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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Management Skills For Everyday Life 3rd Edition by Paula Caproni – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

CHAPTER 3

BUILDING TRUST

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. According to researcher Linda Hill (who studied how new managers succeed on the job), a common flaw for new managers is _____.
    1. To concentrate too much on forming interpersonal relationships with their subordinates
    2. to spend too much time with their bosses
    3. to concentrate on demonstrating their technical competence (Recall, Moderate)
    4. to focus on building trust

 

  1. According to Professor Linda Hill, what are direct reports primarily looking for when they get a new manager?
    1. technical competence
    2. whether the boss is trustworthy (Recall, Easy)
    3. a good sense of humor
    4. ways to get promoted

 

  1. Researchers have concluded that managers who inspire trust are more likely to____.
    1. get more challenging job assignments
    2. build stronger networks
    3. get promoted more often
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Researchers have concluded that members of low-trust groups are _____.
    1. more likely to engage in self-protecting behavior (Recall, Easy)
    2. more likely to take more risks
    3. more likely to accept others’ ideas
    4. better able to deal with uncertainty

 

  1. Trust is most important in which of the following situations?
    1. uncertainty and high risk (Recall, Moderate)
    2. certainty and risk
    3. favorable outcomes and certainty
    4. when we have a lot of information about a situation or person

 

  1. Managers who earn the trust of their employees are more likely to help their organizations survive crises because they ______.
    1. are more likely to receive undistorted information
    2. are able to have decentralized decision-making that enable employees to respond quickly to crises
    3. encourage collaboration within and across organizations affected by the crisis
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

 

 

  1. Trust can be a competitive advantage that provides economic value for an organization for several reasons. Which of the following is not one of those reasons?
    1. Relationships built on trust are hard to copy because they take a long time to develop.
    2. Employees in trusting relationships are more likely to stay with the organization.
    3. Employees in trusting relationships are less likely to be absent from work.
    4. All of the above are reasons that trust is a competitive advantage. (Recall, Difficult)

 

  1. Trust involves all of the following except
    1. uncertainty
    2. creativity (Recall, Easy)
    3. risk
    4. perception

 

  1. Trust is most important when _____.
    1. uncertainty is high (Recall, Moderate)
    2. uncertainty is moderate
    3. uncertainty is low
    4. None of the above; uncertainty has nothing to do with trust.

 

  1. Trust is necessary in situations _____.
    1. where we have complete information about another person’s intentions
    2. where we have incomplete information about another person’s intentions (Recall, Moderate)
    3. where the other person can’t hurt us
    4. when there is no time pressure

 

  1. We base our perceptions of another person’s trustworthiness on several factors. Which of the following is not one of those factors?
    1. the person’s reputation
    2. our prior experience with the person
    3. the groups that the person belongs to
    4. all of the above influence our perceptions of another person’s trustworthiness (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. The effect of a self-fulfilling prophecy is that _____.
    1. we see new information more accurately
    2. we look for information that confirms our prior perceptions (Recall, Moderate)
    3. we are more likely to see information that disconfirms our prior perceptions
    4. we look for information that is most negative

 

  1. According to psychiatrist John Bowlby, our propensity to trust is rooted in _____.
    1. our early childhood experiences
    2. whether we developed “a secure base”
    3. both a and b (Recall, Moderate)
    4. none of the above

 

 

  1. Parental behaviors that are most likely to cause a child to have low trust in himself or herself are _____.
    1. alternating between loving and distant (Recall, Difficult)
    2. low self-monitoring
    3. education-focused rather than learning-focused
    4. none of the above

 

  1. Lee’s and Chris’s parents and grandparents were loving toward them when they were children. They could depend on their parents to respond to them in a dependable and predictable way.  According to psychiatrist John Bowlby, Lee and Chris are more likely to _______.
    1. have a secure base
    2. have trust in themselves and others
    3. confidently take the risks involved in trusting others
    4. all of the above (Applied, Difficult)

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic that we look for to determine whether our bosses are likely to be trustworthy?
    1. fairness
    2. consistency
    3. reliability
    4. an outgoing personality (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. All of the following are indicators that people use to determine trustworthiness except
    1. competence
    2. consistency
    3. collusion (Recall, Easy)
    4. communication

