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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Nutrition Concepts And Controversies 2nd Edition by Ellie Whitney Frances Sizer – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3-The Remarkable Body

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following best describes cells?
a. the basis of the body’s design
b. building blocks of the body
c. the vital components of foods
d. self-contained living entities

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 72

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the cells’ most basic needs along with the oxygen necessary to burn it?
a. alcohol
b. energy
c. proteins
d. fats

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 72

 

  1. The first principle of diet planning is that the foods we choose must provide energy along with which of the following essential nutrients?
a. oxygen
b. carbon dioxide
c. fuel
d. water

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 72

 

  1. Which of the following determines the nature of the cell’s work?
a. genes
b. mutations
c. red blood cells
d. organs

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 73

 

  1. Which of the following fluids moves from the bloodstream into tissue spaces?
a. blood
b. lymph
c. plasma
d. intracellular fluid

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 74

 

  1. Which one of the following organs chemically alters materials so that they can be used by other tissues?
a. gallbladder
b. small intestine
c. kidneys
d. liver

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 76

 

  1. On average, how often do the cells lining the digestive tract replace themselves?
a. every 3 days
b. every 2 weeks
c. every 4 months
d. every 12 months

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 72–73

 

  1. Which of the following is released by the pancreas in response to a high concentration of blood sugar (glucose)?
a. insulin
b. gastrin
c. secretin
d. glucagon

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. Which of the following secretes hormones and releases them into the blood?
a. antigens
b. enzymes
c. antibodies
d. glands

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 77

 

  1. Which of the following is the first to defend the body tissues against invaders?
a. phagocytes
b. T-cells
c. antigens
d. B-cells

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 80

 

  1. Which of the following occurs as part of the stress response?
a. The liver releases glucose from its stores.
b. The muscles relax.
c. The digestive system slows down.
d. The blood pressure decreases.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 79

 

  1. The sensation of hunger in the mind is triggered by which of the following?
a. taste buds
b. brain
c. nose
d. pancreas

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. Which of the following provides the digestive tract with the bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work?
a. water
b. fibre
c. nutrients
d. energy

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 84

 

  1. The liver converts excess energy-containing nutrients into what?
a. water
b. protein
c. fibre
d. glycogen

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 95

 

  1. What coordinates the nervous system’s role in hunger regulation?
a. hormones
b. neurotransmitters
c. spinal cord
d. brain

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. What is the primary organ of digestion and absorption?
a. mouth
b. small intestine
c. large intestine
d. stomach

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 84

 

  1. Which of the following hormones is thought to be a “hunger hormone”?
a. gastrointestinal hormone
b. gastrin
c. grehlin
d. glucagon

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 81

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a type of cell that ingests and destroys antigens?
a. leukocytes
b. monocytes
c. phagocytes
d. lymphocytes

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 80

 

  1. How long does it take for the liver’s glycogen supply to be depleted if it is not replenished by food?
a. 1–3 hours
b. 3–6 hours
c. 4–8 hours
d. 6–9 hours

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 95

 

  1. Which cells release antibodies into the bloodstream to fight infection?
a. T-cells
b. S-cells
c. A-cells
d. B-cells

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 80

 

  1. What is the major role of the process known as peristalsis?
a. making chyme
b. pushing food through the digestive tract
c. helping nutrients pass into the lymph system
d. reabsorbing water

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 82

 

  1. Which of the following cells replace themselves whenever repairs to the organ are required?
a. liver
b. heart
c. brain
d. red blood

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 73

 

  1. Most people have an aversion to which of the following tastes?
a. fatty
b. bitter
c. salty
d. sweet

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 81

 

 

  1. Chemical digestion begins in what part of the body?
a. stomach
b. mouth
c. liver
d. small intestine

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 85

 

  1. The stomach’s main function is the digestion of what nutrient?
a. carbohydrate
b. fat
c. fibre
d. protein

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 86

 

  1. Which of the following types of cells do NOT reproduce and are lost forever if damaged by injury or disease?
a. red blood cells
b. muscle cells
c. brain cells
d. skin cells

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 73

 

  1. Which of the following poses a formidable obstacle to a successful organ transplant?
a. antibodies
b. T-cells
c. B-cells
d. phagocytes

