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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Memory Foundations And Applications Second Edition by Bennett L. Schwartz – Test Bank
 
Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3

 

  1. Which of the following are not characteristics of working memory?
  2. a) It is a short-term memory system.
  3. b) It contains the active contents of consciousness.
  4. c) It can only hold a limited amount of information.

*d) It is not affected by interference.

 

  1. If you have not rehearsed a bit of knowledge and you remember it more than two minutes after learning it, you are retrieving from
  2. a) the phonological loop.
  3. b) the episodic buffer.

*c) long-term memory.

  1. d) short-term memory.

 

  1. According to George Miller, the capacity of working memory is estimated to be

*a) 7 plus or minus 2.

  1. b) 8 plus or minus 1.
  2. c) exactly 4.
  3. d) there is no limit to its capacity.

 

  1. Digit span tasks measure

*a) the capacity of working memory.

  1. b) the duration of working memory.
  2. c) the rate of consciousness.
  3. d) the interaction of long-term and working memory.

 

  1. The term chunk refers to
  2. a) the amount of information that can be simultaneously rehearsed.
  3. b) the first item recalled in a serial position list.
  4. c) the basic unit of information in working memory.

*d) the amount of time information can be stored in working memory before interference occurs.

 

  1. Anders Ericsson and his colleagues trained a normal college student to
  2. a) never forget autobiographical information.

*b) to obtain an 80 number digit span.

  1. c) remember every item in a series of serial position curve.
  2. d) overcome the word length effect.

 

  1. With training, people can increase their digit span by focusing on
  2. a) using concurrent retrieval.
  3. b) using elaborative rehearsal.
  4. c) using constant maintenance rehearsal.

*d) developing complex chunking strategies.

 

  1. Pronunciation time refers to

*a) the amount of time it would take to say aloud the items being rehearsed in working memory.

  1. b) how long it takes a child to learn to pronounce digit spans during chunking training.
  2. c) whether or not a participant can repeat digits in a digit-span task.
  3. d) how long it takes to demonstrate decay from working memory.

 

  1. The pronunciation time effect demonstrates that
  2. a) the capacity of working memory is determined only by the difficulty of pronouncing the words.
  3. b) words that that are harder to pronounce are less likely to be free recall from long-term memory.
  4. c) the word length effect only works in long-term memory.

*d) the magic number 7 plus or minus two does not completely explain working memory in the digit-span task.

 

  1. Ellis and Hennely (1980) looked at digit spans in children in the U.K. They found that
  2. a) digit spans were always better in kids who were bilingual because they have stronger working memories.

*b) digits spans were better in English than in Welch because it takes less time to pronounce the digits in English.

  1. c) digit spans showed no change in development because the ability is innate.
  2. d) digit spans were better when children were tested in the morning because their episodic buffers were fresh.

 

  1. Navah-Benjamin and Ayres (1986) found that
  2. a) digit spans could not be measured unless novel words were used.

*b) digit spans were related to pronunciation times of those digits in each the language tested.

  1. c) digit spans are better in Semitic languages than Indo-European languages.
  2. d) digits spans also show primacy effects.

 

  1. Maintenance rehearsal means
  2. a) the person tries to associate new meaning with the words in working memory.

*b) the person repeats the items in working memory over and over.

  1. c) the person tries to maintain working memory within long-term memory.
  2. d) recency effects occur without primacy effects.

 

  1. Using elaborative rehearsal promotes
  2. a) strong primacy effects.
  3. b) strong word-length effects.
  4. c) weak word-length effects.

*d) good encoding into long-term memory.

 

  1. Most estimates of the duration of working memory are around

*a) 15 to 30 seconds.

  1. b) 5 to 10 seconds.
  2. c) 1 to 3 seconds.
  3. d) less than a second.

 

  1. In the Brown-Peterson task, rehearsal prevention means that

*a) a secondary task is given which prevents maintenance rehearsal of the to-be-remembered items.

  1. b) participants are instructed not to use maintenance rehearsal.
  2. c) maintenance rehearsal is prevented by present the words in a language not spoken by the participant.
  3. d) participants use non-verbal coding of verbal materials.

 

  1. When rehearsal is prevented in the Brown-Peterson task,
  2. a) maintenance rehearsal is reversed.

*b) the secondary task creates interference, making the to-be-remembered items less likely to be in working memory.

