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Organizational Behaviour Understanding And Managing Life At Work 10th Edition by Gary Johns – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Organizational Behaviour, 10e (Johns/Saks)

Chapter 3   Perception, Attribution, and Diversity

 

3.1

 

1) Which of the following statements most accurately defines “perception”?

  1. A) Perception is reality.
  2. B) Perception is the tendency to attribute one’s own thoughts and feelings to others.
  3. C) Perception is the tendency to generalize about people and ignore variations between individuals.
  4. D) Perception is the process by which motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour.
  5. E) Perception is the process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide meaning.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 84

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

2) The three main components of perception are

  1. A) selectivity, constancy, and primacy.
  2. B) primacy, recency, and projection.
  3. C) perceiver, situation, and target.
  4. D) perceiver, situation, and projection.
  5. E) perceiver, target, and attribution.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

3) Perceptual defence is

  1. A) the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions.
  2. B) the tendency to attribute one’s own thoughts and feelings to others.
  3. C) the tendency to generalize about people and ignore variations between individuals.
  4. D) the process by which motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour.
  5. E) the process of interpreting messages of our senses to provide meaning.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

 

4) What aspects of a perceiver can affect his or her perceptions of a target?

  1. A) Experience, cognitions, and needs
  2. B) Experience, cognitions, and emotions
  3. C) Experience, needs, and values
  4. D) Experience, needs, and beliefs
  5. E) Experience, needs, and emotions

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

5) Nicole believes that her presentation was very good even though she overheard some of her friends say that it was the worst in the class. What is this an example of?

  1. A) Projection
  2. B) Perceptual defence
  3. C) Self-serving bias
  4. D) Actor-observer effect
  5. E) Fundamental attribution error

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

6) Projection is the tendency to act differently from the way we feel; to put on a false face, so to speak.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

7) ________ is defined as the failure to perceive unpleasant emotions.

Answer:  Perceptual defence

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

8) The perceiver’s experience, needs, and ________ can affect his or her perceptions of a target.

Answer:  emotions

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

9) Define “perception.” What are its three main components?

Answer:  Perception is the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment. Its three main components are the perceiver, a target that is being perceived, and a situational context in which the perception is occurring.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 84

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

 

10) What is perceptual defence? Give an example.

Answer:  Perceptual defence is the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. It occurs whenever we “see what we want to see” or “hear what we want to hear.” A good example is when an individual fails to see and hear negative things about themselves that are threatening.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 85

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.1 Define perception, and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception.

3.2

 

1) According to Bruner’s model of the perceptual process, when an unfamiliar target is encountered, we are likely to be ________ to target cues. Once the target has been categorized, however, we become ________ selective in our cue search.

  1. A) open; more
  2. B) closed; more
  3. C) open; less
  4. D) closed; less
  5. E) selective; consistent

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 87

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

2) Paul met a salesperson for the first time. His first impression was that she was pushy, as were most people in sales that Paul had encountered in the past. According to Bruner’s model of the perceptual process, Paul is most likely to

  1. A) seek out cues that contradict his first impression.
  2. B) change his perception as soon as new cues become evident.
  3. C) select cues that confirm his first impression.
  4. D) recategorize the target.
  5. E) form a stereotype about the salesperson.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 87

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

3) According to Bruner’s model of perception, we are most open to cues about a target

  1. A) when the target is first encountered.
  2. B) when the target has been categorized.
  3. C) when the target is very familiar to us.
  4. D) when we already have a lot of information about the target.
  5. E) once the categorization has been strengthened.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 87

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

4) According to social identity theory, our sense of self is composed of a

  1. A) personal identity and relational identity.
  2. B) personal identity and social identity.
  3. C) social identity and relational identity.
  4. D) self identity and social identity.
  5. E) social identity and normative identity.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

5) Prototypes refer to

  1. A) members of a social category who best represent the attributes of that category.
  2. B) our unique personal characteristics, such as our interests, abilities, and traits.
  3. C) our perception that we belong to various social groups, such as our gender, nationality, and so on.
  4. D) the most typical attributes embodied by members that belong to a social category.
  5. E) social categories that we use to categorize people such as gender, religion, and so on.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

 

6) Which of the following best represents the notion that social identities are relational and comparative?

  1. A) Medical students are perceived as doctors by patients in the hospital but as children by their parents.
  2. B) Medical students are perceived as doctors by patients in the hospital but as students by their professors in the classroom.
  3. C) Medical students are perceived as doctors by patients in the hospital but as students by themselves.
  4. D) Medical students are perceived as students by patients in the hospital and as students by their professors in the classroom.
  5. E) Medical students are perceived as students by patients in the hospital before they graduate, but as doctors by the same patients after they have graduated.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

7) Our sense of self is composed of a self-identity and a social identity.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

8) Personal identity is based on our unique characteristics, such as our interests, abilities, and traits.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

9) Social identity is based on our perception that we are similar to many other individuals.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

10) Your interest in music and your musical talents can contribute to your personal identity.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

11) Your gender, religion, and occupation are important in the formation of your personal identity.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

12) A prototype is a member of a social category who is easy to identify and categorize.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

13) According to ________, people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories.

Answer:  social identity theory

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

14) Our ________ is based on our unique personal characteristics, such as our interests, abilities, and traits.

Answer:  personal identity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

15) Our ________ is based on our perception that we belong to various social groups, such as our gender, nationality, religion, occupation, and so on.

Answer:  social identity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

16) I am a Canadian male who wants to become a doctor. Knowing this contributes to my ________.

Answer:  social identity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

17) I love sports and I am very good at hockey and baseball. I also really love food and my friends say that I am a great cook. These things all contribute to my ________.

Answer:  personal identity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

18) When I see somebody who is Canadian, I begin to perceive them as being friendly, modest, and nice because these are the ________ that I associate with the category of Canadian.

Answer:  prototypes

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

19) We tend to see members of a category as embodying the most typical attributes of that category, or what are called ________.

Answer:  prototypes

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

20) Social identities are relational and ________.

Answer:  comparative

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

21) What is social identity theory and how does it help us understand stereotypes and discrimination?

Answer:  According to social identity theory, people form perceptions of themselves and others based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. Therefore, our sense of self is composed of a personal identity and a social identity. We categorize ourselves and others to make sense of and understand the social environment. Once a category has been chosen, we see members of that category embodying the most typical attributes of that category. How we categorize the individuals and the associated attributes can lead to the creation of stereotypes. Further, because we tend to perceive members of own social categories in more positive and favourable ways than those who belong to other categories, this can lead to discrimination towards those who belong to other social categories.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 86

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.2 Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptual process.

 

 

3.3

 

1) Which of the following statements may indicate projection by the speaker?

  1. A) “I didn’t land the contract because the competition was just too good.”
  2. B) “I would never assign a woman to that sales territory.”
  3. C) “Telling a white lie to clinch a sale is perfectly ethical.”
  4. D) “Most of my sales staff think like I think.”
  5. E) “I don’t steal from the company but I’m sure that others do.”