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 80

 

  1. Which of the following recommendations would you make to a friend suffering from constipation?
a. Take a laxative.
b. Drink enough water.
c. Eat larger meals.
d. Consume foods with adequate carbohydrate.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 94

 

  1. How is it that a person can eat when hunger is absent?
a. The stomach intensifies its contractions and creates hunger pangs.
b. The conscious mind of the cortex can override body signals.
c. The digestive tract sends messages to the hypothalamus.
d. The hypothalamus anticipates the availability of nutrients.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormones cause the release of what substance in amounts coordinated with the amount of fat present?
a. mucus
b. hydrochloric acid
c. bile
d. bicarbonate

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 87

 

  1. As a child becomes malnourished, the absorptive surface of the small intestine responds in which of the following ways?
a. It increases in size.
b. It becomes more efficient at its job.
c. It decreases in size.
d. It stays the same size.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 91

 

  1. Jordy suffers from a disease in which his helper T-cells are attacked and destroyed. What is the name of this disease?
a. cystic fibrosis
b. AIDS
c. muscular dystrophy
d. diabetes

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 80

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the timing of meals is the most accurate?
a. Timing of meals is important to feeling well.
b. Timing of meals is important because the digestive tract is unable to digest foods at certain times.
c. A meal should be consumed immediately before exercise to enhance physical work.
d. Eating a meal late at night is desirable because it facilitates sleep.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 84

 

  1. What should you do to alleviate heartburn?
a. Drink liquids during meals.
b. Wear tight clothing.
c. Eat smaller meals.
d. Lie down after meals.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 92–93

 

  1. Which of the following foods should you consume several times throughout the day?
a. fat-containing foods
b. mineral-rich foods
c. vitamin-rich foods
d. carbohydrate-containing foods

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 96

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered one alcoholic drink?
a. One 1.5 oz shotglass of spirits (about 45 mL)
b. One glass of wine (about 250 mL)
c. One bottle of wine cooler (about 300 mL)
d. One bottle of 10% beer (about 360 mL)

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 100

 

  1. Which of the following is likely to make a person intoxicated almost immediately when drinking alcoholic beverages?
a. The drink is not diluted with water.
b. Carbohydrate snacks are consumed at the same time.
c. Drinks are consumed quickly.
d. The stomach is empty.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 101

 

  1. Which of the following organs makes almost all of the body’s alcohol-processing machinery?
a. spleen
b. stomach
c. pancreas
d. liver

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 102

 

  1. Which of the following restores sobriety in someone who has been drinking alcohol?
a. drinking coffee
b. eating food
c. walking
d. time

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 102

 

  1. How does alcohol affect body functions?
a. It strengthens the body’s defences against infection.
b. It slows down the synthesis of fatty acids.
c. It alters amino acid metabolism.
d. It causes symptoms like those of cystic fibrosis.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 103

 

  1. Alcohol yields how many calories per gram?
a. 4
b. 5
c. 7
d. 9

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 103

 

  1. What are the recommended limits for the consumption of alcohol for the average-sized healthy man and woman?
a. 14 drinks for a man and 9 drinks for a woman
b. 15 drinks for a man and 9 drinks for a woman
c. 16 drinks for a man and 9 drinks for a woman
d. 16 drinks for a man and 10 drinks for a woman

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 98

 

  1. According to Nutrition Recommendations for Canadians, on a daily basis, a person should NOT ingest more than what percentage of their total energy as alcohol?
a. 1%
b. 2%
c. 5%
d. 10%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 100

 

  1. Which of the following is a long-term effect of alcohol?
a. osteoporosis
b. weight loss
c. improved vision
d. improved memory and concentration

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 104

 

  1. What is the name for the part of the brain that senses a variety of conditions in the blood, such as glucose content and salt content?
a. cerebrum
b. pituitary gland
c. hypothalamus
d. frontal lobe

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. The pancreas performs which of the following functions?
a. It manufactures enzymes to digest all energy yielding nutrients.
b. It adds acid and fluid to the large intestine.
c. It reabsorbs water and minerals.
d. It conducts bile to the small intestine.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 83

 

