Description

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

ISBN-10: 1111837422

ISBN-13: 978-1111837426 /  9781111837426

 

Moral Issues in Business 12th Edition by William H. Shaw – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3—Justice and Economic Distribution

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Talk of justice and injustice appeals to the related notions of
a. fairness, equality, desert c. feeling, sentiment, happiness
b. reason, reflection, deliberation d. fairness, impartiality, duty

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 107

 

  1. Aristotle’s formal principle of justice states,
a. from each according to his or her ability, to each according to his or her need.
b. similar cases must be treated alike except where there is some relevant difference.
c. all people are to be treated the same in every situation.
d. from each according to his or her ability, to each according to his or her merit.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 107

 

  1. According to Mill’s utilitarianism,
a. rights are certain moral rules whose observance is of the utmost importance for the long-run, overall maximization of happiness.
b. there are no rights.
c. the rights possessed by human beings remain unchanged for all times and places.
d. rights are those rules that a majority of the society would agree to behind the “veil of ignorance.”

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 110

 

  1. According to libertarianism,
a. there are no natural, Lockean rights.
b. we have a basic right to assistance from others.
c. it would be unjust to coerce people to give food or money to the starving.
d. happiness takes priority over other moral concerns.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 113

 

  1. According to John Rawls, people in “the original position” choose the principles of justice on the basis of
a. social utility.
b. their religion.
c. self-interest.
d. their intuitive knowledge of the natural rights of all human beings.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 120-121

 

  1. From John Stuart Mill’s viewpoint,
a. philosophical concern with justice began in the 19th century.
b. questions of morality form a subset of questions of justice.
c. for utilitarians, justice is a moral standard independent of the principle of utility.
d. not every issue of social utility was a matter of justice.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 110

 

  1. Mill justified utilitarianism from rival perspectives when he argued
a. that without utilitarianism to provide a determinate standard of justice, one is always left with a plethora of competing principles of justice, all of which seem to have plausibility but are mutually incompatible.
b. that social utility is irrelevant to issues of justice.
c. against worker participation.
d. that only utilitarianism itself, as a normative theory, can provide an answer to the question: What economic system will bring more good to society than any other system?

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 110-111

 

  1. In Anarchy, State and Utopia, Robert Nozick advocates
a. Libertarianism. b. Kantianism. c. Utilitarianism. d. Egoism.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 113

 

  1. If libertarianism is true, which of these statements is true?
a. We should endorse utilitarianism’s concern for total social well-being.
b. Pleasure takes priority over any other moral concern.
c. We should have a “night-watchman” state.
d. If a person comes into possession of a holding through a legitimate transfer, then, morally speaking, she or he deserves that holding.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 113

 

  1. According to Locke,
a. individuals are morally entitled to take other people’s property.
b. property is a moral right.
c. individuals are not morally entitled to the products of their labor.
d. property acquisition is a duty.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 114

 

  1. According to John Rawls,
a. people in the original position choose the principles on the basis of self-interest.
b. in the original position, people must have full and complete knowledge.
c. justice forbids any social or economic inequalities.
d. liberty is of little or no importance compared to equality.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 120

 

  1. The veil of ignorance proposes that
a. those in the original position are supposed to choose principles on the basis of self-interest, agreement seems unlikely.
b. one group would be supportive of another group benefiting even though the rules are different.
c. people are fully knowledgeable about themselves or situation allowing them to have a partial or biased point of view.
d. agreement is difficult to attain.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 121

 

  1. The veil of ignorance assures us that people in the original position will be
a. difficult to come to agreement. c. biased.
b. impartial. d. forgiving.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 121

 

  1. Primary social goods include
a. poverty. c. status.
b. freedom of religion. d. leisure time activities.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 121-122

 

  1. John Rawls’ Theory of Justice lays within which type of tradition?
a. All for one and one for all. c. Feudal society.
b. Principled living. d. Social contract.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 120

 

  1. The difference principle of Rawls states
a. we are all created equal.
b. inequalities are only justified if they benefit the least advantaged.
c. we all deserve the same.
d. some do deserve more than others.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 123

 

  1. In association with labor and capital, Mill had contrasting views of
a. freedom of speech. c. welfare.
b. farmers’ markets profit. d. profit sharing.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 111-112

 