 

  1. Trusting too much in another person can cause us to _____.
    1. ignore our own judgment (Applied, Moderate)
    2. rely on our own judgment too much
    3. minimize our dependence on others
    4. become defensive

 

  1. Trusting too little can cause us to _____.
    1. take unnecessary risks
    2. ignore our own judgment
    3. engage in costly monitoring activities to ensure compliance (Applied, Moderate)
    4. none of the above

 

  1. Which of the following are ways of building interpersonal trust?
    1. Be competent at what you do.
    2. Be predictable and consistent.
    3. Provide unsolicited help.
    4. All of the above are ways of building interpersonal trust. (Recall, Moderate)

 

 

  1. Marvin took credit for his colleague’s idea. He is very sorry that he did this, and he wants to apologize to his colleague.  What advice would you give him to help him make a sincere apology that is more likely to be accepted by his colleague?
    1. Acknowledge that a break of trust has occurred
    2. Be general rather than specific about what he did
    3. Explain why he did what he did
    4. a and c above (Applied, Moderate)

 

  1. Which of the following statements about forgiveness are true?
    1. Forgiveness is defined as the willingness to get over negative feelings associated with a person who we believe has harmed us.
    2. Forgiveness is a “cancellation of debt.”
    3. People who are willing to forgive others tend to have fewer illnesses.
    4. All of the above are true statements. (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. Researchers Lewicki and Bunker recommend that the “perpetrator” of a broken trust _____.
    1. wait to see if the potentially offended person is upset
    2. take the first step toward rebuilding trust (Recall, Moderate)
    3. let the victim approach first
    4. assume that no harm is done if none is visible

 

  1. Which of the following would help you gain a reputation for being trustworthy?
    1. Emphasizing image over competence.
    2. Promising more than you can deliver.
    3. Waiting for people to ask for your help.
    4. Being predictable and consistent. (Applied, Easy)

 

  1. According to psychiatrist Aaron Lazare, when someone apologizes, _____.
    1. it takes the shame off the person hurt by our actions (Recall, Moderate)
    2. it transfers blame to the person hurt by our actions
    3. it neutralizes relationships
    4. it allows the person who did something wrong to retain power

 

  1. For an apology to be viewed as sincere, _____.
    1. you should acknowledge that a breach of trust has occurred
    2. it should be specific, rather than general
    3. you should acknowledge that you have hurt the other person by your actions
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. An effective apology could include all but one of the following statements. Which one?
    1. No harm was done. (Applied, Easy)
    2. I’m sorry that I hurt you.
    3. It bothers me that I was so insensitive.
    4. Here’s how I’ll try to make it up to you.

 

 

  1. When you are making an apology, you are trying to _____.
    1. assure the other person that you empathize with his/her feelings
    2. communicate that you are genuinely sorry
    3. show that the person can feel safe with you in the future
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Identify the best apology from these choices.
    1. I’m sorry that you feel that way.
    2. I’m apologizing for the conduct that was alleged I did.
    3. I’m sorry that I didn’t give you credit for the work you did at our meeting. (Applied, Moderate)
    4. I’m sorry for whatever I might have done.

 

  1. Which of the following is a good way to create a trusting work climate?
    1. Encourage people to be independent of their fellow employees
    2. Maintain ambiguity in the workplace, as it gives people more challenge
    3. Monitor employees closely
    4. Provide predictable routines (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Which of the following is not a way to create a trusting work climate?
    1. Develop a collective identity
    2. Provide clear goals
    3. Allow employees to have some control of their work and time
    4. Manage employees closely (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. “Swift trust,” or trust developed by temporary groups, is based on _____.
    1. trust in the system (or “shell”) in which the group does it’s work (Recall, Moderate)
    2. interpersonal trust
    3. collective appraisal
    4. all of the above

 