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

2) Which of the following statements is indicative of an implicit personality theory on the part of the speaker?

  1. A) “Roger is aggressive.”
  2. B) “Accountants are intelligent.”
  3. C) “Introverts are honest.”
  4. D) “Women make bad managers.”
  5. E) “Teenagers drive more recklessly than seniors.”

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

3) My perceptions of people are strongly influenced by how kind they are to others. Which concept explains my reaction?

  1. A) Central tendency
  2. B) Central trait
  3. C) Similar-to-me effect
  4. D) Primacy effect
  5. E) Projection

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

 

4) “You’re just like me. I despise you.” Which perceptual tendency might the speaker be revealing?

  1. A) Actor-observer effect
  2. B) Self-serving bias
  3. C) Projection
  4. D) Similar-to-me effect
  5. E) Central Trait

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

5) The chairperson opened the meeting by saying “I’m sure you all agree with me that . . .” What perceptual phenomenon might the speaker be exhibiting?

  1. A) Implicit personality theory
  2. B) Projection
  3. C) Fundamental attribution error
  4. D) Similar-to-me effect
  5. E) Stereotyping

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

6) Knowing that a person falls into some social category, we might assume that he or she possesses certain traits, and that everyone in this category possesses these traits. This is an example of

  1. A) reliance on central traits.
  2. B) a situational attribution.
  3. C) projection.
  4. D) a stereotype.
  5. E) consensus cues.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 90

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

7) For many months, Sam performed his job excellently. However, just before his performance evaluation, Sam’s boss saw him insult a client. In the performance evaluation, the boss gave Sam a very low rating. What happened?

  1. A) Recency effect
  2. B) Harshness
  3. C) Contrast effect
  4. D) Self-serving bias
  5. E) Primacy effect

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

8) If primacy is operating within a selection interview, the job candidate would be well advised to

  1. A) get an early appointment to see the interviewer.
  2. B) see the interviewer early in the morning.
  3. C) be sure her good qualities come out early in the interview.
  4. D) engage the interviewer in small talk before getting down to business.
  5. E) ask for a different interviewer.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

9) If recency is operating within a selection interview, the job candidate would be well advised to

  1. A) see the interviewer late in the day.
  2. B) hold off revealing some good qualities until the end of the interview.
  3. C) try to be the last applicant interviewed.
  4. D) list his or her most recent jobs first on his or her resume.
  5. E) ask for a different interviewer.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

10) Rosa thinks that her new hardworking friend is also very honest so she agrees to lend him some money. What is this an example of?

  1. A) projection
  2. B) implicit personality theories
  3. C) fundamental attribution error
  4. D) reliance on central traits
  5. E) stereotyping

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

11) Heloise was happy that the systems manager was fired. She incorrectly assumed that everyone else in the company was also happy. What perceptual tendency is at work here?

  1. A) Fundamental attribution error
  2. B) Similar-to-me effect
  3. C) Projection
  4. D) Occupational stereotyping
  5. E) Consensus cues

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

12) When we invoke ________, we tend not to perceive differences between people.

  1. A) projection
  2. B) the halo effect
  3. C) a stereotype
  4. D) the recency effect
  5. E) consistency cues

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 90

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

13) A recency effect means that the most recently acquired information we have about a target person has the least effect on our impression of the target.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

14) A stereotype suggests that we fail to perceive important distinctions within a class or category of people.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 90

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

15) The more information you have about Bob, the more likely a stereotype will influence your perceptions of him.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 90

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

 

16) I say you are angry when, truly, I am angry. This is an example of projection.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

17) The person who fails to perceive differences among the members of a class or category of people has fallen prey to a(n) ________.

Answer:  stereotype

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 90

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

18) Exaggerating the weight of cues obtained early in an interaction with someone is the hallmark of the ________.

Answer:  primacy effect

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

19) Attributing our own thoughts, feelings, or attitudes to someone else is characteristic of ________.

Answer:  projection

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

20) Having a mental model where certain traits tend to “fit together” is indicative of a(n) ________.

Answer:  implicit personality theory

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

21) Perceptually exaggerating the weight of some newly obtained information about an old friend is an example of the ________.

Answer:  recency effect

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

22) You have a friend who is very tall and always seems to be getting paid more than you and everyone else that is shorter than him. One reason for this might be ________.

Answer:  reliance on central traits

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 89

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

 

23) Describe four common biases which may influence the impressions that we form of others.

Answer:  There are actually six biases in person perception presented in the text: primacy effect, recency effect, central traits, implicit personality theories, projection, and stereotyping.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 88

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.3 Describe the main biases in person perception.

3.4

 

1) Driving home from an auto repair shop, you find that the repair you just paid for wasn’t done properly. Which of the following would increase your tendency to blame the mechanic’s error on dispositional factors?

  1. A) You have never had a car repair done right the first time by any mechanic.
  2. B) When you picked up the car, the shop manager said that the mechanic had gone home early because he was injured on the job.
  3. C) This mechanic has done poor repairs on your car twice before.
  4. D) Several friends told you that this mechanic was excellent.
  5. E) You had authorized the mechanic to use reconditioned parts instead of new ones.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

2) “Geraldo acts differently from everyone else.” The speaker in the statement is invoking a ________ cue.

  1. A) consistency
  2. B) recency
  3. C) distinctiveness
  4. D) consensus
  5. E) situational

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

3) Which is a potential example of the fundamental attribution error?

  1. A) John explained his failure to land the big account by saying that the competing firm had a better product.
  2. B) Nancy explained her department’s success by describing her boss as brilliant.
  3. C) Tom realized that most of his crew failed to get to work because of the big snowstorm.
  4. D) Rodney defended his boss’s embezzlement by pointing out that he was under severe marital stress at the time of the incident.
  5. E) Susan acknowledged that her company’s sales growth was largely due to the booming economy.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

4) “Kevin acts the same as everyone else.” The speaker here is invoking a ________ cue.

  1. A) recency
  2. B) distinctiveness
  3. C) consensus
  4. D) consistency
  5. E) stereotype

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

5) We may rely on dispositional explanations when making judgments about the behaviour of other people because

  1. A) we are making excuses for our own behaviour.
  2. B) we have a tendency to give others the benefit of the doubt when they offend us.
  3. C) we don’t appreciate how their behaviour can vary in other situations.
  4. D) we realize that circumstances beyond their control can cause them to act the way they do.
  5. E) we have a tendency to project our own thoughts and feelings on others.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

6) When we explain a behaviour by referring to some internal personality characteristic, we are NOT offering

  1. A) an inference about the cause of the behaviour.
  2. B) an attribution.
  3. C) a dispositional explanation.
  4. D) a situational explanation.
  5. E) a rational explanation.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

7) Bob resigns from a job that most of his friends consider to be a very good job. Which of the following is a dispositional attribution of the reason for Bob’s resignation?

