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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Mastering The World Of Psychology 5th Edition by Samuel E. Wood – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Test Bank for Wood 5e

Chapter 3: Sensation and Perception

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. When information is taken in through the senses, the process is referred to as _____
  2. a) synesthesia.
  3. b) processing.
  4. c) sensation.
  5. d) perception.

Answer: c Sensation is the process through which the senses pick up environmental stimuli and send them to the brain.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 76

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Process of Sensation

 

  1. When information taken in through the senses is organized and interpreted, the process is referred to as _____
  2. a) synesthesia.
  3. b) perception.
  4. c) sensation.
  5. d) processing.

Answer: b Perception is the process by which the brain organizes and interprets sensory information.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 76

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Process of Sensation

 

  1. Sensation and perception are _____
  2. a) completely separate processes.
  3. b) independent of each other.
  4. c) one-way processes.
  5. d) interactive.

Answer: d Sensation and perception are interactive. Sensation provides data for perception, and perceptual processes influence sensation.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 76

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Process of Sensation
4. The _____ is reached when you are just able to notice that a particular stimulus is actually present.

  1. a) just noticeable difference
  2. b) standard threshold
  3. c) difference threshold
  4. d) absolute threshold

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 76

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. After you are aware that a stimulus exists, the _____ threshold is reached when you are then able to notice an increase or decrease in that stimulus.
  2. a) comparative
  3. b) standard
  4. c) difference
  5. d) absolute

Answer: c The correct name for this threshold, where you can just notice a change has occurred in a stimulus, is the difference threshold.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 77

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. Scientists arbitrarily set the limit for _____ as stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time.
  2. a) Weber’s law
  3. b) the absolute threshold
  4. c) the difference threshold
  5. d) the saturation point

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 76

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. As Annalisa is sitting in her bedroom listening to the radio, she notices that it suddenly sounds louder. She looks and is not surprised to find her little sister turning up the volume. How could Annalisa tell that the radio became louder before she saw what her sister was doing?
  2. a) It exceeded her saturation threshold.
  3. b) It exceeded her difference threshold.
  4. c) It exceeded her standard threshold.
  5. d) It exceeded her absolute threshold.

Answer: b The change in volume had to exceed her difference threshold for her to notice it.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 77

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. The smallest increase or decrease in a physical stimulus that you can detect at least 50 percent of the time is called the _____ difference.
  2. a) minimum
  3. b) just sensed
  4. c) saturation
  5. d) just noticeable

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 77

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. Loud music has to be turned up much louder for us to notice the difference. When music is playing softly, we notice the difference if it is turned up just a little. This is an example of _____
  2. a) Weber’s law.
  3. b) the absolute threshold.
  4. c) the fixed change law.
  5. d) Broca’s law.

Answer: a Weber’s law states that the change necessary to reach the just noticeable difference point is proportional to the strength of the stimulus.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 77

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. During a classroom experiment, Jay found out that he could sense a hair on his arm when it was barely touched with a pencil tip by Gerard. However, Jay had to wiggle a hair on Gerard’s arm back and forth several times before Gerard could detect the sensation. The scientific explanation for this is that Jay and Gerard have different _____ thresholds.
  2. a) difference
  3. b) Weber’s
  4. c) standard
  5. d) absolute

Answer: d

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 77

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

 

  1. Our sense organs have highly specialized cells that detect and respond to sensory stimuli. These specialized cells are _____ receptors.
  2. a) sensory
  3. b) perceptual
  4. c) response
  5. d) somatic

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 78

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

 

  1. After information is brought in through sensory receptors, it goes through a conversion process before the brain is able to process it. This process is called _____
  2. a) accommodation.
  3. b) transduction.
  4. c) adaptation.
  5. d) assimilation.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 78

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

 

  1. The sensory stimuli, such as sound waves, we receive from the environment has to be converted into _____ signals in order to be transmitted to our brain.
  2. a) electrochemical
  3. b) stronger
  4. c) muscle
  5. d) wave

Answer: a In order for us to perceive them, the sensory stimuli from our environment must be changed into the type of information the brain can use. This is the electrochemical energy of action potentials and neurotransmitters.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 78

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

 

  1. Our sensory receptors convert sensory stimuli from our environment into a form that can be sent to, and used by, the brain. This process is called _____
  2. a) assimilation.
  3. b) transduction.
  4. c) transmission.
  5. d) adaptation.

Answer: b The conversion of one form of energy (sound waves, pressure, etc.) into a different form of energy that can travel to and be used by our brain is called transduction.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 77

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

 

  1. Brendan just got married and is not used to wearing a wedding band on his left hand. Joel, his best man and a psychology student, correctly reassures him with which of the following statements?
  2. a) “Don’t worry, because of transduction, you’ll soon get used to the ring on your finger.”
  3. b) “Because of assimilation, within a few hours you won’t even know it is there.”
  4. c) “That is something you are just going to have to get used to—you will always be aware of the weight of the ring on your finger.”
  5. d) “The good news is that sensory adaptation will soon kick in, and you won’t even notice the ring on your finger.”

Answer: d We become accustomed to constant, unchanging levels of stimuli so that we notice them less and less, or not at all. This process is called sensory adaptation.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 78–79

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

 

  1. The _____ is the narrow band of light waves that our eyes can respond to.
  2. a) optic chiasm
  3. b) perceptual set
  4. c) fovea
  5. d) visible spectrum

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 79

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision

 

  1. The part of the eye that does the first step in vision by bending light rays inward, directing them through the pupil, is the _____
  2. a) iris.
  3. b) lens.
  4. c) cornea.
  5. d) fovea.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 79

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. Which part of the eye is a muscle that regulates the size of the pupil?
  2. a) iris
  3. b) lens
  4. c) retina
  5. d) sclera

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 80

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

Item Analysis: % correct 69 a = 69 b = 9 c = 17 d = 5 r = .39

 

  1. The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the _____
  2. a) cornea.
  3. b) lens.
  4. c) pupil.
  5. d) retina.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 80

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

Item Analysis:

% correct 72 a = 7 b = 13 c = 72 d = 9 r = .31

% correct 65 a = 7 b = 16 c = 65 d = 12 r = .50

 

  1. When this part of the eye loses some of its ability to flatten and bulge in order to focus clearly on objects at different distances, we may need eyeglasses.
  2. a) cornea
  3. b) lens
  4. c) pupil
  5. d) retina

Answer: b The lens is suspended behind the iris and pupil and performs the task of focusing on objects by flattening or bulging.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 80

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. Which component of the eye contains the visual receptors?
  2. a) sclera
  3. b) retina
  4. c) cornea
  5. d) posterior chamber

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 80

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

Item Analysis:

% correct 84 a = 1 b = 84 c = 12 d = 3 r = .32

% correct 85 a = 0 b = 85 c = 11 d = 4 r = .22

 

  1. Some people have nearsightedness (myopia) or farsightedness (hyperopia) because the distance between their _____ and their _____ is either too short or too long.
  2. a) cornea; lens
  3. b) iris; pupil
  4. c) rods; cones
  5. d) lens; retina

Answer: d When the distance between the lens and the retina is too short, or too long, the lens focuses images in front of or behind the retina instead of on it.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 80

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. The receptor cells for vision are located in the _____ and are called _____ and _____
  2. a) cornea; rods and cones.
  3. b) retina; rods and cones.
  4. c) lens; adaptation and focus cells.
  5. d) retina; adaptation and focus cells.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 80

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. The receptor cells that allow us to see color and fine detail in adequate light are the _____
  2. a) rods.
  3. b) focus cells.
  4. c) cones.
  5. d) color cells.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. Our eyes can respond to as little as five photons of light because of the extreme sensitivity of our _____ to light.
  2. a) cones
  3. b) light cells
  4. c) adaptive cells
  5. d) rods

Answer: d Rods are the receptor cells that help us with dark vision because they are very sensitive to even small amounts of light.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

  1. Alec has always been able to see a wide array of vibrant colors, but he has not been so fortunate when it comes to seeing at night or in otherwise dim lighting. Alec speculates that his color vision is far superior to his night vision. Based on his speculation, which of the following would be true?
  2. a) Alec has rods that function well, but cones that are not as effective as they could be.
  3. b) Alec has no rods in his retinas.
  4. c) Alec has cones that function very well, but rods that are not as effective as they could be.
  5. d) Alec has no cones in his retinas.

Answer: c Cones are for color and Alec’s color vision is fine. His night vision is poor, which would suggest a problem with his rods.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. Our vision can adapt to change between bright light and dark, but it takes a moment because the _____ in our receptor cells must break apart into _____ and _____ for light adaptation and recombine for dark adaptation.
  2. a) color sensors; black; white
  3. b) rhodopsin; opsin; retinal
  4. c) opsin; rhodopsin; retinal
  5. d) pigment; rods; cones

Answer: b Rhodopsin is present in the sensory receptors called rods. It is made up of opsin and retinal. In bright light, they break apart, so our vision adapts to light; in dark adaption, they recombine.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. When you look directly at an object, the image of the object focuses on a spot where many receptor cells called cones are packed together. This spot, which also gives us our sharpest vision, is the _____
  2. a) retina.
  3. b) ganglion.
  4. c) fovea.
  5. d) blind spot.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

 

  1. The first stage of vision processing takes place in the _____
  2. a) retina.
  3. b) brain.
  4. c) occipital lobe.
  5. d) lens.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. Which of the following sequences is correct? On its way to the brain, light signals are _____ and then _____
  2. a) transduced by rods and cones; passed to amacrine, bipolar and horizontal cells.
  3. b) sent through the fovea; transduced by amacrine, bipolar and horizontal cells.
  4. c) converted by ganglion cells; sent to the rods and cones.
  5. d) transduced by rods and cones; sent next to the V1 area.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. The last vision-processing step before signals are sent to the brain is in the _____
  2. a) amacrine cells.
  3. b) bipolar cells.
  4. c) horizontal cells.
  5. d) ganglion cells.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. Why do we have a blind spot in our visual field?
  2. a) from looking at the sun too much
  3. b) because of an opening through which the optic nerve passes
  4. c) because of the way the lens focuses light, a spot is missed on the retina
  5. d) from the fovea’s placement

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. The axons of the ganglion cells bundle together to make the two _____ nerves, which come together at the _____
  2. a) optic; optic chiasm.
  3. b) visual; blind spot.
  4. c) suprachiasmatic; optic chiasm.
  5. d) fovea; visual chiasm.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. The nerve fibers from the _____ half of each retina go to the _____ hemisphere.
  2. a) right; left
  3. b) right; right
  4. c) left; left
  5. d) back; front

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. The optic nerve fibers synapse on the _____, which transmits the neural impulses to the _____
  2. a) hypothalamus; thalamus.
  3. b) thalamus; frontal cortex.
  4. c) thalamus: primary visual cortex.
  5. d) optic chiasm; occipital lobe.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. If our visual perception depended only on the feature detectors in the visual cortex, what would we see?
  2. a) whole images but without any color
  3. b) only horizontal lines
  4. c) only lines at a forty-degree angle
  5. d) collections of isolated features

Answer: d The feature detector neurons respond only to specific patterns. They can’t integrate these into whole images.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 82

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. Our visual perceptions are complete only when _____ has (have) combined and assembled millions of pieces of visual information into a whole.
  2. a) the occipital lobe
  3. b) the thalamus
  4. c) numerous brain areas
  5. d) the brain stem

Answer: c Although we tend to think of the occipital lobes as the part of the brain associated with vision, it also takes an integrated effort in many other areas of the brain to produce our visual perceptions.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 82

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

 

  1. _____ is the dimension of light that refers to the specific color perceived.
  2. a) Trichromaticity
  3. b) Hue
  4. c) Saturation
  5. d) Brightness

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. _____ is purity of a color, or the degree to which the light waves producing it are of the same wavelength.
  2. a) Saturation
  3. b) Trichromaticity
  4. c) Brightness
  5. d) Hue

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. _____ is the intensity of light energy perceived as a color, which is based on the amplitude of the light wave.
  2. a) Hue
  3. b) Trichromaticity
  4. c) Saturation
  5. d) Brightness

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. While at The Home Depot picking out a color of paint for her bathroom, Leticia narrows her search down to two options. She likes the color of the first one and the purity in color of the second one. Leticia’s decision is between the _____ of the first paint choice and the _____ of the second paint choice.
  2. a) hue; saturation
  3. b) hue; brightness
  4. c) saturation; brightness
  5. d) color; hue

Answer: a Hue refers to color, whereas saturation refers to purity of color.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. The _____ theory is the theory of color vision that suggests three types of cones in the retina each make a maximal chemical response to one of three colors: blue, green, or red.
  2. a) opponent-process
  3. b) rainbow
  4. c) three-cone
  5. d) trichromatic

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. The _____ theory is the theory of color vision that suggests three kinds of cells respond by increasing or decreasing their rate of firing when different colors are present.
  2. a) opponent-process
  3. b) decreasing-rate
  4. c) three-cone
  5. d) trichromatic

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. The negative afterimage we see after staring at an image and then looking at a blank space provides support for the _____ theory of color vision.
  2. a) top-down
  3. b) bottom-up
  4. c) opponent-process
  5. d) trichromatic

Answer: c The colors of the negative afterimage will show up as the opposites of the colors present.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 83

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. Chris is color-blind. Based on the research about color-blindness, which of the following is FALSE?
  2. a) Chris will likely have some difficulty matching clothes.
  3. b) Chris will only be able to see black, white, and shades of gray.
  4. c) Chris will likely have the most difficulty distinguishing green from red.
  5. d) Chris is likely a male.

Answer: b Contrary to popular belief, people who are colorblind can still see many colors.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 84

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. The difference between perceiving many fine distinctions between colors and being color blind begins at the _____ level.
  2. a) retinal
  3. b) visual cortex
  4. c) genetic
  5. d) phenotypical

Answer: c The X chromosome may have as few as two, or as many as nine, genes for color perception. Those with more genes seem better able to make very fine distinctions between colors.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 85

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. Janice has nine genes for color perception on her x chromosomes. This means that Janice will _____
  2. a) be able to see ultraviolet light.
  3. b) have synesthesia.
  4. c) perceive finer distinctions of shades of color.
  5. d) be color blind.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 85

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Color Vision

 

  1. The more force air molecules move with, the _____ the sound you will hear is.
  2. a) higher
  3. b) lower
  4. c) louder
  5. d) softer

Answer: c

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 86

Textbook LO 3.6: What are the physical characteristics of sound?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Sound

 

  1. The force with which air molecules move determines _____, which is measured in units of _____ as _____
  2. a) loudness; decibels; amplitude.
  3. b) frequency; hertz; timbre.
  4. c) timbre; vibrations; amplitude.
  5. d) saturation; frequencies; hertz.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 86

Textbook LO 3.6: What are the physical characteristics of sound?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Sound

 

  1. The same musical note played on a guitar, a piano, and a flute does not sound the same because most sounds consist of several different frequencies. This distinctive quality of a sound is called _____
  2. a) hertz.
  3. b) amplitude.
  4. c) unique.
  5. d) timbre.

