Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

ISBN-10: 1483317536
ISBN-13: 978-1483317533
ISBN-13: 9781483317533

 

 Leadership Theory And Practice 7th Edition by Peter G. Northouse – Test Bank 

 

Sample  Questions

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. According to Katz’s skills model, which two skills are most important for supervisory- (low-) level managers to be successful leaders?
  2. Technical skill and human skill
  3. Human skill and conceptual skill
  4. Technical skill and conceptual skill
  5. All three skills are equally important for supervisory level management

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Three Skills Approach

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach takes a _____________ on leadership, like the trait approach.
  2. Leader-follower centered perspective
  3. Organizational-centered perspective
  4. Situational-centered perspective
  5. Leader-centered perspective

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following presents a competency-based approach to leadership?
  2. Trait approach
  3. Skills approach
  4. Style approach
  5. Great person approach
  6. Psychodynamic approach

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. _______ are what leaders can accomplish, whereas _______ are who leaders are.
  2. Traits and outcomes
  3. Behaviors and skills
  4. Skills and traits
  5. Outcomes and skills
  6. Goals and skills

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The research Katz completed for his article describing the skills of an effective administrator
  2. Was quantitative research
  3. Was qualitative research
  4. Was a meta-analysis of skills research
  5. Was research focused on attributes of leaders

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Leadership skills research attempts to
  2. Identify largely fixed abilities in leaders
  3. Identify multiple behaviors in leaders
  4. Identify personality factors of leadership
  5. Identify competencies that can be acquired by leaders

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The classic article “Skills of an Effective Administrator” by Katz was published in the
  2. Journal of Leadership Education
  3. Harvard Business Review
  4. Journal of Education and Behavior
  5. Forbes Business Journal

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Developed the Three Skill Model of leadership.
  2. Katz
  3. Stogdill
  4. Goleman
  5. Mumford et al.
  6. Zaccaro

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Three Skill Approach

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Leadership skills are defined in the chapter as
  2. Using individual attributes to communicate well with others
  3. Developing behaviors for effective leadership outcomes
  4. Technical ability to interact in the work environment
  5. Knowledge and competencies to accomplish goals

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Three Skill Approach

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Technical skills are the
  2. Ability to work with things
  3. Ability to work cooperatively with others
  4. Ability to work with ideas
  5. Ability to be behaviorally flexible

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Technical Skill

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. At the upper-management level in an organization
  2. Technical skills are not important
  3. Human skills are not important
  4. Technical skills are more important than conceptual skills
  5. Technical skills are less important than human skills

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Technical Skill

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Human skills are about working with
  2. Ideas
  3. Concepts
  4. People
  5. Things

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Human Skill

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A leader using human skills will
  2. Develop criteria for the implementation of a new product
  3. Use sensitivity to assess the needs and motivations of others
  4. Use tools and techniques to get things done
  5. Create the vision for restructuring the organization

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Human Skill

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A chief operating officer of the company who applies the level of administrative skills to the degrees delineated in Katz’s model
  2. Incorporates the entire staff in the process of shaping the company’s goals
  3. Is more “hands-on” with producing the company’s product than interacting with staff
  4. Has higher involvement with things than people or ideas
  5. Avoids getting to know the staff

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Human Skill

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The research Mumford et al. completed used a sample of
  2. College business students
  3. Corporate executives
  4. High school principals
  5. Army officers

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The main goal of Mumford et al.’s research was
  2. To identify effective human leadership skills
  3. To understand military structure
  4. To explain the elements of effective performance
  5. To refute Katz’s work on administrative skills

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Mumford et al.’s model is characterized as a capability model because
  2. It identifies leader traits that followers perceived as valuable
  3. It identifies behaviors leaders use that are value-added in the workplace
  4. It examines the relationship between knowledge and skills and leader performance
  5. It implies leadership is reserved for a gifted few who are knowledgeable about the work

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a competency in Mumford’s Skills Model?
  2. Leadership outcomes
  3. Crystallized cognitive ability
  4. Career experiences
  5. Personality
  6. Knowledge

Ans: E

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Social judgment skill is similar to
  2. Sociability in trait approach
  3. Katz’s human skill
  4. Katz’s technical skill
  5. Knowledge in Mumford’s model
  6. Referent power

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. In Mumford’s Skills Model, social judgment skill is defined as
  2. The accumulation of information and the mental structures to organize the information
  3. Intellectual ability learned or acquired over time
  4. The capacity to understand people and social systems
  5. Creative ability to solve new/unusual, ill-defined organizational problems

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The environmental influences listed are all internal with the exception of
  2. Slow Internet service
  3. Flooding of the office
  4. Highly competent followers
  5. Limited office space

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Birds hitting a plane on takeoff causing engine failure in flight is an example of what component of the Skills Model by Mumford?
  2. Competencies
  3. Individual attributes
  4. Career experiences
  5. Environmental influence

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of these statements about the skills approach is false?
  2. Describes leadership as something that is available to everyone
  3. It is applicable to leaders at all levels within the organization
  4. It clearly predicts how variations in social judgment and problem-solving skills affect performance
  5. Knowledge about and ability to work with people is important in this approach

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Performance outcome is measured by
  2. Standard external criteria
  3. Original solutions to problems
  4. Solutions that go beyond given information.
  5. Follower reaction to leader behavior.
  6. Leaders own perspective.

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Performance

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Developed a capability model that includes individual attributes, competencies, and

leadership outcomes.