  1. Who is more likely to be sympathetic with the idea of reducing the disparities of income in society?
a. Utilitarians b. Libertarians c. Robert Nozick d. Milton Friedman

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 112-113

 

  1. The first principle of Nozick’s entitlement theory concerns the original acquisition of
a. morals. c. case law.
b. goods, money, and property. d. the crown.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 114

 

  1. In Nozick’s example of Wilt Chamberlain, he argues that other theories of economic justice inevitably fail to respect people’s
a. liberty. b. power of choice. c. skills. d. height.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 115-116

 

  1. To the libertarians, their concept of liberty includes a commitment to
a. hedonism. b. charity. c. private property. d. happiness.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 116

 

  1. Rawls rejects utilitarianism because
a. he saw it as a threat.
b. it might permit an unfair distribution of burdens and benefits.
c. governments wanted it.
d. it values moral purity.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 125-126

 

  1. Eminent domain is the ancient right of government to take what from an individual?
a. food b. clothing c. liberties d. property

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Case 3.1

 

  1. The Supreme Court gave decision making power for Eminent domain to the
a. feds. c. townships.
b. states and local communities d. parents.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Case 3.1

 

  1. What philosopher believes the maximin rule is relevant to justice?
a. John Rawls b. John Stuart Mill c. Robert Nozick d. Aristotle

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 122

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. According to Robert Nozick, the basic moral rights possessed by all human beings are both negative and natural.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 114

 

  1. Libertarians reject inheritance as a legitimate means of acquiring wealth.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 117-118

 

  1. Utilitarians are likely to be sympathetic to the argument that steps should be taken to reduce the great disparities of income that characterize our society.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 112-113

 

  1. The phrase “the declining marginal utility of money” means that successive additions to one’s income produce, on average, less happiness or welfare than did earlier additions.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 112

 

  1. Robert Nozick uses the Wilt Chamberlain story to show the importance of economic re-distribution.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 115-116

 

  1. Rawls’s theory of distributive justice is a form of utilitarianism.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 125-126

 

  1. According to Robert Nozick, property rights exist prior to any social arrangements and are morally antecedent to any legislative decisions that a society might make.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 114-115

 

  1. The United States leads the world in executive pay.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 105

 

  1. According to John Rawls, people in the original position do not know what social position or status they hold in society.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 121

 

  1. According to the “maximin” rule, you should select the alternative under which the worst that could happen to you is better than the worst that could happen to you under any other alternative.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 122

 

  1. Thanks to changes in the tax system, in recent years income in the United States has become more equal.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 104

 

  1. The distribution of income in Germany and Japan is far more unequal than that in the United States.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 106

 

  1. Many philosophers believe (as Aristotle did) that we are required, as a formal principle of justice, to treat similar cases alike except where there is some relevant difference.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 107

 

  1. Justice is frequently held to require that our treatment of people reflect their fundamental moral equality.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 107

 

  1. Distributive justice concerns the morally proper distribution of social benefits and burdens.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 108

 

  1. For utilitarians, justice is an independent moral standard distinct from their general principle.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 110

 

  1. According to “Battling Over Bottled Water,” water is the lifeblood of the earth.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 130

 

  1. According to Mill, to say that I have a right to something is to say that I have a valid claim on society to protect me in the possession of that thing, either by force of law or through education and opinion.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 109

 

  1. In his Principles of Political Economy, J.S. Mill argued for the desirability of breaking down the sharp and hostile division between the producers or workers, on the one hand, and the capitalists or owners, on the other hand.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 111

 

  1. According to libertarianism, liberty is the prime value, and justice consists in being free from the interference of others.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 113

 

  1. It is clear that women in the United States have no problem living the American Dream.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 133

 

  1. Libertarianism involves a commitment to leaving market relations – buying, selling, and other exchanges – totally unrestricted.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 116-117

 

  1. Libertarians would find it immoral and unjust to coerce people to give food or money to the starving.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 115-116

 

  1. John Rawls’s second principle of justice states that insofar as inequalities are permitted — that is, insofar as it is compatible with justice for some jobs or positions to bring greater rewards than others — these positions must be open to all.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 123

 

  1. D.W. Haslett argues that inheritance is inconsistent with capitalism.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 142

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Talk of justice and injustice typically focuses on four related moral ideas. Explain what two of them are.