  1. A) Bob found a super job somewhere else.
  2. B) Bob is irresponsible and doesn’t know a good thing when he sees it.
  3. C) Bob was forced to move to another city where medical care for his ill daughter is available.
  4. D) The job that he resigned from was actually very bad.
  5. E) The job that he resigned from was scheduled to be eliminated in an upcoming restructuring.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

8) The actor-observer effect suggests that

  1. A) actors and observers tend to view the actor’s behaviour in an identical way.
  2. B) actors tend to make dispositional attributions about their own behaviour.
  3. C) actors and observers tend to view the actor’s behaviour in a different way.
  4. D) observers tend to make situational attributions about the actor’s behaviour.
  5. E) actors tend to take credit for successful outcomes and blame failures on observers.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

9) On a construction site, Ray drops a wrench and it almost hits Cecil on the head. If Cecil develops a situational (as opposed to dispositional) explanation of Ray’s behaviour he might assume that

  1. A) he was the target of a murder attempt.
  2. B) the wrench was oily and it slipped.
  3. C) Ray is stupid.
  4. D) Ray is a careless person.
  5. E) Ray has a poor aim.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

10) A reporter covering a price fixing trial felt that the alleged price fixer was a crook. The alleged price fixer testified that his boss pressured him to engage in illegal activities. The alleged price fixer felt that the reporter’s stories about the trial were the product of a vindictive and nasty mind. The price fixer explained his own behaviour ________ and that of the reporter ________.

  1. A) situationally; situationally
  2. B) dispositionally, dispositionally
  3. C) situationally; dispositionally
  4. D) dispositionally; situationally
  5. E) desperately, consistently

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

11) The self-serving bias

  1. A) may involve providing excuses for one’s own behaviour.
  2. B) suggests that we will provide dispositional reasons for our failures.
  3. C) suggests that we will provide situational reasons for our successes.
  4. D) may lead one to provide phony compliments when things go well for others.
  5. E) may lead one to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

12) Samantha engages in a low consensus behaviour. What other combination of cues will ensure that an observer makes a dispositional attribution about the behaviour?

  1. A) The behaviour is also low in distinctiveness and low in consistency.
  2. B) The behaviour is also low in distinctiveness and high in consistency.
  3. C) The behaviour is also high in distinctiveness and low in consistency.
  4. D) The behaviour is also high in distinctiveness and high in consistency.
  5. E) The behaviour is also low in distinctiveness and high in contrast.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

13) “Karen acts differently from everyone else, but Byron acts the same as everyone else.” The speaker here is invoking a ________ cue to describe Karen’s behaviour and a ________ cue to describe Byron’s behaviour.

  1. A) distinctiveness; consensus
  2. B) distinctiveness; consistency
  3. C) consensus; consistency
  4. D) consensus; consensus
  5. E) consistency; consistency

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

14) Which is a potential example of the fundamental attribution error?

  1. A) Shawn thought that her secretary was the kindest person she had ever met.
  2. B) Rich figured that the team was late because of congested air traffic over Atlanta.
  3. C) Pam explained that late report by noting that she wasn’t familiar with the new software.
  4. D) Cleo mistook the female vice-president for a secretary.
  5. E) Joe attributed the car accident to slippery pavement.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

15) “He does it everywhere, he does it all the time, and no one else does it.” Which cue combination is the speaker invoking?

  1. A) High consensus, high consistency, high distinctiveness
  2. B) Low consensus, high consistency, low distinctiveness
  3. C) Low consensus, low consistency, high distinctiveness
  4. D) High consensus, low consistency, low distinctiveness
  5. E) Low consensus, low consistency, low distinctiveness

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

16) “He does it everywhere, he does it all the time, and no one else does it.” Which attribution is the speaker likely to make?

  1. A) Dispositional
  2. B) Situational
  3. C) Self-serving
  4. D) Temporary situation
  5. E) Actor-observer effect

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

17) Gloria is absent a lot, her co-workers are seldom absent, and she was absent a lot in her previous job. What kind of attribution is her manager likely to make?

  1. A) Disposition
  2. B) Situation
  3. C) Temporary situation
  4. D) Temporary disposition
  5. E) It depends on other factors.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

18) Orli is absent a lot, her co-workers are also absent a lot, but she was almost never absent in her previous job. What kind of attribution is her manager likely to make?

  1. A) Disposition
  2. B) Situation
  3. C) Temporary situation
  4. D) Temporary disposition
  5. E) It depends on other factors.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

19) Taylor is seldom absent, her co-workers are seldom absent, and she was seldom absent in her previous job. What kind of attribution is her manager likely to make?

  1. A) Disposition
  2. B) Situation
  3. C) Temporary situation
  4. D) Temporary disposition
  5. E) It depends on other factors.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

20) The fact that people will explain the very same behaviour differently on the basis of events that happened after the behaviour occurred is suggested by

  1. A) the fundamental attribution error.
  2. B) the actor-observer effect.
  3. C) the self-serving bias.
  4. D) perceptual defence.
  5. E) contrast effects.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

21) After writing an exam, Yani told everybody that he studied really hard and spent a great deal of time preparing for the exam. However, when the exam grades were posted the following week, Yani did not talk about how he studied but instead told everybody that the exam was not fair and was poorly graded. What is this an example of?

  1. A) The fundamental attribution error
  2. B) The actor-observer effect
  3. C) The self-serving bias
  4. D) Perceptual defence
  5. E) Contrast effects

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

22) The tendency for actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors can be overcome by

  1. A) the fundamental attribution error.
  2. B) the actor-observer effect.
  3. C) the self-serving bias.
  4. D) perceptual defence.
  5. E) contrast effects.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

23) After writing an exam, Yani told everybody that he did not study very hard and spent the weekend partying and playing video games. However, when the exam grades were posted the following week, Yani told everybody that he never studied so hard for an exam in his life and he described himself as brilliant. What is this an example of?

  1. A) The fundamental attribution error
  2. B) The actor-observer effect
  3. C) The self-serving bias
  4. D) Perceptual defence
  5. E) Contrast effects

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

24) Other things equal, high consensus behaviour on the part of an employee will lead a manager to make a dispositional attribution about the behaviour.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

25) Rita inaccurately attributed Tommy’s failure to show up at work to car problems. This is a potential example of the fundamental attribution error.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

26) Wes inaccurately attributed Nina’s failure to show up at work to her poor work ethic. This is a potential example of the fundamental attribution error.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

27) “Laurie acts just like her coworker.” In attribution theory terms, this statement invokes a “low distinctiveness” cue.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3     Type: TF     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

28) If I make a situational attribution about your behaviour, I am more likely to reward you or punish you than if I make a dispositional attribution.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

29) The actor-observer effect refers to the remarkable similarity in the attributions that the actor and an observer make about the actor’s behaviour.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

30) If I make a dispositional attribution about your behaviour, I am more likely to reward you or punish you than if I make a situational attribution.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

31) In attributional terms, highly consistent behaviours are those that most people engage in.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

32) The fundamental attribution error occurs when we blame others for our failures and take credit for our successes.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

33) People tend to overemphasize the role that disposition plays in causing the behaviour of others.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

34) The actor-observer effect suggests that actors and observers will view an actor’s behaviour differently.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

35) Tom attributes Lou’s behaviour to immorality. This is a situational attribution.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

36) The self-serving bias can overcome the tendency for actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

37) According to the actor-observer effect, people will explain the very same behaviour differently on the basis of events that happened after the behaviour occurred.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

38) The tendency for observers to exaggerate the role of dispositional factors in explaining behaviour is called the ________.