  1. The kind of trust that is developed when there isn’t time to engage in the usual forms of trust-building activities is called _____.
    1. interpersonal trust
    2. boundary-spanning trust
    3. intergroup trust
    4. swift trust (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Depersonalized trust relies on _____.
    1. common experience working together
    2. understanding shared standard operating procedures (Recall, Easy)
    3. strong interpersonal relationships
    4. none of the above

 

 

  1. When researcher Robert Ginnett talks about a “shell,” he is referring to _____.
    1. how a team excludes outsiders
    2. the barrier a new member of a team must overcome to be accepted as a member
    3. the set of expectations about the roles of members of the team (Recall, Moderate)
    4. the defense mechanisms of individual team members

 

  1. People who feel and express positive emotions _____.
    1. tend to live longer
    2. tend to be more effective at their jobs
    3. tend to have more successful careers
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Positive emotions _____.
    1. allow people to think more broadly (Recall, Easy)
    2. decrease flexibility
    3. limit our options
    4. none of the above

 

  1. The “nun study” found that one factor associated with a decrease in Alzheimer’s disease among the nuns who participated in the study is _____.
    1. expressing negative emotions openly
    2. expressing positive emotions in their writing at a young age (Recall, Easy)
    3. evaluating their life situation frequently
    4. ignoring outside input

 

  1. Researcher Julie Norem found that a strategy called “defensive pessimism” is characteristically associated with people who tend to be more anxious than others. “Defensive pessimism” causes these people to _____.
    1. harness their anxiety in ways that help them achieve higher performance (Recall, Moderate)
    2. be paralyzed in the face of anxiety
    3. worry less about the details
    4. be less prepared than others

 

  1. You are the CEO of a small company. Today, you learned that five of your company’s senior executives were killed when their private plane crashed on takeoff.  All of the following actions will help your company recover except
    1. helping people look for meaning
    2. expressing your own emotions
    3. communicating to employees the need to get back to work immediately in order to get over the bad emotions quickly (Applied, Easy)
    4. reaching out to employees

 

  1. People who feel positive emotions are more likely to _____.
    1. tend to prefer easy decisions
    2. think more narrowly and emphasize their own positions
    3. think more broadly and build on others’ ideas (Applied, Moderate)
    4. none of the above

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. People in trusting relationships tend to exhibit increased emotional stability, self-control, creativity, as well as less stress and defensiveness.
    1. True (Applied, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. When we trust someone, we assume that the benefits of our relationship with them will outweigh any costs to us.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. Researcher Williams found that people are more likely to believe that someone is trustworthy and cooperate with them when they share similar group memberships.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. Researcher Robinson explains that we tend to look for and focus on information that confirms our prior perceptions of a person’s trustworthiness and ignore or minimize information that disconfirms our prior perceptions.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. Someone who grows up in a loving environment is less likely to give his or her manager bad news in a difficult situation.
    1. True
    2. False (Applied, Moderate)

 

  1. According to the research cited in the textbook, if we have a prior perception of one of our direct reports as being a poor performer, we are more likely to notice when they perform well than when they perform poorly.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. Acting consistent and predictable is one way in which managers gain the trust of employees.
    1. True (Applied, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. Three characteristics people use to assess a person’s trustworthiness are competence, caring, and consistency.
    1. True (Applied, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. “I’m sorry you can’t see things my way,” is an example of an effective apology.
    1. True
    2. False (Applied, Easy)

 

  1. Research shows that airplane cockpit crews rely more on the “shell” provided by their respective roles for trust than they do on interpersonal relationships.
    1. True (Recall, Difficult)
    2. False

 

  1. According to Fredrickson, negative emotions narrow our ability to think and act in complex ways.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. Teams that have a 1:1 ratio of positive to negative interactions tend to be more successful than teams that have a 6:1 ratio of positive to negative interactions.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Describe at least six reasons that managers who build trust have a competitive advantage over those who don’t build trust.

