in situations of low control.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   According to Fiedler’s theory, relationship motivated leaders perform best when they have moderate control. See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

5. A major proposition of the path-goal theory is that the leader should engage in behaviors that run counter to the subordinates’ environment and abilities.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

6. If a leader wants to practice the path-goal theory of leadership, he should be prepared to compensate for the deficiencies of subordinates.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Leaders should engage in these behaviors in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and that enhances subordinate satisfactions as well as individual and work unit performance. See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

7. According to the path-goal theory, the participative style is recommended when group members are performing repetitive tasks.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

8. The achievement-oriented leadership style works well with group members working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   This leadership style works well with achievement oriented team members and with those working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

9. In the situational leadership model II, the key contingency factor is the development level of group members as determined by commitment and competence.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The combination of the subordinate’s commitment and competence determines his or her developmental level. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

10. In the situational leadership model II, the supporting style leader emphasizes low directing, low supporting behaviors.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   A supporting leadership style refers to low directive and high supportive behavior. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

11. In the situational leadership model II, when group members have the highest level of competence and commitment, the directing style is recommended.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   According to situational leadership II, effective leaders adapt their behavior to the level of commitment and competence of a particular subordinate to complete a given task.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

12. In the normative decision model, the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   The normative decision model views leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

13. In the normative decision model, decision significance is defined as the significance of the decision to the success of the project or organization.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   According to the normative decision model,decision significance is the significance of the decision to the success of the project or organization. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Engage

 

14. An important situational factor in the normative model is the importance of commitment.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   An key situational factor, in the context of the normative decision making model is the importance of commitment. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Engage
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

15. An ineffective way to lead an organization through a crisis is to strongly defend yourself against your critics or deny wrongdoing.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   One of the worst ways to lead a group through a crisis is to strongly defend yourself against your critics or deny wrongdoing.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

16. Branch manager Marissa uses evidence-based leadership when she will accuse subordinates of wrongdoing only when she can heavily document her accusations.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

17. A success factor for the leader of an organization or a key organizational unit is to think strategically, including visualizing the big picture.

a. True
b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   A success factor for the leader of an organization or a key organizational unit is to think strategically, including seeing the big picture.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

Multiple Choice

 

18. When asked about leadership effectiveness, an executive said in part, “The length of the leash varies with different people. . . .” The executive’s comments support the _____ perspective on leadership.

a. contingency
b. relationship-oriented
c. task-oriented
d. universal theory

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

19. The contingency approach to leadership explains that leaders are most effective when they:

a. plan for emergencies before they occur.
b. make their behavior tuned to situational forces.
c. follow universal managerial principles when faced with contingencies.
d. create backup plans to deal with human resources problems.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

20. Baxter, a chief operating officer, practices contingency leadership when he:

a. warns workers in advance about potential punishments.
b. maintains an optimistic, positive attitude.
c. challenges the use of new technologies.
d. discards old ideas that no longer fit the situational forces.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

21. Contingency leadership theorists believe that in terms of shaping the leader’s behavior,_____.

a. forces in the situation are more important that the leader’s personal characteristics.
b. the internal environment is more critical than the external environment.
c. the leadership situation has a negligible influence.
d. the leader’s personal characteristics have a negligible influence.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are three times as strong as the leader’s personal characteristics in shaping his or her behavior. See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

22. A _____ perspective is that the leader’s behavior is profoundly influenced by the situation.

a. path goal leadership
b. contingency leadership
c. normative decision model
d. middle of the road management

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

23. In Fiedler’s contingency theory, an important dimension for rating the situation is :

a. position power.
b. leader-member relations.
c. personal power.
d. task structure.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   An important dimension to rate a situation, according to Fiedler’s contingency model is leader-member relations.See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

24. The general point of Fiedler’s contingency theory of leadership is that the best style of leadership is determined by:

a. the leader’s personality.
b. how well the leader gets along with group members.
c. a balance of task and relationship factors.
d. the situation in which a leader works.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Fred E. Fiedler developed a widely researched and quoted contingency model more than forty years ago that holds that the best style of leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working.See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