Answer: d Timbre is a characteristic of sound that distinguishes one sound of the same pitch and loudness from another.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 86

Textbook LO 3.6: What are the physical characteristics of sound?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Sound

 

  1. _____ is the number of cycles completed by a sound wave in one second, measured as _____ determining the _____ of a sound.
  2. a) Pitch; frequency; oscillations
  3. b) Hertz; frequency; cycles
  4. c) Frequency; tone; pitch
  5. d) Frequency; hertz; pitch

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 85

Textbook LO 3.6: What are the physical characteristics of sound?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Sound

 

  1. Which of the following properties of sound would be the most similar to the color (hue), of light?
  2. a) pitch
  3. b) loudness
  4. c) timbre
  5. d) purity

Answer: a Pitch relates to sound wavelengths, and color relates to light wavelengths.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 85

Textbook LO 3.6: What are the physical characteristics of sound?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Sound

Item Analysis: % correct 64 a = 64 b = 10 c = 11 d = 16 r = .20

 

  1. What is the basic function of the outer ear?
  2. a) to protect the hair cells
  3. b) to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum
  4. c) to amplify low-intensity sounds to detectable levels
  5. d) to filter out high-intensity sound waves that can be harmful

Answer: b The basic function of the outer ear is to concentrate and funnel sound waves to the eardrum.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 86

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

Item Analysis: % correct 83 a = 3 b = 83 c = 7 d = 5 r = .31

 

  1. Which of the following traces the correct path of sound waves in the ear?
  2. a) tympanic membrane, ossicles, oval window, cochlea
  3. b) oval window, ossicles, tympanic membrane, cochlea
  4. c) pinna, hammer, anvil, stirrup, oval window
  5. d) hair cells, eardrum, ossicles, cochlea

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 86–87

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. The three smallest bones in the human body are in the _____ ear; together they are called the _____
  2. a) outer; pinnas.
  3. b) inner; otoliths.
  4. c) middle; ossicles.
  5. d) middle; hammers.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 85

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. The tiny bones in the ear are called the _____
  2. a) oval, hammer, and stick.
  3. b) hammer, triangle, and stirrup.
  4. c) saddle, stirrup, and spur.
  5. d) hammer, anvil, and stirrup.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 86

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. Why would a person born without ossicles have difficulty hearing well?
  2. a) No sound waves would reach the eardrum.
  3. b) Sound waves would not be amplified before reaching the cochlea.
  4. c) There would be no sensory receptors to transduce the sound waves.
  5. d) The eardrum would not be able to vibrate.

Answer: b The ossicles—hammer, anvil, stirrup—amplify sound waves up to 22 times as they are passed on to the fluid in the cochlea.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 86–87

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. The sensory receptors that transduce sound waves into electrical signals to be transmitted to the brain are called _____
  2. a) hearing cells.
  3. b) cochlear cells.
  4. c) inner ear cells.
  5. d) hair cells.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 87

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. Hearing loss most often results from damage to the sensory receptors caused by _____
  2. a) the process of aging.
  3. b) the buildup of earwax.
  4. c) exposure to excessive noise.
  5. d) chronic ear infections.

Answer: c Although there are many causes of hearing loss, the most common is damage to hair cells from exposure to excessive noise.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 87

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. The _____ theory explains hearing in terms of hair cells vibrating the same number of times per second as the sounds, whereas, the _____ theory explains hearing in terms of a particular pitch and where it vibrates most along the basilar membrane.
  2. a) frequency; opponent-process
  3. b) frequency; place
  4. c) top-down; opponent-process
  5. d) place; frequency

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 89

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

 

  1. _____ provides information about the position and movement of body parts in relation to each other.
  2. a) Gustation
  3. b) Audition
  4. c) The kinesthetic sense
  5. d) The vestibular sense

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 89

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Balance and Movement

 

  1. _____ allows us to know where our arms are in relation to our legs.
  2. a) The vestibular sense
  3. b) The cochlear sense
  4. c) Olfaction
  5. d) The kinesthetic sense

Answer: d The kinesthetic sense provides information to the brain about the relative position of all body parts at all times.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 89

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Balance and Movement

 

  1. The vestibular senses are concerned with _____
  2. a) touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.
  3. b) the location of body parts in relation to the ground and to each other.
  4. c) movement and orientation.
  5. d) your location as compared to the position of the sun.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 89

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Balance and Movement

Item Analysis: % 47 a = 23 b = 30 c = 47 d = 0 r = .30

 

  1. The reason that there are three semicircular canals is so that _____
  2. a) we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes.
  3. b) we can see the world in three dimensions.
  4. c) we can detect sound locations in the three-dimensional world.
  5. d) we have an extra if one is broken.

Answer: a The reason is that we have one canal to sense motion in each of the three planes.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 90

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Balance and Movement

 

  1. How does transduction occur in the semicircular canals?
  2. a) Electrical signals are received from the environment.
  3. b) The movement of fluid bends hair cells.
  4. c) Hair cells release a neurotransmitter when stimulated.
  5. d) Receptor cells are activated by sound.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 89–90

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Balance and Movement

 

  1. If you are standing on one foot and you close your eyes, you don’t immediately fall over because your _____ fills in for some of the missing visual information.
  2. a) parietal sense
  3. b) olfactory sense
  4. c) photoreceptors
  5. d) kinesthetic sense

Answer: d Your kinesthetic sense will prompt you to periodically make contact with the floor with one foot and it will use information about movement and relative position of body parts to each other to compensate for visual references.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 89

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Balance and Movement

 

  1. The sense of smell is also known as _____
  2. a) olfaction.
  3. b) the salivary sense.
  4. c) chemical infarctation.
  5. d) gustation.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 90

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Smell

Item Analysis:

% correct 91 a = 91 b = 3 c = 2 d = 4 r = .38

% correct 91 a = 91 b = 6 c = 1 d = 2 r = .45

 

  1. An olfactory stimulus travels from receptor to _____
  2. a) olfactory bulb.
  3. b) thalamus.
  4. c) amygdala.
  5. d) pons.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 91

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Smell

 

  1. Olfaction works through which of the following?
  2. a) hair cells lining the nose
  3. b) receptors that directly receive molecules
  4. c) vaporized molecules that go straight to the brain
  5. d) olfactory bulbs that store odor molecules and pump them to the limbic system

Answer: b Receptors in the olfactory epithelium are activated by vaporized molecules.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 91

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Smell

 

  1. Smell signals are transmitted to neurons in the _____, then to other parts of the limbic system for _____ interpretation.
  2. a) temporal lobes; cognitive
  3. b) aqueductal grey area; smell
  4. c) peripheral nervous system; sympathetic nervous system
  5. d) limbic system; emotional

Answer: d Information from the olfactory receptors travels two routes. One is to the limbic system, which is the site of emotion processing.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 91

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Smell

 

  1. What is the best explanation for the dog’s superior sense of smell compared to ours?
  2. a) They have long snouts.
  3. b) They are closer to the ground.
  4. c) Their olfactory epithelium is much larger.
  5. d) Their olfactory neurons project into their brain and ours don’t.

Answer: c It is the receptors in the epithelium that respond to smell. The olfactory epithelium in humans is only about one inch square. Dogs have many more receptors on their correspondingly larger epithelium.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 91

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Smell

 

  1. Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue. “Girl,” she says, “you sure have a lot of _____
  2. a) olfactory receptors.”
  3. b) taste buds.”
  4. c) papillae.”
  5. d) taste receptors.”

Answer: c The “bumps” on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the papillae.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 92

Textbook LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Taste

Item Analysis: % correct 17 a = 4 b = 67 c = 17 d = 13 r = .32

 

  1. What are the five primary tastes?
  2. a) hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami
  3. b) salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart
  4. c) bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
  5. d) peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 92

Textbook LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Taste

Item Analysis:

% correct 69 a = 0 b = 30 c = 69 d = 1 r = .32

% correct 94 a = 0 b = 4 c = 94 d = 1 r = .39

 

  1. Jan thanks Sally for the “gustatory delight.” She is thanking Sally for which of the following?
  2. a) a lovely new perfume
  3. b) a certificate for a massage
  4. c) a delicious birthday cake
  5. d) a great new music CD

Answer: c Gustation is the scientific name for the sense of taste, so a gustatory delight must be something that tastes good.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 92

Textbook LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Taste

 

  1. Felicia’s Mom nags her about not getting her son to eat more broccoli and salad greens. Felicia tries to explain to her mother that it is difficult because _____
  2. a) he is a super taster.
  3. b) he is a nontaster.
  4. c) he has no papillae.
  5. d) he has no sense of smell.

Answer: a Supertasters taste sweet and bitter compounds with much greater intensity than other people. Felicia’s son would find these foods bitter.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 92

Textbook LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Taste

 

  1. The skin has many nerve endings that respond to _____ stimulation and send the neural impulses on toward the _____ cortex.
  2. a) gustatory; olfactory
  3. b) tactile; somatosensory
  4. c) emotional; limbic
  5. d) threshold; chemosensory

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 93

Textbook LO 3.11: How does the skin provide pleasant and unpleasant sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Touch and Pain

 

  1. Which of the following is true about our sense of touch?
  2. a) We can lose it and get along just fine.
  3. b) It is critical to our survival.
  4. c) Our kinesthetic sense will make up for the loss.
  5. d) It comes from chemoreceptors in our skin.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 93

Textbook LO 3.11: How does the skin provide pleasant and unpleasant sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Touch and Pain

 

  1. According to _____-control theory, interference from other neural messages reduces our perception of pain by _____
  2. a) pain; producing endorphins.
  3. b) spinal; changing our focus.
  4. c) attention; reducing our attention to it.
  5. d) gate; blocking some pain messages.

Answer: d Gate-control theory proposes that signals coming in from large, fast-conducting nerve fibers can block an area in the spinal cord so that the pain signals from smaller, slow-conducting nerve fibers can’t all get through.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 93

Textbook LO 3.11: How does the skin provide pleasant and unpleasant sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Touch and Pain

 

  1. Which of the following could explain why women in general have more pain tolerance than men do?
  2. a) Testosterone stimulates pain receptors when they activate.
  3. b) Women are socialized differently.
  4. c) Women multitask so much more than men do.
  5. d) Estrogen sensitizes neurons to endorphins.

Answer: d The higher the estrogen level, the more sensitized neurons are to the pain reducing effects of endorphins.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 93

Textbook LO 3.11: How does the skin provide pleasant and unpleasant sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Touch and Pain

 

  1. Gloria says that it relieves the pain in her broken finger when she takes a multivitamin. Her mother taught her this trick. Jeff says it’s all in her head. He is correct because _____
  2. a) multivitamins can’t relieve pain.
  3. b) Gloria’s mother made this up.
  4. c) the placebo effect causes brain changes.
  5. d) multivitamins increase the availability of endorphins.

Answer: c A placebo is something we associate with an effect it does not actually have. Brain imaging shows that a placebo activates the areas of the brain that are associated with pain perception.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 94

Textbook LO 3.11: How does the skin provide pleasant and unpleasant sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Touch and Pain

 

  1. _____ is the mental process of making meaning out of sensory information.
  2. a) Abstraction
  3. b) Sensations
  4. c) Perception
  5. d) Consciousness

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 95

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Influences on Perception

Item Analysis: % correct 80 a = 0 b = 13 c = 80 d = 6 r = .26

 

  1. Molly _____ the stimulation coming in from the environment and _____ what she is experiencing.
  2. a) observes; senses
  3. b) filters; transduces
  4. c) perceives; senses
  5. d) senses; perceives

Answer: d Through the process of sensation, we sense the stimuli we receive; through the process of perception, we perceive our resulting experience.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 95

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Influences on Perception

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of an automatic, noneffortful mental process of perception?
  2. a) While driving, I choose which cars to pay closer attention to.
  3. b) While driving, I think about the groceries I need.
  4. c) While driving, I don’t see the gorilla because I am watching the cars.
  5. d) While driving, I see cars and know they are cars.

Answer: d Because I am so familiar with them, the sensations of seeing a car are automatically connected with the perception of the object as a car.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 95

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. When we have to use mental effort to determine what we perceive, the process of _____ is at work.
  2. a) inattentional blindness
  3. b) attention
  4. c) multitasking
  5. d) sensory overload

Answer: b In order to determine the meaning of less familiar, changing, or multiple perceptions the effortful process of attention is needed.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 95

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. In an experiment, Beau was told to watch the basketball team in the blue shirts and count how many baskets they made. Later he learned a person in a giraffe costume had walked on and off the court during the game and he had not seen it! He was disturbed to think that he could have missed something so obvious and wondered if there was something wrong with him. You could reassure him by explaining that _____ is a normal phenomenon in human perception.
  2. a) inattentional blindness
  3. b) automatic perception
  4. c) sensory overload
  5. d) memory loss

Answer: a Inattentional blindness occurs when we shift our attention from one object to another and fail to notice changes where we are not directly paying attention.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 95

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. It is not a psychic ability that allows Han to know that someone is talking about him in the auditorium. Hearing his name is a strong attentional cue and he is experiencing the _____ phenomenon, where we perceive only the conversations our attention focuses on amidst all the people talking.
  2. a) cocktail party
  3. b) cross-modal
  4. c) phi effect
  5. d) effortful attention

Answer: a In a classic study by E. C. Cherry, this phenomenon was observed and named the cocktail party effect because that is where Cherry first noticed it.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 97

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. Cynthia and Greg were watching an old film where the actor’s lips moved uncoordinated with their speech. “This is crazy,” she said to Greg. “I know they are speaking English but I am having a hard time understanding it!” Cynthia was experiencing difficulty due to conflicting _____
  2. a) attentional cues.
  3. b) cross-modal perception.
  4. c) filtering demand.
  5. d) uni-modal perception.

Answer: b Cross-modal perception is a process by which the brain tries to integrate information from more than one sense.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 97

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about having a cell phone turned on while driving?
  2. a) It will have no effect as long as you do not text on it.
  3. b) It will not be a problem if you are using a hands-free phone.
  4. c) Even ignoring signals from it seriously affects your attention and your driving.
  5. d) As long as you ignore signals until you are at a stop, it does not seriously affect your driving.

Answer: c Studies have shown that even ignoring the phone signals affects drivers’ behavior by slowing reaction time, increasing collisions and swerving out of the lane, slowing down without realizing it, and sometimes stopping at green lights and going through red ones.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 96

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. Anna wants to be a safe driver. She hopes never to hurt anyone by failing to pay attention while driving. Which of the following is the best advice for her?
  2. a) Talk on your phone, but never text while driving.
  3. b) Change the radio station immediately if it is irritating you.
  4. c) Answer your phone so you are not distracted by wondering who it is.
  5. d) Ask your passengers not to talk if it is distracting you.

Answer: d Of these answer choices, only telling passengers not to talk would result in freeing more of Anna’s attention for safe driving.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 96

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Attention

 

  1. Bottom-up processing is a _____-driven strategy used to form complete, meaningful, perceptions.
  2. a) concept
  3. b) visual
  4. c) somatic
  5. d) data

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 97

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following illustrates a bottom-up processing strategy?
  2. a) Knowing cats have tails, Bobby looked for other cat-like features when he saw a tail in the picture.
  3. b) Animals have tails, there is a tail on the shape in the picture, therefore it is an animal.
  4. c) Bobby looked at each part of the drawing to see how they could fit together to make something recognizable.
  5. d) Bobby’s cat is yellow; the animal-like shape in the picture is yellow, so he knows it is a cat.

Answer: c Examining the details and combining bits of information until a whole perception is formed is bottom-up processing.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 97

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. When playing charades, it is easier to get the answer because you know what category it will be in. This illustrates _____ processing.
  2. a) bottom-up
  3. b) reverse
  4. c) identification
  5. d) top-down

Answer: d Top-down processing starts with conceptual knowledge and previous experience.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. Starting with a concept, or expectation, of what you will perceive is called a(n) _____ set.
  2. a) expectation
  3. b) bias set
  4. c) perceptual set
  5. d) processing

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. In a classic study, psychologists were admitted to a psychiatric hospital with a false diagnosis of schizophrenia. They behaved in normal ways, but the staff saw their behavior as signs of schizophrenia. This study illustrates the power of _____
  2. a) false perception.
  3. b) psychologists’ acting ability.
  4. c) a perceptual set.
  5. d) ignorance.