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 107

 

  1. According to John Stuart Mill, what does it mean to say that a person has a right to something?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 109

 

  1. What do economists mean by “the declining marginal utility of money” and how does Brandt use the concept to argue for greater economic equality?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 112

 

  1. Briefly explain the basic principles of Nozick’s entitlement theory.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 114-115

 

  1. According to Mill, if the market is left without regulation, will it eventually reward those that deserve it?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 117

 

  1. What does Rawls mean by the original position and the veil of ignorance?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 120-121

 

  1. What is the “maximin” rule for making decisions and what role does it play in Rawls’s argument?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 122

 

  1. John Isbister in “Income Distribution” argues that pay differentials are necessary to acknowledge capability, work and talent differences. What’s a strong objection to his belief?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Reading 3.1

 

  1. Define “Lockean rights” in your own words.

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 114

 

  1. Explain the relationship between justice and fairness.

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 107

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare and contrast how Mill and Nozick would explain why stealing is wrong.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 109-119

 

  1. Would Nozick’s theory of justice find the poverty in America to be just or unjust?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 113-119

 

  1. Is Bill Gates’s accumulation of wealth just or unjust, according to John Stuart Mill’s theory of justice?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 109-113

 

  1. How would Rawls view an inheritance from a family member?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 119-127

 

  1. Can wealth legitimately be spread equally among the people of a nation according to any theory of justice we have discussed?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Chapter 3

 

 

Chapter 9—The Workplace (2): Today’s Challenges

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Privacy
a. is an absolute value.
b. must be respected if we are to function as complete, self-governing agents.
c. is something that employees today don’t care about.
d. is guaranteed by Article 3, section 3, of the Constitution.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430

 

  1. The right to privacy of employees
a. takes priority over other moral considerations.
b. is clearly and unambiguously spelled out by the law.
c. may conflict with an organization’s legitimate interests.
d. has to be given up in an era of global competition.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430

 

  1. When it comes to obtaining information about employees, a key concept is
a. informed consent. c. economic efficiency.
b. paternalism. d. positive externalities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 433

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
a. a company is never permitted to test for legal drugs
b. drugs can’t harm employee performance
c. business writers agree that drug testing is more cost effective than voluntary drug assistance programs
d. media sensationalism and political posturing can get in the way of sensible answers to the drug problem

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 438

 

  1. One key questionable premise underlying personality tests is
a. they sometimes screen out potentially creative or individualistic employees.
b. they presuppose that all employees can be validly placed in a small number of categories.
c. they can help determine job applicants’ areas of adequacy and inadequacy.
d. that all individuals can usefully and validly be placed into a relatively small number of categories of personality types and character traits.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 436

 

  1. Polygraph tests
a. are extraordinarily accurate contrary to what the critics say.
b. can produce false positives.
c. cannot reveal with certainty whether a person is or is not telling the truth.
d. are totally reliable because lying always triggers an involuntary response that truth telling does not.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 434

 

  1. The Hawthorne effect shows that
a. quality control circles are important.
b. middle managers are affected by the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the workers they supervise.
c. attention and recognition can enhance worker productivity and motivation.
d. trade-offs have to be made between productivity and quality of work life.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 447

 

  1. Businesses cite several reasons for using polygraphs to detect lying. Which of the following is one of those reasons?
a. the polygraph is a fast and economical way to verify the information provided by a job applicant.
b. polygraph tests cannot be beaten.
c. the polygraph can reveal with certainty that a person is or is not telling the truth.
d. the polygraph allows companies to increase the number of audits.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 434

 

  1. Used properly, personality tests serve two purposes in the work place. Which of the following is one of those purposes?
a. Personality tests help screen applicants for jobs by indicating areas of adequacy and inadequacy.
b. Personality tests help to determine whether an applicant is a drug user.
c. Personality tests help determine how little the business has to pay an applicant if hired.
d. Personality tests help determine if an applicant will be willing to work for low pay.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 436

 

  1. Which statement has the proper perspective about drug testing?
a. Due process need not be followed by a business implementing a drug-testing program for its employees.
b. The government has always opposed testing Federal employees for cocaine and other illicit drugs.
c. Drug testing can only be defensible when it is really pertinent to employee performance and when there is a lot at stake.
d. Informed consent need not be observed by a business implementing a drug testing program for its employees.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 438

 