25. Following Fiedler’s contingency model, a leader can increase situational control by:

a. decreasing the task structure for group members.
b. creating conflict between himself or herself and group members.
c. increasing his or her position power.
d. increasing the demands on group members.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Exercising more position power by requesting more formal authority from higher management is a tactic to make the situation favorable to the leader. See ” Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

26. Division manager Pedro believes strongly in the path-goal theory of leadership, so he engages in behaviors that:

a. have a high probability of winning.
b. set quite high goals for all subordinates.
c. complement subordinate characteristics and task demands.
d. follow a logical path.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

27. The general thrust of path-goal theory is to specify what the leader must do to:

a. make a directive style of leadership acceptable.
b. achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.
c. improve the work attitudes of group members.
d. make the situation more favorable.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

28. In path-goal theory, the directive leader improves morale when:

a. group members perform repetitive tasks.
b. group members are highly motivated.
c. there is ample time for task completion.
d. the task is unclear and vague.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   In the path-goal theory, when the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

29. In path-goal theory, the participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of:

a. well-motivated employees who perform repetitive tasks.
b. well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.
c. poorly-motivated employees who perform repetitive tasks.
d. poorly-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

30. A suggestion to the leader based on path-goal theory is for the leader to:

a. give people careful instructions, even when they can perform the task well.
b. encourage group members to provide their own structure.
c. purposely make ambiguous the path between goal attainment and receiving a reward.
d. reduce frustrating barriers to reaching goals.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Reducing frustrating barriers to reaching goals is one step a leader can take to influence performance and satisfaction. See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

31. The situational leadership model II emphasizes contingency factors relating to:

a. characteristics of group members.
b. characteristics of the organizational climate.
c. the attitudes of the leader.
d. the skills of the leader.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Situational Leadership II explains how to match leadership style to the capabilities of group members on a given task.See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

32. _____ is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed, commitment takes place, and turnover among talented workers is reduced.

a. The charismatic leadership theory
b. The Path goal model
c. Situational leadership II
d. The normative decision model

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Situational leadership II is designed to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about performance and professional development between managers and group members so that competence is developed, commitment takes place, and turnover among talented workers is reduced.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   | Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

33. The coaching style of leadership in the situational leadership model II is described as:

a. high on directing and high on supporting behaviors.
b. high on directing and low on supporting behaviors.
c. low on directing and low on supporting behaviors.
d. low on directing and high on supporting behaviors.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In the context of situational leadership II, the coaching style of leadership is one which is high on directing and high on supporting behavior.See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

34. According to the situational leadership model II, the directing style is the most effective when team members are:

a. low in competence but high on commitment.
b. at the highest level of commitment and competence.
c. growing in competence but with variable commitment.
d. having some competence but are low in commitment.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   In the context of situational leadership II, a directive style of leadership is preferred when the team members are low in competence, but high in commitment. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

35. According to the normative decision model, leaders must choose a style that brings about the correct degree of _____ when making decisions.

a. group participation
b. group motivation
c. goal setting
d. job satisfaction

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Another contingency viewpoint is that leaders must choose a style that elicits the correct degree of group participation when making decisions. Since many of a leader’s interactions with group members involve decision making, this perspective is sensible.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

36. The contingency factors in the normative decision model are known as:

a. commitment requirements.
b. decision-making styles.
c. characteristics of the leader.
d. problem attributes.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The situational factors, or problem variables, make the model a contingency approach.See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

37. Which one of the following is the most recommended approach to leadership during a crisis?

a. Lead with compassion.
b. Rely heavily on consensus leadership.
c. Move group members away from their usual work routine.
d. Choose a circle-the-wagons mentality.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In the context of the normative decision model, group support refers to the degree to which the team supports the organization’s objectives at stake in the problem. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

38. According to the normative decision model, group support refers to:

a. the likelyhood that the team might commit to a decision that it might take on its own.
b. team members’ knowledge or expertise in relation to the problem.
c. the degree to which the team supports the organization’s objectives at stake in the problem.
d. the ability of team members to work together in solving problems.

