Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Memory Foundations And Applications 3rd Edition By Bennett – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Memory

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. What kind of a coil does TMS use to stimulate particular areas of the brain?
  2. magnetic
  3. behavior
  4. memory
  5. zinc

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Magnetic fields created in an fMRI use a three-dimensional image capturing ______ of the brain.
  2. density
  3. structure
  4. function
  5. measurements

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. PET scans use special chemicals to obtain a three-dimensional image of the brain. What kind of chemicals are these?
  2. organic
  3. compound
  4. magnetic
  5. radioactive

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. MEG uses a specific kind of sensor to detect small magnetic fields produced by electrical activity. What are these sensors?
  2. radioactive
  3. magnetic
  4. structure
  5. function

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. EEG uses a special material to measure electric output of the brain. What are these special materials?
  2. electrodes
  3. magnets
  4. chemicals
  5. sensors

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Neuroimaging uses a set of techniques to observe the brain and assign functions. What is the function of this type of operation called?
  2. shocking
  3. stimulating
  4. mapping
  5. aligning

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Neuropsychology is the study of people with specific damage. What kind of damage is the speciality?
  2. head
  3. brain
  4. skull
  5. thought

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What type of mental structure is common across many different types of animals?
  2. memory
  3. brains
  4. neurons
  5. genetics

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Animal Models

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Judgments of learning are called this as we study items and whether or not we will remember them.
  2. memories
  3. hopes
  4. models
  5. predictions

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Reality monitoring is our specific ability to do this concerning memory as reality or imagined.
  2. sense
  3. care
  4. measure
  5. distinguish

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Source Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. We do many things at different times all day long. However, which of the following is part of our everyday moment?
  2. eating

b walking

  1. watching
  2. remembering

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Introduction to the Study of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following forms is the basis of our views of ourselves and our personalities?
  2. image
  3. retrospection
  4. judgment
  5. memory

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction to the Study of Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Name the type of evidence that is a product of verifiable scientific research.
  2. empirical
  3. modified
  4. stratified
  5. scientific

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Science of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which term describes the verbal models of how memory works?
  2. memory metaphors
  3. developmental reasoning
  4. memory cues
  5. stimulation

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The History of Memory Research

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Choose the term that best describes avoidance to effects of meaning on memory.
  2. chunking
  3. nonsense syllables
  4. absolute resolution
  5. saving curve

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What term best describes a graph that traces the decline of memory?
  2. savings score
  3. forgetting curve
  4. mnemonic improvement
  5. retention graph

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What term best describes reduction in time required to relearn a previously mastered list?
  2. forgetting curve
  3. savings score
  4. mnemonic graph
  5. retention graph

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Identify the term for studying after material has been thoroughly learned.
  2. overload
  3. spacing
  4. massed
  5. overlearning

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.1

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term for study occurring in one block of time.
  2. nonspaced practice
  3. overload practice
  4. distributed practice
  5. massed practice

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of operation indicates study spread out over time?
  2. overload practice
  3. massed practice
  4. nonspaced practice
  5. distributed practice

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Define the term indicating the associating between two items, such as in language.
  2. paired-associated learning
  3. language association
  4. association by indication
  5. associated language

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following indicates memory from personal events in one’s life?
  2. episodic memory
  3. semantic memory
  4. comprehensive memory
  5. associated memory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following indicates memory for facts?
  2. system memory
  3. semantic memory
  4. episodic memory
  5. associated memory

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Endel Tuliving (1927–)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. An independent variable can only be measured by the relationship between itself and what other variable?
  2. direct
  3. dependant
  4. response
  5. random

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Mary Calkins was involved with what type of study?
  2. paired-associate learning
  3. memory comprehension
  4. free recall
  5. recognition quotients

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which view of Psychology recognizes the nature of environmental stimuli and its influence on individuals and animals ?
  2. empericalism
  3. behaviorism
  4. memory
  5. cognitive perception

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Behaviorism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. You witnessed a crime and the police asks you to describe as much as you can about the crime. Which test of memory will be used?
  2. recognition test
  3. recall test
  4. reactive test
  5. responsibility test

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Recall

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Ratings we make concerning our memory recall process are identified as:
  2. memory intervention rating.
  3. implicit judgment.
  4. recall rating.
  5. metamemory judgments.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Endel Tulving is associated with what type of memory?
  2. episodic/semantic
  3. long-term/short-term
  4. recall/recognition
  5. cognitive/behavioral

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which view of Psychology is most consistent with long-term and short-term memory?
  2. behaviorism
  3. humanistic
  4. gestalt
  5. cognitive

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Behaviorism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The reduction in the amount of time used to relearn a previously mastered list is known as:
  2. savings score.
  3. episodic memory score.
  4. recall score.
  5. list recognition score.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Although he was also known for his work with memory measurements, Ebbinghaus is also accredited with an even broader study of human memory. Considering his life work, what is this broader study?
  2. designing the first studies on human memory
  3. designing a flash card system for memorization
  4. explaining the forgetting and savings graphs
  5. dream interpretation as it relates to memory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A research scientist wants to observe the nonconscious aspects of memory. The test subject will not be conscious of being tested. What kind of test would the scientist give to observe the results?
  2. source judgment test
  3. implicit memory test
  4. recall memory test
  5. recognition review test