  1. Douglas McGregor rejects Theory X, which holds that
a. when explained properly, everyone will favor drug-testing programs.
b. workers essentially dislike work and will do everything they can to avoid it.
c. workers basically like work and view it as something natural and potentially enjoyable.
d. sexual harassment is a form of discrimination.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 443

 

  1. An early 1970s government study (“Work in America”) identified three chief sources of worker dissatisfaction. Which of the following is one of those sources?
a. industry’s preoccupation with quality, not quantity
b. the rigidity of rules and regulations
c. the relatively small size of most U.S. corporations
d. mandatory drug testing programs used by many U.S. corporations

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 446

 

  1. A fact about job satisfaction is
a. longevity does not correlate with job satisfaction.
b. the U.S. leads the world in the provision of childcare.
c. a lack of job satisfaction can create mental health problems.
d. worker participation and improved QWL always boost productivity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 448

 

  1. Out of these four, which one is the only correct statement concerning OSHA?
a. Critics call OSHA a “toothless tiger”.
b. OSHA regulates the shifts people work.
c. OSHA says few accidents are caused by sleep deprivation and fatigue.
d. OSHA states the key to worker safety is improved engineering.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 441

 

  1. The most accurate statement about workplace safety is:
a. workers are often unaware of the hazards they face on the job
b. employees, not their employers, are responsible for creating a safe workplace
c. in an average year, 150 workers are killed on the job
d. according to experts, industrial accidents “just happen”

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 439

 

  1. “Corporate in-fighting,” “management power struggles,” “maneuvering and politics and power grabbing,” and “Machiavellian intrigues” are all phrases H. Ross Perot uses to describe
a. the reality of family life today. c. the reality of the lunch room.
b. the reality of corporate life today. d. the reality of the drive into work.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 443

 

  1. Forty-three thousand workers each year are
a. killed on the job. c. injured on the job.
b. laid off. d. fall asleep on the job.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 439

 

  1. The proper approach to promote safety is to change the “hidden culture” to
a. pay employees more. c. hides injuries.
b. be proactively oriented toward safety. d. refuse to talk openly about safety.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 440

 

  1. The most common reason that people leave their jobs is
a. low wages.
b. too much overtime.
c. a poor relationship with their immediate supervisor.
d. lousy benefits.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 442

 

  1. One of the three chief sources for dissatisfaction in the workplace is
a. lack of opportunities to be promoted faster.
b. lack of opportunities to have a company vehicle.
c. lack of opportunities to have one’s own office.
d. lack of opportunities to be one’s own boss.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 446

 

  1. When employees at all occupational levels are asked to rank what is important to them, the order that put them in is:
a. good pay; enough authority to carry out the work; sufficient help, support, and information; and interesting work.
b. interesting work; sufficient help, support, and information to accomplish the job; enough authority to carry out the work; and good pay
c. sufficient help, support, and information to accomplish the job; interesting work; enough authority to carry out the work,and good pay
d. enough authority to carry out the work; good pay; interesting work; and sufficient help, support, and information to accomplish the job

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 447

 

  1. Which of the following is a true statement about the information gained from polygraph tests?
a. The information the organization seeks does not have to be related to the job.
b. The organization has used the polygraph as the easiest way to gather the information it wants.
c. Test results should be made public.
d. Not only should the organization have job-related grounds for using the polygraph, but these must be compelling enough to justify violating the individual’s privacy and psychic freedom.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 435

 

  1. Many major employers routinely monitor the performance of their employees through the computers and telephones they use. Employers are allowed to
a. check the number of keystrokes that word processors enter during the day.
b. eavesdrop on e-mail.
c. eavesdrop on fax transmissions.
d. eavesdrop on cell phone conversations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 436

 

  1. A study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that postal workers who tested positive for drug use in a pre-employment urine test were at least 50 percent more likely to be
a. promoted.
b. transferred.
c. honored for community service.
d. fired, injured, disciplined, or absent than those who tested negative.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 437

 

  1. The United States has more of what per employee than any other industrial nation?
a. timeclocks c. sprains and strains
b. work injuries d. managers

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 443

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. As a general rule, the burden is on an organization to establish the legitimacy of infringing on what would normally be considered the personal sphere of the individual.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430

 

  1. There is a general consensus among philosophers and lawyers about how to define the right to privacy.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430

 