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   In the context of the normative decision model,group support refers to the degree to which the team supports the organization’s objectives at stake in the problem.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

39. Which one of the following is a recommended approach to leadership during a crisis?

a. Think tactically
b. Lead with compassion
c. Be a transactional leader
d. Be indecisive

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Displaying compassion with the concerns, anxieties, and frustrations of group members is a key interpersonal skill for crisis leadership.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

40. The general purpose of disaster planning is to:

a. deal effectively with a crisis.
b. practice transformational leadership skills.
c. minimize leadership liability for a crisis.
d. prevent a crisis.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   The ideal form of crisis leadership is to prevent a crisis through disaster planning.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

41. A key part of evidence-based leadership or management is to:

a. keep a log of the mistakes of subordinates.
b. justify asking for an increased budget.
c. prove that your decision was the right one.
d. translate principles into practice.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Easy
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge
NOTES:   Digital story: Engage

 

42. Plant manager Kristina practices evidence-based leadership when she:

a. uses leadership practices proven to be effective.
b. carefully documents poor performance.
c. asks group members to justify their claims.
d. maintains a log of her interactions with group members.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

43. Adapting to changing times is the most important for which approach to leadership?

a. Leadership Grid
b. Charismatic
c. Trait approach
d. Contingency approach

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   In the context of the contingency approach,the effective leader adapts to changing circumstances.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

44. ​Ayan, the newly appointed team manager of the sales team, practices autocratic leadership in his team. However, his team members who are quite experienced and equipped in their fields are not satisfied with the style of leadership practised by Ayan, which negatively affects the team productivity. This scenario depicts the violation of  _____.

a. ​a contingency approach to leadership
b. ​a strict authoritarian approach to leadership
c. ​a liberal authoritarian approach to leadership
d. ​a middle of the road approach to leadership

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational forces, including group member characteristics.A manager who supervises competent employees might be able to practice consensus leadership readily.See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

45. ​Alan used to follow a libertarian leadership style. He recently decided to become stricter toward productivity targets as a result of the fluctuations in the market. He does this in order to make his team more task oriented. This is an example of _____.

a. ​leaders using debasement techniques
b. ​situations shaping how leaders behave
c. ​leaders using techniques of ingratiation
d. ​dividing the group into in-group and out-group

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   This is an example of situations affecting leader behavior.Contingency theorists believe that forces in the situation are three times as strong as the leader’s personal characteristics in shaping his or her behavior. See “Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

46. George and Jonathan are the production and marketing managers of a firm. While George is optimistic to work out the issues of his least preferred coworker, Jonathan ​is adamant that the least preferred coworker in his team has to be replaced. In this case, which of the following statements is true?

a. ​Both George and Jonathan are task motivated leaders.
b. ​George is relationship motivated , while Jonathan is task motivated.
c. ​Jonathan is relationship motivated, while George is task motivated.
d. ​Both George and Jonathan are relationship motivated.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A leader who describes the least preferred coworker in relatively favorable terms tends to be relationship motivated. In contrast, a person who describes this coworker in an unfavorable manner tends to be task motivated.See “Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

47. ​Alfred intends to follow a directive style of leadership among his team members. In the context of the path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, which of the following situations would have made Alfred stick to a directive leadership style?

a. ​The exact sales revenue that his team should bring in is unclear, however the team is given orders to improve its performance.
b. ​A few of the group members have gone through an emotionally disturbing phase and they need emotional support from the leader.
c. Each group member has a thorough knowledge of their individual contributions to the team, making the task of the leader easier.
d. ​The team has been performing exceptionally well, and therefore further focus will be on building relationships with members of the team.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The leader who is directive emphasizes formal activities such as planning, organizing, and controlling.When the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

48. Annette’s team has been able to meet the production target of 20,000 units per year. In the next financial year, Annette sets a target of 25,000 units for the team. Accordingly, the individual targets are set to increase. In the context of the path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, Annette follows the _____ of leadership. ​

a. ​directive and controlling style
b. ​supportive style
c. ​participative style
d. ​achievement oriented style

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   A leader who is achievement oriented sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high expectations for team members, who are also expected to assume responsibility.See “The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

49. In the context of Situational Leadership​ II, who among the following is identified as an enthusiastic beginner?

a. ​Adrian, a highly skilled employee who exceeds his targets
b. ​Milan, who is capable of achieving her targets but is not dependable
c. ​Tina, who needs help with her technical skills but is a motivated learner
d. ​Alfina, a high performing employee, who occasionally takes long vacations