  1. What is the name for the hormone that is secreted when blood glucose is high?
a. epinephrine
b. insulin
c. glucagon
d. thyroxin

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. What is the name for the hormone that signals the pancreas to release pancreatic juice containing the alkaline compound bicarbonate?
a. pepsin
b. proteases
c. secretin
d. cholecystokinin

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78

 

  1. What is the common name for the burning sensation in the chest area caused by backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus?
a. hernia
b. hiccups
c. ulcer
d. heartburn

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 92

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Cells form tissues that perform specialized tasks. Tissues are grouped together to form whole organs.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 74

 

  1. Body fluids provide tissues with a continuous supply of energy, oxygen, and nutrients, including water.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 74

 

  1. The body stores some nutrients in much smaller quantities than other nutrients.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 96

 

  1. Timing of meals is important because the digestive tract is unable to digest food at certain times.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 84

 

  1. Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 96

 

  1. Chewing food for an extended time provides additional advantages to digestion.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 82

 

MATCHING

Match the digestive organs with their appropriate functions.

a. manufacturers bile to help digest fats
b. conducts bile into the small intestine
c. opens to allow elimination
d. churns, mixes, and grinds food to liquid mass
e. reabsorbs water and minerals
f. stores bile until needed
g. passes food to the stomach
h. manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients
i. chews and mixes food with saliva
j. stores waste prior to elimination
k. secretes enzymes that digest carbohydrate, fat, and protein

 

  1. stomach

 

  1. gallbladder

 

  1. small intestine

 

  1. mouth

 

  1. rectum

 

  1. esophagus

 

  1. anus

 

  1. liver

 

  1. pancreas

 

  1. large intestine

 

  1. ANS:  D                   PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  F                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  K                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  I                     PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  J                     PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  G                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  H                    PTS:   1

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe how hormones affect nutrition.

 

ANS:

Each hormone acts as a messenger that stimulates various organs to take appropriate actions. Hormones regulate hunger and affect appetite. They carry messages to regulate the digestive system. Hormones also regulate the body’s reaction to stress, suppressing hunger, and the digestion and absorption of nutrients.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 77–78

 

  1. Identify and describe three factors necessary to ensure efficient circulation of fluid to all body cells.

 

ANS:

  1. Ample fluid intake: One must drink enough water to keep properly hydrated.2. Cardiovascular fitness: This means a combination of nutrition and exercise.3.  You need healthy red blood cells: RBCs carry oxygen to all other cells, enabling them to use fuels for energy.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 76-77

 

  1. Describe what happens during the stress response and the possible consequences for people living in the modern world.

 

ANS:

The stress response is the body’s instinctive hormone- and nerve-mediated reaction to danger. When danger is detected, nerves release neurotransmitters, and glands supply the compounds epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the modern world, stress is seldom physical, but the body reacts the same way. Modern society’s number one enemy is heart disease. Years of fat and other constituents accumulating in the arteries and stresses that strain the heart often lead to heart attacks, especially when a body accustomed to chronic underexertion experiences sudden high blood pressure.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 78–79

 

  1. How would you respond to a friend’s statement that people should not consume fruit and meat at the same meal?

 

ANS:

This is not a valid argument. Proponents of “food-combining” diets claim that the digestive tract cannot perform certain digestive tasks at the same time, but this is a gross underestimation of the tract’s capabilities. The digestive system adjusts to whatever mixture of foods is presented to it. The truth is that all foods, regardless of identity, are broken down by enzymes into the basic molecules that make them up.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   Page 87

 

  1. Briefly describe the actions of the body’s phagocytes and lymphocytes.

 

ANS:

Phagocytes are white blood cells that can ingest and destroy antigens. When a phagocyte recognizes a foreign particle, the phagocyte forms a pocket in its own outer membrane, engulfing the invader. Then the phagocytes may attack the invader with oxidative chemicals in an “oxidative burst” or may otherwise digest or destroy them. Phagocytes also leave a chemical trail that helps other immune cells to join the defence against infection.Lymphocytes are white blood cells that participate in the immune response. They are known as T-cells and B-cells. Killer T-cells recognize chemical messages from phagocytes and “read” and “remember” the identity of an invader from the messages. They then seek out and destroy all foreign particles with