Answer: c A perceptual set can actually change our interpretation of what we see and can lead to serious errors.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. A bottom-up processing strategy is best for certain types of tasks because the top-down strategy can keep you from processing important _____
  2. a) concepts.
  3. b) details.
  4. c) expectations.
  5. d) gestalts.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. What concept is at play when your expectation of what will be perceived actually affects the reality of what you perceived?
  2. a) cross-modal perception
  3. b) the Ganzfeld effect
  4. c) inattentional blindness
  5. d) the perceptual set

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. If you were doing a “Find the difference between these two pictures” feature in a magazine, you would do best with a _____ strategy.
  2. a) bottom-up
  3. b) top-down
  4. c) processing
  5. d) perceptual set

Answer: a Bottom-up processing involves looking at details; to find the differences, you would have to be focusing on details.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

 

  1. Brain-imaging studies have shown that we process social information with _____
  2. a) the same strategies as other information.
  3. b) a specialized neurological system.
  4. c) social neurons.
  5. d) only our frontal lobes.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 99

Textbook LO 3.14: How do we perceive social stimuli?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Social Perception

 

  1. _____ neurons fire when we observe a motor action (movement), and when we produce one.
  2. a) Social
  3. b) Spinal
  4. c) Mirror
  5. d) Extraparamidal

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 99

Textbook LO 3.14: How do we perceive social stimuli?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Social Perception

  1. The _____ is a brain system that processes information about others’ emotional facial expressions and movements.
  2. a) social neural system
  3. b) facial construction system
  4. c) interpretive neural system
  5. d) mirror neuron system

Answer: d The mirror neuron system is activated in the process of perception of movement and emotional gestures and facial expressions.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 99

Textbook LO 3.14: How do we perceive social stimuli?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Social Perception

 

  1. Ravi looked angry but said he wasn’t angry. He got mad because his girlfriend would not believe he wasn’t mad! Too bad he didn’t know about _____
  2. a) bimodal cross perception.
  3. b) cross-modal social perception.
  4. c) perceptual sets.
  5. d) bottom-up processing.

Answer: b When combining two sensory modalities in cross-modal perception in social situations, visual cues from facial expressions often take priority over auditory cues (words spoken).

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 99

Textbook LO 3.14: How do we perceive social stimuli?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Social Perception

 

  1. Jacob had trouble matching his facial expressions to the appropriate emotion or correctly interpreting others’ emotional cues from their facial expressions. He needed more help from his _____
  2. a) mirror neurons.
  3. b) social neurons.
  4. c) interpretive neurons.
  5. d) frontal lobes.

Answer: a The mirror neuron system (MNS) helps us decode others’ emotional behavior and match ours to the rules of our culture.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 99

Textbook LO 3.14: How do we perceive social stimuli?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Social Perception

 

  1. The German word gestalt has no exact English equivalent but means roughly _____
  2. a) the details.
  3. b) the whole pattern.
  4. c) bottom-up processing.
  5. d) organization.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Principles of Perception

 

  1. The Gestalt psychologists would agree that _____
  2. a) the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
  3. b) the devil is in the details.
  4. c) the steps are more important than the journey.
  5. d) if you know the bricks, you know the building.

Answer: a The Gestalt psychologists believed we can’t understand the world by breaking down experience into tiny parts to analyze separately.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. As we view the world, objects often appear to stand out against a backdrop. This is the Gestalt principle of _____
  2. a) similarity.
  3. b) proximity.
  4. c) figure-ground.
  5. d) continuity.

Answer: c Figure-ground refers to our tendency to perceive some object or objects as standing in front of or out against a background.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. Figure-ground relationships concern the tendency to _____
  2. a) perceive objects, or figures, on some background.
  3. b) complete figures that are incomplete.
  4. c) perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
  5. d) perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.

Answer: a Figure-ground relationships have to do with the tendency to perceive objects, or figures, or standing out from a background.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

Item Analysis: % correct 61 a = 61 b = 7 c = 15 d = 17 r = .35

 

  1. The tendency to perceive things that look similar as part of the same group is known as _____
  2. a) figure-ground relationship.
  3. b) closure.
  4. c) similarity.
  5. d) proximity.

Answer: c Similarity is the tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

Item Analysis: % 72 a = 2 b = 6 c = 72 d = 19 r = .32

 

  1. Closure is the tendency to _____
  2. a) perceive objects, or figures, on some background.
  3. b) complete figures that are incomplete.
  4. c) perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
  5. d) perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.

Answer: b Closure is the tendency to perceive figures as complete even when incomplete.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

Item Analysis:

% correct 78 a = 3 b = 78 c = 7 d = 12 r = .36

% correct 82 a = 0 b = 82 c = 4 d = 13 r = .29

 

  1. Continuity is the tendency to _____
  2. a) perceive objects, or figures, on some background.
  3. b) complete figures that are incomplete.
  4. c) perceive objects that are close to each other as part of the same grouping.
  5. d) perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.

Answer: d Continuity refers to the tendency to perceive things with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

Item Analysis: % correct 83 a = 1 b = 9 c = 6 d = 83 r = .25

 

  1. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as _____
  2. a) size constancy.
  3. b) shape constancy.
  4. c) brightness constancy.
  5. d) color constancy.

Answer: a The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as size constancy.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. The phenomenon that lets us perceive objects as having stable properties no matter their distance, viewing angle, or lighting is called _____
  2. a) shape constancy.
  3. b) sensory constancy.
  4. c) size constancy.
  5. d) perceptual constancy.

Answer: d Perceptual constancy is the name for the group of phenomena that allow for this in regard to distance, viewing angle, and lighting.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. Molly looks at a plate while standing in front of it. She moves over and looks at it from a 45-degree angle, and by golly, it still looks round. This is because of _____
  2. a) size constancy.
  3. b) temporal constancy.
  4. c) shape constancy.
  5. d) angle constancy.

Answer: c Even though the image of the plate projected on Molly’s retina changes with the change in viewing angle, shape constancy means she still perceives it as the same shape.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. A piece of paper looks white in both the noonday sun and under moonlight, even though there is less light being reflected off the paper under moonlight. This form of perceptual constancy is called ____
  2. a) size constancy.
  3. b) shape constancy.
  4. c) brightness constancy.
  5. d) color constancy.

Answer: c We recognize a color as being the same even when the brightness it reflects changes due to brightness constancy.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. Helen is looking at a picture in which some of the border is missing. However, she is still able to understand that the object is a picture of an American flag due to the perceptual principle of _____
  2. a) continuity.
  3. b) figure-ground.
  4. c) proximity.
  5. d) closure.

Answer: d Closure is the tendency to perceive figures with missing parts as whole.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 100

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. Dorian drove his wife to the airport so she could attend her business trip. What explains his understanding that the actual airplane is not getting smaller and smaller as he sees the airplane take off and fly high into the sky?
  2. a) size constancy
  3. b) brightness constancy
  4. c) color constancy
  5. d) tone constancy

Answer: a Size constancy allows us not to be fooled by the information the retina sends the brain that the object is shrinking in size as it moves away.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.15: What are the Gestalt principles of preceptual organization?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. The images cast on our retinas are _____ like _____
  2. a) flat; photographs.
  3. b) three-dimensional; movies.
  4. c) four-dimensional; holograms.
  5. d) nondimensional; paper.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

 

  1. The ability to perceive the visual world in three dimensions requires _____ perception.
  2. a) three-dimensional
  3. b) volume
  4. c) depth
  5. d) monochromatic

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 101

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

 

  1. Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called _____
  2. a) monocular cues.
  3. b) diocular cues.
  4. c) binocular cues.
  5. d) dichromatic cues.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

 

  1. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly different image of the object, is known as _____
  2. a) binocular disparity.
  3. b) binocular inversion.
  4. c) convergence.
  5. d) stereophonic vision.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

 

  1. The visual depth cues perceived with one eye alone are called _____ depth cues.
  2. a) monochromatic
  3. b) uniocular
  4. c) monocular
  5. d) single

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. When one object partly blocks your view of another, and you perceive the partially blocked object as being farther away, it is called _____
  2. a) linear perspective.
  3. b) atmospheric perspective.
  4. c) motion parallax.
  5. d) interposition.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. Because the eyes are far enough apart, they each give a slightly different view. This _____ provides an important cue for depth perception.
  2. a) binocular disparity
  3. b) atmospheric perspective
  4. c) linear perspective
  5. d) interposition

Answer: a The brain integrates these two slightly different retinal images and this serves as a cue for the perception of depth.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perceptual Organization and Constancy

 

  1. The depth cue in which faraway objects appear to be hazy and have a blurred outline is called _____
  2. a) linear perspective.
  3. b) shadowing.
  4. c) atmospheric perspective.
  5. d) motion parallax.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

Item Analysis: % correct 69 a = 14 b = 11 c = 69 d = 5 r = .45

 

  1. Texture gradient refers to the fact that texture appears to become _____
  2. a) more detailed in the distance.
  3. b) more detailed as brightness increases.
  4. c) less detailed in the distance.
  5. d) less detailed when it is brighter.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

 

  1. Our brain seems to search for a stable _____ point in the environment in order to judge motion.
  2. a) relative
  3. b) interposition
  4. c) parallax
  5. d) reference

Answer: d Our perception of motion is what appears to move in relationship to a perceived stable reference point.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 103

Textbook LO 3.17: How does the brain perceive motion?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perception of Motion

 

  1. Gopi tried to meditate by staring at a light in a dark room, but the light kept appearing to move. He was experiencing _____
  2. a) phi phenomenon.
  3. b) autokinetic illusion.
  4. c) stroboscopic motion.
  5. d) parallax motion.

Answer: b Because our eyes are never still and there is no stable visual reference point in a dark room, our brain is fooled into perceiving the light is moving, although it is really our eyes that are moving.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.17: How does the brain perceive motion?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perception of Motion

 

  1. All our hours of movie enjoyment are made possible by the _____
  2. a) autokinetic illusion.
  3. b) phi phenomenon.
  4. c) motion parallax.
  5. d) linear perspective.

Answer: b Movies are a series of still photographs shown in rapid succession, causing a false-motion perception called stroboscopic motion or the phi phenomenon.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.17: How does the brain perceive motion?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perception of Motion

 

  1. While camping, Alicia and Seth saw a bright light in the distance on a very dark night. After watching it for a few moments, it suddenly began to move. If they looked away and then looked back, it appeared to hover in one spot, then start moving again. They told their friends they had seen a UFO. Really, they had been fooled by _____
  2. a) stroboscopic motion.
  3. b) the motion parallax.
  4. c) the autokinetic illusion.
  5. d) the principle of continuity.

Answer: c The autokinetic illusion occurs when an object appears to move because there is no stable reference point the brain can use to determine whether it is our eyes moving or the object moving.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.17: How does the brain perceive motion?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perception of Motion

 

  1. James Gibson pointed out that perception of motion is based on fundamental but frequently _____ assumptions about stability.
  2. a) reversed
  3. b) interposed
  4. c) stroboscopic
  5. d) changing

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 103

Textbook LO 3.17: How does the brain perceive motion?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perception of Motion

 

  1. Max and Erin drew a slightly different picture of stick figures on each of 50 two by four inch pages in a notepad. When they rapidly flipped through them, _____ made it look like the stick figures themselves were moving.
  2. a) motion parallax
  3. b) relative size
  4. c) autokinetic illusion
  5. d) retinal disparity

Answer: c

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.17: How does the brain perceive motion?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Perception of Motion

 

  1. Object _____ offers powerful evidence that perceptions are more than the sum of sensory parts because our perception of the same image changes beyond our control as we look at it.
  2. a) ambiguity
  3. b) motion
  4. c) shading
  5. d) perspective

Answer: a Looking at an ambiguous image demonstrates that perception involves more than just putting together sensory data bits, since we find ourselves perceiving the same data bits differently while looking at the image.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

 

  1. What can be concluded from the cultural research on the Müller-Lyer illusion?
  2. a) Experiencing illusions is innate; humans are born with the ability to be fooled by our perceptions.
  3. b) The experience of this illusion depends on the age and ethnicity of the individuals studied.
  4. c) Those who live in rectangular homes and buildings experienced the illusion more readily than those who live in round houses and buildings.
  5. d) Cultural experience played no role in being able or not being able to experience the illusion.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

 

  1. An illusion is _____
  2. a) the same thing as a hallucination.
  3. b) a magic trick.
  4. c) due to malfunctioning sensory receptors.
  5. d) a perception that does not correspond to reality.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

 

  1. The illusion based on the concept that many people live in a world with lots of straight lines and corners is the _____ illusion.
  2. a) moon
  3. b) Poggendorf
  4. c) Ponzo
  5. d) Müller-Lyer

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 105

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

Item Analysis: % correct 65 a = 7 b = 6 c = 22 d = 65 r = .40

 

  1. The Ponzo illusion plays a trick on our estimate of _____
  2. a) shape.
  3. b) distance.
  4. c) size.
  5. d) motion.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 105

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

  1. In the moon illusion, the moon looks _____ near the horizon, perhaps because of its ____ size when compared to trees, buildings, and other objects.
  2. a) larger; relative
  3. b) smaller; larger
  4. c) oval; strange
  5. d) shrunken; relative

Answer: a The moon looks much bigger at the horizon than when it is higher in the sky. The brain may judge that it is bigger because of its size in relation to other objects we can see nearby in our field of vision.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 105

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

 

  1. The Müller-Lyer illusion demonstrates that not all perceptual illusions are only _____, but that _____ can be a factor in susceptibility to certain illusions.
  2. a) strong; genetics
  3. b) innate; experience
  4. c) successful; intelligence
  5. d) cultural; genes

Answer: b In general, we are all about equally vulnerable to perceptual illusions. This leads us to think these perceptual errors are innate. The fact that our experience—whether we live in an environment where straight lines and angles abound or not—affects our vulnerability to the Müller-Lyer illusions shows that experience plays a role.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 105–106

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

 

  1. When Jen looked at the picture, her perception of it kept changing from an Eskimo to a polar bear and back again. It must have been a(n) _____ figure.
  2. a) impossible
  3. b) Ponzo
  4. c) ambiguous
  5. d) reverse

Answer: c Ambiguous figures lend themselves to more than one perception of their meaning.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 104

Textbook LO 3.18: What are three puzzling perceptions?, APA LO 1.1e

Topic: Puzzling Perceptions

 

  1. Illusions result from _____ of sensory input; extrasensory perception involves perception that is _____ sensory input.
  2. a) misperceptions; independent of
  3. b) damage; beyond
  4. c) manipulation; false
  5. d) representations; greater than

Answer: a Illusions are incorrect perceptual interpretations of actual sensory input from the environment. ESP is the idea that something is perceivable without any stimuli to our sensory receptors.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Subliminal Perception, Extrasensory Perception, and Synesthesia

 

  1. _____ perception is the capacity to perceive and respond to stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness.
  2. a) Subliminal
  3. b) Extrasensory
  4. c) Synesthetic
  5. d) Abnormal

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Subliminal Perception

 

  1. Experimental, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that using subliminal messages to control appetite or smoking have _____ effect on behavior.
  2. a) a slight
  3. b) a powerful
  4. c) a negative
  5. d) no

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Subliminal Perception

 

  1. Subliminal persuasion may _____ behavior, but not _____ behavior.
  2. a) change; maintain
  3. b) initiate; stop
  4. c) influence; control
  5. d) condition; reinforce

Answer: c Studies show that subliminal advertising may have some influence; it does not exert such a powerful influence that it can control our behavior, or make us buy something.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Subliminal Perception

 

  1. Any experiments that seemed to support the idea that ESP exists have not been able to be _____
  2. a) published.
  3. b) peer-reviewed.
  4. c) replicated.
  5. d) funded.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Extrasensory Perception

 

  1. The idea that one could gain information about objects or events without the use of the senses is called _____, whereas _____ refers to awareness of an event before it happens.
  2. a) telepathy; clairvoyance
  3. b) telekinesis; telepathy
  4. c) precognition; clairvoyance
  5. d) clairvoyance; precognition

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Extrasensory Perception

 

  1. A experiment in which two individuals are placed in separate rooms while one tries to send information and the other tries to receive it without use of any of the senses is using the _____ procedure.
  2. a) ESP
  3. b) Ganzfeld
  4. c) telepathy
  5. d) double blind

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Extrasensory Perception

 

  1. Most psychologists are _____ about the existence of ESP.
  2. a) cynical
  3. b) skeptical
  4. c) sure
  5. d) certain

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Extrasensory Perception

 

  1. Most instances where a person thinks they experienced precognition have occurred while people were _____
  2. a) frightened.
  3. b) in a trance.
  4. c) dreaming.
  5. d) intoxicated.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Extrasensory Perception

 

  1. “Colored hearing” is a common form of _____
  2. a) mental illness.
  3. b) hallucination.
  4. c) delusion.
  5. d) synesthesia.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 107

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Synesthesia

 

  1. When River tastes ginger, an orange blob appears in her field of vision. River has a type of _____
  2. a) brain tumor.
  3. b) synesthesia.
  4. c) mental delusion.
  5. d) neurosis.