Answer:  fundamental attribution error

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

39) “Roberto acts differently from everyone else at work.” In attribution theory terms, the speaker has invoked a(n) ________ cue.

Answer:  consensus or low consensus

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

40) “Heathcliffe only acts pretentious at work. Everywhere else he’s down to earth.” In attribution theory terms, the speaker has invoked a(n) ________ cue.

Answer:  distinctiveness

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

41) ________ is the process of assigning causes to behaviour.

Answer:  Attribution

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

42) The tendency to take credit for successes and deny responsibility for failures is called the ________.

Answer:  self-serving bias

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

43) A(n) ________ attribution is most likely to be made when consistency is high and consensus and distinctiveness are low.

Answer:  dispositional

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

44) A(n) ________ attribution is most likely to occur when distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus are all high.

Answer:  situational

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

45) Jack has just failed his midterm and he is blaming the professor for making the exam too long and for being a hard marker. This is a good example of the ________.

Answer:  self-serving bias

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

46) ________ bias can overcome the tendency for actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors.

Answer:  Self-serving

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

47) Explain the difference between situational and dispositional attributions.

Answer:  Situational attributions are explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment. Dispositional attributions are explanations for behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect.

Diff: 1     Type: ES     Page Ref: 91

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

48) Name and briefly define the three main cues which lead to attributions. What combination of these cues will likely lead an observer to make a dispositional attribution? To make a situational attribution?

Answer:  The cues are consistency, consensus and distinctiveness. A dispositional attribution is likely to occur when consistency is high, consensus is low, and distinctiveness is low. A situational attribution is likely to occur when consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness are all high.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 92

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

49) Professor Schaan has just returned an exam to her organizational behaviour class. Unfortunately, the class average was much lower than usual, and nearly half the students failed. The students complained that the test was much too difficult and was full of tricky and misleading questions. However, Professor Schaan insists that the test was fair and believes that the students simply did not study hard enough. Use your knowledge of attribution errors and perceptual biases to analyze this scenario.

Answer:  Professor Schaan may be making a fundamental attribution error by underestimating the situational explanations (e.g., tricky questions) and overestimating the dispositional explanations (e.g., laziness or poor study habits). The students’ complaints indicate a self-serving bias by attributing their poor performance to situational factors (e.g., tricky questions) rather than accepting personal responsibility.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 93

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.4 Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour and various biases in attribution.

 

 

3.5

 

1) The perception that a person might be judged on the basis of stereotype and that their behaviour or performance will confirm the stereotype is known as a

  1. A) preconception phenomenon.
  2. B) coloured lens bias.
  3. C) peer group sifting.
  4. D) stereotype threat.
  5. E) monotype bias.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

2) Common workplace stereotypes include stereotypes based on

  1. A) age.
  2. B) gender.
  3. C) ethnicity.
  4. D) race.
  5. E) all of the above.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

3) Workforce diversity can be defined in terms of which characteristics?

  1. A) Age
  2. B) Gender
  3. C) Religion
  4. D) Ethnicity
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

4) Gender stereotypes are least likely to have a negative impact on women

  1. A) when their performance is being evaluated by their boss.
  2. B) when they are applying for a job.
  3. C) when they are seeking a promotion.
  4. D) when a rater or evaluator has little information about their qualifications.
  5. E) when they ask to attend a professional development conference.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

5) Encouraging teamwork between minority and majority members should

  1. A) reduce workplace stereotypes by requiring different individuals to work with people different than themselves.
  2. B) increase workplace stereotypes by requiring different individuals to work with people different than themselves.
  3. C) maintain workplace stereotypes by requiring different individuals to work with people different than themselves.
  4. D) have no effect on workplace stereotypes.
  5. E) result in increased employee turnover.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 104

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

6) Women have made the most significant progress moving into senior management and executive positions in the

  1. A) paper and forest products industry.
  2. B) financial services industry.
  3. C) steel production industry.
  4. D) motor vehicles industry.
  5. E) general manufacturing.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

7) What organization has been recognized for its efforts in attracting and hiring older workers?

  1. A) Shell Canada Ltd.
  2. B) Federal Express Canada Ltd.
  3. C) Walmart Canada
  4. D) Boeing Canada
  5. E) American Express

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 102

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

8) Which of the following has been found to be associated with business-unit performance?

  1. A) Diversity president
  2. B) Diversity culture
  3. C) Diversity team
  4. D) Diversity climate
  5. E) Diversity policy

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

9) If there is a single concept that serves as a barrier to valuing diversity, it is

  1. A) discrimination.
  2. B) the stereotype.
  3. C) stereotype threat.
  4. D) the halo effect.
  5. E) similar-to-me effect.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

10) Retail stores have higher customer satisfaction and productivity when their employees represent the ethnicity of their

  1. A) community.
  2. B) country.
  3. C) customers.
  4. D) city.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

11) ________ are rated more favourably than ________ for male-dominated jobs, especially by ________ raters.

  1. A) Men; women; female
  2. B) Women; men; male
  3. C) Women; men; female
  4. D) Men; women; male
  5. E) Managers; employees; male

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

12) Which of the following is most accurate?

  1. A) Women with MBAs earn the same as men in their first year of work.
  2. B) Women with MBAs earn less than men in their first year of work.
  3. C) Women with MBAs earn more than men in their first year of work.
  4. D) Women with MBAs earn the same as women without MBAs in their first year of work.
  5. E) Women with MBAs earn the same as men with MBAs in their first year of work.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

13) Which of the following is least accurate?

  1. A) Women with MBAs start in more junior positions than men.
  2. B) Women with MBAs earn less than men in their first year of work.
  3. C) Women with MBAs are offered fewer international assignments than men.
  4. D) Women with MBAs are less likely to receive technical job assignments than men.
  5. E) Women with MBAs are less likely to receive job rotation assignments than men.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

14) The detrimental effects of gender stereotypes are reduced or removed when

  1. A) decision makers have experience and training.
  2. B) decision makers are held accountable for their decision.
  3. C) decision makers have job-related information about the qualifications of women.
  4. D) decision makers have an accurate picture of the job.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

15) The detrimental effects of gender stereotypes are NOT likely to be reduced or removed when

  1. A) decision makers have experience and training.
  2. B) decision makers are held accountable for their decision.
  3. C) decision makers have job-related information about the qualifications of women.
  4. D) the decision maker is a woman.
  5. E) decision makers have an accurate picture of the job.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

16) A review of male and female performance reviews found that women are more likely to

  1. A) receive positive comments about their personality.
  2. B) receive positive comments about their appearance.
  3. C) receive negative comments about their personality.
  4. D) receive negative comments about their appearance.
  5. E) receive negative comments about their personality and positive comments about their appearance.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

17) A review of male and female performance reviews found that

  1. A) men receive positive comments about their personality.
  2. B) men receive negative comments about their personality.
  3. C) women receive positive comments about their personality.
  4. D) women receive negative comments about their personality.
  5. E) women receive positive comments about their appearance.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

18) Canada’s financial services sector ranks third in the world in terms of the percentage of ________ in executive positions.