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   An enthusiastic beginner is one who has low competence, but high commitment. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

50. Who among the following is a coaching leader?​

a. ​Milan, who neither gives clear task directions to her teammates, nor encourages and listens to them
b. ​Ryan, who gives clear task directions to his teammates and encourages and listens to them
c. ​Aftab, who gives clear directions to his teammates , but does not encourage or listen to his teammates
d. ​Linda, who does not give clear directions to her teammates, but encourages and listens to them

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   In the context of Situational Leadership II,A coaching leader is one with a high directive and a supportive behavior. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

51. ​Who among the following is a delegating leader?

a. ​Ryan, who neither sets clear goals for his teammates, nor encourages them
b. ​Brian, who sets clear goals for his teammates and encourages them
c. ​Rahul, who sets clear goals for his teammates, but does not encourage them
d. ​Milan, who encourages her teammates, but does not set clear goals for them

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In the context of Situational Leadership® II, a delegating leader is one who has a low directive behavior, and a low supportive behavior. See “Situational Leadership® II (SLII).”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Leadership® II (SLII)
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

52. Kevin announces that starting next financial year, 25% of his team members’ salaries will depend on their performance. His team members had no say in this process. In the context of the Normative Decision Model, Kevin demonstrates _____.

a. ​facilitating
b. ​deciding
c. delegating
d. ​consulting

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   In the context of the normative decision model, deciding is a decision making style in which the leader either announces the decision or sells it to the group, after making the decision by himself. See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

53. ​Craig, a sales manager, has been asked to explain the under performance of his team in the previous financial year. Instead of understanding and working on resolving the team’s issues, Craig comes up with a number of defensive statements and deny wrong doing from his team’s part. This is known as _____ the problem.

a. ​stonewalling
b. ​debasing
c. ​ingratiating
d. ​reinforcing

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   One of the worst ways to lead a group through a crisis is to strongly defend against one’s critics or deny wrongdoing. The same denial approach is referred to as maintaining a bunker mentality or stonewalling the problem.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

54. ​Which of the following serves as an example for evidence based leadership?

a. ​The management decides to refer to management practices in the past to find out a solution to the isuue in hand.
b. ​The management decides to collect feedback from the employees about the existing compensation policy.
c. ​The management decides to carry out job appraisal of individual employees.
d. ​The management decides to  keep a check on politics in the firm.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Evidence-based leadership or management is an approach whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence into organizational practices.See “Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Evidence-Based Leadership for the Contingency and Situational Approach
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Application
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

55. ​Which of the following is true of leadership during a crisis?

a. ​It is important to prevent potential crisis through disaster planning.
b. ​It is important to think tactically and have short term goals, to avoid any crisis.
c. ​It is important that the work is flexible and non-routinistic, to prevent crisis.
d. ​It is important to be a transactional, and not a transformational leader, to minimize crisis.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   The ideal form of crisis leadership is to prevent a crisis through disaster planning.See “Leadership During a Crisis.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Leadership During a Crisis
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Perform

 

56. A consultative or collaborative decision-making style is likely to bring about the best results when​:

a. ​the problem is clearly defined.
b. ​the leader needs information from the teammembers to solve a problem in hand.
c. ​team members’ acceptance of the decision is trivial.
d. ​there is urgency in decision making.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   A consultative or collaborative decision-making style is likely to bring about the best results when the leader requires information from others to solve the problem.See “The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG – Analytic
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

57. ​Which of the following is true of a delegating decision making style?

a. ​The leader works behind the screen.
b. ​The leader makes decisions for the group.
c. ​The leader directly intervenes in group deliberations.
d. ​The leader sells his decisions.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   In a delegating leadership style, the leader works behind the scene by encouraging the group members.The leader also permits the group to make decisions within the prescribed limits.See ” The Normative Decision Model.”
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Moderate
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension
NOTES:   Digital story: Connect

 

Essay

 

58. Rohan is asked by his supervisors to study the contingency approach to leadership and the path goal model to implement the essential tactics drawn from both these theories in his team. Provide a database that will help Rohan make a decision in this regard.