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Implicit Memory Tests

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Memory for the things we need to know in the future is known as:
  2. wishful memory.
  3. prospective memory.
  4. perspective memory.
  5. possibilities memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.3

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Learning and remembering are a practice known as:
  2. empirical processes.
  3. cued recall processes.
  4. passive processes.
  5. active processes.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes for the Book

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Learning and remembering have biological and what other basis?
  2. behavioristic
  3. cognitive
  4. genetic
  5. neurological

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes for the Book

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. We all have need of memory for events, language, geography, surroundings, music, and many other things in our lives. To compensate for this basic need, what does memory have that makes all of these memory tasks possible?
  2. chemicals
  3. behaviors
  4. components
  5. recalls

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Themes for the Book

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which technique is currently the state of the art neuroimaging and provides appliable insight into the workings of the brain for memory, emotion, and human thinking?
  2. TMS
  3. MEG
  4. fMRI
  5. PPT

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A researcher needs to identify changes in specific regions of the brain after an automobile accident. The technician uses a magnetic coil to electrically stimulate particular areas of the brain to determine problems. What type of changes does this stimulation cause?
  2. behavioral
  3. pulse
  4. cognitive
  5. memory

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A researcher needs to observe a three-dimensional image of a patient’s brain to detect a brain tumor. He needs to be sure of the current structure and function of the brain to rule out other problems. What type of imagery must the researcher use?
  2. fMRI
  3. MEG
  4. PET
  5. EEG

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A researcher needs to see a three-dimensional image of an intact brain after a traumatic injury. The blood flow is of importance due to the injury. Which type of imagery will the researcher most likely use?
  2. fMRI
  3. EEG
  4. PET
  5. MEG

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A researcher needs to know the electrical output of the brain in a patient. The patient has recently experienced a traumatic and the readings obtained will be used to create an ERP. Which type of imaging with the researcher use?
  2. fMRI
  3. EEG
  4. MEG
  5. PET

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A researcher needs to see a good representation of a compromise between good spatial resolution and good temporal resolution. Which imagery equipment should the researcher use?
  2. MEG
  3. PET
  4. fMRI
  5. EEG

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. To study items related to future memory to improve our memory efficiency while using predictions to accomplish this task is known as:
  2. retrieval learning.
  3. maximized efficiency.
  4. cued memory.
  5. judgments of learning.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Memory for things we need to do in the future is known as:
  2. introspective memory.
  3. prospective memory.
  4. convex memory.
  5. cued memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: knowledge

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.3

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Frederic Bartlett disagreed with behaviorism. Instead, he argued that:
  2. memory is composed of compartments.
  3. memory is exact in all forms.
  4. meaning of memory is focused on stimuli.
  5. meaning of memory is exact in all forms.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Frederic Bartlett (1886–1969)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Cognitive Neuroscience is the study of the brain in:
  2. aspects of thinking.
  3. identifying thought.
  4. producing cognition.
  5. memory production.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Cognitive Neuroscience

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Elizabeth Lofus is best known for her work in the area of:
  2. cognitive neuroscience.
  3. eyewitness memory.
  4. spacial recognition.
  5. episodic distribution.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Elizabeth Loftus (1944–)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following systems did Elizabeth bring eyewitness memory error to?
  2. legal
  3. memory
  4. Stafford
  5. Psychological

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: knowledge

Answer Location: Elizabeth Loftus (1944-)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Neuroimaging allows scientist to do four things:
  2. learns, remembers, scores, and recalls.
  3. communicates, contemplates, scores, and recalls.
  4. learns, remembers, communicates, and contemplates.
  5. contemplates, remembers, scores, and recalls.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cognitive Neuroscience

Difficulty Level: medium

 

  1. If more learning occurs when study trials on the same information are spread out over time than when they occur successively, it is attributed to:
  2. paired-associate effect.
  3. recency effect.
  4. cognition effect.
  5. spacing effect.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In an experiment, the researcher controls which variable?
  2. independent
  3. dependant
  4. reactive
  5. random

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Factors that are manipulated across different conditions are called:
  2. dependant
  3. independent
  4. direct
  5. indirect

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Variables that measure response in an experiment are called:
  2. dependant variables.
  3. independent variables.
  4. random variables.
  5. mixed variables.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In an experiment, all horses are given a special food designed to hold down their weight. A random selection of the horses are kept in one area and receive one hour of exercise daily, while the remaining horses are kept separately and receive four hours of exercise daily. The researcher measures the weight change in all horses after one month of eating the special food, to see if the food has had any consequences regarding weight of the horses. Which variable does the sample of horses limited to one hour of exercise daily represent?
  2. dependant
  3. independent
  4. random
  5. reflective

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In the above experiment, what represents the independent variable?
  2. the horses receiving four hours of exercise
  3. the horses receiving one hour of exercise
  4. the special food
  5. the type of exercise

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In the above experiment, what does the food represent?
  2. the independent variable
  3. the dependant variable
  4. the random variable
  5. the experimental variable

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In a double-blind experiment, who knows what condition the participant is in?
  2. both the experimenter and the participant
  3. neither the experimenter nor the participant
  4. only the experimenter
  5. only the participant