  1. c) the secondary task creates a word-length effect, which causes massive forgetting.
  2. d) the primacy effect is negated.

 

  1. Interference means that
  2. a) new information decays from working memory.
  3. b) primacy effects occur in both long-term and working memory.

*c) new information enters working memory and displaces information already present.

  1. d) new information is lost from primacy memory.

 

  1. Waugh and Norman (1965) presented participants with a sequential list of sixteen digits. After viewing all 16 digits, the participants were presented with one of the digits that they had seen in the list. They found that

*a) the fewer items that followed the probe digit, the better memory was for the item that preceded it.

  1. b) the fewer items that preceded the probe digit, the better memory was for that probe items.
  2. c) interference was not a factor in this experimental design.
  3. d) interference predicted forgetting of the probe digit.

 

  1. The serial position curve measures
  2. a) the number of digits recalled in a digit-span task.
  3. b) the order of input of the phonological loop.
  4. c) the ability to order a serial list.

*d) the likelihood of correct free recall of items as a function of the input order at presentation.

 

  1. Manny reads the following words, “flower, cat, stone, gum, basket, plate, statue, pillow, lake, screen, cashew, orange.” According to what you know about the serial position curve, which words are most likely to be remembered?
  2. a) pillow, lake

*b) flower, orange

  1. c) flower, statue
  2. d) None of the above

 

  1. The primacy effect refers to
  2. a) the improved memory that occurs after elaborative encoding.
  3. b) the observation that reading words in primary colors leads to better recall.
  4. c) that there is comparatively good recall for words at the end of the list.

*d) that there is comparatively good recall for words at the beginning of the list.

 

  1. The recency effect refers to
  2. a) the improved memory that occurs after elaborative encoding.
  3. b) the observation that reading words in primary colors leads to better recall.

*c) that there is comparatively good recall for words at the end of the list.

  1. d) that there is comparatively good recall for words at the beginning of the list.

 

  1. An experimenter presents a list of words for participants to free recall in any order. Immediately after the list is presented, the participants must do math problems before they recall. Relative to a condition in which recall is immediate, the participants who did math problems will show
  2. a) a decrease in their primacy effect but not their recency effect.
  3. b) no differences.
  4. c) both primacy and recency will decrease by approximately the same amount.

*d) a decrease in their recency effect, but not their primacy effect.

 

  1. An experimenter presents a list of words for participants to free recall in any order. She uses two conditions – one in which the words are read slowly and one in which the words are read fast. You should expect her to find
  2. a) reduced recency effects for both lists.
  3. b) the list read slower should show no recency effect.

*c) the list read faster should show reduced primacy effects.

  1. d) reduced primacy effects for both lists.

 

  1. The standard explanation of why primacy effects occur is
  2. a) we recall the items using sensory memory.

*b) we recall the items because they were stored in long-term memory.

  1. c) we recall the items because the experimenter always makes the first items the easiest.
  2. d) we recall the items because the primacy words are no longer be encoded elaboratively.

 

  1. The standard explanation of why recency effects occur is
  2. a) we recall the items using sensory memory.
  3. b) we recall the items because they were stored in long-term memory.
  4. c) we recall the items because we know their source.

*d) we recall the items because they are still accessible in working memory.

 

  1. When examining errors made during retrieval in a serial position curve experiment, the tendency is that
  2. a) people make errors based on meaning during the recency portion of the curve.

*b) people make errors based on meaning during the primacy portion of the curve.

  1. c) people make errors based on sound during the primacy portion of the curve.
  2. d) people never make errors for recency items because they use working memory.

 

  1. In a classic experiment by Crowder and Roediger (1976), people were asked to retrieve as many U.S. presidents as they could think of. They found that
  2. a) people’s memory of US presidents was consistent with their political leanings.
  3. b) most people could not name any presidents, suggesting that Americans need to spend more time learning history.

*c) participants showed both a primacy effect and a recency effect.

  1. d) many participants erroneously reported both Benjamin Franklin and Winston Churchill as U.S. presidents.