ANSWER:   The essence of a contingency approach to leadership is that leaders are most effective when they make their behavior contingent on situational
forces, including group member characteristics. Both the internal and the​ external environment have a significant impact on leader effectiveness. For example, the quality of the workforce and the competitiveness of the environment can influence which behaviors the leader emphasizes. A manager who supervises competent employees might be able to practice consensus leadership readily. And a manager who faces a competitive environment might find it easier to align people to pursue a new vision.The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation. In general, a leader attempts to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that the group member receives personal payoffs. At the same time, this group member’s job satisfaction and performance increase.Similar to the expectancy theory of motivation on which it is based, path-goal theory is multifaceted and has several versions.The major proposition of path-goal theory is
that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task. Furthermore, initiating structure will be effective in situations with a low degree of subordinate task structure, but ineffective in highly structured task situations. The rationale is that in the first situation, subordinates welcome initiating structure because it helps to provide structure to their somewhat ambiguous tasks.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.1,5.2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   Situational Influences on Effective Leadership Behavior, The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectivenes, The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analysis
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

59. Jonathan has to make use of the path-goal theory to adopt a specific style of leadership in his team. He consults his superior to get a clear idea on this. In this case, give a picture of what Jonathan’s superior would suggest .​

ANSWER:   The path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, specifies what a leader must do to achieve high productivity and morale in a given situation.​The major proposition of path-goal theory is that the manager should choose a leadership style that takes into account the characteristics of the group members and the demands of the task. Furthermore, initiating structure will be effective in situations with a low degree of subordinate task structure, but ineffective in highly structured task situations.

To use path-goal theory, the leader must first assess the relevant variables in the environment. Then he or she selects the one of the four styles listed next that fits those contingency factors best:
1. Directive style. The leader who is directive (similar to task motivated) emphasizes formal activities such as planning, organizing, and controlling. When the task is unclear, the directive style improves morale.
2. Supportive style. The leader who is supportive (similar to relationship motivated) displays concern for group members’ well-being and creates an emotionally supportive climate. The supportive leader enhances morale when group members work on dissatisfying, stressful, or frustrating tasks. Group members who are unsure of themselves prefer the supportive leadership style.
3. Participative style. The leader who is participative consults with group members to gather their suggestions, and then considers these suggestions seriously when making a decision. The participative leader is best suited for improving the morale of well-motivated employees who perform nonrepetitive tasks.
4. Achievement-oriented style. The leader who is achievement oriented sets challenging goals, pushes for work improvement, and sets high
expectations for team members, who are also expected to assume responsibility. This leadership style works well with achievemen t oriented team members and with those working on ambiguous and nonrepetitive tasks.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership Effectiveness
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analysis
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead

 

60. Vroom, the sales manager of a firm, has tried implementing the path-goal theory among his teammates. However, on further analysis, he tries to study the details of the normative decision model , and apply the key concepts of the model in his team. What would be the key decision making styles from which Vroom can choose a strategy for his team?

ANSWER:   The normative decision model views leadership as a decision-making process in which the leader examines certain factors within the situation to determine which decision-making style will be the most effective.​The normative model (formerly known as the leader–participation model)
identifies five decision-making styles, each reflecting a different degree of participation by group members:
1. Decide: The leader makes the decision alone and either announces or sells it to the group. The leader might use expertise in collecting information from the group or from others who appear to have information relevant to the problem.
2. Consult (Individually):The leader presents the problem to the group members individually, gathers their suggestions, and then makes the
decision.
3. Consult (Group):The leader presents the problem to group members in a meeting, gathers their suggestions, and then makes the decision.
4. Facilitate:The leader presents the problem and then acts as a facilitator, defining the problem to be solved and the boundaries in which the
decision must be made. The leader wants concurrence and avoids having his or her ideas receive more weight based on position power.
5. Delegate:The leader permits the group to make the decision within prescribed limits. Although the leader does not directly intervene in the
group’s deliberations unless explicitly asked, he or she works behind the scenes, providing resources and encouragement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Challenging
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   5.4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Reflective Thinking
STATE STANDARDS:   United States – OHIO – DISC: Leadership Principles
TOPICS:   The Normative Decision Model
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Analysis
NOTES:   Digital story: Lead