Answer: b Seeing a specific color or shape in conjunction with another specific sensation is a form of synesthesia.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 107

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Synesthesia

 

  1. Compared with people trained to associate words with colors, people with _____ show different brain areas are active when hearing words and seeing colors with them.
  2. a) brain tumors
  3. b) good imaginations
  4. c) synesthesia
  5. d) extrasensory perception

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 107

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Synesthesia

 

Completion (Fill-in-the-Blank)

 

  1. Lola ordered a piping hot espresso at the local coffeehouse. As she began to drink it, she noticed that it was too cold. The information brought to her brain from her tongue, sight, and sense of touch is referred to as _____, whereas the understanding that she was drinking espresso and not milk or soda is referred to as _____.

Answer: sensation; perception

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 76

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Process of Sensation

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Mirabella was eating a delicious scone. In order for her to have perceived the taste of it, the food stimulus had to meet or exceed her _____ threshold.

Answer: absolute

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 76

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. In order to perceive a stimulus, that stimulus has to meet or exceed the _____ threshold; in order to detect a change in that stimulus, the stimulus has to meet or exceed the _____ threshold.

Answer: absolute; difference

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 76–77

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Absolute and Difference Thresholds

Textbook LO 3.1: What are the absolute and difference thresholds?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. _____ is the process in which sensory information is changed into neural impulses.

Answer: Transduction

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 78

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. Reduced sensory awareness after constant, unchanging stimuli is referred to as _____.

Answer: sensory adaptation

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 79

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. In the morning when Khalil puts on his baseball cap, he notices the tightness around his head. However, as the morning progresses, he no longer pays attention to the baseball cap and grows accustomed to the feeling around his head. This scenario is illustrating the process of _____.

Answer: sensory adaptation

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 79

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

 

  1. The most studied of all the senses is _____.

Answer: vision

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 79

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Vision

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. _____ is/are the stimulus/stimuli required for vision to occur.

Answer: Light waves or light or visible light waves (just stating waves would be incorrect)

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 79

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Vision

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. The structure that enlarges or becomes smaller depending on the amount of light needed for vision is referred to as the _____.

Answer: pupil

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 80

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Eye

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. _____ is the technical name for nearsightedness, whereas _____ is the technical name for farsightedness.

Answer: Myopia; hyperopia

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 80

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Eye

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. Destiny has difficulty seeing far away, while her sister Ebony has difficulty seeing objects close to her. Based on difficulties with their vision, Destiny would be diagnosed with _____ whereas Ebony would be diagnosed with _____.

Answer: myopia or nearsightedness; hyperopia or farsightedness

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 80

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Eye

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. When opsin and retinal combine, _____ occurs. When opsin and retinal break apart, _____ occurs.

Answer: dark adaptation; light adaptation

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 81

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Eye

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. After visual information is transduced, the neural impulses travel on the optic nerve from the optic chiasm to the thalamus, which then sends it to the _____, the specific area in the occipital lobe devoted to visual processing.

Answer: primary visual cortex

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 82

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Vision and the Brain

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. _____ and _____ are the researchers whose study of the visual cortexes of cats helped them win the Nobel Prize.

Answer: Hubel; Wiesel

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 82

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Vision and the Brain

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. _____ is the dimension of light that pertains to the specific color that is perceived, whereas _____ refers to the purity of that color.

Answer: Hue; saturation

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 83

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Color Vision

Textbook LO 3.5: How does color vision work?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. Your friend Fred is writing a poem for his creative writing class. He needs a single word to describe the sensation and process of hearing. As a psychology student studying the sensation and perception chapter of your textbook, you know to shout out, “_____!”

Answer: audition

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 86

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

 

  1. The ossicles are housed in the _____ ear, whereas the cochlea is housed in the _____ ear.

Answer: middle; inner

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 86–87

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

 

  1. An absence of the cochlea will result in _____.

Answer: the inability for transduction to occur; deafness in that ear; no hearing in that ear due to an absence of hair cells, or basilar membrane

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 87

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

 

  1. Zoie is riding a roller coaster. The _____ sense is offering her information regarding the speed and angle at which she is moving.

Answer: vestibular

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 89–90

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Balance and Movement

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

 

  1. The _____, which is/are located in the _____ ear, sense the rotation of the head thereby aiding in balance.

Answer: semicircular canals, or vestibular sacs; inner

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 90

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Balance and Movement

Textbook LO 3.8: How do the kinesthetic and vestibular senses help us to move and stay balanced?, APA LO 1.1b

 

  1. The area in the nasal cavity that houses about 10 million olfactory neurons is called the _____.

Answer: olfactory epithelium

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 91

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Smell

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

 

  1. Olfaction refers to the sense of _____, whereas gustation refers to the sense of _____.

Answer: smell; taste

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 90, 92

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Smell, Taste, and Touch

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c; LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

 

  1. Taste receptors in humans are replaced _____.

Answer: about every 10 days

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 92

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Taste

Textbook LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

 

  1. Tactile information is registered in the _____ cortex, which is located within the _____ lobe of the brain.

Answer: somatosensory; parietal

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 93

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Touch and Pain

Textbook LO 3.11: How does the skin provide pleasant and unpleasant sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

 

  1. Jess was driving to work one day and heard his cell phone ring. He fumbled through his backpack to find his phone and then proceeded to answer it. As he took the call, he heard and felt his car hit the car in front of him. Because he wasn’t directly focusing on the road while he took the call, Jess experienced what psychologists refer to as _____.

Answer: inattentional blindness

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 95

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Attention

Textbook LO 3.12: What do we gain and lose when we attend to a stimulus?, APA LO 5.3c

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Define transduction, explain its significance, and illustrate your understanding of it by detailing transduction of the eye.

 

Answer: Transduction is the process of specialized sensory receptors converting sensory information into neural impulses.

 

Because the brain does not know what to do with images, light waves, sound waves, and so on, this conversion into neural impulses allows the appropriate parts of brain to recognize and make sense of the sensory information it receives. In essence, transduction affords us the opportunity to experience our physical world. Without it, we would be able to bring information in through the senses, but would not be able to perceive (make sense of or understand) it.

 

The process of transduction for vision occurs in this way:

 

Light waves enter the cornea (bulging, outer surface of the eye), which is responsible for bending the light rays inward. The light rays then pass through the pupil (the opening of the eye, which looks like a black hole) and the iris (a muscle, which gives us our eye color and dilates and contracts as necessary to adjust for the amount of light coming in). The light rays then go through the lens (disk-like structure that focuses the light), which then sends the image to the retina (a sheet of tissue in the inside of the eyeball). The retina contains rods and cones, specialized cells that are responsible for the transduction process. The light waves are converted to neural impulses and are sent down the cells that make up optic nerve, then to the thalamus, then to the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe to be processed.

 

Page Ref: 78–81

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Your friends Kara and Lincoln are arguing over something Lincoln read in the newspaper. The newspaper reported, and Lincoln agrees, that sound can be heard in outer space. Kara disagrees. Which one of your friends is correct? Why? Provide scientific support for your answer.

 

Answer: Kara is correct. Sound requires a medium through which to move. In outer space, there is no medium, so the sound will not be heard. How do we know this? Research by Robert Boyle in the mid-1600s demonstrated this as he toyed with his pocket watch and a special jar that allowed him to evacuate all of the air. He noticed that when the watch was in the jar with air, he could hear it ring. However, when the air was taken out of the special jar, the sound no longer existed.

 

Page Ref: 85

Textbook LO 3.6: What are the physical characteristics of sound?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: Sound

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Define audition and explain, in detail, the transduction process for audition.

 

Answer: Audition is the sensation and process of hearing. Transduction follows this pathway: sound waves enter the pinna, travel down the auditory canal, and come to the tympanic membrane (the eardrum). The sound waves cause the tympanic membrane to move. Next, this movement causes the ossicles (three tiny bones in the middle ear) to move. The ossicles amplify the sound and send it through the oval window. Once through the oval window, the sound waves are now in the inner ear approaching the cochlea. Vibrations from the ossicles send the fluid in the cochlea to and fro. Within the cochlea is the basilar membrane, which has hair cells on it. These hair cells are responsible for transduction and convert the sound waves into neural impulses. These impulses are then sent down the auditory nerves to the brain for processing.

 

Page Ref: 86–87

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Define olfaction, explain its function, and illustrate the transduction process.

 

Answer: Olfaction refers to a person’s sense of smell. It allows us to enjoy the aroma of pleasant stimuli and makes us endure the stench of repugnant stimuli. It also plays a role in our sense of taste. Generally speaking, the taste of food comes from both our gustation and olfaction. Our sense of smell seems to have adaptive function, too. We rely on our sense of smell when deciding if food is safe to consume. We also count on our sense of smell to indicate trouble in our environment. For example, the smell of smoke may indicate a fire is near.

 

Transduction for olfaction follows this procedure:

 

Vaporized molecules enter the nostrils and reach the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory epithelium is a patch of tissue made up of millions of neurons specific to the sense of smell. Thus, the olfactory epithelium takes in the molecules and sends the information down the neurons. The axons for those neurons come together and form the olfactory nerve. The olfactory nerve sends the information to the olfactory bulbs. The information then travels to the thalamus before reaching the orbitofrontal cortex to be processed.

 

Page Ref: 90–91

Textbook LO 3.9: How do smell sensations get from the nose to the brain?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Smell

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Discuss the effects on perception of perceptual sets and top-down processing.

 

Perceptual set refers to your expectations about what you will perceive in a given situation. Perceptual sets can help you organize perceptions quickly, but can also lead to serious errors. Top-down processing starts with a concept or category and tends to make the details fit the concept rather than just interpreting and organizing the details based on the information they provide. Because of a perceptual set, we may misperceive or misinterpret data that does not fit with our expectations. An example is the study in which psychologists were admitted to a psychiatric ward with a fake diagnosis of schizophrenia. Although they behaved normally, staff interpreted their behaviors as evidence of their diagnosis.

 

Page Ref: 98

Textbook LO 3.13: How does prior knowledge influence perception?, APA LO 5.3d

Topic: Prior Knowledge

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Critical Thinking Questions

 

  1. Why is transduction so important?

Answer: Transduction is the conversion of sensory information into neural impulses. In order for the brain to be able to “read” or understand the incoming sensory information, it has to be in neural impulse format. Therefore, transduction makes perception (the brain’s ability to make sense of sensory information) possible.

Page Ref: 78

Textbook LO 3.2: How does transduction change sensory information?, APA LO 5.1b

Topic: Transduction and Adaptation

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What is the purpose of sensory adaptation?

Answer: Sensory adaptation is the process that allows us to switch our attention from a stimulus that is constant and unchanging. This frees up more of our attention to focus on some other stimulus that is more important or more interesting. Sensory adaptation allows us to function more efficiently.

Page Ref: 78–79

Textbook LO 3.3: How does each part of the eye function in vision?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Eye

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What will likely result if an individual experiences a completely detached retina?

Answer: Based on information from the text, the rods and cones on the retina are responsible for the transduction of visual information into neural impulses. It the retina is detached, then the rods and cones will not be able to function properly. If it cannot transduce the information into neural impulses, then the brain cannot perceive or “read” the sensory input. Thus, there will be no vision in an eye that has experienced a complete retinal detachment.

Page Ref: 80–81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. What is the significance of the optic chiasm?

Answer: The optic chiasm is formed when the two optic nerves come together. It is at this point that some of the optic nerve fibers cross to the opposite side of the brain. This allows information from the right eye to be sent to both the right and the left hemispheres of the brain. Similarly, information from the left eye is sent to both the right and the left hemispheres of the brain. In summary, information from EACH eye is represented in the primary visual cortex (occipital lobe) of both the right and left hemispheres of the brain. In addition, the optic chiasm also plays an important role in depth perception.

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What is it about the fovea that allows it to provide the sharpest and clearest vision?

Answer: The fovea, located on the retina, can provide such sharp and clear vision because it contains many cones. Recall that cones are light-sensitive receptors in the retina that allow humans to see fine detail. The fovea, a structure no larger than a period at the end of this sentence, is packed with about 30,000 cones. With that in mind, it is no surprise that the fovea provides us with the clearest and sharpest vision.

Page Ref: 81

Textbook LO 3.4: How does visual information get from the retina to the primary visual cortex?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Vision and the Brain

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. What will likely result if an individual’s ossicles became fused together?

Answer: The ossicles in the middle ear are responsible for the amplification of sound. They amplify sound by all three of the bones doing an important job. If one or more of the bones are rendered unable to move, such as when the ossicles fuse, then amplification cannot occur. This will likely result in an impairment in hearing, or even hearing loss in the affected ear.

Page Ref: 87–88

Textbook LO 3.7: How does each part of the ear function in hearing?, APA LO 1.1b

Topic: The Ear and Hearing

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

 

  1. What will be the likely result, in terms of taste, if someone were to lose his/her tongue to injury or accident?

Answer: Though most would assume that the person would no longer be able to taste, that is inaccurate. Even though most of the receptors for taste ARE on the tongue, taste receptors are also found in the palate (roof of the mouth), lining of the cheeks and lips, and in parts of the throat. That being said, that person’s sense of taste may be greatly reduced, but not eliminated entirely.

Page Ref: 92

Textbook LO 3.10: How do we detect the primary taste sensations?, APA LO 5.1c

Topic: Taste

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Luca is a psychologist and is seeing Noah in therapy for the first time. When asked of his childhood, Noah responds, “It was pleasant.” Luca couldn’t help but notice that Noah’s voice and facial expression was one of anger. Is Luca most likely to rely on Noah’s facial expression or on what he said?

Answer: Cross-modal perception occurs when the brain integrates information from more than one sense. Luca can SEE that Noah appears angry, but he is HEARING Noah say, “It was pleasant.” Based on research, Luca is most likely to focus on the visual information he is taking in rather than what he is hearing from Noah.

Page Ref: 97–99

Textbook LO 3.14: How do we perceive social stimuli?, APA LO 5.3c

Topic: Social Perception

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. If a person has use of only one eye, how is it that he/she can still perceive depth?

Answer: Having one functioning eye (and corresponding visual system pathway) is enough for an individual to perceive depth. It is done through monocular depth cues. Examples of monocular depth cues include interposition, linear perspective, relative size, texture gradient, atmospheric perspective, shadowing/shading, and motion parallax.

Page Ref: 102

Textbook LO 3.16: What do monocular and binocular cues contribute to perception?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: Depth Perception

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why is there skepticism about ESP, even though a few studies seemed to support that it can occur?