 

  1. Angie is a participant in an experiment on the serial position curve. One of the words on the list she hears is “lemon.” Later, when asked to recall the list, she erroneously reports “lime.” The word “lemon” was most likely
  2. a) the very last word on the list.
  3. b) written in bold letters, causing her to experience a Von Restorff effect.

*c) one of the first three items of the list.

  1. d) the only word from the category “fruit” on the list.

 

  1. Baddeley’s model of working memory states that
  2. a) working memory is not necessary for a working cognition system.

*b) working memory is composed of separable sub-systems.

  1. c) working memory is equivalent to the phonological loop.
  2. d) previous models of working memory had no validity.

 

  1. In working memory, the sub-system responsible for attention and control is known as the
  2. a) phonological loop
  3. b) visuo-spatial sketchpad
  4. c) episodic buffer

*d) central executive

 

  1. In working memory, the sub-system responsible for working memory for sounds is the

*a) phonological loop

  1. b) visuo-spatial sketchpad
  2. c) episodic buffer
  3. d) central executive

 

  1. In working memory, the sub-system responsible for working memory for visual images is the
  2. a) phonological loop

*b) visuo-spatial sketchpad

  1. c) episodic buffer
  2. d) central executive

 

  1. A concurrent task is
  2. a) a task that occupies only the central executive.
  3. b) a task that is done prior to the main probe task.

*c) a task that is done simultaneously with another task.

  1. d) a task that is done subsequent to the main probe task.

 

  1. In a task, participants are asked to hold a visual image of what their best friends look like. While holding that image, they are asked to perform a digit span task. You would expect

*a) The participants holding the visual image would perform just as well as a control group not holding a visual image because the two tasks use different working memory sub-systems.

  1. b) The participants holding the visual image would perform better than the control group not holding a visual image because the two tasks use different working memory sub-systems.
  2. c) The participants holding the visual image would perform worse than control group not holding a visual image because the two tasks use different working memory sub-systems.
  3. d) All of the above.

 

  1. When can we expect to see interference between visual and auditory working memory tasks?
  2. a) when the tasks are so easy that each task can be performed by the other system.
  3. b) only when the concurrent tasks occur simultaneously.

*c) when the tasks are difficult enough that they require allocation of attentional resources by the central executive.

  1. d) when participants expect that visual images will interfere with visual processing.

 

  1. Articulatory suppression means that

*a) a concurrent task occupies the phonological loop making it difficult to rehearse items in the loop.

  1. b) the phonological loop is no longer able to interfere with the episodic buffer.
  2. c) a concurrent task is relegated to an alternative episodic route.
  3. d) the episodic buffer cannot handle the input coming from the visuo-spatial sketchpad.

 

  1. Peterson and Johnson (1971) also did a digit span task with a simultaneously performed concurrent task. Peterson and Johnson asked participants to repeat simple words over and over (e.g., “the,” “the,” “the,” “the,” etc) while they were also supposed to be rehearsing the digits for the digit span task. They found that
  2. a) participants recalled more digits because the concurrent task stimulated the use of the phonological loop.
  3. b) participants could not simultaneously repeat the word and suppress the digits.

*c) participants recalled fewer digits because both tasks occupied the phonological loop.

  1. d) the articulatory suppression prevented the use of the episodic buffer in this task.

 

  1. Wei-lin likes to listen to her favorite singer on her iPod while she studies. Research on the irrelevant speech effect suggests that
  2. a) listening to singing will reduce the capacity of her visuo-spatial sketchpad.
  3. b) listening to singing will allow her to perform source monitoring tasks with greater accuracy.

*c) listening to singing will mean she can store fewer items in her phonological loop.

  1. d) listening to singing will interfere with her appreciation of the musical chords.

 

  1. Salame and Baddeley (1989) asked participants to maintain information in working memory while listening to either singing, music without singing, or no sounds at all. They found that
  2. a) music helps young adults to study, but hurts the ability of older adults to learn.

*b) singing most interfered with maintaining information in the phonological loop.

  1. c) all three conditions led to relatively good performance.
  2. d) the condition without any sound was the most challenging.

 

  1. Brooks (1968) asked participants to make judgments about letters when they were only imagining the letter. He showed that
  2. a) visual tasks can interfere with auditory imagery.
  3. b) the phonological loop is a static entity.

*c) using a visual mode of responding interfered with performance on a visual imagery task.