  1. A) visible minorities
  2. B) women
  3. C) older employees
  4. D) LGBT employees
  5. E) immigrants

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

19) A recent survey found that 71.5 percent of small-and medium-sized organizations across Canada said that they

  1. A) were likely to fill a job opening with someone older than 65.
  2. B) were likely to fill a job opening with someone younger than 65.
  3. C) were not likely to fill a job opening with someone older than 65.
  4. D) were not likely to consider age when filling a job opening.
  5. E) were not likely to fill a job opening with someone older than 55.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 102

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

20) In 2014, what CEO became the first CEO of a fortune 500 company to publicly announce that he was gay?

  1. A) Bill Gates
  2. B) Tim Cook
  3. C) Steve Jobs
  4. D) Tom Jones
  5. E) Mark Zuckerberg

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

21) In 2014, what company CEO became the first CEO of a fortune 500 company to publicly announce that he was gay?

  1. A) Microsoft
  2. B) Google
  3. C) Apple
  4. D) Yahoo
  5. E) Facebook

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

22) Which of the following is most accurate?

  1. A) LGBT women report a less friendly workplace and more hurdles than LGBT men.
  2. B) LGBT women report a more friendly workplace and more hurdles than LGBT men.
  3. C) LGBT women report a less friendly workplace and less hurdles than LGBT men.
  4. D) LGBT men report a less friendly workplace and more hurdles than LGBT women.
  5. E) LGBT women report just as less friendly a workplace and similar hurdles as LGBT men.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

23) Workplace stereotypes are not harmful in any way.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

24) Gender stereotypes have less negative effects when an observer has accurate knowledge about the woman in question.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

25) Male managers today hold the same dysfunctional stereotypes about women and management that they held in the early 1970s.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

26) Recent research indicates that both men and women of varying age, education, and work experience still describe a good manager as possessing predominantly masculine characteristics.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

27) Discrimination on the basis of age is experienced by people as young as 40 to 45.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 102

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

28) Women have made the most significant progress moving into senior management and executive positions in the paper and forest products industry.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

29) People who threaten to stereotype others are issuing a stereotype threat.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

30) Gender stereotypes tend to favour women when they are being considered for “women’s” jobs.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

31) People tend to perceive leaders as similar to men and women.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

32) Age is not related to task performance, but it is related to creativity.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

33) When women are successful in traditional male jobs, they are more liked.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 3     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

34) Male managers today hold the same dysfunctional stereotypes about women and management that they held in the early 1970s.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

35) If there is a single concept that serves as a barrier to valuing diversity, it is the stereotype.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

36) A diversity climate has been found to be associated with business-unit performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

37) People perceive leaders as possessing both, and in equal measure, masculine and feminine characteristics.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

38) Retail stores can improve customer satisfaction and productivity if their employees represent the ethnicity of their customers.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

39) Women with MBAs earn the same as men in their first year of work.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

40) The detrimental effects of gender stereotypes can be reduced or removed when decision makers are held accountable for their decisions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

41) It is not possible to remove the detrimental effects of gender stereotypes.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

42) Women are more likely to receive negative comments about their personality in performance reviews.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

43) Women are more likely to receive negative comments about their appearance in performance reviews.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

44) Canada’s financial services sector ranks first in the world in terms of the percentage of women in executive positions.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

45) Most small and medium-sized organizations across Canada are not likely to fill a job opening with someone older than 65 now or in the future.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 102

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

46) LGBT women report a more friendly workplace and less hurdles than LGBT men.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

47) ________ is characterized by individual differences such as race, age, physical ability, and sexual orientation.

Answer:  Workforce diversity

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 94

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

48) The perception that a person might be judged on the basis of stereotype and that their behaviour or performance may be hindered by it is known as a ________.

Answer:  stereotype threat

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 90

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

49) Men and women of varying age, education, and work experience describe a good manager as possessing predominantly ________ characteristics.

Answer:  masculine

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

50) Women have made the most significant progress moving into senior management and executive positions in the ________ industry.

Answer:  financial services

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

51) Awareness training should be accompanied by ________ that is relevant to the particular needs of the organization.

Answer:  skills training

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 105

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

52) Age is not related to task performance or ________.

Answer:  creativity

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

53) A diversity ________ has been found to be associated with business-unit performance.

Answer:  climate

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

54) If there is a single concept that serves as a barrier to valuing diversity, it is the ________.

Answer:  stereotype

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

55) ________ is not related to task performance or creativity.

Answer:  Age

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

56) Retail stores have higher customer satisfaction and productivity when their employees represent the ________ of their customers.

Answer:  ethnicity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

57) Even women with ________ earn less than men in their first year of work.

Answer:  MBAs

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

58) Canada’s financial services sector ranks third in the world in terms of the percentage of women in ________ positions.

Answer:  executive

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 101

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

59) Women are more likely to receive negative comments about their in performance ________ reviews.

Answer:  personality

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

60) ________ CEO Tim Cook became the first CEO of a Fortune 500 company to publicly announce that he was gay.

Answer:  Apple

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

61) LGBT women report a less ________ workplace and more hurdles than LGBT men.

Answer:  friendly

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

62) What are some of the competitive advantages available to organizations which value and manage a diverse workforce?

Answer:  Six advantages or “arguments” are presented in Exhibit 3.5 (page 96) in the text: lower integration costs, improved recruitment and marketing capabilities, higher levels of creativity, enhanced problem-solving abilities, and greater system flexibility to react to environmental changes.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

63) Describe the nature of gender and age stereotypes and the impact they have on human resource decisions.

Answer:  The nature of gender stereotypes is such that successful managers are perceived as having traits and qualities that are generally ascribed to men and do not correspond to stereotypes of women. As for age stereotypes, older workers are perceived as having less capacity for performance. They are viewed as less productive, creative, logical, and less capable of performing under pressure compared to younger workers. They are also viewed as having less potential for development. Gender and age stereotypes have a detrimental effect on the hiring, promotion, and skills development of women and older workers.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 98

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

64) What is a stereotype threat? Give an example and discuss its implications for individuals and organizations.