Answer: Although a few studies have demonstrated that ESP does exist in some individuals, these studies have yet to be replicated. In science, if a study is repeated (replicated) and does not obtain the same results, those results are called into question. Because these studies have not shown similar results in replication studies, skepticism remains.

Page Ref: 106

Textbook LO 3.19: What do studies of subliminal perception, ESP, and synethesia show?, APA LO 1.2b

Topic: Subliminal Perception, Extrasensory Perception, and Synesthesia

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

 

Test Bank for Wood 5e

Chapter 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. _____ refers to the mental processes that are involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using information.
  2. a) Imagery
  3. b) Perception
  4. c) Sensation
  5. d) Cognition

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 213

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. Holden, an engineer, was at his workspace trying to figure out how to design the brake system for a new car. He found himself continually going through the process of acquiring information and then storing it, retrieving it, and using it in order to complete his job. Which of the following concepts best describes the entire process in which Holden was engaging?
  2. a) perception
  3. b) information downloading
  4. c) cognition
  5. d) imagery

Answer: c Cognition involves acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using information.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 213

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. _____ is utilized when an individual conjures up a sensory experience in their own mind.
  2. a) A prototype
  3. b) Imagery
  4. c) Metamemory
  5. d) Proactive visualization

Answer: b This is an alternate explanation of imagery.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 213

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. Suzzette is a professional dancer who has suffered an injury to her knee. She is devastated that she cannot dance for the next three months. Her brother made the suggestion to think about her dancing often and even actively imagine herself dancing everyday through her routines. Based on information provided in your textbook, how should Suzzette respond to her brother’s suggestions?
  2. a) Suzzette should ignore her brother’s suggestions because they are ridiculous.
  3. b) Suzzette should thank her brother for trying to cheer her up, but not take his advice.
  4. c) Since the research on mental imagery suggests that the same brain areas are activated when a person is performing a task or mentally rehearsing it, Suzzette should listen to her brother’s advice.
  5. d) Suzzette should listen to her brother’s suggestion because research demonstrates that injuries heal substantially earlier when mental imagery is used.

Answer: c Imagery has shown to be useful in rehearsing one’s performance.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 213

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. _____ is utilized when an individual conjures up a sensory experience in one’s own mind; a _____ is a mental category that represents a group of people, objects, or events.
  2. a) An exemplar; prototype
  3. b) A prototype; heuristic
  4. c) A concept; imagery
  5. d) Imagery; concept

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 213–214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. Concepts are ideas that represent _____
  2. a) a class or category of objects, events, or activities.
  3. b) patterns of behavior.
  4. c) higher-order conditioning and secondary reinforcers.
  5. d) none of these

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Item Analysis:

% correct 96 a = 96 b = 0 c = 4 d = 0 r = .20

% correct 79 a = 79 b = 4 c = 4 d = 14 r = .46

 

  1. What are mental categories representing activities, objects, qualities, or situations that share some common characteristics?
  2. a) classes
  3. b) concepts
  4. c) attributes
  5. d) classifications

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Item Analysis:

% correct 75 a = 7 b = 75 c = 9 d = 9 r = .48

% correct 76 a = 2 b = 76 c = 4 d = 17 r = .43

 

  1. Don tells Ray he wants to get a new sports car. Ray immediately understands why, because he is familiar with the common characteristics of sports cars and knows what makes them different from family cars. Ray is using mental categories called _____
  2. a) classes.
  3. b) concepts.
  4. c) attributes.
  5. d) classifications.

Answer: b Ray is using mental categories called concepts, which are ideas that represent a category of objects or events.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Item Analysis: % correct 82 a = 0 b = 82 c = 11 d = 8 r = .46

 

  1. Before enrolling in an abnormal psychology course, Gary’s idea of psychological disorders had been influenced primarily by talk shows. He expected to hear the same kinds of stories he had heard on talk shows. What an eye-opening experience the course turned out to be! How would a cognitive psychologist describe the influence the course had on Gary’s idea of psychological disorders?
  2. a) Gary learned the value of algorithms.
  3. b) Gary now uses heuristics.
  4. c) The course increased Gary’s ability to use visual imagery.
  5. d) The course altered Gary’s concept of psychological disorders.

Answer: d A cognitive psychologist would say that the course altered his concept of psychological disorders because of the new information presented to him.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Item Analysis:

% correct 95 a = 0 b = 2 c = 2 d = 95 r = .59

% correct 90 a = 2 b = 3 c = 5 d = 90 r = .37

  1. Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be _____
  2. a) easier to learn.
  3. b) very clear and well-defined.
  4. c) fuzzy with unclear boundaries.
  5. d) good fits with a rigid classification system.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Item Analysis: % correct 68 a = 0 b = 27 c = 68 d = 6 r = .47

 

  1. Which is the most likely prototype for the concept “vehicle”?
  2. a) glider
  3. b) car
  4. c) scooter
  5. d) bicycle

Answer: b The most likely prototype for the concept “vehicle” is a car, because it is most familiar to folks today.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Item Analysis:

% correct 89 a = 3 b = 89 c = 4 d = 3 r = .20

% correct 96 a = 4 b = 96 c = 0 d = 0 r = .39

 

  1. The first thing that comes to mind when asked to name an example from a category is called the _____
  2. a) schema.
  3. b) prototype.
  4. c) concept marker.
  5. d) category marker.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. A(n) _____ is an example of a concept that a person has based on personal experiences.
  2. a) exemplar
  3. b) heuristic
  4. c) concept
  5. d) schematic image

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

 

  1. A decision-making process in which the alternatives are rated on each factor that is important to you, and the alternative with the highest overall rating is chosen, is called the _____
  2. a) heuristic method.
  3. b) means and ends method.
  4. c) additive strategy.
  5. d) elimination by aspects strategy.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 215

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. When one or more factors related to making a decision are most important to us, we would do well to use the _____
  2. a) heuristic method.
  3. b) means and ends method.
  4. c) additive strategy.
  5. d) elimination by aspects strategy.

Answer: d This method immediately eliminates any alternatives that don’t satisfy our most important criteria.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 215

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. Laticia wants many things in a new apartment. She wants an outside balcony, a nice view, a gas stove, free internet and a workout room. She is going crazy trying to compare all the available choices. She decides that she won’t even look at any that don’t have free internet. Laticia has decided to use the _____
  2. a) heuristic method.
  3. b) elimination by aspects method.
  4. c) additive strategy.
  5. d) means and ends method.

Answer: b Laticia prioritized a condition as most important. Now she will eliminate any apartments that don’t meet that condition, eliminating them based on one aspect: whether they have free internet.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 215

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. Heuristics are used for _____ in decision making.
  2. a) greater accuracy
  3. b) more choice
  4. c) greater speed
  5. d) critical thinking

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 216

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. Everyone was talking at lunch about how awful it is that so many criminals try to get off by pleading insanity. Since less than 1% of violent felons actually make that plea, something other than the truth must be at play. It is probably the _____ because a recent case has been in the news constantly.
  2. a) representative heuristic
  3. b) recognition heuristic
  4. c) algorithm heuristic
  5. d) availability heuristic

Answer: d Because these cases get so much publicity, and one has recently been in the news, they are perceiving it happens frequently.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 216

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. Patricia thought it would be lovely going out with Mark, as he reminded her of her Dad. She was disappointed to find out Mark was nothing like her father. She wished she had not made the decision to go out with him just based on the _____ heuristic.
  2. a) representative
  3. b) recognition
  4. c) algorithm
  5. d) availability

Answer: a The representative heuristic is a shortcut for making a decision based on how closely the situation resembles ones familiar to you.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 216

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. When you don’t have much relevant information on which to make a decision you are likely to rely on the _____ heuristic.
  2. a) representative
  3. b) recognition
  4. c) algorithm
  5. d) availability

Answer: b When you don’t have much to go on, you are likely to make a decision based on the first clue you recognize that moves you toward one decision or another. As soon as you recognize one pertinent factor, you go ahead and make a decision.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 216

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. _____ refers to the way information is presented to emphasize either potential gain or potential loss as the outcome of our decision.
  2. a) Algorithm
  3. b) Heuristics
  4. c) Framing
  5. d) Prototyping

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 217

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. The danger of making decisions based on _____ is that our _____ will be too strong an influence.
  2. a) means-ends analysis; confidence
  3. b) algorithms; trust
  4. c) anchoring; focus on many choices
  5. d) intuition; emotion

Answer: d Intuition (gut feeling, instincts) is powerfully influenced by our emotions, and relying on it, we may miss important information.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 218

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

 

  1. What systematic problem-solving method guarantees a solution, provided that one exists?
  2. a) heuristic method
  3. b) algorithmic method
  4. c) mnemonic device
  5. d) cognitive shortcut

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

Item Analysis:

% correct 86 a = 14 b = 86 c = 0 d = 0 r = .42

% correct 90 a = 10 b = 90 c = 0 d = 0 r = .32

 

  1. Sally is enrolled in a high school geometry course, which she describes as “drawing figures and figuring drawings.” In a typical class, students draw geometric figures and use a formula to calculate an aspect of the figure such as its area. Each time Sally uses a formula, she is making use of what psychologists call _____
  2. a) heuristics.
  3. b) logarithms.
  4. c) algorithms.
  5. d) convergence.

Answer: c Sally is making use of algorithms because the rules will always produce a solution.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

Item Analysis:

% correct 82 a = 14 b = 4 c = 82 d = 0 r = .49

% correct 92 a = 3 b = 5 c = 92 d = 0 r = .28

 

  1. Shay ran through her mind looking for any problem she had encountered that was at all like this one. She was hoping to use the _____ heuristic to help her find a strategy that would work.
  2. a) availability
  3. b) representative
  4. c) means-end
  5. d) analogy

Answer: d Comparing a problem to those encountered before seeking a strategy that works on similar problems is called the analogy heuristic for problem solving.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 219

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. _____ is a heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them.
  2. a) The analogy heuristic
  3. b) The representativeness heuristic
  4. c) Means-end analysis
  5. d) Anchoring

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 219

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. Cacee knows she needs to stop procrastinating and start thinking about the research paper that is due in her Abnormal Psychology class in two weeks. Though it was assigned almost two months ago, she hasn’t worked on it or thought about it at all. She decides that she’ll first select a topic and then start collecting the published research on her topic. After that, she’ll read the research and start to summarize it in the form of a paper. Once she gets that paper written, she’ll revise it and make sure her APA referencing is correct. When she is done with all of those steps, she’ll finally turn in the paper. _____ is the strategy that Cacee is using to get her paper done.
  2. a) The analogy heuristic
  3. b) The representativeness heuristic
  4. c) Framing
  5. d) Means-end analysis

Answer: d Cacee is using a heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 219

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. The failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions is called _____.
  2. a) the impediment theory
  3. b) functional fixedness
  4. c) the formulaic heuristic
  5. d) an algorithm

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. Wanda is sitting in her bedroom studying for finals. She has her psychology, statistics, sociology, and biology textbooks all lying on her bed as she is reading and taking notes from her history textbook. It is a hot and sunny but windy day, and Wanda’s window is open. She is becoming frustrated that the wind keeps slamming her bedroom door shut. Eventually, Wanda keeps her window shut because she is so irritated. Of course, now her bedroom is getting much too warm, which is adding to her frustration. This problem could be easily solved by propping the door open if Wanda were not experiencing _____
  2. a) functional fixedness.
  3. b) a customary viewpoint.
  4. c) cross-modal perception.
  5. d) divergent thinking.

Answer: a Wanda could have used her textbooks as a doorstopper if she didn’t just see them as textbooks.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. _____ occurs when a person sees only the original use of an object, which can ultimately interfere with problem solving.
  2. a) Functional fixedness
  3. b) A customary viewpoint
  4. c) Cross-modal perception
  5. d) Divergent thinking

Answer: a This is an alternate explanation of functional fixedness.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. Maxwell is working on a challenging “mind bender” that is asking him to connect nine dots using only four lines without taking his pencil off the paper. The nine dots are placed in three groups of three in a square-like formation. Maxwell works on the problem for about fifteen minutes before he realizes that he has been employing the same ineffective strategy. He is forgetting to consider the special circumstances of that particular problem. As soon as he does consider the special circumstances of that particular problem, he’ll increase his chances of solving the problem. Until then, Maxwell will continue to experience _____
  2. a) functional fixedness.
  3. b) the means-end analysis.
  4. c) the affirming the consequent phenomenon.
  5. d) a mental set.

Answer: d Maxwell is demonstrating the tendency to apply a familiar strategy to a solution of a problem without carefully considering the special requirements of that problem.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. Agatha Plum is determined that having a gun is important for self-protection. Agatha could go to look up statistics about how many people save themselves from crime by using their gun, what the risk of being a victim of crime is in her area, and what the other side of the argument is all about. She notices only information that supports her position, though. She is demonstrating _____
  2. a) mental set.
  3. b) confirmation bias.
  4. c) stereotype threat.
  5. d) mindlessness.

Answer: b Agatha is demonstrating confirmation bias by concerning herself only with information that backs up, or confirms, what she already believes.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 221

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. The concept of confirmation bias specifically assumes that we are most likely to believe _____
  2. a) the scientific method.
  3. b) information that agrees with our thinking.
  4. c) information that refutes our thinking.
  5. d) logical thinking.

Answer: b Our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it is called confirmation bias.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 221

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. Riley has figured out how to unlock his bedroom door with a paper clip. What has he most likely overcome in his new use of the paper clip?
  2. a) functional fixedness
  3. b) the representational problem
  4. c) the representative heuristic
  5. d) the confirmation bias

Answer: a Functional fixedness refers to getting mentally stuck in the idea that a particular object can only be used in a singular way.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 220

Textbook LO 7.4: How have computer scientists applied research on artificial intelligence?, APA LO 1.4a

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. What term do psychologists use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
  2. a) confirmation bias
  3. b) convergent thinking
  4. c) availability heuristic
  5. d) representativeness heuristic

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 221

Textbook LO 7.4: How have computer scientists applied research on artificial intelligence?, APA LO 1.4a

Topic: Problem Solving

 

  1. Computer systems that are intended to mimic the human brain are called _____
  2. a) expert systems.
  3. b) artificial neural networks.
  4. c) robots.
  5. d) cyborgs.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 221

Textbook LO 7.4: How have computer scientists applied research on artificial intelligence?, APA LO 1.4a

Topic: Artificial Intelligence

 

  1. An advantage of using a computer to generate all possible solutions is that they are not limited by ____ like we are.
  2. a) short-term memory
  3. b) long-term memory
  4. c) working memory
  5. d) implicit memory

Answer: c The limits of human working memory make carrying out such algorithms difficult or impossible.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 221

Textbook LO 7.4: How have computer scientists applied research on artificial intelligence?, APA LO 1.4a

Topic: Artificial Intelligence

 

  1. Computer programs called _____ systems are designed to carry out specialized tasks in a limited domain, such as helping physicians diagnose blood diseases.
  2. a) expert
  3. b) knowledge
  4. c) helper
  5. d) artificial

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 221

Textbook LO 7.4: How have computer scientists applied research on artificial intelligence?, APA LO 1.4a

Topic: Artificial Intelligence

 

  1. A system for combining symbols so that an infinite number of meaningful statements can be made is called _____
  2. a) pragmatics.
  3. b) language.
  4. c) semantics.
  5. d) grammar.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. The rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language are collectively known as _____
  2. a) morphemic rules.
  3. b) phonemic rules.
  4. c) syntax.
  5. d) linguistic relativity.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

Item Analysis: % correct 30 a = 13 b = 34 c = 30 d = 22 r = .31

 

  1. The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make meaningful sentences is called _____
  2. a) morphology.
  3. b) phonics.
  4. c) syntax.
  5. d) semantics.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

Item Analysis: % correct 77 a = 4 b = 18 c = 77 d = 2 r = .29

 

  1. The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called _____
  2. a) syntax.
  3. b) semantics.
  4. c) phonology.
  5. d) regularization.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

Item Analysis: % correct 79 a = 13 b = 79 c = 8 d = 0 r = .33

 

  1. The sentences “The dog bit the boy” and “The boy was bit by the dog” have the same meaning, but differ in _____
  2. a) syntax.
  3. b) pragmatics.
  4. c) semantics.
  5. d) morphology.