  1. Katz
  2. Stogdill
  3. Goleman
  4. Mumford et al.
  5. Zaccaro

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a competency in the skills model?
  2. Problem-solving skills
  3. Cognitive ability
  4. Social judgment skills
  5. Knowledge
  6. Confidence

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Bill is in charge of hiring a new manager for the first shift on the production line. According

To Katz’s model, Bill should be looking for a person with

  1. Problem-solving skills
  2. Cognitive ability
  3. Social judgment skills
  4. Knowledge
  5. Technical skills

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Jim is a district manager of Wendy’s in west Michigan. When he hires people, the most

important thing he looks for is whether people are good problem solvers.

  1. Jim is using the trait approach.
  2. Jim is using Katz’s skills approach.
  3. Jim is using the Mumford Skills model.
  4. Jim is using the style approach.
  5. Jim is using work experience.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Pat Smith is personnel director for a large bank. Her major goal is to find a person who can

adapt his or her leadership to different types of people and situations. Pat is basing her selections

on

  1. The great person approach
  2. The trait approach
  3. The skills approach
  4. Leader emergence theory
  5. Crystallized cognitive ability

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. In the skills model, crystallized knowledge refers to
  2. Intelligence quotient
  3. Intellectual ability acquired over time
  4. Motivation
  5. Effectiveness
  6. Inherent knowledge

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. In the skills model, which of these is a general cognitive ability?
  2. Knowledge
  3. Information processing
  4. Motivation
  5. Intellectual ability acquired over time
  6. Problem-solving skills

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The individual attributes factor in the skills model suggests
  2. That complex problem-solving is not difficult.
  3. That traits are not important to leadership.
  4. That the skills model is not just a competency-based model.
  5. Motivation plays little to no role within the model.
  6. Personality influence is minimal.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following attributes begins to decline in later adulthood?
  2. Personality
  3. Motivation
  4. Crystallized cognitive ability
  5. General cognitive ability
  6. Effectiveness

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of an internal environmental influence that can

affect leadership outcomes?

  1. Skill level of employees
  2. Gender ratio of employees
  3. Up-to-date technology
  4. An economic recession
  5. Group communication processes

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The abilities that help a leader to work effectively with subordinates, peers, and superiors to

accomplish the organizational goal.

  1. Technical skills
  2. Conceptual skills
  3. Human skills
  4. Problem-solving skills
  5. Personality skills

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Three Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The environmental influences listed are all internal, with the exception of
  2. Slow Internet
  3. Limited office space
  4. Highly competent followers
  5. Simplistic task
  6. Flooding of the office

Ans: E

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. By including such a large number of components, the skills approach and its models are

criticized for

  1. Being too similar to previously detailed approaches to leadership
  2. Stressing the value of developing specific skills
  3. The range of skills extending beyond the boundaries of leadership
  4. Not being consistent with aspects of leadership education programs
  5. Not being readily available to all

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticism

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. All of the following environmental influences are external except
  2. Slow Internet
  3. Traffic
  4. Computer network crash
  5. Unplowed parking lot
  6. Inexperienced followers

Ans: E

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. According to Katz, the most important leadership skills for lower-levels of management are
  2. Technical skills
  3. Problem-solving skills
  4. Technical, human, and conceptual skills
  5. Technical and human skills
  6. Conceptual and human skills

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Three Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Within an organization, the employees in the information technology department are

crucial for the success of the organization due to their

  1. Judgment skills
  2. Problem-solving skills
  3. Conceptual skills
  4. Technical skills
  5. Human skills

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Three Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You recently received a promotion to a higher level of management within your

organization. This is your third promotion with your department. What best represents this type

of promotion and its outcomes?

  1. Personality
  2. Motivation
  3. Environmental influences
  4. Career experiences
  5. Problem-solving skills

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Career Experiences

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. What best explains the comparison of the skills approach to sports such as golf and tennis?
  2. Specific techniques are required to succeed.
  3. Input from both sides takes place constantly.
  4. Tools are essential in improving your skills.
  5. People can improve their skills through practice and instruction.
  6. Skills go back and forth between leaders and followers.

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Skills approach helps us best identify our
  2. Place within an organization
  3. Strengths and weaknesses
  4. Performance as a leader
  5. Outcomes of our leadership
  6. Problem-solving skills

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The ideas and mental abilities that people learn through experiences can best be described as
  2. Crystal cognitive ability
  3. Motivation
  4. Career experiences
  5. General cognitive ability
  6. Performance

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which is not a social judgment skill?
  2. Perspective taking
  3. Behavioral flexibility
  4. Social performance
  5. Knowledge acquisition

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Skill in persuasion and communicating change describes which social judgment competency?
  2. Behavioral flexibility
  3. Social perceptiveness
  4. Social performance
  5. Social intelligence

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which skills model competency consists of creating a schema for learning and organizing data?
  2. Personality
  3. Knowledge
  4. Perceptive taking
  5. Career experiences

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The problem-solving component of the skills model
  2. Assesses leader performance
  3. Demonstrates ability to construct organizational solutions
  4. Demonstrates leader personality
  5. Assesses social perceptions and behavioral flexibility

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Problem solving is
  2. A competency
  3. A trait
  4. An individual attribute
  5. A leader outcome

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which part of the skills model supports people as they apply their leadership competencies?
  2. Individual attributes
  3. Technical skills
  4. Knowledge
  5. Leadership outcomes