  1. Informed consent implies deliberation and free choice.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 433

 

  1. The Employee Polygraph Protection Act permits most private employers to use lie detectors in “pre-employment testing.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 435

 

  1. One problem that OSHA will have to address in the future is the increasing number of musculoskeletal disorders.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 441

 

  1. Increased productivity by changing the color of the surrounding working environment is known as the “Hawthorne effect.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 447

 

  1. Notification of employee monitoring constitutes consent on the part of the employee to be monitored.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 437

 

  1. Privacy is widely acknowledged today to be a fundamental right.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 428

 

  1. The general proposition that a firm has a legitimate interest only in employee behavior that significantly influences work performance applies equally to off-the-job conduct.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430

 

  1. Businesses often claim polygraphs are a fast and economical way to verify the information provided by a job applicant.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 434

 

  1. If a polygraph test is 95 percent accurate, there are unlikely to be any “false positives.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 434

 

  1. When used properly, personality tests can help screen applicants for jobs by indicating areas of adequacy and inadequacy.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 435

 

  1. Any drug-testing program, assuming it is warranted, must be careful to respect the dignity and rights of the persons to be tested.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 438

 

  1. According to published statistics, each year in the United States nearly 100,000 workers are killed on the job.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 439

 

  1. Employees have a legal right to refuse to work when it exposes them to imminent danger.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 439

 

  1. Fatigue and sleep deprivation are no longer prime causes of industrial accidents.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 442

 

  1. An early 1970s government survey of worker dissatisfaction identified that worker dissatisfaction has been linked to the industry’s preoccupation with quantity, not quality and the rigidity of rules and regulations.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 446

 

  1. One study suggests a positive correlation between job satisfaction and longevity.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 448

 

  1. Granting workers new responsibilities and respect can benefit the entire organization.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 448

 

  1. In 1928, U.S. Supreme Court Judge Louis D. Brandeis described the right to privacy, or “the right to be left alone,” as “the right most valued by men.”

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 427

 

  1. No set of assumptions about human nature is absolutely correct or incorrect, nor is there one perfectly right way to manage.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 443

 

  1. The breaking up of jobs into smaller and smaller units, with each worker performing fewer tasks but repeating them thousands of times a day, has contributed to health problems in manufacturing.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 441

 

  1. OSHA requires safeguards whether or not they are “feasible.”

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 441

 

  1. Shaw and Barry argue that the world of work tends to reproduce the traditional male-female division of labor within the family.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 446

 

  1. Granting workers new responsibilities and respect can benefit the entire organization.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 448

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Informed consent requires that two criteria be met. Briefly describe each of the criteria.

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 433

 

  1. Give an example of legitimate, and an example of illegitimate, organizational influence over the individual.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430-431

 

  1. Suppose that a company has 1,000 workers, 20 of whom are thieves. Suppose, too, that a polygraph test is 95 percent accurate. If the company subjects all its employees to a polygraph test, how many thieves will be identified? How many innocent employees will be falsely identified as thieves?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 434

 

  1. Explain one of the criticisms of personality tests in the workplace.

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 436

 

  1. Different management theories rest on different theories of human nature. Explain one of the theories and how it could effect management.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 442-443

 

  1. Should one’s personal sexual conduct be taken into consideration for any professional job? If no, why not? If so, what job and why?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430-431

 

  1. The text states that in the 1970s, “the government conducted a study of work in America … [and] identified three chief sources of worker dissatisfaction.” What are these three sources of worker dissatisfaction?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 446

 

  1. What is the Hawthorne Effect?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 447

 

  1. What moral considerations indicate that companies should provide childcare?

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 445-446

 

  1. Do workplace accidents “just happen”?

 

ANS:

See referenced page.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 439

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain how the findings of the Hawthorne experiment should be applied to the workplace.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 447-449

 

  1. Should the activities of a teacher outside of the classroom and school be scrutinized? Should a teacher ever be dismissed for actions outside of the workplace? Justify your answers.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 430-431

 

  1. “Safety in the workplace is good business.” Justify this statement with information from this chapter.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 439-440

 

  1. “Women should be paid for maternity leave.” List the reasoning on both sides of this issue.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 445-446

 

  1. Is drug testing ever needed for a workplace? Justify your answer.

 

ANS:

See referenced pages.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   p. 437-438 | Reading 9.1