 

Managers who build trust are better able to:

  • Attract and retain followers because employees prefer to work with people who they believe are trustworthy.
  • Promote a sense of belonging because employees are more likely to identify with organizational goals and values, invest psychologically in their jobs, and feel pride, loyalty, and affection toward their managers and organizations.
  • Build support for their goals because employees who trust their managers are less likely to question managers’ competence, goodwill, direction, and intentions.
  • Have more productive employees because people in trusting relationships tend to exhibit increased emotional stability, self-control, creativity, and flexibility as well as less stress and defensiveness.
  • Inspire employees to go “beyond the call of duty” and contribute to the organization in ways that add value but aren’t in their job descriptions.
  • Enhance the quality of customer service because employees who trust their managers are more likely to engage in the kinds of helping behaviors that result in high-quality service.
  • Focus on value-added work because they do not need costly employee control systems that can consume both managers’ and employees’ time, distract them from focusing on fundamental work objectives and reduce innovation and cooperation.
  • Enhance communication because employees are more likely to speak open and honestly, listen carefully, and give bad news upward if they trust the boss.
  • Increase the “speed and efficiency in the creation and transfer of knowledge” because employees are more willing to cooperate with each other in the sharing of information.
  • Reduce conflict and the costs of negotiation because employees are more likely to give each other the benefit of the doubt and be open-minded, flexible, and willing to be influenced by each other.
  • Have more effective group decision-making processes because group members feel free to focus on organizational tasks and goals rather than defend themselves from what they perceive to be threatening. Team members who don’t trust their bosses are more likely to have difficulty concentrating on their tasks; are more likely to engage in self-protecting and low-risk behaviors; have more difficulty dealing with uncertainty; and are less likely to support and implement the ideas of their leaders.
  • Promote organizational change because employees are more likely to feel secure, be flexible, take risks, and cope productively with complexity, ambiguity, and uncertainty.
  • Collaborate more across organizational boundaries.
  • Survive organizational crises because they are more likely to receive undistorted information from employees, enable decentralized decision making that allows employees to react quickly to crises, and encourage collaboration with and across organizations affected by the crisis.
  • Help employees accept unfavorable information and decisions that adversely affect them because employees who trust their managers are more likely to assume that their managers did the best that they could under the circumstances, were fair in their decision-making process, and will do whatever it takes to turn the situation around. The more unfavorable and unexpected the situation, the more important trust becomes. For example, researchers Aneil Mishra and Gretchen Spreitzer found that employees who trust their organizations are more likely to cope effectively during downsizings.

 

 

 

  1. Explain the roles of uncertainty, risk, and perceptions in establishing trustful relationships.

 

When situations have no uncertainty, it’s not necessary to trust, because with total certainty we know everything there is to know and know what the outcome will be.

 

When there is no risk, then trust is also unnecessary; the notion of trust is that one is risking some negative outcome if the trust is unfounded.

 

Our willingness to trust others is largely based on our perceptions of that other person.  Our initial perceptions of a person can be influenced by that person’s reputation or our stereotypes (including group membership) about that person’s identity.  Then, once we have a perception of a person, that perception often influences what we later perceive about that person—we tend to look for and focus on information that supports our prior perceptions.

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the characteristics that employees are likely to look for when they are deciding whether to trust you or not. (Recall, Moderate)

 

  • Competence—Do you have a track record of getting results at work?
  • Reliability—Can others count on you to follow through on your commitments in ways that make their jobs easier rather than harder?
  • Professionalism—Do you show that you are dedicated to your work and professional in your interactions?
  • Consistency—Is your behavior predictable over time and across situations?
  • Open communication—Are you accessible, willing to share accurate information freely, and open to the opinions of others?
  • Transparency—Are you clear about what people need to do to be successful? Do you give explanations for your behavior?
  • Caring—Do people believe that you will listen with care and concern if they share their ideas, hopes, feelings, and problems with you?
  • Fairness—Do you make decisions based on fairness rather than favoritism?
  • Integrity—Are you honest, moral, and consistent in your words and deeds?