  1. d) visual imagery can be influenced by semantic factors, such as the shape and size of the letters.

 

  1. The visuo-spatial sketchpad can be defined as
  2. a) a limited capacity working memory system that stores auditory information for a short period of time.
  3. b) an attentional resource for visual information.
  4. c) a limited capacity long-term memory system for representing visual images.

*d) a limited capacity working memory system that stores visual and spatial information for a short period of time.

 

  1. Teasdale (1995) asked participants to generate random numbers. The participants most deviated from the instructions when
  2. a) the phonological loop was occupied with irrelevant speech.
  3. b) the visuo-spatial sketchpad was being used for imagery.
  4. c) during the primacy part of a serial position curve.

*d) when the central executive was not providing focus on the task.

 

  1. Warrington and Shallice (1969) studied a young brain-damaged man identified in their paper by the initial KF. They found that KF
  2. a) had a deficit in working memory, particularly with respect to the central executive.

*b) had a deficit in working memory, particularly with respect to the phonological loop.

  1. c) had impaired long-term memory but no deficit in working memory.
  2. d) recovered much lost function in working memory after therapy with Warrington and Shallice.

 

  1. PET and fMRI data show that working memory functions are housed in the
  2. a) amygdala
  3. b) occipital lobe
  4. c) angular gyrus

*d) pre-frontal lobe

 

  1. Daneman and Carpenter have shown that good working memory is

*a) correlated with performance on reading fluency tests.

  1. b) correlated with performance of athletic fitness.
  2. c) has no correlations with individual differences in cognitive performance.
  3. d) is better in those whose first language is a Celtic language.

 

  1. Research on training working memory shows that
  2. a) training working memory immediately generalizes to long-term memory tasks.
  3. b) by training our working memory, we can boost our ability to learn and remember facts and vocabulary words.

*c) With practice, we can improve our ability to remember digit spans and other measures of working memory, but improving on these tasks does not automatically translate to better reading comprehension.

  1. None of the above.

 

  1. Strayer and his colleagues have found
  2. a) that cell-phone use during driving always causes accidents.

*b) that cell-phone use during driving causes more accidents relative to non-cell phone use when hazards are present that people react more slowly to.

  1. c) that cell-phone use during driving cause more accidents relative to non-cell use when the driver is otherwise distracted by other stimuli.
  2. d) That cell-phone use during driving is only detrimental in older drivers.

 

  1. Strayer and his colleagues link the decrement in driving performance with cell-phone use to
  2. a) problems in semantic memory.
  3. b) cell-phone use exaggerates the recency effect.

*c) cell-phone use taxes the central executive (attentional control).

  1. d) cell-phone use requires the phonological loop to be suppressed.

 

  1. What concept refers to a very brief memory system that holds literal information for a fraction of a second to allow cognitive processing?

*a) sensory memory

  1. b) erstwhile memory
  2. c) autobiographical memory
  3. d) Von Restorff memory.

 

  1. George Sperling (1960) demonstrated the hypothetical existence of iconic memory or visual sensory memory. Regarding this experiment, which of the following statements is true?

*a) Participants in the partial-report condition could remember 3 from that line, suggesting that 9 letters were accessible visually at the time of recall.

  1. b) the whole-report technique led to a greater estimate of letters that were visually accessible.
  2. c) more information was accessible when echoic memory was used than when iconic memory was used.
  3. d) all of the above are true.

Chapter 5

 

  1. Semantic memory is
  2. a) a working memory system.

*b) a long-term memory system for general world knowledge.

  1. c) a long-term memory system for the words in our native languages.
  2. d) a working memory system for visual information.

 

  1. Lexical memory is
  2. a) a working memory system.
  3. b) a long-term memory system for general world knowledge.

*c) a long-term memory system for the words in our native languages.

  1. d) a working memory system for visual information.

 

  1. Which is an example of retrieval from lexical memory?
  2. a) a person rehearses the digits that were just presented.

*b) a person uses a sentence with the word “onomatopoeia” in it.

  1. c) a person remembers the sunset she saw on her vacation in Hawaii.
  2. d) a person shoots a jumpshot in basketball.

 

  1. An associative model means that

*a) we represent information in semantic memory in terms of connections among units of information.