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is it called when a person must generate a targeted memory based on cues, without seeing or hearing the actual target memory?
  2. recall
  3. free recall
  4. blind recall
  5. experimental recall

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is it called when a person must generate memories with minimal or no cuing of the memory?
  2. recall
  3. cued recall
  4. free recall
  5. disassociated recall

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What is it called when a person is given a specific cue and must generate a target memory that corresponds to that cue?
  2. experimental recall
  3. disassociated recall
  4. free recall
  5. cued recall

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Measures

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Tests that draw on the non-conscious aspects of memory are called:
  2. implicit memory tests.
  3. explicit memory tests.
  4. free memory tests.
  5. recognition memory tests.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Implicit Memory Tests

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Identifying the answers from among a series of possible answers is which type of recognition?
  2. forced-choice recognition
  3. recall recognition
  4. free recall recognition
  5. timed recognition

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Recognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When a person must decide whether or not an item was on the study list is called:
  2. old/new recognition.
  3. free recognition.
  4. forced memory.
  5. dependant recall.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Recognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When identification is required of a target memory from a set of presented items, it is called:
  2. learning.
  3. required study.
  4. required recognition.
  5. recognition.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Recognition

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The measured amount of time required to perform a task is known as:
  2. reaction time.
  3. performing time.
  4. recognition time.
  5. generated time.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Reaction Time

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A participant in an experiment was given a specific set of instructions. The participant recalls that the instructions were given in a pamphlet and not by the experimenter. This information was recalled by the participant at the beginning of the experiment. What is the term attributed to this type of memory?
  2. source judgment
  3. recall recognition
  4. memory recognition
  5. recitable recognition

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Source Judgments

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. You wakened from a dream and were sure an event took place. You even recognized everything you saw in your dream. Two days later you told a friend about your dream and were sure the event took place inreal life. Your ability to determine if the memory of the dream is real or imagined is termed:
  2. factual recall.
  3. implicit monitoring.
  4. reality monitoring.
  5. cued recall.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Source Judgments

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In a visit to a police station to provide a statement concerning your witnessing a crime, you were asked to identify the mug shots in a book in the hopes of identifying a criminal involved in the crime. The policeman asks you if you are able to identify anyone in the pictures you were shown. You stated that you are sure a certain person was the culprit. The policeman asked you if you were sure. You replied that you never forget a face. This awareness of your ability to identify faces is termed:
  2. metamemory.
  3. judgment calls.
  4. reality monitoring.
  5. explicit memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. You were asked to complete a number of tasks by your employer. Each task required that you remember a specific sequence of operation if you were to complete the tasks on time. You wanted to be sure you finished on time so you could accomplish your own list of personal jobs you must accomplish later. Predicting the likelihood that you would remember all the things you needed to do later is known as:
  2. judgments of learning.
  3. metacognition.
  4. cued sequence.
  5. monitored learning.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Both PET and fMRI technologies rely on:
  2. the fact that active areas of the brain have higher metabolic rates and require greater blood flow.
  3. response time to active areas of electrical impulses.
  4. usage of radioactive chemicals.
  5. usage of magnets.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Metamemory means:
  2. our awareness and experience of our own memory processes.
  3. our ability to recall semantic information.
  4. our ability to recall implicit information.
  5. our awareness of structures that constitute memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Memory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. William has had serious brain damage due to an accident. He seems to be able to remember details of the accident but his head feels swollen and he has a loss of significant blood. What type of neuroimaging will the doctor most probably use first?
  2. PET
  3. fMRI
  4. MEG
  5. EEG

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. A Psychologist is testing a client to see if the client has differences in memory performance even when the client can remember words of a list at 100% accuracy. One way of testing would be to record:
  2. old-new recognition.
  3. cued recall data.
  4. reaction time data.
  5. forced choice recognition.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Memory Measures

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following statements about neuroimaging is false?
  2. Neuroimaging allows correlation of brain activity.
  3. Neuroimaging addresses cognitive issues.
  4. All neuroimaging technologies utilize magnets.
  5. Neuroimaging addresses correlation of brain activity with memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuroimaging

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Ebbinghaus demonstrated that:
  2. overlearning can improve subsequent saving scores.
  3. overlearning does not generalize.
  4. overlearning is an inefficient use of study time.
  5. overlearning requires extreme concentration and should be avoided.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.1

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Mary Calkins is known for her research on:
  2. overlearning.
  3. savings scores.
  4. eyewitness memory.
  5. paired-associate learning.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Frederic Bartlett disagreed with behaviorists and Ebbinghous because he theorized that:
  2. meaning is intrinsically linked to memory.
  3. memory is composed of multiple systems.
  4. overlearning encodes multiple systems.
  5. there is no reality in intrinsic memory.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Frederick Bartlett (1886–1969)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Endel Tulving promoted and contributed to the:
  2. return of behaviorism.
  3. ecological validity in paired association.
  4. historic approach to cognition.
  5. the cognitive neuroscience approach to memory.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. EEG records the:
  2. sum total of electrical output of the brain.
  3. thoughts and feelings by color representation.
  4. amount of blood flow.
  5. metabolic rate by xrays.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: EEG (electroencephalography)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

True/False

 