Answer: a Syntax refers, in part, to the order in which words construct sentences. As you see in this example, there can be two different syntactically correct versions of the same sentence.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. The phrase “I tried” has _____
  2. a) one morpheme
  3. b) two morphemes
  4. c) three morphemes
  5. d) four morphemes

Answer: c “I” “tri” “ed”

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. The sentence, “Colorless ideas sleep furiously” has _____
  2. a) proper syntax but poor semantics.
  3. b) proper syntax and good semantics.
  4. c) improper syntax and poor semantics.
  5. d) improper syntax but good semantics.

Answer: a Syntax refers, in part, to the order in which words construct sentences. The system of rules that governs how we assign meaning to the morphemes we use is called semantics.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. Young children sometimes interpret sentences literally, like “Do you know where your mommy is?” by answering “Yes.” They failed to understand the _____ of the question.
  2. a) pragmatics
  3. b) propositional representation
  4. c) syntax
  5. d) nativism

Answer: a Pragmatics refers to the way that words in a sentence convey meaning indirectly, by implying rather than asserting.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. The rhythm and emphasis on each word is called _____
  2. a) intonation.
  3. b) syntax.
  4. c) morphemes.
  5. d) phonemes.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. _____ languages like American Sign Language include _____ of the elements of spoken language structure.
  2. a) Gestural; none
  3. b) Physical; some
  4. c) Gestural; all
  5. d) Deaf; one

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

 

  1. Which of the following species has demonstrated the ability to communicate meaningfully with each other and with humans by the use of gestures, sounds or symbols?
  2. a) chimpanzees
  3. b) dolphins
  4. c) parrots
  5. d) all of the above

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 224–225

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Animal Language

  1. There are elements of language that appear to be unique to the human language; one is _____, which refers to the notion that language can express ideas that are untrue.
  2. a) arbitrariness
  3. b) specialization
  4. c) prevarication
  5. d) duality of patterning

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Animal Language

 

  1. Based on the elements of language that are unique to the human language, _____ refers to the idea that a finite number of sounds are used to produce an infinite number of unique utterances.
  2. a) productivity
  3. b) specialization
  4. c) prevarication
  5. d) duality of patterning

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Animal Language

 

  1. One thing that animals have not demonstrated the ability to do with language that humans can is use language to describe itself. This use is called _____
  2. a) reflexiveness.
  3. b) specialization.
  4. c) prevarication.
  5. d) duality of patterning sounds, which is used to produce an infinite number of unique utterances.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Animal Language

 

  1. Based on the elements of language that are unique to the human language, duality of patterning indicates that _____
  2. a) any sound that can be heard can be reproduced.
  3. b) phonemes are combined in rule-governed patterns to create words, and words are combined in rule-governed patterns to create sentences.
  4. c) any sound that can be heard can not be reproduced.
  5. d) a finite number of sounds is used to produce an infinite number of unique utterances.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 223

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Animal Language

 

  1. Psychologists who study animal behavior, cognition, and language in relation to human behavior, cognition, and language are _____ psychologists.
  2. a) behaviorist
  3. b) cognitive
  4. c) comparative
  5. d) animal

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 225

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: Animal Language

 

  1. What do we call the hypothesis that language influences what we think?
  2. a) the dynamic hypothesis
  3. b) the language reaction hypothesis
  4. c) the linguistic relativity hypothesis
  5. d) the cognitive linguistic hypothesis

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 225

Textbook LO 7.7: How does language influence thinking?, APA LO 3.1f

Topic: Language and Thinking

Item Analysis: % correct 77 a = 2 b = 7 c = 77 d = 14 r = .65

 

  1. The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that _____
  2. a) one’s language determines the pattern of one’s thinking and view of the world.
  3. b) one’s thinking and view of the world determines the structure of one’s language.
  4. c) we decide which objects belong to a concept according to what is most probable or sensible, given the facts at hand.
  5. d) perception of surface structure precedes deep structure in understanding a sentence.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 225

Textbook LO 7.7: How does language influence thinking?, APA LO 3.1f

Topic: Language and Thinking

Item Analysis: % correct 71 a = 71 b = 8 c = 0 d = 21 r = .20

 

  1. A famous lecturer argues that because the Hopi Indians have only two nouns for things that fly, one for birds and another for nonbirds, the Hopi MUST interpret all flying things in terms of these two nouns. This argument is based on _____
  2. a) the idealized prototype construct.
  3. b) bottom-up processing.
  4. c) deep structure elaboration.
  5. d) the linguistic relativity hypothesis.

Answer: d This argument is based on the linguistic relativity hypothesis, which states that language determines thought patterns.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 225

Textbook LO 7.7: How does language influence thinking?, APA LO 3.1f

Topic: Language and Thinking

 

  1. Researchers have found that despite the number of color names in a language, the basic abilities to perceive color are unchanged. This finding would be troublesome for the theory of _____
  2. a) the idealized prototype.
  3. b) bottom-up processing.
  4. c) deep structure elaboration.
  5. d) linguistic relativity.

Answer: d The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that language determines thought patterns.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 225

Textbook LO 7.7: How does language influence thinking?, APA LO 3.1f

Topic: Language and Thinking

 

  1. Which of the following is true about preschoolers who are fluent in more than one language?
  2. a) They have more difficulty communicating because they mix up words.
  3. b) They talk less because they have to choose which language to speak in.
  4. c) They have better development of executive control skills for language.
  5. d) They have better memory for word tasks.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 226

Textbook LO 7.8: How does bilingualism affect thinking and language development?, APA LO 2.3a

Topic: Learning a Second Language

 

  1. Which of the following is true about learning a new language?
  2. a) It is almost impossible for adults.
  3. b) The more you know about your first language, the easier it is.
  4. c) It takes adults at least seven years.
  5. d) If you learn as an adult, you can develop a better accent.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 227

Textbook LO 7.8: How does bilingualism affect thinking and language development?, APA LO 2.3a

Topic: Learning a Second Language

 

  1. The APA uses these phrases to describe _____: the ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by taking thought.
  2. a) creative thought
  3. b) expertise
  4. c) intelligence
  5. d) rationality

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 228

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. “Those who are bright in one area are usually bright in other areas as well.” Who would have made this comment?
  2. a) Charles Spearman
  3. b) Howard Gardner
  4. c) Alfred Binet
  5. d) Robert Sternberg

Answer: a Spearman proposed the “g factor,” which speaks of one overall general intelligence factor.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 228

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. The g factor refers to _____, whereas the s factor refers to _____
  2. a) primary mental abilities; secondary mental abilities.
  3. b) specific intellectual abilities; general intelligence.
  4. c) overall intelligence; specific intellectual abilities.
  5. d) verbal abilities; nonverbal abilities.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 228

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. Thurston disagreed with the _____ theory; he believed all intellectual activities involved more than one of _____
  2. a) g factor; seven primary mental abilities.
  3. b) multiple intelligences; our brain areas.
  4. c) special abilities; three lobes of the brain.
  5. d) s factor; just being smart.

Answer: a Thurston identified seven primary mental abilities and believed all intellectual activities involved more than one of them; the g factor theory proposes that there is one unknown factor underlying intelligence.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 228

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. Gardner and his associates are known for proposing _____
  2. a) the generalized theory of intelligence.
  3. b) the triarchic theory of intelligence.
  4. c) the theory of multiple intelligences.
  5. d) the theory of emotional intelligence.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 228

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Item Analysis:

% correct 76 a = 11 b = 5 c = 76 d = 8 r = .39

% correct 73 a = 6 b = 9 c = 73 d = 12 r = .38

 

  1. Which of these is one of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences?
  2. a) poetic
  3. b) digital
  4. c) creative
  5. d) naturalistic

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Item Analysis: % correct 60 a = 9 b = 3 c = 29 d = 60 r = .48

 

  1. Criticisms of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences include _____
  2. a) the fact that it relies too heavily on g.
  3. b) there are no concerns.
  4. c) it appears to describe only those with brain damage.
  5. d) how to measure them and whether these are better thought of as talents.

Answer: d Some suggest that Gardner’s theory does not refer to concepts that should truly be considered intelligences. There is no agreed upon method for measuring each of them.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. Who came up with the triarchic theory of intelligence?
  2. a) David Wechsler
  3. b) Howard Gardner
  4. c) Robert Sternberg
  5. d) Charles Spearman

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. Sternberg’s _____ intelligence refers to the mental abilities most closely related to success on conventional IQ and achievement tests.
  2. a) creative
  3. b) componential
  4. c) experiential
  5. d) contextual

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. _____ intelligence, according to Sternberg, is made up of a person’s creative thinking and problem-solving abilities.
  2. a) Contextual
  3. b) Practical
  4. c) Experiential
  5. d) Analytical

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. According to Robert Sternberg, _____ intelligence refers to the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. This is the type of intelligence that is measured by intelligence tests and academic achievement tests.
  2. a) analytical/componential
  3. b) creative/experiential
  4. c) practical/contextual
  5. d) kinesthetic/spatial

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Item Analysis: % correct 60 a = 60 b = 12 c = 11 d = 17 r = .19

 

  1. According to Robert Sternberg, which type of intelligence is least likely to predict success in an academic environment?
  2. a) analytical intelligence
  3. b) creative intelligence
  4. c) practical intelligence
  5. d) verbal intelligence

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. Sternberg and others believed that IQ-test and real-world success are based on different types of knowledge, _____ and _____
  2. a) tacit; formal academic.
  3. b) pragmatic; analytic.
  4. c) spatial; verbal.
  5. d) creative; organizational.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. _____ knowledge, according to Sternberg, is action-oriented and acquired without direct help from others.
  2. a) Analytic
  3. b) Tacit
  4. c) Formal
  5. d) Investigative

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a measure of what an individual has learned up to a certain point in his/her life.
  2. a) standardized prediction exam
  3. b) aptitude test
  4. c) culturally fair evaluation
  5. d) achievement test

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. A(n) _____ is a test that predicts future performance in a particular setting or on a specific task.
  2. a) standardized prediction exam
  3. b) aptitude test
  4. c) culturally fair evaluation
  5. d) achievement test

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. During your senior year of high school, you may have taken the ACT or the SAT in order to gain admittance into college. Which of the following most accurately describes these tests?
  2. a) standardized intelligence tests
  3. b) mental age exams
  4. c) IQ tests
  5. d) aptitude tests

Answer: d The ACT and SAT are aptitude tests that predict how successful you would be in college.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. _____ refers to a test’s consistency of scores.
  2. a) Reliability
  3. b) Standardization
  4. c) Validity
  5. d) Sureness

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. On a newly developed IQ test, an individual scores at the 110 level on the first half of the test and 150 on the second half of the test. What does this test appear to lack?
  2. a) standardization
  3. b) reliability
  4. c) predictive validity
  5. d) appropriate norms

Answer: b The test lacks reliability because the scores were so different.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. A psychological test that measures what we intend it to measure is said to be _____
  2. a) valid.
  3. b) normed.
  4. c) reliable.
  5. d) standardized.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

Item Analysis: % correct 73 a = 73 b = 0 c = 15 d = 12 r = .46

 

  1. A test is said to be reliable if _____
  2. a) a person’s score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it.
  3. b) it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure.
  4. c) its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict.
  5. d) it is culture-fair.

Answer: a By test reliability, psychologists mean whether a person’s score on a test is dependable and consistent.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. To be considered as standardized, a test must establish _____ by _____
  2. a) norms; analyzing scores of a sample of test-takers.
  3. b) standards; which it will be validated.
  4. c) validity; which it will be analyzed.
  5. d) predictive ability; which scores are interpreted.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. To be considered as standardized, a test must do which of the following?
  2. a) Be given in a culture fair manner.
  3. b) Be given the same way every time.
  4. c) Be given only to those who meet its standards.
  5. d) Be given according to the cultural standards of the test-takers.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. Hannah took a reading test to see what her level of reading ability was. Although the tests accurately measured an individual’s general reading ability, the first test showed that she had poor reading skills, whereas the second test showed she had average reading skills. Which of the following is true regarding this scenario?
  2. a) The reading tests may be valid, but they are not both reliable.
  3. b) The reading tests did not measure what they were intended to measure.
  4. c) The reading tests did not demonstrate validity.
  5. d) The reading tests showed consistency based on her overall results.

Answer: a The reading tests may have been valid (tested reading); but they are not both reliable (giving consistent scores).

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 230

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. _____ addresses the question, “Is the test given the same way every time?” while “Is the test measuring what it is supposed to measure?” addresses _____
  2. a) Validity; standardization.
  3. b) Validity; reliability.
  4. c) Reliability; validity.
  5. d) Standardization; validity.

Answer: d In order to be considered a standardized test, it must be given the same way every time; to be valid, it must measure what it claims to measure.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. Who developed the concept of mental age and published the first successful test of intelligence?
  2. a) Lewis Terman
  3. b) Charles Spearman
  4. c) Alfred Binet
  5. d) William Stern

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 232

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. William Stern developed a method for assessing similar degrees of retardation in children of different ages when he devised the _____
  2. a) Stern Scale.
  3. b) deviation score.
  4. c) intelligence quotient.
  5. d) Stanford Scale.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. In order to compare children of different ages on their intelligence testing scores, we use the intelligence _____, devised by Stern.
  2. a) quotient
  3. b) range
  4. c) average
  5. d) mean

Answer: a

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. Dallas is a 10-year-old boy who has a mental age of 10 years. His IQ would be _____
  2. a) 80.
  3. b) 100.
  4. c) 115.
  5. d) 130.

Answer: b The IQ is based on a mental age of 10 divided by a chronological age of 10, the product of which is multiplied by 10.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

Item Analysis: % correct 91 a = 4 b = 91 c = 1 d = 3 r = .27

 

  1. To which of the following groups of people is the Stanford-Binet LEAST suited?
  2. a) elementary school age
  3. b) adolescents
  4. c) preschoolers
  5. d) adults

Answer: d People achieve intellectual maturity at some point and the math does not work. A forty year old with an average IQ would score as developmentally disabled compared to a twenty year old with the same score.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. Which standardized intelligence test yields scores in both verbal and nonverbal domains, including processing speed, working memory, and perceptual reasoning?
  2. a) the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  3. b) the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale
  4. c) the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children
  5. d) the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. Wechsler developed an intelligence test for adults, the WAIS, that was based on how much the individual deviated from _____
  2. a) their childhood IQ.
  3. b) their mental age divided by chronological age.
  4. c) the average score for adults.
  5. d) a predetermined range for their exact age.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. When a psychologist wants to get a better understanding of a child’s learning problems, they often use the WISC-IV because it _____
  2. a) is short and easy to administer.
  3. b) measures Gardner’s multiple intelligences.
  4. c) measures formal and tacit knowledge.
  5. d) measures several types of verbal and nonverbal performance.