 

 

  1. Describe how to make an effective apology.

 

  1. Acknowledge that a breach of trust has occurred.
  2. Be specific rather than general about what you did that broke the trust. (e.g., “I’m sorry that I didn’t give you credit at the last meeting for the work you did.”)
  3. Acknowledge that you know that you hurt the other person with your words or actions. (“I’m sorry that I hurt you by not giving you credit, especially after all that you did to make the project a success.”)
  4. Explain why you did what you did. (e.g., “I was rushing through the presentation and I’m sorry that because of my haste I failed to give you credit for your contributions.”)
  5. Say that you are willing to do what is needed to repair the trust, even at some discomfort to yourself. (e.g., “At the next meeting, I’ll be sure to publicly acknowledge your contributions. I already mentioned them to the boss and explained that I should have given you credit at the earlier meeting.  I also recommended that you take the lead on the next project because it’s an interesting and high visibility project that I think you’d enjoy.”)

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Define the idea of “swift trust”, when it is important to develop, and why?

 

“Swift trust” is the kind of trust that is developed when there isn’t time for people to get to know each other and trust each other on the basis of their personal characteristics.  This kind of trust is particularly important in groups that have to be formed quickly to get some job done but in which members may not know each other.  Examples are paramedic teams and airplane crews.  In the absence of knowing your team members personally, you are forced to rely on their professional training and ethics, as well as the cultures, policies, and procedures of the organization, to trust them. For example, swift trust is more likely to occur when a temporary group shares a set of standard operating procedures and expectations about what their jobs are and how to do them.

 

 

CHAPTER 5

GAINING AND USING SUSTAINABLE, ETHICAL POWER AND INFLUENCE

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. All of the following are true about power except
    1. power must be actively sought
    2. power is negotiated
    3. power is a stable characteristic of a person or group (Recall, Moderate)
    4. power must be continuously replenished

 

  1. According to the author, in order to use power ethically, you must _____.
    1. explicitly tell people what you want to achieve and why
    2. treat everyone with respect
    3. leave yourself open to be influenced by others
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. People do not always make rational decisions because _____.
    1. people are incapable of taking in all the available relevant information (Recall, Moderate)
    2. people can predict the consequences of different courses of action
    3. most organizational decisions only affect one group or department
    4. organizations have unlimited resources

 

  1. Using cognitive shortcuts _____.
    1. sometimes helps us make good decisions and sometimes doesn’t (Recall, Moderate)
    2. always helps us make good decisions
    3. never helps us make good decisions
    4. helps us make better decisions when we’re under stress

 

  1. According to the textbook author, people with sustainable power and influence _____.
    1. focus on achieving the goals they believe are important
    2. take actions to shape their environments
    3. are willing to use the informal organization to achieve their goals
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. The Social Styles model for understanding behavioral preferences has two dimensions:
    1. assertive/probing and high/low responsiveness (Recall, Easy)
    2. unilaterial functioning and bilateral functioning
    3. learning by doing and learning by thinking
    4. None of the above

 

 

  1. The person with this Social Style emphasizes systematic use of data to make decisions.
    1. analytic (Recall, Moderate)
    2. driver
    3. amiable
    4. expressive

 

  1. The person with this Social Style emphasizes competitiveness, the bottom line, and speed.
    1. analytic
    2. driver (Recall, Moderate)
    3. amiable
    4. expressive

 

  1. The strengths of this Social Style include public speaking, inspiring enthusiasm, and building alliances.
    1. analytic
    2. driver
    3. amiable
    4. expressive (Recall, Difficult)

 

  1. All of the following are forms of influence identified by Robert Cialdini except
    1. reciprocation
    2. autonomy (Recall, Moderate)
    3. commitment
    4. social proof

 

  1. According to Robert Cialdini, the commitment/consistency rule means that _____.
    1. people are more likely to be committed to ideas that are consistent with their childhood experiences
    2. people can resist using cognitive shortcuts if they are committed to ideas that are consistent with their cultural beliefs
    3. people are more likely to agree with a request if they feel it is consistent with a commitment they have already made (Recall, Moderate)
    4. people tend to want what they believe is unique, rare, or in limited supply

 

  1. In his book, “Influence: Science and Practice,” Cialdini suggests that _____.
    1. there are six types of influence that work with people from all cultures
    2. influence methods work because they act as “cognitive shortcuts”
    3. both a and b (Recall, Moderate)
    4. none of the above

 

 