  1. Empirical evidence is evidence by a collection of witnesses.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Science of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The goal of memory science is to make generalizations of how memory works in reality than studying it carefully in a controlled lab.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Science of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Nonsense syllables avoid the effects of meaning on memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. To master memory without intrinsic meaning, continuing to study it will not insure long-term memory if restudy is reduced.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.1

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Data points on the savings score will naturally coincide with the lines on a forgetting curve.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The recency effect results in the maintenance of working memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Paired-associate learning is the association between two items.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Classical conditioning is learning a relationship that exists between a stimulus and an outcome.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behaviorism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Operant conditioning is learned response to a stimulus.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behaviorism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Metamemory is a judgment of memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Reality monitoring is the ability to distinguish a real event from an imagined event.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Source Judgment

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Neuropsychology is the study of memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neuropsychology

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Determining if a word appeared in a list of words is termed free recall.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Judgments of learning are predictions rather than memories.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Brain stimulation causes cognitive changes.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Memory forms a sense of self and ______.

Ans: personality

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Introduction to the Study of Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Data must be ______ and repeatable.

Ans: verifiable

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Science of Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Memory ______ are verbal models of how memory works.

Ans: metaphors

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The History of Memory Research

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A retention interval equals the time transpired between learning and ______.

Ans: recall

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Hermann Ebbinghus (1850–1909)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Mary Calkins studied the nature of associative learning, or how we pair new knowledge to ______ knowledge.

Ans: existing

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The ______ effect is the observation that memory is usually superior for items at the end of a list.

Ans: regency

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Metamemory is our knowledge and ______ of our own memory process.

Ans: awareness

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Usually, in memory experiments, metamemory judgment refers to whether we think we can learn or retrieve on a particular item. Thus, judgments of ______ are predictions of the likelihood of remembering studied items.

Ans: learning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In many patients, the study of brain damage is too wide, diffused, or minor to be of interest to neuropsychologists. However, if brain damage is relatively ______, whatever behavior changes that occur can be linked to that area of the brain.

Ans: restricted

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Neuropsychology

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Predictions we make as we study items of the likelihood that we will remember them later are ______ of learning.

Ans: judgments

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Explain the differences between the dependant and the independent and their function.

Ans: Dependant does not change. Independent is measured.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Methods of Studying Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the relationship between source judgments and reality monitoring.

Ans: Source judgments are specific. Reality monitoring distinguishes whether an event is real or imagined event.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Source Judgments

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain in what way metamemory effects our memory.

Ans: It affects our memory through knowledge and awareness of our own memory processes.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Metamemory Judgments

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Describe the importance of Transmagnetic Stimulation (TMS).

Ans: Stimulation causes cognitive changes.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Transmagnetic Stimulation

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Describe the Spacing Effect of mnemonic improvement.

Ans: Learning occurs when the same information is spread over time.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 1.2

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the relationship between paired-associate learning and the regency effect.

Ans: Paired is relationship between two items whereas regency indicates memory over time.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mary Calkins (1863–1930)

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe the importance of Endel Tulving’s work.

Ans: Proponent of episodic and semantic memory involving multiple systems.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Endel Tulving (1927–)

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning.

Ans: Classical is behavior by learning whereas Operant is learning by response.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Behaviorism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Explain the importance of empirical evidence.

Ans: Data must be verifiable and reliable.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Science of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Chapter 3: Working Memory

 

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The neural structures and which processes make up the working memory.
  2. cognitive
  3. behavioral
  4. memory
  5. structural

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Cognitive Psychologists seldom use the term for this type of memory.
  2. long-term
  3. short-term
  4. medium memory
  5. working memory

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Terminological Clarifications

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Primary memory is a term to mean what type of memory?
  2. long-term
  3. medial
  4. ordinal
  5. short-term

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Terminological Clarifications

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Memory system that holds literal information for a fraction of a second to allow cognitive processing is:
  2. short-term.
  3. long-term.
  4. sensory.
  5. vertical.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The iconic memory system contains what type of memory?
  2. visual sensory
  3. short-term sensory
  4. functional memory
  5. long-term sensory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The echoic memory system contains what type of memory?
  2. visual sensory
  3. primary memory
  4. auditory sensory
  5. participating sensory

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. This 1960 experiment used a grid for a very brief flash. What type of memory function was being measured?
  2. primary memory
  3. sensory memory
  4. long-term memory
  5. short-term memory

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What is the term for the amount of information that can be maintained in working memory?
  2. capacity
  3. term
  4. knowledge
  5. objectiveness

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What task measures a list of digits presented by an experimenter?
  2. hearing and sight
  3. sensory learning
  4. retrograde learning
  5. digital span

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The term used for a basic unit of information in working memory which may be decomposable into more information.
  2. cap
  3. digit
  4. span
  5. chunk

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following represents the amount of time to say aloud the items being rehearsed in working memory?
  2. span time
  3. auditory time
  4. iconic time
  5. pronunciation time

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Effect explaining that longer words are more difficult to maintain in working memory than are shorter words is:
  2. syllable length.
  3. parietal length.
  4. digit length.
  5. word length