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Johanna is excellent at applying tax law and other accounting principles in her job as a manager in her accounting firm. She has equally high skills in working with the employees she supervises but does not have as much skill in helping the firm shape the vision for growth. Applying Katz’s skills model, at what level of management is Johanna?
  2. Top management
  3. Middle management
  4. Supervisory management
  5. CEO management

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three skills model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Tamika uses her ability to sense and perceive her staff’s emotions every day to help them feel comfortable in the workplace. She is very knowledgeable about day-to-day operations and also is quite successful at anticipating problems and sharing ideas for improvements up the chain of command. Applying Katz’s skills model, at what level of management is Tamika?
  2. Top management
  3. Middle management
  4. Supervisory management
  5. Impoverished management

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three skills model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Jonathan has equally high skills in managing relationships with the employees he supervises and in helping the firm shape the vision for growth. Applying Katz’s skills model, at what level of management is Jonathan?
  2. Top management
  3. Middle management
  4. Supervisory management
  5. Dictatorial management

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three skills model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Ashlyn focuses her energy at her car manufacturing company on assessing market fluctuations and shaping the goals of the organization for the future. She communicates well with her staff and enjoys the social aspect of work with the people around her. She leaves the details and daily operations primarily to other capable staff in the organization. Applying Katz’s skills model, at what level of management is Johanna?
  2. Top management
  3. Middle management
  4. Supervisory management
  5. Low-level management

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three skills model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A supervisory-level manager of a company who applies the level of administrative skills to the degrees delineated in Katz’s model
  2. Incorporates the entire staff in the process of shaping the company’s goals
  3. Is more “hands-on” with producing the company’s product than interacting with staff
  4. Has higher involvement with ideas than with people
  5. Avoids getting to know the staff

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Human Skill

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The research by Mumford et al. was done on a sample of
  2. Higher education administrators
  3. High-level managers in industry
  4. Managers at multiple levels of industry
  5. Military leaders at multiple levels

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Skills model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The problem-solving competency in the skills model is most similar to
  2. Dominance in trait approach
  3. Katz’s conceptual skill
  4. Katz’s technical skill
  5. Knowledge in Mumford’s model

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The knowledge competency in the skills model is most similar to
  2. Self-confidence in trait approach
  3. Katz’s conceptual skill
  4. Katz’s technical skill
  5. Knowledge in Mumford’s model

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Additional research completed by Mumford, Campion, and Morgeson used a four skill model to assess cognitive, interpersonal, business, and strategic skills in managers at junior and senior levels of an organization. The research findings in this study were most similar to
  2. Katz’s hierarchical three skills model
  3. Mumford’s skills model
  4. Blake and Mouton’s leadership grid
  5. The Ohio State studies

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Skills Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Mumford’s skills model contends that leadership outcomes are the direct result of
  2. A leader’s sociability
  3. A leader’s career experiences
  4. A leader’s willingness to lead
  5. A leader’s competencies

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Skills Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach is primarily
  2. Descriptive
  3. Prescriptive
  4. Unscripted
  5. Technical

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Skills Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Individual leader attributes can affect the leaders skills, but it is the _____ themselves that are most important in addressing organizational problems.
  2. Traits
  3. Behaviors
  4. Skills
  5. Followers

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Skills Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which is not a strength of the skills approach?
  2. It is intuitively appealing
  3. Skills can be learned
  4. It has high predictive value
  5. It is an expansive view of leadership

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The structure of the skills approach is
  2. Consistent with followership education programs
  3. Consistent with leadership education programs
  4. Is not compatible with leadership education programs
  5. Is precise enough to assure good leadership outcomes

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The breadth of the skills approach, which includes motivation, critical thinking, and personality
  2. Is a strength of this approach
  3. Is a weakness of this approach
  4. Adds to the precise nature of the approach
  5. Adds to the approaches’ prescriptive value

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach is
  2. High in predictive value
  3. Narrow in its focus
  4. Suitable for application across leadership contexts
  5. Is not suitable for application across leadership contexts

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach framework
  2. Can be applied at all levels of leadership
  3. Has been applied to many formal training programs
  4. Has been widely used in formal training programs
  5. Can be applied to followership training programs

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Research data on Mumford et al.’s model was tested on military personnel. Which of the following is true?
  2. The model can be effectively applied to leadership skills in small organizations
  3. The model can be effectively applied to leadership skills in large organizations
  4. The model cannot be effectively applied to leadership skills in startup businesses
  5. The model can be effectively applied to leadership skills in startup businesses

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Summary

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. General cognitive ability is similar to which of the five leadership traits in this text?
  2. Sociability
  3. Dominance
  4. Extraversion
  5. Intelligence
  6. Self-confidence

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The basic premise of the skills approach is to
  2. Identify the behaviors necessary for leadership
  3. Identify the behaviors of leaders
  4. Identify the skills of leaders
  5. Identify the individual attributes of leaders

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Katz started the research focus on skills during a time when
  2. There finally was a definitive list of leader traits described in the literature
  3. There was still disagreement about leader traits in the literature
  4. There was no research yet on the individual attributes of leaders
  5. There was emphasis in the literature on putting followers first

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

Multiple Selection

 

 

 

  1. Effective problem solving and performance can be explained by leader competencies, and these competencies are affected by
  2. The followers
  3. Leader’s attributes
  4. Career experiences
  5. The environment

Ans: B, C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Katz describes human skill as
  2. Being aware of one’s own perspective on issues
  3. Being competent with the process or product within a company
  4. Being aware of the perspective of others on issues
  5. Being able to shape the ideas of an organization