  1. A new student walks into a classroom and sees a professor standing at the front of the room behind a podium. In this situation, the fact that the professor is standing at the front of the room behind the podium serves as _____ to induce compliance on the part of the student.
    1. moderator
    2. eliminator
    3. trigger (Applied, Moderate)
    4. server

 

  1. When we buy a brand of toothpaste because the advertisement says that “90% of dentists recommend this toothpaste”, we are using the _____ rule to make our decision.
    1. scarcity
    2. commitment
    3. authority (Recall, easy)
    4. none of the above

 

  1. You are having a conversation with your best friend. Your friend says “If you’ll help me with my homework this week, I’ll take you to the movies on Saturday.”  In this situation, your friend is trying to use _____ to influence your behavior.
    1. reciprocation (Applied, Easy)
    2. authority
    3. scarcity
    4. social proof

 

  1. One of the tactics used by salespeople is to tell customers that a particular item will be available for a lower price for only one day. In this situation, the salespeople are trying to use _____ to influence customer buying habits.
    1. reciprocation
    2. consistency
    3. authority
    4. scarcity (Applied, Easy)

 

  1. The _____ rule works because humans engage in “now or never” thinking.
    1. reciprocation
    2. consistency
    3. authority
    4. scarcity (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Research done by Stanley Milgram found that subjects would administer electric “shocks” to another human being, even when the victim screamed and said he was having heart problems. The subjects in this experiment were most likely influenced by the _____ of the experimenter.
    1. authority (Recall, Moderate)
    2. social proof
    3. liking
    4. commitment

 

 

  1. People often base their perceptions of authority on _____.
    1. titles
    2. style of dress
    3. use of language
    4. all of the above (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. You are trying to convince someone to invest in a new venture because “everyone is doing it.” What should you do to maximize your influence attempt?
    1. Show potential investors a list of the other people investing in your business.
    2. Obtain testimonials from people who have previously invested in your businesses.
    3. Show potential investors how much money others have earned by investing in your businesses.
    4. All of the above. (Applied, Moderate)

 

  1. Robert Cialdini says that “people live up to what they have written down.” This illustrates the power of _____.
    1. authority
    2. commitment (Recall, Easy)
    3. scarcity
    4. reciprocity

 

  1. You are more likely to be influenced by your best friend than you are to be influenced by a stranger. This is an example of the power of _____.
    1. scarcity
    2. authority
    3. liking (Recall, Moderate)
    4. commitment

 

  1. Research shows that waitresses and waiters who smile broadly _____.
    1. get larger tips (Recall, Difficult )
    2. get smaller tips
    3. make customers uncomfortable
    4. are regarded as more competent by their managers

 

  1. The term “politics” in organizations refers to activities that _____.
    1. people engage in to influence organizational outcomes
    2. are not part of one’s official job description
    3. are not carried out through official policies
    4. all of the above (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. Politically savvy people understand that _____.
    1. timing matters
    2. it is important to adjust their behavior to the styles of others
    3. they should read a situation before jumping into it
    4. all of the above are important (Recall, Moderate)

 

 

  1. Politically savvy people draw on all of the following resources except
    1. personal resources
    2. relational resources
    3. structural resources
    4. integral resources ( Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. All of the following are avenues for gaining structural power except
    1. position
    2. autonomy
    3. personality (Recall, Moderate)
    4. centrality

 

  1. “Criticality” refers to the degree to which _____.
    1. you can choose how, when, and where to do your job
    2. your job requires critical analysis of important organizational issues
    3. your job has a direct impact on organizational performance or is a critical link in the workflow of the organization (Recall, Moderate)
    4. none of the above

 

  1. A coalition is best defined as _____.
    1. people who work independently from each other to promote issues that are important to them
    2. an informal group of people who work together to promote issues that are important to them (Recall, Moderate)
    3. a group of people who are more likely to promote groupthink as a way of obtaining agreement from others
    4. none of the above

 

  1. All of the following are ways of minimizing dysfunctional organizational politics except
    1. providing clear goals and performance measures
    2. using a systematic and transparent process for making organizational decisions
    3. de-emphasizing the communication of bad news because organizational members should stay positive (Recall, Moderate)
    4. encouraging critical thinking