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Actively maintaining the items in working memory by repeating them over and over is called:
  2. rehearsal.
  3. maintenance rehearsal.
  4. elaborative rehearsal.
  5. working rehearsal.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The term for repeating information over and over is called:
  2. maintenance rehearsal.
  3. rehearsal.
  4. elaborative rehearsal.
  5. attention rehearsal.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The term used for processing the meaning of information in working memory is:
  2. maintenance rehearsal.
  3. elaborative rehearsal.
  4. learning.
  5. iconic rehearsal.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Duration of Information in Working Memory is defined as the amount of time information will remain in working memory if not:
  2. maintained.
  3. rehearsed.
  4. exercised.
  5. elaborated.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A task that prevents maintaining of working memory is:
  2. maintenance prevention.
  3. rehearsal prevention.
  4. elaborated prevention.
  5. exercise prevention.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The term for new information enters working memory and displaces information already present is:
  2. unelaborated.
  3. nonmaintained.
  4. unrehearsed.
  5. interference.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. With training, people can increase their digit span by focusing on:
  2. concurrent retrieval.
  3. developing complex chunking strategies.
  4. using constant maintenance rehearsal.
  5. using elaborative rehearsal.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Most estimates of the duration of working memory are around:
  2. 3–8 seconds.
  3. 30–35 seconds.
  4. 1–7 seconds.
  5. 15–30 seconds.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In the Brown-Peterson task,
  2. maintenance rehearsal is reversed.
  3. the secondary task creates interference, making the to-be-remembered items less likely to be in working memory.
  4. the secondary task creates a word-length effect, which causes massive forgetting.
  5. the primacy effect is negated.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Waugh and Norman (1965) presented participants with a sequential list of 16 digits. After viewing all 16 digits, the participants were presented with one of the digits that they had seen in the list. They found that:
  2. the fewer items that preceded the probe digit, the better memory was for that probe items.
  3. interference was not a factor in this experimental design.
  4. the fewer items that preceded the probe digit, the better memory was for that probe items.
  5. the fewer items that followed the probe digit, the better memory was for the item that preceded it.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The serial position curve measures:
  2. the number of digits recalled in a digit-span task.
  3. the likelihood of correct free recall of items as a function of the input order at presentation.
  4. the ability to order a serial list.
  5. the order of input of the phonological loop.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The standard explanation of why primacy effects occur is that:
  2. we recall the items using sensory memory.
  3. we recall the items because they were stored in long-term memory.
  4. we recall the items because the experimenter always makes the first items the easiest.
  5. we recall the items because the primacy words are no longer be encoded elaboratively.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implications for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. An experimenter presents a list of words for participants to free recall in any order. Immediately after the list is presented, the participants must do math problems before they recall. Relative to a condition in which recall is immediate, the participants who did math problems will show:
  2. a decrease in their primacy effect but not their recency effect.
  3. a decrease in their recency effect, but not their primacy effect.
  4. no differences.
  5. both primacy and recency will decrease by approximately the same amount.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. An experimenter presents a list of words for participants to free recall in any order. She uses two conditions—one in which the words are read slowly and one in which the words are read fast. You should expect her to find:
  2. reduced recency effects for both lists.

b.the list read slower should show no recency effect.

  1. the list read faster should show reduced primacy effects.
  2. reduced primacy effects for both lists.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The standard explanation of why recency effects occur is:
  2. we recall the items using sensory memory.
  3. we recall the items because they were stored in long-term memory.
  4. we recall the items because we know their source.
  5. we recall the items because they are still accessible in working memory.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When examining errors made during retrieval in a serial position curve experiment, the tendency is that:
  2. people make errors based on meaning during the recency portion of the curve.
  3. people make errors based on meaning during the primacy portion of the curve.
  4. people make errors based on sound during the primacy portion of the curve.
  5. people never make errors for recency items because they use working memory.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implications for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In a classic experiment by Crowder and Roediger (1976), people were asked to retrieve as many U.S. presidents as they could think of. They found that:
  2. people’s memory of U.S. presidents was consistent with their political leanings.
  3. most people could not name any presidents, suggesting that Americans need to spend more time learning history.
  4. participants showed both a primacy effect and a recency effect.
  5. many participants erroneously reported both Benjamin Franklin and Winston Churchill as U.S. presidents.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Angie is a participant in an experiment on the serial position curve. One of the words on the list she hears is “lemon.” Later, when asked to recall the list, she erroneously reports “lime.” The word “lemon” was most likely:
  2. the very last word on the list.
  3. written in bold letters, causing her to experience a Von Restorff effect.
  4. one of the first three items of the list.
  5. the only word from the category “fruit” on the list.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Baddeley’s model of working memory states that:
  2. working memory is not necessary for a working cognition system.
  3. working memory is composed of separable sub-systems.
  4. working memory is equivalent to the phonological loop.
  5. previous models of working memory had no validity.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. In working memory, the sub-system responsible for attention and control is known as the:
  2. phonological loop.
  3. visuospatial sketchpad.
  4. episodic buffer.
  5. central executive.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In working memory, the sub-system responsible for working memory for sounds is the:
  2. phonological loop.
  3. visuospatial sketchpad.
  4. episodic buffer.
  5. central executive.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In working memory, the sub-system responsible for working memory for visual images is the:
  2. phonological loop.
  3. visuospatial sketchpad.
  4. episodic buffer.
  5. central executive.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Visuospatial Sketchpad