Ans: A, C

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Human Skill

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Mumford’s Skills Model includes which of these main components?
  2. Technical skill
  3. Individual attributes
  4. Competencies
  5. Leadership outcomes
  6. Decision-making skill

Ans: B, C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Social judgment competencies include
  2. Social intelligence
  3. Emotional intelligence
  4. Social performance
  5. Behavioral flexibility

Ans: C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Competencies

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Leadership outcomes in Mumford et. al’s skills model is affected by
  2. Individual attributes
  3. Problem-solving ability
  4. Career experiences
  5. Authority-compliance behaviors

Ans: A, B, C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Skills model

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Career experiences directly contribute to which of the other components of Mumford et. al’s skills model?
  2. Competencies
  3. Leadership outcomes
  4. Environmental influences
  5. Individual attributes

Ans: A, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Environmental influences directly contribute to which of the other components of Mumford et. al’s skills model?
  2. Competencies
  3. Leadership outcomes
  4. Career experiences
  5. Individual attributes

Ans: A, B, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. The intuitive appeal of the skills approach is
  2. Because it is available to everyone
  3. Because skills can be learned
  4. Because we can identify with the leader
  5. Because skills transform followers

Ans: A, B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

  1. Technical skills grow in importance as one moves up Katz’s managerial/leadership hierarchy.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Three Skill Approach

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Mumford’s Skills Model of Leadership was designed to determine the competencies needed for effective leader performance.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Skills Model

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach is not descriptive.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: How Does the Skills Approach Work

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Technical skills grow in importance as one moves up the managerial hierarchy.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Three Skill Approach

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Human skills are important at all levels of management.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Three Skill Approach

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Mumford’s research studied military personnel rather than business and organizational leaders.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Skill Model

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach suggests that many individuals have the potential for leadership.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Social judgment is an individual attribute in the skills model.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Crystallized cognitive ability refers to one’s innate intellectual ability or intelligence.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Career experience is a strong influence on a leader’s competencies.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Career Experiences

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Environmental influences are factors in situations that lie outside the leader’s competencies,

characteristics, and experiences.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The lack of high-speed Internet access in a company is an external environmental influence

that can affect leadership outcomes.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach is relatively new and has not been widely used in training and

development.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticism

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Skills approach provides a structure consistent with leadership education programs.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The skills approach is appropriate to use in leadership education programs
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Katz states that human skills are most important for middle- and top-management levels.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Three Skills Model

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Motivation and personality fall within the competencies component of Mumford’s skills

model.

  1. True
  2. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Individual Attributes

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

Essay

 

 

 

  1. How do career experiences affect the characteristics and competencies of leaders?

Ans: This question asks students to think through how each of the attributes may influence the various competencies of the model. For example, someone high in general cognitive ability may be a creative problem solver, always looking for win-win outcomes.  She may readily grasp the importance of understanding other people and social systems, as well as welcome working with others.  She would be able to apply the knowledge she already has while being motivated to acquire more.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Career Experiences

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. Defend or refute: Although personal attributes are important, it is the leader’s skills that are most important in addressing organizational problems.

Ans: This question can be addressed two ways.  First, are a leader’s attributes or skills more useful when addressing organizational problems? In favor of the skills approach, the Mumford skills model shows that leader attributes and competencies lead to outcomes, whereas the trait

approach does not. The skills identified as most important in the model are problem solving,

social judgment, and knowledge, all of which, theoretically, should lead to clear thinking,

concern for others, and seeing “the big picture.” Second, stable attributes such as intelligence,

trustworthiness, and determination certainly would go a long way toward gaining cooperation

from others and making ethical choices for the organization.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three Skills and Skill Model

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. There are two main models in the skills approach, Katz’s Three Skills Model and Mumford et al.’s Skills Model. Compare these two models by describing two similarities and two differences between these models.

Ans: Similarities include the competencies in Mumford’s model and the three skills in Katz’s model.  Knowledge is similar to technical skill, social judgment is similar to human skill, and problem solving is similar to conceptual skill.  Both models are focused on identifying skills of leaders; however, Mumford’s model attempted to assess leadership outcomes whereas Katz’s model did not have an assessment component. Additional differences include the addition of individual attributes, career experiences, and environmental influences in Mumford’s model.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Three Skills and Skill Model

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. Environmental influences are considered those things that are outside the control of the leader’s capabilities. Describe why you think the authors of this research included this in a skills model of leadership.

Ans: Answers will vary considerably but should include that environmental influences shape the leaders’ skills by influencing the individual attributes, competencies, and leadership outcomes in the skills model.  Leaders learn from dealing with outside and inside influences they could not have anticipated.  An example answer might be: This learning can shape their motivation to continue to work hard (individual attributes), their social judgment ability to perceive the needs of others (competencies), and their effectiveness in handling an unforeseen problem (leadership outcomes).