Answer: d In order to find out what a child’s specific strengths and weaknesses are, the different types of subtests are helpful.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. The California Test of Mental Maturity, or the Cognitive Abilities Test, or the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test are often used when it is necessary to _____
  2. a) use culture fair tests.
  3. b) test a large group at one time.
  4. c) test adults over 80.
  5. d) test individuals with severe disabilities.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 234

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing Past and Present

 

  1. Which of the following correctly reflects the average IQ score?
  2. a) 70
  3. b) 85
  4. c) 100
  5. d) 115

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 234

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Like most characteristics of a population, WAIS-IV scores are distributed in a bell or normal curve. Which of the following is an accurate characteristic of those types of curves?
  2. a) Scores are evenly distributed across the population.
  3. b) Scores are clumped around the midpoint.
  4. c) The curve resembles an “S.”
  5. d) Scores are more common at the ends of the distribution.

Answer: b The basic premise of a normal distribution is that approximately 2/3 of the population will appear within one standard deviation of the midpoint.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 234

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that _____
  2. a) follows the normal curve.
  3. b) has a positive skew.
  4. c) has a negative skew.
  5. d) appears bimodal with two peaks of high frequency.

Answer: a Most standardized tests of intelligence have a distribution of scores that follows the normal curve; in other words, most of the scores are clustered around the mean, and the number of scores decreases the farther away from the mean they go in either direction.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 234

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

Item Analysis: % correct 82 a = 82 b = 5 c = 5 d = 8 r = .44

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of IQ scores falls between 70 and 130?
  2. a) 50 percent
  3. b) 65 percent
  4. c) 95 percent
  5. d) 99 percent

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 234

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Lewis Terman’s longitudinal study showed that people who have very high IQs tend to _____
  2. a) be deficient in social skills.
  3. b) be somewhat less adept at physical challenges.
  4. c) have poor emotional control and poor mental health.
  5. d) be well-adjusted personally and socially.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 234–235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Lewis Terman’s longitudinal research on gifted individuals?
  2. a) Many had mild to moderate depression and anxiety.
  3. b) Many had quirky personalities.
  4. c) Most were emotionally stable.
  5. d) Most had fair to poor common sense.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 234–235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. About _____ of IQ scores fall below _____, in the range of intellectual disability.
  2. a) 5%; 65
  3. b) 2%; 70
  4. c) 1%; 50
  5. d) 12%; 75

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
  2. a) adaptive behavior severely below a level appropriate for the person’s age
  3. b) evidence of brain damage
  4. c) slower than normal reflexes
  5. d) onset of deficits prior to age 6

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Individuals with mild mental retardation, in the _____ range, can usually acquire academic skills to about the _____ grade level.
  2. a) 50 to 60; third
  3. b) 55 to 70; sixth
  4. c) 60 to 80; eighth
  5. d) 40 to 60; first

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Educational programs for the mentally retarded rely heavily on _____
  2. a) discipline.
  3. b) medications.
  4. c) behavior modification.
  5. d) Freudian theory.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Individuals with an IQ score below _____ are considered to have profound retardation and can only learn _____
  2. a) 50; to talk.
  3. b) 35; to do menial labor.
  4. c) 15; to follow commands.
  5. d) 25; simple motor skills.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

 

  1. Most psychologists now agree that intelligence is _____
  2. a) mostly inherited.
  3. b) determined primarily by our environment.
  4. c) determined by nature and nurture interacting.
  5. d) determined by parenting and schools.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 236

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. The study of the influences of genetics and environment on human behavior and mental processes is the field of _____
  2. a) behavioral genetics.
  3. b) heritability.
  4. c) twin studies.
  5. d) nature/nurture.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 236

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. _____ is the degree to which a characteristic is estimated to be influenced by genes.
  2. a) Behavioral genetics
  3. b) Nature
  4. c) Genetics
  5. d) Heritability

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 236

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. Tim and Jim are identical twins who were raised apart. Ned and Ed are fraternal twins who were raised together. Which pair of twins is likeliest to have similar IQ scores, if either?
  2. a) Tim and Jim
  3. b) Ned and Ed
  4. c) It is impossible to answer based on the given information.
  5. d) All twins have the same IQ.

Answer: a Tim and Jim share genetic commonalities. Their IQs will probably be the most similar even though they did not share environments growing up.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 236–237

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. If intelligence was determined primarily by heredity, which pair should show the highest correlation between IQ scores?
  2. a) fraternal twins
  3. b) identical twins
  4. c) brothers and sisters
  5. d) parents and children

Answer: b Identical twins should show the highest correlation because they are genetically identical.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 237

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

Item Analysis:

% correct 72 a = 3 b = 72 c = 1 d = 24 r = .39

% correct 89 a = 2 b = 0 c = 89 d = 7 r = .31

 

  1. Today the debate over whether intelligence is due to genetic or environmental factors does not focus so much on either/or, but rather _____
  2. a) at what age the influence of the environment begins and ends.
  3. b) at what age the influence of genetics begins and ends.
  4. c) how much of each factor contributes to intelligence.
  5. d) what the nature of intelligence actually is.

Answer: c Both heredity and environmental factors have been accepted as contributing to intelligence throughout the lifespan. The question today is how much each factor contributes.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 236

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. Today, the best estimates of the heritability of intelligence range from ____
  2. a) .55 to .67.
  3. b) .10 to .25.
  4. c) .71 to .82.
  5. d) .34 to .42.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 236–237

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. We now know that IQ scores are _____
  2. a) fixed.
  3. b) not fixed.
  4. c) unchangeable.
  5. d) fixed by age five.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 237

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. Ramey’s research on the effect of early intervention on intelligence are _____ studies, so we can see that the outcomes are a result of the intervention.
  2. a) longitudinal
  3. b) cross-sectional
  4. c) observational
  5. d) experimental

Answer: d Only experimental designs can indicate a cause and effect relationship.

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 237–238

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. The improvement in IQ between the infants in Ramey’s intervention group and his control group was still _____ significant at age _____
  2. a) very; three.
  3. b) marginally; twelve.
  4. c) statistically; twelve.
  5. d) not; two.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 238

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. The increase in IQ scores over time suggests _____ has a strong influence on intelligence.
  2. a) history
  3. b) genetics
  4. c) education
  5. d) environment

Answer: d The upward trend in intelligence scores can be seen where standards of living improve over time, improving the environment in which people live in many ways.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 239

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. The consistent improvement in IQ scores over time is known as the _____
  2. a) Flynn effect.
  3. b) IQ gains hypothesis.
  4. c) historical effect.
  5. d) environmental factor.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 238

Textbook LO 7.13: What is the evidence for each side of the nature-nurture debate?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Nature, Nurture, and IQ

 

  1. A new technique called _____ supports the hypothesis that group differences are attributable to environment.
  2. a) race-fair testing
  3. b) culture-fair testing
  4. c) stereotype effect
  5. d) dynamic assessment

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 239

Textbook LO 7.14: How do theorists explain ethnic group differences in IQ scores?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Race and IQ

 

  1. A new testing technique that supports the hypothesis that group differences are attributable to environment uses which of the following procedures?
  2. a) The goal and format of the test is explained first.
  3. b) The children are tested in quiet rooms.
  4. c) Everyone is told that intelligence is not genetic.
  5. d) Students are given a high-energy snack first.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 238–239

Textbook LO 7.14: How do theorists explain ethnic group differences in IQ scores?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Race and IQ

 

  1. Claude Steele proposed a theory called ____ threat as a possible explanation for group differences in intelligence and other test results.
  2. a) ego
  3. b) self-esteem
  4. c) stereotype
  5. d) future

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 239

Textbook LO 7.14: How do theorists explain ethnic group differences in IQ scores?, APA LO 2.3e

Topic: Race and IQ

 

  1. The few gender differences in cognitive functioning are _____
  2. a) quite small.
  3. b) quite large.
  4. c) all in spatial ability.
  5. d) all in verbal ability.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 240

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. It is important not to _____ gender differences so that we create gender _____
  2. a) forget; unfairness.
  3. b) talk about; resentment.
  4. c) underestimate; equality.
  5. d) exaggerate; stereotypes.

Answer: d It is easy to create stereotypes, as differences tend to stand out to us more than similarities. In the big picture, there are greater differences among women as a group and among men as a group than between men and women.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 240

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. On average, girls have better _____ than boys, even as early as 18 months of age.
  2. a) vision
  3. b) sense
  4. c) vocabularies
  5. d) drawing skills

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 240

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. Girls take a(n) _____ approach to their schoolwork, and on average have more _____ than boys.
  2. a) effortful; self-discipline
  3. b) superficial; distractions
  4. c) playful; fun
  5. d) worried; stress

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 241

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. Overall, girls get higher grades in _____ than boys.
  2. a) writing
  3. b) reading
  4. c) all subjects
  5. d) art

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 241

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. Boys have better _____ abilities than girls on average.
  2. a) self-discipline
  3. b) visual
  4. c) drawing
  5. d) spatial

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 241

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. There is evidence that exposure to higher levels of _____ are associated with better _____
  2. a) estrogen; verbal skills.
  3. b) testosterone; spatial skills.
  4. c) paternal interaction; math skills.
  5. d) oxytocin; art skills.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 242

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. Parents are likely to attribute a daughter’s success in math as due to _____ and a son’s as due to _____
  2. a) luck; effort.
  3. b) talent; effort.
  4. c) effort; talent.
  5. d) effort; luck.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 242

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

 

  1. The ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life is called _____
  2. a) empathy.
  3. b) emotional expertise.
  4. c) intuition.
  5. d) emotional intelligence.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. Emotional intelligence is _____ the intelligence quotient or IQ.
  2. a) positively correlated with
  3. b) unrelated to
  4. c) negatively correlated with
  5. d) usually equal to

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. Emotional intelligence has two components: _____ and _____
  2. a) empathy; intuition.
  3. b) management; recognition.
  4. c) personal; interpersonal.
  5. d) expressive; receptive.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. Emotion management includes _____
  2. a) suppressing negative emotion.
  3. b) expressing emotion appropriately.
  4. c) managing the emotions of others.
  5. d) never showing too much emotion.

Answer: b Emotion management can’t happen if we suppress emotion, meaning we lose our awareness of it. It is a personal skill; what is appropriate expression can vary with the situation.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. Good emotional management starts with _____ of our emotions.
  2. a) control
  3. b) expression
  4. c) awareness
  5. d) suppression

Answer: c Without awareness of what emotion we are experiencing, we can’t appropriately manage it.

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. What is the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI), academic success, and social success?
  2. a) EI is negatively correlated with academic success and positively correlated with social success.
  3. b) EI is not correlated with academic success, but it is with social success.
  4. c) EI is neutrally correlated with academic success and strategically correlated with social success.
  5. d) EI is positively correlated with academic and social success.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. Through brain imaging, we have observed that women process emotion _____
  2. a) primarily in the right hemisphere.
  3. b) about equally in both hemispheres.
  4. c) primarily in the left hemisphere.
  5. d) more in the temporal lobes than anywhere else.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

 

  1. Through brain imaging, we have observed that men process emotion _____
  2. a) primarily in the right hemisphere.
  3. b) about equally in both hemispheres.
  4. c) primarily in the left hemisphere.
  5. d) more in the temporal lobes than anywhere else.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.16: What are the components of emotional intelligence?, APA LO 3.3c

Topic: Emotional Intelligence

  1. Which of the following is a correct statement?
  2. a) The more intelligent anyone is, the more creative they will be.
  3. b) Creativity is negatively correlated with intelligence.
  4. c) The more convergent your thinking, the more creative you are.
  5. d) Creativity comes from a prepared mind.

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. There is _____ correlation between IQ and creativity.
  2. a) a high
  3. b) no
  4. c) a weak to moderate
  5. d) negative

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Creative ideas usually come _____
  2. a) in a sudden flash.
  3. b) while dreaming.
  4. c) when we have prepared.
  5. d) in altered states of consciousness.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. _____ is the stage in the creative process when we set aside active work on a problem while processing information, often below the level of consciousness.
  2. a) Translation
  3. b) Illumination
  4. c) Meditation
  5. d) Incubation

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Transforming insight into useful activity is what the _____ stage of creativity is all about.
  2. a) incubation
  3. b) preparation
  4. c) illumination
  5. d) translation

Answer: d

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. According to Guilford, creative people are good at _____ thinking.
  2. a) convergent
  3. b) analytical
  4. c) divergent
  5. d) eccentric

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. _____ thinking is the ability to make unusual associations and switch smoothly between sets of ideas.
  2. a) Convergent
  3. b) Divergent
  4. c) Digressive
  5. d) Expert

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. The type of thinking measured by IQ and achievement tests is _____ thinking.
  2. a) convergent
  3. b) divergent
  4. c) digressive
  5. d) academic

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Convergent thinking is characterized by higher levels of activity in _____
  2. a) the left frontal cortex.
  3. b) the right frontal cortex.
  4. c) both hemispheres.
  5. d) the parietal lobes.

Answer: a

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Divergent thinking is characterized by higher levels of activity in _____
  2. a) the left frontal cortex.
  3. b) the right frontal cortex.
  4. c) both hemispheres.
  5. d) the parietal lobes.

Answer: b

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Mednick and Mednick think the essence of creativity is being able to fit together _____
  2. a) convergent and divergent thinking.
  3. b) new and old ideas.
  4. c) unrelated ideas.
  5. d) left and right brain thinking.

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 245

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Linus, Adjoa, and Jelani were all asked by their professor to take 60 seconds and list as many different uses for a note card as they could think of in that time frame. Jelani came up with six uses and Linus came up with five. Adjoa, however, was able to come up with fourteen uses for a note card. Based on the research, which of the following is likely true of Adjoa?
  2. a) She is a convergent thinker.
  3. b) She prefers to think in a conventional manner.
  4. c) She experienced a mental set.
  5. d) She is a divergent thinker.

Answer: d Divergent thinking involves coming up with many possible solutions or ideas.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Trevor is trying to solve an open-ended physics problem. First, he first gathers all of the necessary information before he tackles the problem. Once that part is complete, he tries to come up with different ways to solve the problem. After about 45 minutes of working on the problem and coming up empty-handed, he decides to go for a nice long walk with his dog. About 20 minutes later, just as he approaches his apartment, he gets an idea of how he might solve the problem. He runs inside and applies his idea to the problem. Finally, the physics problem is solved. In which part of the scenario did Trevor experience incubation?
  2. a) when he got an idea to solve the problem as he was approaching his apartment
  3. b) when he went to walk his dog
  4. c) when he applied his idea to the problem
  5. d) when he gathered all of the necessary information

Answer: b He let the problem “sit” when he walked his dog.

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 243

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered a trait possessed by creative individuals?
  2. a) openness to experience and ideas
  3. b) curiosity
  4. c) a strong desire to please others
  5. d) an inquisitive nature

Answer: c

Skill Level: Factual

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 245

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

 

Completion (Fill-in-the-Blank)

 

  1. _____ is the general psychological term for any mental process such as perception, decision making, and language use.

Answer: Cognition

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 213

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Cognition

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

 

  1. Stella recognizes that the roundish, wonderful smelling, sweet tasting, edible objects that sometimes contain chocolate chips or oatmeal and raisins are cookies. Stella has a _____, or mental category, for these delicious desserts.

Answer: concept

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 213

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

 

  1. A _____ is the most likely or most commonly thought of example from a concept.

Answer: prototype

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 214

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

 

  1. Out of apple, mango, or boysenberry, the average American person likely has _____ as a prototype for fruit.

Answer: apple

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 214

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

 

  1. Tracey is a pastry chef specializing in strawberry tarts. If asked to quickly name a dessert, even though most people would likely respond with cake or cookies, Tracey would likely say strawberry tarts. Strawberry tart is a(n) _____—a concept based on Tracey’s personal experience as a pastry chef.

Answer: exemplar

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 214

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

 

  1. George needs a new car. He heads to the dealership and asks the salesperson for some suggestions of safe and affordable vehicles. The sales person gives George information on six cars. In an effort to decide which car to buy, George decides against any that are out of his price range. Next, he dismisses the cars that have poor fuel efficiency. Lastly, he decides against any of the cars that are not four-wheel drive. In making his decision as to which car to purchase, George has just utilized the _____ approach.