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A concurrent task is:
  2. a task that occupies only the central executive.
  3. a task that is done prior to the main probe task.
  4. a task that is done simultaneously with another task.
  5. a task that is done subsequent to the main probe task.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Memory of Baddley

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When can we expect to see interference between visual and auditory working memory tasks?
  2. when the tasks are so easy that each task can be performed by the other system
  3. only when the concurrent tasks occur simultaneously
  4. when the tasks are difficult enough that they require allocation of attentional resources by the central executive
  5. when participants expect that visual images will interfere with visual processing

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The observation that memory is usually superior for items at the beginning of a serial position curve is thought to be caused by the encoding of those short items into long-term memory. What type of effect would be generated by a large dip in performance for items in the middle of a list?
  2. serial
  3. primacy
  4. rehearsal
  5. interference

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. If new information enters working memory and displaces information already present, this type of information is called:
  2. primacy.
  3. cognitive.
  4. rehearsal.
  5. interference.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Peterson and Johnson (1971) also did a digit span task with a simultaneously performed concurrent task. Peterson and Johnson asked participants to repeat simple words over and over (e.g., “the,” “the,” “the,” “the,” etc.) while they were also supposed to be rehearsing the digits for the digit span task. They found that:
  2. participants recalled more digits because the concurrent task stimulated the use of the phonological loop.
  3. participants could not simultaneously repeat the word and suppress the digits.
  4. participants recalled fewer digits because both tasks occupied the phonological loop.
  5. the articulatory suppression prevented the use of the episodic buffer in this task.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. If maintenance rehearsal repeats information over and over and elaborative rehearsal processes the meaning of information, what type of operation is this called?
  2. interference
  3. task memory
  4. rehearsal
  5. duration memory

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. If items in working memory are remembered due to maintenance of those items, the observation that memory is usually superior for items at the end of a serial position curve is known as the:
  2. primacy effect.
  3. recency effect.
  4. serial effect.
  5. curve effect.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which is the current term used to refer to systems of memory holding information up to 30 seconds?
  2. working memory
  3. primary memory
  4. unemployed memory
  5. short-term memory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Wei-lin likes to listen to her favorite singer on her iPod while she studies. Research on the irrelevant speech effect suggests that:
  2. listening to singing will reduce the capacity of her visuospatial sketchpad.
  3. listening to singing will allow her to perform source-monitoring tasks with greater accuracy.
  4. listening to singing will mean she can store fewer items in her phonological loop.
  5. listening to singing will interfere with her appreciation of the musical chords.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Salame and Baddeley (1989) asked participants to maintain information in working memory while listening to either singing, music without singing, or no sounds at all. They found that:
  2. music helps young adults to study, but hurts the ability of older adults to learn.
  3. singing most interfered with maintaining information in the phonological loop.
  4. all three conditions led to relatively good performance.
  5. the condition without any sound was the most challenging.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Working Memory Systems

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Brooks (1968) asked participants to make judgments about letters when they were only imagining the letter. He showed that:
  2. visual tasks can interfere with auditory imagery.
  3. the phonological loop is a static entity.
  4. using a visual mode of responding interfered with performance on a visual imagery task.
  5. visual imagery can be influenced by semantic factors, such as the shape and size of the letters.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Cortical Areas of the Brain Associated With Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The visuospatial sketchpad can be defined as:
  2. a limited capacity working memory system that stores auditory information for a short period of time.
  3. an attentional resource for visual information.
  4. a limited capacity long-term memory system for representing visual images.
  5. a limited-capacity working memory system that stores visual and spatial information for a short period of time.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Visuospatial Sketchpad

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Teasdale (1995) asked participants to generate random numbers. The participants most deviated from the instructions when:
  2. the phonological loop was occupied with irrelevant speech.
  3. the visuospatial sketchpad was being used for imagery.
  4. during the primacy part of a serial position curve.
  5. when the central executive was not providing focus on the task.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Central Executive

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Warrington and Shallice (1969) studied a young brain-damaged man identified in their paper by the initial KF. They found that KF:
  2. had a deficit in working memory, particularly with respect to the central executive.
  3. had a deficit in working memory, particularly with respect to the phonological loop.
  4. had impaired long-term memory but no deficit in working memory.
  5. recovered much lost function in working memory after therapy with Warrington and Shallice.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory and the Brain

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. PET and fMRI data show that working memory functions are housed in the:
  2. amygdale.
  3. occipital lobe.
  4. angular gyrus.
  5. pre-frontal lobe.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory and the Brain

Difficulty Level: medium

 

  1. Daneman and Carpenter have shown that good working memory:
  2. is correlated with performance on reading fluency tests.
  3. is correlated with performance of athletic fitness.
  4. has no correlations with individual differences in cognitive performance.
  5. is better in those whose first language is a Celtic language.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Application of Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Strayer and his colleagues have found:
  2. that cell-phone use during driving always causes accidents.
  3. that cell-phone use during driving causes more accidents relative to non-cell phone use when hazards are present that people react more slowly to.
  4. that cell-phone use during driving cause more accidents relative to non-cell use when the driver is otherwise distracted by other stimuli.
  5. that cell-phone use during driving is only detrimental in older drivers.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Central Executive