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Environmental Influences

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

 

  1. It is accurate to say that Situational Leadership®® II (SLII®®) is primarily
  2. Descriptive
  3. Prescriptive
  4. Well supported by research
  5. Trait related

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes Situational Leadership®?
  2. Specific leaders are needed in specific situations
  3. Leaders must adapt to the situation, but not to the followers
  4. Different situations demand different kinds of leadership
  5. Leadership is directive

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Who focused on leaders matching their styles to the competence and commitment of employees?
  2. Stogdill
  3. Hersey and Blanchard
  4. Blake and McCanse
  5. Katz

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The situational approach
  2. Is irrelevant in modern day leadership
  3. Focuses on describing not prescribing leadership
  4. Is used widely in leadership training and development
  5. Determined that high-directive and high-supportive behaviors work best in all situations

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The SLII® model is divided into two parts:
  2. Leadership attributes and follower skills
  3. Leadership skills and follower development level
  4. Leadership development levels and follower behaviors
  5. Leadership style and follower development level

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Adjusting leadership styles is based on the assumption that
  2. Followers’ skills and motivation vary over time
  3. Leaders have to develop basic skills prior to assessing follower needs
  4. Followers’ skill level stays the same, whereas motivation level varies
  5. Leaders adjust their styles to the behavioral styles of followers

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. In the SLII® model, leaders evaluate how __________ and _________ followers are to perform a task.
  2. Intentional and committed
  3. Motivated and determined
  4. Competent and committed
  5. Focused and intelligent

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Follower development level in SLII® is determined by level of
  2. Competence and commitment
  3. Social judgment and cognitive ability
  4. Sociability and determination
  5. Task and directive behaviors

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. In SLII®, leaders use different degrees of ______ and ______ to meet the needs of followers.
  2. Motivation and determination
  3. Competence and commitment
  4. Supportive and directive behaviors
  5. Social judgment and cognitive ability

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The Situational Leadership® approach
  2. Is one of the more widely recognized leadership approaches
  3. Integrates leadership skills with follower skills
  4. Integrates leadership behaviors with follower traits
  5. Is not recognized as a legitimate modern day leadership approach

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The situational approach labels leaders’ styles specifically as
  2. Initiating structure and consideration
  3. High task and low task
  4. Task and relationship
  5. Directive and supportive

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are president of a large corporation. At a typical monthly meeting, each of your vice presidents gives standard area reports. In the past, these reports have been good, and the VPs seem satisfied about their work. Based on SLII®, which leadership style should you exhibit at the next meeting?
  2. Style 1
  3. Style 2
  4. Style 3
  5. Style 4

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which leadership style includes a high level of support and also is one in which the leader makes the final decision about goal accomplishment.
  2. Directing
  3. Supporting
  4. Delegating
  5. Coaching

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A leader who gives followers instructions about how and when goals should be achieved and supervises them carefully is using
  2. Directing behaviors
  3. Supporting behaviors
  4. Delegating behaviors
  5. Coaching behaviors

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A leader who gives recognition and social support to followers is using
  2. Directing behaviors
  3. Supporting behaviors
  4. Delegating behaviors
  5. Coaching behaviors

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A leader who lets followers take responsibility for task accomplishment and has less involvement with followers is using
  2. Directing behaviors
  3. Supporting behaviors
  4. Delegating behaviors
  5. Coaching behaviors

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You were recently hired into an organization that you have always wanted to work at, and in addition, your education and experience complement your new position perfectly. According to the situational model, your level of development is
  2. S2
  3. D2
  4. S1
  5. D4

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You recently were promoted to a new position and are very excited, but you have little to no experience with numerous aspects of the new position. According to the situational model, your level of development is
  2. S4
  3. D2
  4. S1
  5. D4

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You have been employed at your organization for some time and are starting to gain the necessary skills associated with your position but have trouble staying as motivated as you used to be. According to the situational model, your level of development is
  2. S4
  3. D2
  4. S1
  5. S2

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. As a recent graduate from the top paper science program in the country, you quickly receive a position with a large paper company and are given a high-salary position. You are very nervous and feel that you need more experience or assistance to meet organizational standards. According to the situational model, your level of development is
  2. S4
  3. D2
  4. S1
  5. D4

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Low in competence and high in commitment
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. S2
  5. S4

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Some competence but low commitment
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. S2
  5. S1

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The development level in the SLII® model is
  2. The degree to which leaders are capable of adjusting their styles
  3. The skill with which the followers adjust their styles
  4. The traits that make up who a follower is
  5. The degree to which followers have the capability and motivation for task accomplishment

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Followers who have little skill for the task but are confident in getting the task done are
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Followers who have some ability to complete a task but lack motivation about the task are
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Followers who are quite competent to complete tasks but lack the commitment to do so are
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Followers who are highly motivated, committed, and motivated to accomplish tasks are
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The D4 follower needs which type of leader?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Coaching
  5. Delegating

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The highly competent, highly committed follower benefits from
  2. A leader who provides a high level of support
  3. A leader who directs tasks carefully
  4. A leader who stays out of the day-to-day tasks and provides low levels of support
  5. A leader who is both a cheerleader and authoritarian

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following would a leader not ask when determining the nature of the situation?
  2. What task are the followers being asked to perform?
  3. How can I best alter the styles of the followers?
  4. How complex is the task?
  5. Are the followers sufficiently skilled to accomplish the task?