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. According to the research cited in this chapter, most people tend to make decisions based on a careful analysis of all available information.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. Using “cognitive shortcuts” always leads to poor decisions.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Easy)

 

 

  1. People who have an analytic Social Style tend to emphasize change rather than stability.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. People who have an expressive Social Style tend to be more conservative than people who have an analytic social style because they have less data to use when making decisions.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. People who have an amiable Social Style tend to make decisions more quickly because they get information from many different kinds of people.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. People who have a driver Social Style tend to emphasize speed.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. Certain words can act as triggers, which can influence behavior and cause people to mindlessly comply with requests.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. Reciprocation is most effective as an influence attempt if the “return favor” is asked for within 24 hours.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. One key to using the scarcity rule in influence attempts is to highlight exclusive information.
    1. True (Applied, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. According to Cialdini, someone who follows a manager’s directions because that person is a manager is being influenced by authority.
    1. True (Applied, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. A person who makes a public statement about a planned action (for example, announcing to your employees that “I will increase profits in this company by 20 percent.”) is less likely to accomplish that action than someone who remains quiet about his or her plans.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Moderate)

 

  1. Sharing positive experiences with someone can increase your influence with that person.
    1. True (Recall, easy)
    2. False (Recall, Difficult)

 

  1. The six universal forms of influence described by Robert Cialdini include authority, commitment/consistency, scarcity, liking, social proof, and reciprocity.
    1. True (Applied, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. Some forms of political behavior can increase innovation in organizations.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

  1. People who use relational power effectively rarely change the style in which they communicate their message because they know that all audiences should hear the same thing.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Difficult)

 

  1. People who work in routine jobs that require limited judgment are more easily replaced than people who have autonomy over how their work is done.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. A coalition is an informal group of people who work together to promote issues that are important to them.
    1. True (Recall, Easy)
    2. False

 

  1. Providing clear goals, performance measures, and feedback tends to increase political behavior in organizations.
    1. True
    2. False (Recall, Easy)

 

  1. One way of minimizing dysfunctional organizational politics is to use systematic and transparent decision-making processes.
    1. True (Recall, Moderate)
    2. False

 

 

 

ESSAY QUESTIONS

 

  1. Power can be gained and used either ethically or unethically. What is the primary difference between ethical and unethical power, and what steps should you take to gain and use power ethically?

 

  • The basic difference between unethical and ethical power is that unethical power is used primarily for the good of the individual, and ethical power is used for the good of the group as well as the individual. Individuals who use ethical power are willing to sometimes sacrifice their own goals for the good of the group.
  • Ways to gain ethical power:
  • Explicitly tell people what you want to achieve and why.
  • Put the interests of others and the organization at least on par with your own. interests and, when appropriate, put other’s interests ahead of your own.
  • Treat everyone with respect, administer organizational policies and procedures fairly, and do not abuse anyone’s rights or exploit people.
  • Leave yourself reasonable open to be influenced by others.
  • Back your requests with supporting data.

 

 

 

  1. What is the Social Styles Model, and why is it important for developing influence?

 

  • The Social Styles Model is a theory that can be used to understand the behavior and preferences of people. The model assumes that: 1) we all have predictable and taken-for-granted ways of behaving, including how we make decisions, interact with others, and resolve conflicts; 2) if we understand our preferred styles as well as the preferred styles of the others, we can avoid some of the problems that arise from the misunderstandings, conflicts, and frustrations that can occur when people with different styles interact; and 3) we are more likely to influence others if we build relationships based on mutual understanding and respect.
  • The Social Styles Model measures people on two dimensions: 1) Assertive/probing (whether a person pushes his/her own ideas or draws ideas out from others); and 2) High responsiveness/low responsiveness (whether a person prefers to be rational, objective and task-focused, or emotionally expressive, intuitive, and relationship-focused.
  • Based on a person’s preferences, they are characterized as an analytic, a driver, an amiable, or and expressive. All four types have different preferences for receiving and working with information, and all four are most effectively influenced in different ways.  By knowing a person’s preferred style, you can select and use an influence strategy that is most likely to gain the support of that person.  By knowing your own style, you can leverage your strengths, minimize your weaknesses, and better understand how you may be perceived by others.