  1. b) we represent information in semantic memory directly in terms of how neurons fire.
  2. c) we represent information in semantic memory in terms of its relation to episodic memory.
  3. d) we represent information in semantic memory without regard to the behaviors involved in knowledge.

 

  1. When someone says “Joe Biden” the node in memory for “Barack Obama” is also activated. This is called
  2. a) reverse semantics.
  3. b) node removal.

*c) spreading activation.

  1. d) interference.

 

  1. The term “spreading activation” means
  2. a) the nodes that represent individual information.
  3. b) the course through which a schema is retrieved.
  4. c) the activation of a lemma when a lexeme has been remarked.

*d) the transfer of activation from one node to an associated node.

 

  1. In a semantic priming task,
  2. a) presenting one word interferes with identifying a related word in a lexical decision task.

*b) presenting one word makes it easier to identify a related word in a lexical decision task.

  1. c) presenting one word makes it easier to identify an unrelated word in a lexical decision task.
  2. d) presenting one word makes it more difficult to identify a unrelated word in a lexical decision task.

 

  1. If a person sees a string of letters like “Xvvsvo”, the person should
  2. a) respond “yes” as quickly as possible in a lexical decision task.
  3. b) tell the experimenter something is wrong with the lexical decision task.
  4. c) respond “yes” only after careful consideration in a lexical decision task.

*d) respond “no” as quickly as possible in a lexical decision task.

 

  1. In a spreading activation network, a word like “lime” can prime “lemon,” and “lemon” can then prime “law.” If “lime” primes “law,” this is called

*a) mediated priming.

  1. b) instigated priming.
  2. c) transfer priming.
  3. d) a tweetle-beetle battle.

 

  1. In a sentence verification task, participants decide as quickly as possible

*a) if a sentence is true or false.

  1. b) if they have seen the sentence before.
  2. c) if they can retrieve the sentence later.
  3. d) if they can pronounce the sentence in less than five seconds.

 

  1. “Birds have wings” will be verified faster than “Birds have blood,” because

*a) activation spreads more quickly between related nodes.

  1. b) more general characteristics are always more quickly mediated.
  2. c) more general characteristics are often primed by sentence activation.
  3. d) activation does not spread across categories.

 

  1. A concept, in cognitive psychology, is
  2. a) a result of activating individual nodes in a spreading activation unit.
  3. b) something that can only be represented in episodic memory.
  4. c) a mental illusion, comparable to visual illusions.

*d) a mental construct that contains information associated with a specific idea.

 

  1. Restaurant is to “McDonald’s” as

*a) a category is to an example.

  1. b) semantic memory is to episodic memory.
  2. c) spreading activation is to node associations.
  3. d) sentence verification is to lexical decision.

 

  1. Categories are “fuzzy” because

*a) they resist easy definitions or clear boundaries.

  1. b) psychologically, they elicit warm feelings in us.
  2. c) their memory representations are not stored in the cerebral cortex.
  3. d) we associated them with strong sensory responses.

 

  1. “Book – novel – romance” is an example of
  2. a) a spreading activation network.
  3. b) a triad of semantic retrieval.

*c) levels of categorization: superordinate, basic, subordinate.

  1. d) an innate schema: only possible in literate cultures.

 

  1. Levels of categorization has psychological reality based on which finding?
  2. a) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is not accessible during spreading activation.

*b) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is retrieved faster than subordinate or superordinate information.

  1. c) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is always transformed at the time of input into a fuzzy category.
  2. d) Research has demonstrated that basic level information is less likely to be accurately recalled.

 

  1. Superordinate information in categorization is more based on neural processes in the
  2. a) parietal lobe.
  3. b) parental lobe.

*c) pre-frontal lobe.

  1. d) posterior lobe.

 

  1. Family resemblance means that

*a) membership in a category is defined by items’ similarity to other members of the category.

  1. b) membership in a category is defined by common ancestry of the concept.
  2. c) membership in a category is defined by each item’s ability to activate superordinate structures.
  3. d) membership in a category is defined by the joining of perceptual and semantic characteristics.

 

  1. According to prototype theory,

*a) prototypes form the central feature in our representation of categories.

  1. b) prototypes activate the retrieval of subordinate exemplars.
  2. c) prototypes are only active in the subconscious.
  3. d) common members of the category do not resemble the prototype.