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. If followers are low in competence and high in commitment, a leader should adopt which style?
  2. Low-directive and high-supportive style
  3. High-directive and high-supportive style
  4. Low-directive and low-supportive style
  5. High-directive and low-supportive style

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are the executive director of the local animal humane society. The staff you supervise have been working at the society for more than two years and you have given them consistently excellent performance appraisals at the last two annual reviews. You have noticed lately that they have brought new ideas to you for ways to improve customer service and animal care and that they are excited about helping new staff get accustomed to the workplace. Based on the Situational Leadership® Approach, which leadership style should you exhibit?
  2. Delegating
  3. Supporting
  4. Coaching
  5. Directing

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are the executive director of the local animal humane society. A staff member you supervise has been working at the society for less than one year. At the six-month, you discuss with this employee that they seem to have mastered the basic tasks of the job but not the more difficult tasks. You have noticed lately that they seem a bit disillusioned about the job and the process of caring for these animals that seem so sad to be in the facility. Based on the Situational Leadership® Approach, which leadership style should you exhibit?
  2. Delegating
  3. Supporting
  4. Coaching
  5. Directing

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are the executive director of the local animal humane society. A staff member you supervise has been working at the society for about one year. At the annual performance evaluation review, you share that you are pleased to see the employee has mastered both the basic and more difficult tasks of the job. You notice, however, that this employee still lacks the confidence and motivation to take on new tasks. Based on the Situational Leadership® Approach, which leadership style should you exhibit?
  2. Delegating
  3. Supporting
  4. Coaching
  5. Directing

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are the executive director of the local animal humane society. You hired a staff member four weeks ago. You notice this new employee cheerfully interacting with other staff and potential adopters and daily attempting to learn new tasks. It is clear this employee needs more time and help learning the correct policies and methods to complete the work, and when you share this information, the employee readily accepts these directions. Based on the Situational Leadership® Approach, which leadership style should you exhibit?
  2. Delegating
  3. Supporting
  4. Coaching
  5. Directing

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. As the executive director of the local animal humane society, you work with several employees who are at varying levels of experience in working with animal welfare issues and with varying degrees of motivation to continue this important work. Using Situational Leadership® concepts, you should
  2. Adapt your style based on experience and skill level of the staff
  3. Adapt your leadership style based on the motivation level of the staff
  4. Demonstrate a high degree of flexibility in your style to each staff member
  5. Demonstrate little flexibility in your style as you interact only with high-level staff members

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following would a leader ask when determining the commitment level of a follower?
  2. What task are the followers being asked to perform?
  3. How can I best alter the styles of the followers?
  4. Do the followers have the desire to complete the task?
  5. How complex is the task?

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Followers can move back and forth along the developmental continuum, therefore leaders should
  2. Use the one leader behavior with which they are most comfortable
  3. Put structures in place to limit this movement
  4. Be flexible in their leadership behavior
  5. Challenge the movement and direct followers to stay where they are

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following would not be considered a strength of the situational approach?
  2. Emphasizes leadership flexibility
  3. Is a very practical approach
  4. Is considered a credible model for training leaders within organizations
  5. Takes the influence of gender into account during leader-follower situations

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which best describes the reason Situational Leadership® is so practical for managers to use?
  2. It assists in relating demographics to leadership
  3. It is only applicable to lower-level managers
  4. It is straightforward
  5. It is specific

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a strength of the Situational Leadership® approach?
  2. It is descriptive not prescriptive
  3. Commitment of followers is clearly defined
  4. Demographics such as gender and age are accounted for in the empirical research
  5. It is perceived as a useful model of leadership training and development

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Questionnaires on Situational Leadership® often ask for respondents to look at specific applications of leadership styles within situations, which may result in
  2. Results that are not in favor of Situational Leadership®
  3. A wide range of responses that are hard to validate
  4. Biased results in favor of Situational Leadership®
  5. Negative perceptions toward organizations

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Because of the lack of research studies associated with Situational Leadership®, there are questions concerning its theoretical basis. Which of the following is not one of these questions?
  2. Is it certain that this approach does indeed improve performance?
  3. Can we be sure it is a valid approach?
  4. Why are there limited doctoral dissertations done on the situational approach?
  5. Why has there been a lack of published research findings?

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are leader of a group project for a class. The other group members seem insecure about whether they can complete the project, but it is apparent that they are competent enough to do a good job. In prior meetings you have been coaching them on the project. Based on SLII®, which leadership style should you exhibit at the next meeting?
  2. Style 1
  3. Style 2
  4. Style 3
  5. Style 4

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are the leader of a small jazz band composed of four of your peers who have never been in a jazz group before. As the leader of the band, you have been very straightforward about how the band will function. You have clearly described each of the members’ roles, and they are starting to catch on to how the group works. What style do you exhibit next?
  2. Style 1
  3. Style 2
  4. Style 3
  5. Style 4

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are the owner of a small catering company and have recently hired a skilled baker to complement your staff. When business is slow, however, you need the baker to help prepare other kinds of foods. Some of the processes (like deboning fish and preparing soup stock) are complicated and require detailed training. What style should you use under these circumstances?
  2. Style 1
  3. Style 2
  4. Style 3
  5. Style 4

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You have recently been made a department head of the new regional office. In getting to know your departmental staff, you have noticed that one of your inexperienced employees is not following through on assigned tasks. She is enthused about her new job and wants to get ahead in the organization. Which alternative represents the most effective leadership style?
  2. Discuss the lack of follow-through with her and explore possible ways to solve this problem.
  3. Specify what she must do to complete the tasks, but incorporate any suggestions she may have.
  4. Define the steps necessary to complete the assigned tasks and monitor her performance frequently.
  5. Let her know about the lack of follow-through and give her more time to improve her performance.