 

 

General Characteristics of Each Social Style

Analytic Driver
Emphasizes facts, data, and procedures Emphasizes goals and bottom-line results
Well organized Decisive and direct
Systematic, logical, objective Encourages risk taking
Careful, detailed, disciplined Competitive
Conservative Impatient
Reserved Uses report talk (facts and information)
Uses report talk (facts and information) Fast-talking and may interrupt
Asks questions Focuses on content not style
Chooses words carefully Uses bold gestures and direct eye contact
Focuses on content not style Leans forward and may be loud
Uses limited gestures and facial expressions May not praise others
Uses deliberate and slow decision making May be formal
May need to be right May not want to be told what to do

 

Amiable Expressive
Emphasizes collaboration Emphasizes positive vision of the future
Good listener and agreeable Enthusiastic, energetic, can-do attitude
Uses rapport talk (building relationships) Uses rapport talk (building relationships)
Tries to see others’ perspectives Likes to think out loud
Empathetic Optimistic, dramatic, and spontaneous
Asks questions Encourages innovation and risk taking
Wants to include everyone Social, playful, and comfortable
Prefers consensus  with most people
Likes routine Leans forward, uses bold eye contact
Often quiet, slow, and steady Uses animated gestures/facial expressions
Easygoing and modest Fast-talking
Uses open, unhurried gestures Expresses emotions and concern
May not give direct statements/opinions Likes to be center of attention
May avoid making big decisions May speak in generalities
May not seek out data to back up intuition

 

 

 

  1. Based on the research of Robert Cialdini, describe each of the six universal forms of influence and provide an example of each. (Note that each student may describe different examples, but the six universal forms of influence are those listed below.)

 

  • Reciprocation: People feel obligated to pay back favors, gifts, and help that they receive from others. (“If you scratch my back, I’ll scratch your back.”).
  • Commitment/consistency: People are more likely to agree with a request if they feel it is consistent with a commitment they have made (especially a commitment that they make publicly or write down) or a behavior they have taken in the past.
  • Authority: People tend to obey people they perceive to be authorities and experts.
  • Social proof: People are more willing to support an idea if they know that other people support it, especially if they perceive the other people to be similar to them.
  • Scarcity: People tend to want what they believe is unique, rare, or in limited supply.
  • Liking:  People want to support the people they like

 

 

  1. You are attempting to increase your structural power in your organization. Describe at least 4 strategies you can use to increase your structural power.

 

  • Get a position of authority because doing so enables you to have control over other people’s access to resources.
  • Build autonomy into your job so that you can decide how to spend your day, who you build relationships with, and how you do so.
  • Make sure that your job is perceived as critical to the workflow of the organization, or get yourself on projects that are critical to the organization’s success.
  • Increase your centrality to organizational networks by gaining control of information, expertise, connections or other resources people need to achieve their goals.
  • Join coalitions that can help you to promote common interests.

 

 

  1. As a manager, what steps can you take to minimize dysfunctional political behavior in your organization?

 

  • Provide clear goals, performance measures and feedback so employees stay focused on the task and can link their behavior to important organizational results
  • Reward individuals and groups for achieving not only personal and unit results, but overall organizational results.
  • Provide clear guidelines for the attitudes and behaviors that can lead to promotions, salary increases, and other forms of career advancement.
  • Provide training in how to demonstrate these attitudes and behaviors – and visibly promote people based on these characteristics
  • Use a systematic and transparent process for making important organizational decisions, including decisions about career advancement, and ensuring that employees understand how these decisions are made.
  • Provide people with opportunity to participate in decision-making, as well as with the information they need to make and implement effective decisions.
  • Make it clear that dysfunctional political behavior – self-promotion, turf building, and other behaviors that harm other employees, departments, customers, shareholders, or the organizational goals — will not be tolerated.
  • Encourage critical thinking and the reporting of bad news so that employees don’t feel silenced by fear.