 

  1. Among Americans, a golden retriever is a very common and “prototypical” dog. Compared to a golden retriever, it will take Americans
  2. a) less time to verify that a Boston terrier is a dog.
  3. b) more time to verify that golden retrievers make good pets.

*c) more time to verify that a Boston terrier is a dog.

  1. d) because all people have innate concepts, one should expect no difference.

 

  1. When participants are asked to generate examples of a particular category, they tend to
  2. a) produce unusual members of the category first.
  3. b) be unduly influenced by spreading activation.
  4. c) show no signs of spreading activation.

*d) produce prototypical members of the category first.

 

  1. In exemplar theory, categories are classified
  2. a) by overlooking the fuzziness of the category.
  3. b) by comparing the exemplar to the prototype.
  4. c) by maintaining a small number of specific instances of the category.

*d) by maintaining a large number of specific instances of the category.

 

  1. Feature comparison theory states that
  2. a) we compare the prototype to the exemplar.
  3. b) we compare the lemma to the lexeme.

*c) we maintain a list of features for each category.

  1. d) we maintain an unusual number level of categorization.

 

  1. Defining features are
  2. a) necessary to invoke a superordinate category.

*b) required for an example of a particular category.

  1. c) implied by the nature of semantic memory.
  2. d) generally accompany an instance of the category but are not required.

 

  1. Characteristic features are
  2. a) necessary to invoke a superordinate category.
  3. b) required for an example of a particular category.
  4. c) implied by the nature of semantic memory.

*d) generally accompany an instance of the category but are not required.

 

  1. Which of the following sentences is true?
  2. a) A schema is a script used to generate lexical knowledge.

*b) A schema is generalized knowledge about an event, a person, or a situation.

  1. c) A schema is a means of activating individual category nodes.
  2. d) A schema is a superordinate category.

 

  1. Sofia, a seven-year old girl, describes what she does before going to sleep. She puts on her pajamas, brushes her teeth, says good-night to mom and dad, then gets into bed. Sofia is recalling what kind of knowledge?
  2. a) lexical knowledge.
  3. b) subordinate categorical knowledge.

*c) well-learned script knowledge.

  1. d) an episodic rehearsal pattern.

 

  1. Brewer and Treyens (1981) asked people to remember details from a waiting room. The participants recalled
  2. a) more schema-neutral material than schema-adverse material.

*b) more schema-consistent information than schema-neutral information.

  1. c) mostly falsely recalled the schema-consistent information.
  2. d) failed to use lexical memory when retrieving the relevant information.

 

  1. Bransford and Johnson (1972) presented participants with confusing passages to read. They found that

*a) having an organizing title aided recall.

  1. b) the confusion led to an inconsistent data; semantic memory experiments should be done strictly in the lab.
  2. c) confusion boosted memory for schema-relevant details.
  3. d) schema-consistent knowledge was improperly activated.

 

  1. Bartlett (1932) asked his participants to play a “telephone game.” He showed that
  2. a) participants demonstrate veridical recall.

*b) the errors were consistent with participants’ schemas.

  1. c) sentence verification led to the best memory performance.
  2. d) each participant activated a separate associative node.

 

  1. In Bartlett’s (1932) study, upper-class British university students tended to
  2. a) recall “war of the ghosts” verbatim because they had been taught to memorize poems.
  3. b) not attend to the story because it was not about British life.

*c) show unintentional distortions consistent with their own schemas.

  1. d) remember better when the story was not given a supernatural title.

 

  1. Psycholinguistics is
  2. a) the study of practical semantic memory.
  3. b) the study of the interaction between memory and language.
  4. c) the study of communication science.

*d) the study of the psychological processes involved in human language.

 

  1. A major difference between human language and animal communication systems is
  2. a) animals tend to only use communication when absolutely necessary for immediate survival, whereas humans talk for the sake of talking.
  3. b) only humans use sound to communicate.

*c) animals tend to be limited in what they can communicate, but human language allows unlimited sentences to be formed.

  1. d) animals only communicate between species not within species.

 

  1. Phonology is the study of
  2. a) grammatical units of language.
  3. b) basic written units of language.

*c) sounds and how they are used in a language.

  1. d) contextual variables in language.