Answer:  A stereotype threat occurs when members of a social group such as visible minorities or women feel they might be judged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behaviour and/or performance will confirm the stereotype. The activation of a stereotype threat in a testing situation has been found to result in lower cognitive ability and math test scores of minorities and women. This means that individuals might not do well on selection tests and as a result will not be hired. Organizations might be losing good employees who perform poorly on selection tests because of a stereotype threat.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 96

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

 

65) The ACME Insurance Company has tried to achieve a diverse workforce, but they have had difficulty changing a workforce that has historically not been all that diverse. If you were hired as the new manager of human resources, what actions would you take to achieve and manage a diverse workforce?

Answer:  Select enough minority members to get them beyond token status; encourage teamwork that brings minority and majority members together; ensure those making career decisions about employees have accurate information about them; and train people to be aware of stereotypes. Additional answers can be found in Exhibit 3.8 (page 104).

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 104

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

66) Some have argued that organizations should value diversity, not just tolerate it or try to blend everyone into a narrow mainstream. What is the basis for this argument?

Answer:  A critical motive is the basic fairness of valuing diversity. In addition, there is increasing awareness that diversity and its proper management can yield strategic and competitive advantages such as improved problem solving and creativity when diverse perspectives are brought to bear on an organizational problem as well as improved recruiting and marketing. More organizations are adopting diversity as part of their corporate strategy to improve their competitiveness in global markets. Furthermore, a diversity climate has been found to be associated with business-unit performance, and organizations with gender-diverse teams have superior financial performance.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 95

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

67) After a review of its hiring and promotion decisions, the You Don’t Pay Unless We Win law firm determined that women in the firm suffer from a stereotype that is detrimental to their hiring, development, promotion, and salaries. What is the nature of this stereotype and what can the firm do to reduce or remove the detrimental effects of it?

Answer:  Gender stereotypes suggest that successful managers are seen as more similar to men in qualities such as leadership ability, competitiveness, self-confidence, ambitiousness, and objectivity. Stereotypes of successful middle managers do not correspond to stereotypes of women. People perceive leaders as similar to men but not very similar to women. The detrimental effects of gender stereotypes can be reduced or removed when decision makers have increased experience and training, are held accountable for their decisions, and have good job-related information about the qualifications, competence, and performance of particular women, and an accurate picture of the job that they are applying for or seeking promotion into.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 100

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

68) What is the nature of LGBT stereotypes and what effect do they have on LGBT employees? What can organizations do to make their workplaces more inclusive for LGBT employees and how will this affect LGBT employees?

Answer:  The results of several surveys found that misperceptions and stereotypes lead to discriminatory behaviours towards LGBT employees, such as homophobia, inappropriate humour, exclusion from networks inside and outside of the organization, social exclusion, ridicule, and a lack of role models. LGBT employees who do not feel safe to come out at work are less productive, more likely to suffer from depression and stress, and more likely to quit. They have greater feelings of being stalled in their careers, and dissatisfaction with their rate of promotion and advancement. They are less likely to trust their employers, and more likely to leave within three years compared to those who have come out at work. Organizations can make their workplaces more inclusive for LGBT employees by creating LGBT resource groups and employee groups for LGBT employees. LGBT-inclusive workplaces can increase employee engagement because they allow employees to be authentic and spend less time self-editing, which can also increase loyalty and reduce turnover. When organizations implement programs to create LGBT-inclusive workplaces, they improve LGBT employee relationships with co-workers, increase perceptions of fairness, and increase organizational commitment and career satisfaction, which can lead to increased productivity. See Exhibit 3.7 for more examples of how to make a workplace LGBT-inclusive.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 103

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.5 Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity and how racial, ethnic, religious, gender, age, and LGBT stereotypes affect organizational behaviour, and what organizations can do to manage diversity.

 

3.6

 

1) Trust perceptions towards management are based on perceptions of

  1. A) ability, benevolence, and support.
  2. B) ability, honesty, and support.
  3. C) ability, fairness, and support.
  4. D) benevolence, integrity, and support.
  5. E) ability, benevolence, and integrity.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 105

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

 

2) Which one of the following is NOT associated with building trust?

  1. A) credibility
  2. B) respect
  3. C) fairness
  4. D) pride
  5. E) support

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 107

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

3) Which of the following factors contribute to perceived organizational support?

  1. A) Supervisor support, job security, recognition, and job conditions
  2. B) Fairness, rewards, pay, and job security
  3. C) Fairness, rewards, pay, and job conditions
  4. D) Supervisor support, fairness, rewards, and job conditions
  5. E) Supervisor support, fairness, rewards, and opportunities for advancement

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 108

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

4) What is considered to be a critical factor when judging the best workplaces in Canada?

  1. A) Organizational support
  2. B) Supervisor support
  3. C) Diversity
  4. D) Trust
  5. E) Fairness

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 107

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

 

5) ACME Insurance Company wants to improve employee perceptions of organizational support. They hired a new director of human resources to implement supportive human resource practices. What practices are likely to be most effective for developing more positive perceptions of organizational support?

  1. A) Participation in decision making and opportunities for advancement
  2. B) Participation in decision making and opportunities for training
  3. C) A fair reward and recognition system and better compensation
  4. D) Participation in decision making and opportunities for growth and development
  5. E) A fair reward and recognition system, and opportunities for advancement

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 108

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

6) If an organization wants to improve perceptions of organizational support, they should make sure that employee compensation is above the industry average.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 108

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

7) If an organization wants to improve perceptions of organizational support, they should make sure that employees have opportunities for growth and development.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 108

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

8) Trust perceptions towards management are based on perceptions of ability, benevolence, and ________.

Answer:  integrity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 105

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

9) ________ refers to employees’ general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.

Answer:  Perceived organizational support

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 107

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

10) Define perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory?

Answer:  Perceived organizational support refers to employees’ general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. According to organizational support theory, employees who have strong perceptions of organizational support feel an obligation to care about the organization’s welfare and to help the organization achieve its objectives.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 107

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

11) What factors contribute to perceived organizational support and what can organizations do to develop strong perceptions of organizational support?

Answer:  The factors that contribute to POS are supervisor support, fairness, organizational rewards, and job conditions. Supportive human resource practices such as participation in decision making, opportunities for growth and development, and a fair reward and recognition system contribute to the development of POS.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 107

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

12) Define the meaning of trust and describe what managers can do to improve employees’ trust perceptions towards management.

Answer:  Trust refers to a psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party. If managers want to improve employees’ trust perceptions, they need to improve employees’ perceptions with respect to 1) management’s competence and skills (ability perceptions); 2) management’s caring and concern for employees’ interests and willingness to do good for employees (benevolence); and 3) adhere to and behave according to a set of values and principles that employees find acceptable (integrity). According to the trust model, managers can improve employees’ trust perceptions by practicing credibility, respect, and fairness, and by encouraging pride and camaraderie among employees.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 105

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.6 Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory.