Answer: elimination by aspects

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 215

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Decision Making

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

 

  1. The word scarecrow contains _____ phonemes.

Answer: eight

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 222

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Structure of Language

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. The structure of a language has five different components: _____ refers to the smallest unit of meaning in a language, whereas _____ refers to the smallest unit of sound in the language.

Answer: morpheme; phoneme

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 222

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Structure of Language

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. _____, dictated by grammar, is the element of a language that guides us to the proper arrangement of words.

Answer: Syntax

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 222

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Structure of Language

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. As Sabra was taking her sociology final, she was confused as to what one of the questions was really asking. She read it again and again, but did not understand the meaning of it. Based on the structure of language, Sabra was struggling with the _____ of that question.

Answer: semantics

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 222

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Structure of Language

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. Seth has a good understanding of the social rules of his language and uses intonation as appropriate when he speaks. Seth seems to have a good understanding of _____.

Answer: pragmatics

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 223

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Structure of Language

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

 

  1. Though not all research supports it, the notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that individual’s thoughts is referred to as the _____.

Answer: linguistic relativity hypothesis

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 225

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Language and Thinking

Textbook LO 7.7: How does language influence thinking?, APA LO 3.1f

 

  1. Lynda is an intellectually bright individual who seems to be good at just about anything she does. She was always a high-achieving student and scored excellent grades in all of her classes. Charles Spearman would say that Linda has a _____.

Answer: high g factor

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 228

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.7: How does language influence thinking?, APA LO 3.1f

 

  1. _____ studied the primary mental abilities, whereas _____ believed in the g factor and s factor for measuring intelligence.

Answer: Louis Thurstone; Charles Spearman

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 228

Skill Level: Conceptual

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Dr. Martinez is the top math professor at a local university. Students rate him as a fantastic instructor because of his superb math abilities and his fine language skills, in addition to his ability to clearly communicate with students. Students connect with him, find him to be personable and approachable, and find him very easy to understand. According to Gardner, the three types of intelligence he would score high on would be _____, _____, and _____.

Answer: logical-mathematical; interpersonal; linguistic

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 228–229

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Although Michael is not a trained musician, he has the ability to hear a piece of music once or twice and then play it on his guitar. According to Gardner, Michael would have a high _____.

Answer: musical intelligence

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 229

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. _____ authored the theory of multiple intelligences, whereas _____ suggested the triarchic theory of intelligence.

Answer: Howard Gardner; Robert Sternberg

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 228–229

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Adrien has always been known for his common sense and adaptability. According to the triarchic theory of intelligence, Adrien would have a high _____ intelligence.

Answer: contextual (or practical)

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 229–230

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Laurie works for an advertising agency. She has won multiple awards for her creativity and efficiency. According to the triarchic theory, Laurie would have a high _____ intelligence.

Answer: experiential (or creative)

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 229–230

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. Robert Sternberg makes an important distinction between _____ knowledge (the information we learn in school) and _____ knowledge (information that can help us succeed in the real world).

Answer: formal academic; tacit

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 229

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. The SAT and ACT are examples of _____ tests, whereas a math test taken at the end of a semester would be considered a(n) _____ test.

Answer: aptitude; achievement

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 231

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

 

  1. The _____, which measured mental age, eventually became the first intelligence test.

Answer: Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale

Difficulty: Difficult

Page Ref: 232

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Intelligence Testing: Past and Present

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

 

  1. When John was an infant, his parents noticed that he didn’t achieve his developmental milestones on time. As he grew older, he seemed not to be able to do what his same-aged peers could do. Concerned, John’s parents took him to get an IQ test. The psychologist reported that he scored about a 62 overall. Now at age five, John still cannot dress himself, tie his shoes, nor feed himself very well. John probably has been diagnosed with _____.

Answer: mental retardation

Difficulty: Easy

Page Ref: 235

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

 

  1. Because her school has decided to support _____, Olivia, a second-grader who has been diagnosed with mental retardation, attends class in her appropriate grade level with her same-aged peers.

Answer: inclusion/mainstreaming

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 235

Skill Level: Applied

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

 

  1. Craig Ramey and other psychologists have produced research that runs counter to the publication on race and IQ by Arthur Jensen in 1969. Jensen argued that “genetic differences” were the reason for the gap in IQ between races; however, Ramey and others suggest that racial differences were likely due to _____ and _____.

Answer: poverty; lack of educational opportunities

Difficulty: Moderate

Page Ref: 239

Skill Level: Factual

Topic: Race and IQ

Textbook LO 7.14: How do theorists explain ethnic group differences in IQ scores?, APA LO 2.3e

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Describe at least three approaches to problem solving and give an example of each.

 

Answer: An algorithm is any type of formula or series of predetermined steps that, if done correctly, will lead to a solution. Algorithms can be a recipe that, if followed, results in a cake, or the directions that come with a bookcase you put together.

 

Working backward, or backward search, starts with a known condition and works backward to determine the order of steps that must be taken to arrive at the solution. For example, if you know you have to drive 100 miles and you know you need 1 gallon of gasoline for every 5 miles, you can determine how much you need at the start to arrive at the 100th mile.

 

You can compare a current situation to similar ones you may have experienced. If you remember a solution that worked in a similar problem, you can try it for this one. This is called the analogy heuristic. For example, you might have a headache, and thinking about other times your head hurt, you remember that deep breathing seemed to make it go away, so you try that.

 

In means-ends analysis, you take stock of where you are now in comparison with where you want to be—your goal. You plan step-by-step how to get from here to there. In this way you can break a big problem down into smaller steps in order to see how you can reach your goal. For example, you might need to figure out how to get to school without a car. Step one might be looking up bus schedules, step two, choosing a route, step three, getting a bus pass, step four, recording the times you have to be at the bus stops.

 

Page Ref: 219–220

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. List and explain each of the basic components of a language.

 

Answer: The five elements to a language include phonemes, morphemes, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

 

The first is phonemes. Phonemes refer to sounds; in fact, they are the smallest unit of sound in a spoken language. For example, the word phoneme has five sounds to it. /ph/ /o/ /n/ /e/ /m/.

 

Morphemes, the second element of a language, have to do with meaning in that they are the smallest unit of meaning in a language. For example, in the English language, adding -ed at the end of some words carries its own meaning—now the word becomes past tense. Similarly, adding mis- to the beginning of some words will also change the meaning of the word. Sometimes a morpheme is a word in and of itself, as in the case of “cat.”

 

Syntax is the third element of a language. Syntax has to do with the acceptable arrangement of words. How do we know how to put words in the appropriate order? We learn to by listening to others and by learning the rules of grammar. Thus, syntax seems to be dictated by grammar.

 

The fourth element is semantics. Semantics refers to the meaning of words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and so on. When a person is able to read a few sentences and understand the meaning within those sentences, then the semantics are also said to be understood.

 

Finally, pragmatics is a topic in language that has to do with using the language in certain ways to communicate. For example, when we ask a question, our voice typically increases in pitch near the end of the question. That increase in pitch signals to the listener that a question was just asked.

 

Page Ref: 222–223

Textbook LO 7.6: What is the evidence concerning animal communication?, APA LO 1.2a

Topic: The Structure of Language

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Amid all of the controversy, what purposes do intelligence tests serve?

 

Answer: If used in the proper situation, IQ tests are incredibly valuable. They can help explain why a child/student is struggling in school and then provide the struggling student with the proper academic interventions and services. They can be used to help diagnose conditions such as learning disabilities. The diagnosis of mental retardation cannot be made without an IQ test. If a person does meet the criteria for mental retardation, then services and monies are available to that person. Without an IQ test, the person would not have access to those invaluable resources. (On the other side of the coin, an IQ test may prevent the execution of a criminal if he/she is found to meet the criteria of mental retardation.)

 

Standardized IQ tests can also test for giftedness. Thus, teachers and parents can challenge the young, brilliant minds and keep them interested. IQ tests can be useful in research. They can help researchers learn more about different abilities and what brain region corresponds to that ability. If used correctly, IQ tests can serve a great purpose.

 

Page Ref: 231–235

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. Discuss gender differences in cognition. Include biological and social factors that may contribute to them. Discuss why it is important to keep gender differences in cognition in perspective.

Answer: Women have larger vocabularies as early as 18 months of age and into adulthood. Girls get higher grades on average in all subjects. They take a more effortful approach to schoolwork and show more self-discipline than boys. They develop more effective learning strategies.

 

Boys on average outperform girls in math and science, though there are indications this gap is closing. There is some indication that differences in brain structure, brain function, and hormones may contribute to this. Most researchers believe social influences are more important. Parents expect boys to do better in math. They tend to attribute boys’ success in math to talent, and girls’ to hard work.

 

Males tend to do better on some, but not all, spatial tasks. Women outperform them on some. Prenatal exposure to higher testosterone levels may contribute to improved spatial abilities.

 

Differences within each gender are larger than those between them. Cognitive abilities show more variation in males than females. It is important not to exaggerate the small differences in cognitive functioning between genders and create stereotypes.

 

Page Ref: 240–242

Textbook LO 7.15: How do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?, APA LO 2.3b

Topic: Gender Differences in Cognitive Abilities

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Discuss creativity. Include the stages of creativity and give an example of each. Describe the characteristics of creative people and illustrate convergent and divergent thinking. Discuss how intelligence and creativity correlate.

 

Answer: Creativity involves the ability to produce original and multiple ideas and solutions. Creative people are able to fit together ideas that appear unrelated to others and move smoothly between different sets of ideas.

 

Creative people usually have expertise in a specific area. The creative process has four stages. In the preparation stage, information related to solving a problem is gathered. Then, during an incubation stage, the problem is allowed to rest, often being processed below the level of awareness. The third stage, illumination, occurs when the right solution suddenly comes to light. Last, the idea or insight is translated into action. For example, the problem might be how to build a chicken coop using only the materials on hand. In the preparation stage, you might make an inventory of materials and look online for various ideas about using them and about different types of coops. Then you might let this information incubate while you putter about in the garden, having set thinking about it aside. At some point, a creative solution will illuminate you and you will begin building.

 

Creative people are not too concerned with what other people think. They are independent thinkers not easily influenced by others. They are motivated by curiosity and the excitement of their own activities. They do work hard and are persistent when an idea doesn’t work out. Divergent thinking is typical of creative people; it is novel, original, and produces many ideas. Convergent thinking is logical, precise, and focused on finding one solution that works. Both types of thinking are needed for most things we do.

 

Intelligence, IQ, and creativity are not strongly correlated. A person can be highly intelligent but not creative.

 

Page Ref: 243–244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

Critical Thinking Questions

 

  1. Can a prototype and an exemplar be the same for a particular concept? If so, how?

Answer: Prototypes are basically the most common examples within a concept. Exemplars are basically the example someone would come up with based on his/her personal experience within that particular concept. Therefore, it is possible for someone to have the same prototype and exemplar for a particular concept. For example, if the prototype for dog is a Labrador Retriever and you ask a lab owner to name a dog based on his/her personal experience, Labrador Retriever would be the answer for both the prototype and the exemplar.

Page Ref: 214

Textbook LO 7.1: How do imagery and concepts help us think?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Imagery and Concepts

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. In what way are heuristics both useful and not useful?

Answer: Heuristics can help us in solving problems and making decisions. Using heuristics can help us to save time. Unfortunately, the use of heuristics can also lead us to inaccuracies, thereby causing poor decisions or wrong answers to problems.

Page Ref: 216–217

Textbook LO 7.2: How do we make decisions?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Decision Making

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. What factors—name at least four—can get in the way of solving a problem?

Answer: The factors that can prevent the solution to a problem are 1) not having enough information about the problem; 2) having incorrect information about the problem; 3) using a heuristic; 4) experiencing functional fixedness; 5) experiencing a mental set; 6) using an algorithm incorrectly; 7) falling prey to the confirmation bias.

Page Ref: 220–221

Textbook LO 7.3: How do the basic approaches and obstacles to problem solving differ?, APA LO 1.3b

Topic: Problem Solving

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. How do individuals know how to arrange words so that they make sense to others who speak the same language?

Answer: The grammar rules for each language dictate the syntax (acceptable arrangement of words) for that particular language. As we learn grammar rules, usually taught in elementary school, we learn about proper syntax.

Page Ref: 222

Textbook LO 7.5: What are the components of language?, APA LO 5.1a

Topic: The Structure of Language

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Difficult

 

  1. In terms of intelligence and intelligence testing, what would likely be the topic of conversation between Charles Spearman and Louis Thurstone?

Answer: Charles Spearman would insist that individuals have an overall level of intelligence, which he called the g factor. He would suggest that individuals who are bright in one area are generally bright in other areas as well. Louis Thurstone, on the other hand, would argue that individuals possess varying levels of the primary mental abilities. Thurstone would go on to suggest that discussing an individual’s overall intelligence (the g factor) would prevent the discovery of the person’s strengths and weaknesses, which could be uncovered by the Primary Mental Abilities Tests. Creating a profile of the person’s strengths and weaknesses, based on the primary mental abilities, would offer a more comprehensive view of the person’s intelligence than would the g factor.

Page Ref: 228

Textbook LO 7.9: How do the theories of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: The Nature of Intelligence

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why can’t achievement tests tell us about a person’s intelligence?

Answer: Achievement tests measure what an individual has learned through school and experience at any given point in time. For example, the final exam a student takes at the end of the semester is considered an achievement test. Intelligence tests, on the other hand, measure general intellectual ability and capability. Taking a math exam at the end of a semester does not necessarily tell us how intellectually capable a student is.

Page Ref: 231

Textbook LO 7.10: What are the characteristics of good cognitive ability tests?, APA LO 1.4g

Topic: Measuring Cognitive Abilities

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why is Simon and Binet’s concept of mental age no longer used?

Answer: The concept of mental age seemed to work for young children. For example, it is easy to know what a 3-year old should be able to do by that age and those skills are different than a 4-, 5-, or 6- year old. However, when an individual is 17 years old, how different is his/her skill set than a 19-year old? Similarly, what is the difference between what a 42-year old can do versus a 52-year old? As the age increases and the differences between the skill set for each age decreases, the concept of mental age is no longer useful.

Page Ref: 232–233

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing: Past and Present

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why do standardized intelligence tests such as the WISC-IV report more than one score?

Answer: Much about a child’s intellectual functioning can be missed by reporting just one score. With that in mind, David Wechsler created the full-scale score (the overall intelligence score) and then a breakdown of that score. The verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index, processing speed, and working memory index are all given in addition to that overall IQ score. Thus, psychologists have a much more detailed view of that particular child’s strengths and weaknesses. Effective programs can then be designed and accommodations can be made that tailor to and address the child’s specific needs.

Page Ref: 233–234

Textbook LO 7.11: What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?, APA LO 5.2c

Topic: Intelligence Testing: Past and Present

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. Why should inclusion (or mainstreaming) in schools continue?

Answer: Benefits to the practice of inclusion extend beyond the individual student to families and society as a whole. For example, research has demonstrated that individuals with mental retardation who have been mainstreamed are more likely to employed and become productive members of society.

Page Ref: 235

Textbook LO 7.12: How do people at both ends of the IQ continuum differ from those in the middle?, APA LO 4.1c

Topic: The Range of Intelligence

Skill Level: Applied

Difficulty: Moderate

 

  1. How do we know that creativity and intelligence are different?

Answer: Research shows that the thinking processes that underlie creativity and intelligence are different. It appears that creativity relies on divergent thinking, whereas intelligence relies on convergent thinking.

Page Ref: 243–244

Textbook LO 7.17: How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition?, APA LO 3.3b

Topic: Creativity

Skill Level: Conceptual

Difficulty: Moderate