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Strayer and his colleagues link the decrement in driving performance with cell-phone use to:
  2. problems in semantic memory.
  3. cell-phone use exaggerates the recency effect.
  4. cell-phone use taxes the central executive (attentional control).
  5. cell-phone use requires the phonological loop to be suppressed.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Central Executive

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What concept refers to a very brief memory system that holds literal information for a fraction of a second to allow cognitive processing?
  2. sensory memory
  3. erstwhile memory
  4. autobiographical memory
  5. Von Restorff memory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. If you have not rehearsed a bit of knowledge and you remember it more than two minutes after learning it, you are retrieving from:
  2. the phonological loop.
  3. the episodic buffer.
  4. long-term memory.
  5. short-term memory.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Some Terminological Clarifications

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to George Miller, the capacity of working memory is estimated to be:
  2. 7 plus or minus 2.
  3. 8 plus or minus 1.
  4. exactly 4.
  5. there is no limit to its capacity.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Anders Ericsson and his colleagues trained a normal college student to:
  2. never forget autobiographical information.
  3. to obtain an 80-number digit span.
  4. remember every item in a series of serial position curve.
  5. overcome the word length effect.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Figure 2.6 The Cortical Lobes

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The pronunciation time effect demonstrates that:
  2. the capacity of working memory is determined only by the difficulty of pronouncing the words.
  3. words that that are harder to pronounce are less likely to be free recall from long-term memory.
  4. the word length effect only works in long-term memory.
  5. the magic number 7 plus or minus two does not completely explain working memory in the digit-span task.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Navah-Benjamin and Ayres (1986) found that:
  2. digit spans could not be measured unless novel words were used.
  3. digit spans were related to pronunciation times of those digits in each the language tested.
  4. digit spans are better in Semitic languages than Indo-European languages.
  5. digits spans also show primacy effects.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In the Brown-Peterson task, rehearsal prevention means that:
  2. a secondary task is given which prevents maintenance rehearsal of the to-be-remembered items.
  3. participants are instructed not to use maintenance rehearsal.
  4. maintenance rehearsal is prevented by presenting the words in a language not spoken by the participant.
  5. participants use non-verbal coding of verbal materials.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Peterson & Peterson estimated that within how many seconds all information in working memory is lost?
  2. 10
  3. 40
  4. 12
  5. 18

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The serial position curve measures:
  2. the number of digits recalled in a digit-span task.
  3. the order of input of the phonological loop.
  4. the ability to order a serial list.
  5. the likelihood of correct free recall of items as a function of the input order at presentation.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. George Sperling (1960) demonstrated the hypothetical existence of iconic memory or visual sensory memory. Regarding this experiment, which of the following statements is true?
  2. Participants in the partial-report condition could remember 3 from that line, suggesting that 9 letters were accessible visually at the time of recall.
  3. The whole-report technique led to a greater estimate of letters that were visually accessible.
  4. More information was accessible when echoic memory was used than when iconic memory was used.
  5. No information was accessible when echoic memory was used.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Research on training working memory shows that:
  2. training working memory immediately generalizes to long-term memory tasks.
  3. by training our working memory, we can boost our ability to learn and remember facts and vocabulary words.
  4. With practice, we can improve our ability to remember digit spans and other measures of working memory, but improving on these tasks does not automatically translate to better reading comprehension.
  5. memory is really not retrainable.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In a task, participants are asked to hold a visual image of what their best friends look like. While holding that image, they are asked to perform a digit span task. You would expect:
  2. the participants holding the visual image would perform just as well as a control group not holding a visual image because the two tasks use different working memory sub-systems.
  3. the participants holding the visual image would perform better than the control group not holding a visual image because the two tasks use different working memory sub-systems.
  4. the participants holding the visual image would perform worse than control group not holding a visual image because the two tasks use different working memory sub-systems.
  5. the participants holding the visual image soon lost interest.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Rudolf is given a list of seven reindeer games to remember. Rudolf rehearses the names of the games in working memory. According to the capacity theory of working memory, Rudolf:
  2. will be unable to remember all the games because the number exceeds the capacity of working memory.
  3. with rehearsal, should be able to keep the items in working memory as he has not exceeded the capacity of working memory
  4. rehearsal only applies to digits, not names.
  5. will have to chunk all of the items in order to recall them.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Articulatory suppression requires the use of the:
  2. coconcurrent task loop.
  3. phonological loop.
  4. phonological task.
  5. phonological encoding.

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Short-term memory for a short period of time is for what kind of introspection?
  2. unconscious
  3. subliminal
  4. conscious
  5. spiritual

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Section Summary and Quiz

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The Central Executive coordinates the visuospatial sketchpad and the phonological loop to control:
  2. focus of attention.
  3. episodic memory.
  4. sensory memory.
  5. metacognition.