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A leader who emphasizes communication with followers in both achieving goals as well as meeting social needs would best be described as possessing
  2. Directing style
  3. Delegating style
  4. Supporting style
  5. Coaching style

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Allowing a group of employees to run the daily operations of the organization while the supervisor remains out of the picture unless he is needed to solve problems, listen to concerns, give praise, and provide feedback is best explained with
  2. Directing style
  3. Delegating approach
  4. Supporting approach
  5. Coaching approach

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Once a group has established a plan of action toward achieving its goals, the supervisor allows the group to carry out the plan with little to no involvement. This is an example of
  2. Directing style
  3. Delegating approach
  4. Supporting approach
  5. Coaching approach

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Leaders adjust their styles based on
  2. The collective needs of the group
  3. Their own skill sets
  4. Followers skill sets
  5. The level of motivation and competency of their followers

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Leaders evaluate the competence and commitment of followers in which leadership theory?
  2. Path-goal
  3. Leader-member exchange
  4. Servant
  5. Situational

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A highly committed follower who does his job consistently well needs which type of leader?
  2. Supportive
  3. Directive
  4. Coaching
  5. Delegating

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A follower with low-level motivation and mid-to-high level ability to complete the job benefits from
  2. A leader who provides a high level of support
  3. A leader who directs tasks carefully
  4. A leader who stays out of the day-to-day tasks
  5. A leader who is both a cheerleader and authoritarian

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The highly committed follower who just has not figured out how to do his job benefits from
  2. A leader who provides a high level of support
  3. A leader who directs tasks carefully
  4. A leader who stays out of the day-to-day tasks and provides low levels of support
  5. A leader who is both a cheerleader and authoritarian

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. A leader applying the situational approach would
  2. Focus on developing leader skills
  3. Focus on adapting behavior to the subordinate and task characteristics of followers
  4. Focus on supportive behaviors for all followers
  5. Focus on assessing and adapting to followers’ needs in the workplace

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. When the leader tries to apply the right style of behavior to the situation he or she
  2. First diagnoses, then adjusts appropriately
  3. First adjusts, then evaluates the situation
  4. First diagnoses, then delegates tasks
  5. First adjusts, then provides direction

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Jocelyn is struggling to grasp the process of a new job you have given her. She states she understands the outcome of the project, but not how to start the project. She looks miserable and uninterested in trying to start the project. Which alternative represents the most effective leadership style you should use with Jocelyn?
  2. Discuss the initial steps and ask her for input on alternative ways she could get started
  3. Specify what she must do to complete the tasks and let her get started
  4. Define the steps necessary to complete the assigned tasks and monitor her performance frequently
  5. Let her know she just needs to get started now

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You are leader of a group project for a class in which you previously have successfully used coaching style. Now the group members seem very insecure about whether they can complete the project, but it is apparent that they have learned a lot about how to do the project and are now quite competent to do a good job. You decide to switch to a supporting style. Why did you make this switch?
  2. The followers moved up in competence
  3. Supportive behaviors always help followers
  4. The followers’ competence and commitment are about equal
  5. The followers have moderate level of commitment

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. I prefer to use a low level of supportive leader behaviors and high directive behaviors with all of my followers. Which of my followers will benefit most from my use of these behaviors?
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. I tend to tell my staff what to do and how to do it while I encourage them and ask them for input about the goals of our organization. Which of my followers will benefit most from my use of these behaviors?
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. I prefer to tell my staff what to do and rarely integrate them in the decision-making process. Which of my followers will benefit most from my use of these behaviors?
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Many research studies identify and empirically support the situational approach. This statement is
  2. A strength of the situational approach
  3. A criticism of the situational approach
  4. Describes the developmental levels in situational approach
  5. Describes the leader behaviors in situational approach

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of situational approach?
  2. Research does not address how commitment and competence integrate into development levels
  3. It is used in training and development programs
  4. It has prescriptive value for leaders
  5. It is highly flexible in nature

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. In Situational Leadership®
  2. Leaders find their personal best style and apply it to all followers
  3. Leaders adapt their behaviors to meet the organization’s needs
  4. Leaders match their styles to the subordinate development levels
  5. Leaders adjust their styles based on their own skill level

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Competence in the Situational Leadership® approach can be defined as
  2. Having a positive attitude toward the work
  3. Being dedicated and a hard-worker
  4. Having the desire to complete the task
  5. Mastering the skills necessary to complete the task

Ans: B

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Commitment in the Situational Leadership® approach can be defined as
  2. Having motivation and confidence in doing the work
  3. Being dedicated and a hard worker
  4. Possessing the skills necessary to complete the task
  5. Mastering the skills necessary to complete the task

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. Situational Leadership® comprises both directive and supportive dimensions
  2. That are behaviorally similar to task and relationship behaviors in the behavioral approach
  3. That are applied in the same way to all followers
  4. That are used separately depending on the followers’ needs
  5. That are applied to followers who are not sure what their task needs are

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. The directive and supportive behaviors in situational approach
  2. Are applied separately depending on followers’ needs
  3. Are applied to the same degree in the supportive behavioral style
  4. Must be applied together depending on the followers’ needs
  5. Must be applied to the same degree in the directive behavioral style

Ans: C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You communicate well with your followers by encouraging their work and helping them plan out their daily tasks. Which leader behavioral style are you using?
  2. Delegating
  3. Directing
  4. Supporting
  5. Coaching

Ans: D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

  1. You communicate with your followers when necessary and provide direction if followers ask for it but day-to-day control of the decisions and work are left to your followers. You are using which leader behavioral style?
  2. Delegating
  3. Directing
  4. Supporting
  5. Coaching

Ans: A

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MC

 

 

 

Multiple Selection

 

 

 

  1. Directive behaviors help group members accomplish goals by
  2. Giving directions
  3. Solving problems
  4. Setting time lines
  5. Listening

Ans: A, C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Supportive behaviors help group members by
  2. Setting time lines
  3. Giving directions
  4. Asking for input
  5. Solving problems