 

 

3.7

 

1) “I don’t really like you very much, and this causes me to overlook a number of your good qualities.” This is an example of

  1. A) implicit personality theory.
  2. B) harshness.
  3. C) stereotyping.
  4. D) the halo effect.
  5. E) central tendency.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

2) The contrast effect means that the perceiver

  1. A) exaggerates differences among target people.
  2. B) favours target people who are different from herself.
  3. C) compares target people with her own qualities.
  4. D) rejects target people who are different from herself.
  5. E) will generalize about people in a given social category and ignore variations among them.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

3) The professor who gives all C’s to his class is committing

  1. A) halo.
  2. B) central tendency.
  3. C) self-serving bias.
  4. D) central trait bias.
  5. E) harshness.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

4) Research shows that the employment interview

  1. A) is free of perceptual biases.
  2. B) is a totally invalid selection technique.
  3. C) is most effective when the interviewer does not ask personal questions.
  4. D) overweights positive information.
  5. E) is most valid when the interviewer conducts it in an unstructured format.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

5) When we invoke ________, we tend not to perceive different qualities within people.

  1. A) the primacy effect
  2. B) projection
  3. C) the recency effect
  4. D) the halo effect
  5. E) consensus cues

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

6) Employment interviewers tend to

  1. A) have an easy perceptual task.
  2. B) underweight positive information about the applicant.
  3. C) underweight negative information about the applicant.
  4. D) predict applicant success better with an unstructured interview than with a guided interview.
  5. E) avoid making comparisons between the current candidate and those previously interviewed.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

7) Subjective performance measures are called “subjective” because

  1. A) all performance measures are subjective.
  2. B) they are a product of the perceptions of an observer.
  3. C) it is impossible to measure performance objectively.
  4. D) bosses and employees frequently disagree on the ratings.
  5. E) they focus attention directly on the interview subject.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

8) The Devious Employment Agency uses a trick to get companies to hire its candidates. If it only has a marginal candidate, it sends over two real duds before sending over this marginal person. Which perceptual reaction is the Devious manager relying on to get the marginal candidate hired?

  1. A) Contrast effect
  2. B) Halo effect
  3. C) Leniency
  4. D) Central trait
  5. E) Actor-observer effect

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

9) Ellen is an employment interviewer. One day she interviews three job applicants and rates the third applicant very negatively. If the contrast effect is responsible for this negative rating, we can be sure that the first two applicants were

  1. A) perceived as totally unqualified for the job.
  2. B) seen by Ellen to be very different from herself.
  3. C) seen by Ellen to be very similar to herself.
  4. D) perceived as well qualified for the job.
  5. E) given unstructured interviews.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

10) A manager is completing performance evaluations of his employees. Unwittingly, he allows his perceptions of their attendance to colour his ratings of many specific characteristics, including their quality and quantity of work. Thus, those with poor attendance invariably get poor ratings. What’s happened?

  1. A) Knowledge-of-predictor bias
  2. B) Harshness
  3. C) Halo effect
  4. D) Contrast effects
  5. E) Similar-to-me effect

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

11) Joan was poorly treated in an employment interview and perceived the organization as lacking respect for its employees. What is this an example of?

  1. A) Contrast effects
  2. B) Halo effect
  3. C) Signalling theory
  4. D) Social identity theory
  5. E) Fundamental attribution error

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

12) Among various selection procedures, which ones are perceived most favourably?

  1. A) Employment interviews and personality tests
  2. B) Personality tests and honesty tests
  3. C) Employment interviews and work samples
  4. D) Personality tests and work samples
  5. E) Work samples and honesty tests

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

13) Interviews are more likely to be structured when

  1. A) the interviewer has a great deal of experience interviewing.
  2. B) the interviewer has worked for the same company for many years.
  3. C) the interviewer focuses on selection rather than recruitment.
  4. D) the interviewer focuses on recruitment rather than selection.
  5. E) the interviewer focuses on recruitment and selection.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

14) A training method to improve rating accuracy in performance appraisals is known as

  1. A) behaviourally anchored training.
  2. B) rater accuracy training.
  3. C) frame-of-reference training.
  4. D) rater error training.
  5. E) performance evaluation training.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 113

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

15) A rating scale that gives very specific examples of good, average, and poor performance is known as a

  1. A) behaviourally specific rating scale.
  2. B) behaviourally diverse rating scale.
  3. C) behaviourally based rating scale.
  4. D) behaviourally anchored rating scale.
  5. E) behaviourally oriented rating scale.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 113

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

16) What does a morning bias refer to?

  1. A) Employees who work on morning shifts receive higher job performance ratings.
  2. B) Employees who work on night shifts receive lower job performance ratings.
  3. C) Employees with late start times receive lower job performance ratings.
  4. D) Employees receive higher job performance ratings when the ratings are made in the morning.
  5. E) Employees perform better in the morning than later in the day.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

17) A recent study found that employees with late start times receive lower job performance ratings than employees with early start times. What is this called?

  1. A) shift bias
  2. B) performance bias
  3. C) halo effect
  4. D) similar-to-me effect
  5. E) morning bias

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

18) The morning bias occurs because employees with late start times are perceived as

  1. A) more conscientious.
  2. B) less conscientious.
  3. C) more agreeable.
  4. D) less agreeable.
  5. E) more extraverted.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

19) The contrast effect is the tendency for interviewers to select candidates who are very different from themselves.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

20) Employment interviews that focus on selection are more valid than those that focus on recruitment.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

21) One implication of the halo effect is that we fail to appreciate that a target person could have both strengths and weaknesses.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

22) According to the text, a performance rater who is unfair and vindictive with regard to employees is engaging in harshness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

23) When doing her performance evaluations, Rick’s boss engaged in central tendency. This means that Rick probably received an average performance rating.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

24) Company attendance records are an example of a subjective performance measure.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

25) Employment interviewers tend to underweight positive information about job applicants.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

26) Central tendency is our propensity to organize perceptions of others around certain key traits.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

27) The similar-to-me effect means that we often attribute our own feelings, attitudes, and ideas to others.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

28) According to the text, a performance rater who overlooks gross errors on the part of employees is engaging in leniency.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

29) Halo effect can cause a person to receive a bad performance evaluation.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

30) If an interviewer wants to improve the validity of the employment interview, he/she should focus on selection rather than recruitment.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

31) If an interviewer wants to improve the validity of the employment interview, he/she should focus on recruitment and selection.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

32) Among various selection procedures, employment interviews and cognitive ability tests are perceived most favourably.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

33) According to signalling theory, job applicants interpret performance appraisals as signals of how they will be treated in the organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

34) If you are treated poorly during the recruitment process, you will probably not let it affect your perceptions towards the organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

35) If you are asked to take a selection test that you perceive to be unfair, you will probably form a negative perception of the organization.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

36) If an organization wants job applicants to form positive perceptions of selection fairness, they should have them take an honesty test.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

37) Frame-of-reference training is an example of an activity to manage workforce diversity.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 113

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

38) The morning bias refers to employees who give higher performance ratings in the morning than in the afternoon.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

39) Employees with late start times receive lower job performance ratings from their supervisors than employees with early start times.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

40) Although there were considerable performance differences among his employees, Chester rated them all about average. Chester committed the ________ rater error.