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 3.2

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The episodic buffer holds episodic memories for a brief time to allow them to transfer between the work and what type of memory?
  2. long-term
  3. short-term
  4. preterm
  5. postterm

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip .2

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. This is the workings of our auditory working memory system.
  2. Phonological Loop
  3. Visuospatial Sketchpad
  4. Sounding instrument
  5. Episodic Buffer

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The phonological loop is mildly impaired in the presence of background speech. This is known as what type of speech?
  2. loud
  3. buffered
  4. slurred
  5. irrelevant

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. This is a widespread myth of learning that was to improve learning.
  2. Hamlet
  3. Mozart
  4. Vallar
  5. Baddeley

Ans: b

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. To obtain positive effects of learning can be processed in the phonological loop through:
  2. memory rehearsal.
  3. recall rehearsal.
  4. quiet study.
  5. music.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Irrelevant speech has direct implications on this kind of improvement.
  2. sensory
  3. rehearsal
  4. mnemonic
  5. neuron

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of tasks interfere less with the visuospatial sketchpad?
  2. auditory
  3. visual
  4. sensory
  5. both visual and auditory

Ans: a

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Visuospatial Sketchpad

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Integrated information in a short-term memory system requires an:
  2. executive central.
  3. integrated code.
  4. arithmetic code.
  5. episodic buffer.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Episodic Buffer

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The n-back task is the reporting of a digit that occurred n-digits that occur somewhere in a line of digits.
  2. before
  3. after
  4. in place
  5. summarizing

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Central Executive

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The working memory model proposed by Baddeley states that working memory is actually composed of a number of systems bound together by an:
  2. associative bond.
  3. n-backed test.
  4. executive centrals.
  5. attentional mechanism.

Ans: d

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Section Summary and Quiz

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An episodic buffer links two systems together and is activated when meaning needs to be extracted from the:
  2. episodic memory.
  3. n-back task.
  4. phonological loop.
  5. visuospatial sketchpad.

Ans: c

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Section Summary and Quiz

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

True/False

 

1.The current contents of working memory are thought to be equilevant to conscious awareness.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. The memory is a limited capacity system and can only hold so much memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Sensory memory holds literal iformation.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Chemical Enhancement  of Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

4.Primary memory is long term memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Terminilogicacl Clarifications.

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. The digit span task reports the amount of information that can be maintained in working memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Word length does not affect memory.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Elaborative rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal do basically the same thing in memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The rehearsal prevention task prevents a participant from maintaining information in working memory.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Phonological loop effect is not impaired in the presence of background noise.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory Systems

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Duration of information in working memory is the amount of time information will remain in working memory but only if not rehearsed.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Articulatoy suppression tasks prevent rehersal within the phonological loop.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In an n-backed task a cue will indicate a must report that a digit occurred n digits before, n will vary depending on the task requirements.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Central Executive

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Baddeley stated that working memory is a single system within itself.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Section Summary and Quiz

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Working memory is not considered to be in the active contents of consciousness.

Ans: F

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Review Questions

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Alzheimer’s disease is accompanied by a deficit in working memory and therefore can be distinguished during the early phases from other organic deficits by examining working memory performance.

Ans: T

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Alzheimer’s Disease

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Primary memory is a term used to mean ______ memory.

Ans: short-term

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Terminological Clarifications

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ memory holds literal information for a fraction of a second.

Ans: Sensory

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Terminological Clarifications

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ memory is auditory sensory memory.

Ans: Iconic

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Neurons

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ memory is visual sensory memory.

Ans: Iconic

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Some Terminological Clarifications

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ is the amount of memory that can be stored in working memory.

Ans: Capacity

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. A ______ span task can only be used in specific experiments. These experiments involve memory presented by an experimenter to determine memory.

Ans: digital

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The work of G.A. Miller involved a specific type of information system involving possible decomposable ______ involving more information.

Ans: chunks

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory Capacity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Baddely considered working memory as having a space of time between the visual and auditory working memory. He termed this space as the _____.

Ans: phonological loop

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddely

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An individual was involved in a traumatic occurrence and did not seem to be able to remember more than a few words but could still maintain a working memory. However, his speech was slower than normal. The amount of time it took him to pronounce a word is called ______.

Ans: pronunciation time

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Most of us will find it easy to remember shorter names of people. However, when introducing friends with longer names to others, we cannot remember those names as quickly as the folks with shorter names. This is referred to the ______ length effect.

Ans: word

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Pronunciation Time

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Describe the working memory system of the phonological loop.

Ans: Auditory, rehearsal, short-term memory to long-term memory, and limited-capacity system that holds auditory information for brief periods.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain the irrelevant speech effect.

Ans: Mildly impaired phonological loop.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Phonological Loop

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. List and describe the three main units for visuospatial information processing.

Ans: Visuospatial sketch pad, episodic buffer, and phonological loop.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Mnemonic Improvement Tip 3.2

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain Articulatory suppression.

Ans: Prevents rehearsal in the phonological loop.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Working Memory Model of Baddeley

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain sensory memory, iconic memory, and echoic memory.

Ans: Brief memory, literal information, visual sensory memory, and auditory sensory memory.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sensory Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Describe working memory.

Ans: Neural structures, cognitive process, and short-term.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the two types of rehearsal maintenance of memory.

Ans: Maintenance and elaborative.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain a rehearsal prevention task and give one example.

Ans: It prevents maintenance of working memory and participants in remembering words in a list.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Duration of Information in Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain the primacy effect.

Ans: Encoding items into long-term memory.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Serial Position Curve and Its Implication for Working Memory

Difficulty Level: Medium