Ans: C, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Followers have different developmental levels with different tasks. Leaders should
  2. Adjust to each development level
  3. Use the behavior they are best at in each level
  4. Put structures in place to limit the movement along the continuum
  5. Be flexible in leadership behavior

Ans: A, D

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. A strength of the Situational Leadership® approach is
  2. It is a useful model for training and development
  3. It has prescriptive value
  4. It emphasizes leader flexibility
  5. It clearly describes how competence is combined with commitment to determine D levels

Ans: A, B, C

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following are considered directive behaviors?
  2. One-way communication
  3. Problem solving
  4. Setting time lines
  5. Listening

Ans: A, C

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following are considered supportive behaviors?
  2. One-way communication
  3. Problem solving
  4. Setting time lines
  5. Listening

Ans: B, D

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following would a leader ask when determining the competence level of a follower?
  2. What task are the followers being asked to perform?
  3. How can I best alter the styles of the followers?
  4. Do the followers have the desire to complete the task?
  5. How motivated are the followers to do the work?

Ans: A, B

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does the Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. I prefer to use a high level of supportive leader behaviors with all of my followers. Which of my followers will benefit most from my use of these behaviors?
  2. D1
  3. D2
  4. D3
  5. D4

Ans: B, C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

  1. A criticism of situational approach is
  2. It is unclear how followers move along the developmental continuum
  3. The research does not support a universal leadership style
  4. Research does not clearly support the theoretical framework
  5. Flexibility and adaptability are unreasonable behavioral expectations

Ans: A, C

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Criticisms

Question Type: MS

 

 

 

True/False

 

 

 

  1. According to Situational Leadership®, D3 subordinates may be highly skilled but also lack commitment.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. D4 subordinates are not certain that they can do the job by themselves.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Situational Leadership® requires the clear recognition of subordinate needs.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The SLII® model emphasizes flexibility in leadership style.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. In SLII®, Style 2 is low directive and low supportive.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. In SLII®, Style 3 is high supportive and low directive.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. In SLII®, delegating is ineffective with subordinates who are very competent and committed.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. SLII® is used by many corporations to train leaders.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. One of the strengths of the situational approach is its clear conceptualization of subordinates’ developmental levels.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Strengths

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The situational approach contends that leadership involves both directive and supportive behaviors.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. The situational approach requires leaders to demonstrate a strong degree of control.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Under the situational approach, leadership style refers to motivational principles.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. In the situational approach, leadership style defines directive behaviors as those that help group members in goal achievement via two-way communication.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: False

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Description

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. Subordinates can move from one developmental level to another very quickly.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

  1. In the situational approach, supportive leader behaviors are mostly job related.
  2. True
  3. False

Ans: True

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Leadership Styles

Question Type: TF

 

 

 

Essay

 

 

 

  1. According to the SLII® model, why is there a regression in commitment at development levels 2 and 3? Do you agree with this reasoning?

Ans: Development levels are meant to be task-specific, not means of labeling employees.  In the case of D2, employees may have started to learn a job but aren’t quite as motivated as they were at the beginning.  At the D3 level, employees are quite competent but have lost commitment to or enthusiasm for the project. What’s not clear in the model is why subordinates who gain competence would lose enthusiasm or motivation. The argument is not supported (yet) with research.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. What are the characteristics of the four levels of follower development in the SLII® model? How would you characterize the development level of the students in this class? Give evidence to support your view.

Ans: Should touch on the specifics of the following when characterizing class: D1=low competence and high in commitment.  D2=some competence and low commitment.  D3= moderate to high competence and no commitment.  D4=high competence and high commitment

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. A basic assumption of the SLII® is that employees’ skills and motivation vary over time. Do you agree? Can you think of any exceptions?  Does the SLII® fit all work situations equally well?

Ans: One exception might be employees who do the same task day after day and whose skills remain constant, like long-term factory workers.  Motivation may or may not vary in this scenario. The SLII® might be hard to implement when a leader has many subordinates.  It may also be less useful than other leadership approaches in a small office where employees have worked together for years and have routinized jobs. Since the tasks and employees are the same, there’s not much need to adapt one’s leadership style, as long as it’s already effective.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Development Levels

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. Not all leadership communication takes place in person. How would the following media support or complicate each of the four leadership styles?

Telephone:

E-mail:

Twitter:

Written memos:

Ans: Should use specifics from the following styles to explain the interactions through each form of media: directing style–high directive and low supportive style, coaching approach–high directive and high supportive style, supporting approach–low directive and high supportive style, delegating approach–low directive and low supportive style.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Application

Question Type: Essay

 

 

 

  1. You have emerged as the leader of your business finance group project in class. Your group has been working together for five weeks on the major part of the project, the in-class group presentation. One group member has missed quite a few group meetings lately and is minimally contributing to the ideas and final product for the in-class presentation. This group member is a junior in finance with a minor in communications and stated that she is an expert in PowerPoint and multimedia presentations. Based on SLII®, which leadership style should you exhibit?

Ans: Students could answer supporting or coaching depending upon how they interpret the scenario. Directing and delegating are not acceptable answers. The group member displays low commitment (missed meetings, minimal contribution) but at least some competence is presumed because of her major in finance and minor in communications.  Some might interpret this as moderate to high competence and would select supporting style; others might interpret this as “some” competence, thus coaching style is appropriate.  Students should describe the development level explicitly, using levels of competence and commitment that match the appropriate style as they answer this question.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: How Does Situational Approach Work?

Question Type: Essay