 

  1. Syntax refers to the

*a) grammatical structure of language.

  1. b) basic written units of language.
  2. c) sounds and how they are used in a language.
  3. d) meaning inherent in a language.

 

  1. Morphology refers to
  2. a) sounds and how they are used in a language.

*b) how words are constructed within a language.

  1. c) the basic sounds used in a language.
  2. d) the written form of the language.

 

  1. Lemmas contain information about ____ and lexemes contain information about ________

*a) semantics; phonology

  1. b) semantic memory; episodic memory
  2. c) the episodic buffer; spreading activation
  3. d) phonology, orthography

 

  1. The lexeme is the
  2. a) level of representation that stores the meaning of an item.

*b) level of representation that stores the phonology of a word.

  1. c) level of representation that stores how to categorize the word.
  2. d) level of representation of its level of categorization.

 

  1. Retrieving the word “attorney” when we meant to retrieve the word “barrister” is an example of a

*a) word-exchange error.

  1. b) phonological flip.
  2. c) node association error.
  3. d) lexical transposition.

 

  1. The two theories that account for the bilingual lexicon are the single-store view and the dual store view. These two views differ with respect to
  2. a) how many levels of categorization bilinguals have.
  3. b) whether there are multiple lexeme levels.
  4. c) their explanation of coordinate bilinguals.

*d) if lemmas are shared across languages.

 

  1. Cross-language priming studies show that
  2. a) words related in meaning do not prime across language.
  3. b) only phonological priming works across languages.
  4. c) neither semantic nor phonological priming works across language.

*d) words related in meaning prime similar words in a bilingual’s other language.

 

  1. Distributional information refers
  2. a) to the tendency for infants to rapidly develop coordinate lexemes.
  3. b) to similarities among concepts in spreading activation.

*c) to the patterns of speech that co-occur, that is, aspect of language that always accompanies each other.

  1. d) to the pragmatics of language.

 

  1. When an infant uses the word “chair” just to the chair and not the chair and the floor underneath it, this is an example of the
  2. a) use of distributional information.

*b) whole-object assumption.

  1. c) lexeme mapping.
  2. d) lexical constraint assumption.

 

  1. Research shows that the best way for adults to learn a new language is
  2. a) the submersion method.

*b) the immersion method.

  1. c) the audiolingual method.
  2. d) the submersible method.

 

  1. In a neuroimaging study on semantic-verification tasks, Raposo et al. found that
  2. a) greater frontal lobe activity was needed to do sentence verification when the non-associative distance between the verb clause and antecedent were not definable.

*b) areas of the left prefrontal lobe and areas of the left medial temporal lobe were particularly active during sentence verification

  1. c) areas of the right medial temporal lobe were the primary area activating during sentence verification tasks.
  2. d) greater right medial temporal activity was need to parse verb clauses.

 

  1. Which of these statements about music and semantic memory is true?

*a) Melodic structure is crucial to meaning in semantic memory for music.

  1. b) Meaning can only be inferred from music when vocal parts are included.
  2. c) People can learn large amounts of music because it lacks a semantic memory component.
  3. d) all of the above are true.

 

  1. In a Basque-English multilingual, it was shown that a Basque word like “bazkaria” (meaning lunch) can prime English words like “dinner.” This supports the
  2. a) department store view of language.
  3. b) multiple-store view of bilingual representation

*c) single-store view of bilingual representation

  1. d) dual-store view of bilingual representation

 

  1. In an experiment on prototypes and semantic priming, Miles and Minda (2012) found that priming

*a) led to faster judgments for prototypical category members

  1. b) led to slower judgments for prototypical category members.
  2. c) priming does not affect prototype affirmation.
  3. d) priming was not measurable when judgment processes were not affected.

 

  1. In an experiment in which all the participants were Economics and History majors, it was found that the name “Keynes” (a famous economist) led to faster judgments about economic terms than did the name “Churchill.” This is an example of

*a) spreading activation in an associative network.

  1. b) dual-store view of bilingual representation
  2. c) prototype ratification.
  3. d) sentence verification.

 

  1. Which is an example of a fuzzy category?
  2. a) all isosceles triangles.
  3. b) whole numbers.

*c) Asian-Americans

  1. d) none of the above.