Answer:  central tendency

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

 

41) After interviewing three superstars, the perfectly adequate candidate looked weak to Margo. The ________ biased her impression of the adequate candidate.

Answer:  contrast effect

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

42) A performance rater who can’t perceive differences within ratees is most likely a victim of ________.

Answer:  halo effect

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

43) Because the employee was not creative, Jan tended to rate her unfairly low on all performance categories. Jan has fallen prey to ________.

Answer:  halo effect

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

44) The tendency for a rater to give more favourable evaluations to those who he/she finds are similar to him/her in background or attitudes is called the ________.

Answer:  similar-to-me effect

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

45) Daniel rates all his employees as superstars. Either they are very good or Daniel has committed ________.

Answer:  leniency

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

46) Interviewers have a tendency to give less importance to ________ information about the applicant.

Answer:  positive

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

 

47) The employment interview tends to be more structured when the interviewer focuses on ________.

Answer:  selection

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

48) If your task is to conduct a structured interview, then you should not focus on ________.

Answer:  recruitment

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

49) A friend of yours has just had an interview and was so impressed with the way she was treated that she is convinced that the organization must be a great place to work. This is a good example of ________.

Answer:  signalling theory

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 109

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

50) ________ training is a method of training to improve rating accuracy for evaluating performance.

Answer:  Frame-of-reference

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 113

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

51) The morning bias is due to the negative stereotype of employees with late start times being perceived as less ________.

Answer:  conscientious

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

52) Identify and briefly describe five types of “rater errors” which managers sometimes make in performance appraisals.

Answer:  Leniency, harshness, central tendency, halo effect, and similar-to-me effect.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

 

53) What is the halo effect? Give examples which illustrate how the halo effect might lead to either a favourable or unfavourable rating.

Answer:  The halo effect occurs when the observer allows the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic to colour the ratings of other traits or characteristics. A manager might rate a worker as punctual, leading her to give a good evaluation on other factors such as productivity and quality of work. The manager may subsequently rate another worker as frequently late, leading to a poor overall evaluation of the employee’s productivity and quality of work. In both cases, the issue of punctuality may be irrelevant to the worker’s productivity and quality of work; the employee who is frequently late may actually be the more productive employee.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 112

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

54) What factors threaten the validity of the employment interview? What can be done to improve the validity of the employment interview?

Answer:  Applicants are motivated to present an especially favourable impression of themselves; interviewers compare applicants to a stereotype of the ideal applicant which is often inaccurate; interviewers have a tendency to exhibit primacy reactions; interviewers have a tendency to give less importance to positive information about the applicant; contrast effects sometimes occur in the interview. The validity of the interview improves when it is structured.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

55) As a new director of human resources, your first major task is to ensure that all employment interviews are structured. You are to meet with all of the staff of human resources to instruct them on how to conduct structured employment interviews. What will you tell them?

Answer:  You need to tell them to standardize the evaluation of applicants by using standardized and numeric scoring procedures; to use only job-related behavioural questions and situational questions; to be consistent in questioning applicants by asking the same questions in the same order of every candidate; and not to ask personal questions that are unrelated to the job. You should also tell them to focus on selection rather than recruitment. It is also helpful if interviewers receive formal interview training.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

 

56) The competition for talent has become intense and you need to make sure that every job applicant who applies for a job will stay interested in the job and will want to work for your organization. What can you do to make sure that job applicants have positive perceptions of the recruitment and selection process and of the organization?

Answer:  Applicants interpret recruitment experiences as signals about what it is like to work in an organization. Therefore, it is important that applicants are treated well during recruitment and that recruiters are friendly, professional, and respectful. This will increase the likelihood that applicants will form positive perceptions of their recruitment experience and towards the organization. In addition, the selection procedures should be perceived as fair by applicants who will form more positive perceptions of the selection process and the organization when they have more positive perceptions of selection fairness. In terms of various methods of selection, employment interviews and work samples are perceived more favourably than personality tests and honesty tests.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 110

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

57) What are rater errors and what can organizations do to reduce them and improve the accuracy of performance appraisals?

Answer:  Rater errors refer to perceptual tendencies that occur in performance evaluations. Examples described in the text include leniency, harshness, central tendency, halo effect, and similar-to-me effect. They can be minimized through the use of behaviourally anchored rating scales (BARS) and frame-of-reference training (FOR).

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 111

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  3.7 Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources.

 

Organizational Behaviour, 10e (Johns/Saks)

Chapter 7   Groups and Teamwork

 

7.1

 

1) Temporarily organized groups that are formed to achieve particular goals or solve particular problems are called

  1. A) work groups.
  2. B) task forces.
  3. C) committees.
  4. D) informal groups.
  5. E) self-managed teams.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

2) According to behavioural scientists

  1. A) groups have at least five members.
  2. B) group members have a common goal and interact with each other.
  3. C) group members must interact face-to-face.
  4. D) informal groups are shown on organizational charts.
  5. E) members of larger groups tend to report higher levels of satisfaction.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

3) Identify the proper sequence of group development activities.

  1. A) Forming, norming, storming, performing, adjourning
  2. B) Forming, storming, performing, norming, adjourning
  3. C) Forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
  4. D) Norming, forming, storming, performing, adjourning
  5. E) Storming, forming, norming, performing, adjourning

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

4) During which stage of group development is conflict likely to develop?

  1. A) Forming
  2. B) Storming
  3. C) Norming
  4. D) Adjourning
  5. E) Performing

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

5) In the punctuated equilibrium model of group development, a critical point occurs

  1. A) when the group enters the storming stage.
  2. B) at the midpoint of the group’s allotted time until deadline.
  3. C) at the midpoint of the volume of work that has to be accomplished.
  4. D) at the middle of Phase 1.
  5. E) towards the end of Phase 2.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

6) In the punctuated equilibrium model of group development, the midpoint transition occurs

  1. A) when half the group’s time is elapsed.
  2. B) when half the group’s work is done.
  3. C) at the beginning of Phase 1.
  4. D) at the end of Phase 2.
  5. E) as the group enters the storming stage.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

7) In the stage model of group development, conflict is a particular problem

  1. A) in the stage before norming.
  2. B) in the forming stage.
  3. C) in the adjourning stage.
  4. D) in the stage after norming.
  5. E) in the performing stage.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

8) Connie Gersick’s research resulted in which of the following?

  1. A) Typical stages of group development
  2. B) Punctuated equilibrium model
  3. C) Model of the role assumption process
  4. D) Model of group cohesiveness
  5. E) Model of factors that influence work group effectiveness

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

9) What did Connie Gersick study to learn about the development of groups?

  1. A) Workers at Federal Express improving billing accuracy and reducing lost packages
  2. B) Student groups doing class projects
  3. C) Sales teams at UPS that sell and deliver products and services
  4. D) Teams at Rubbermaid that invent and design innovative household products
  5. E) A team at Thermos that invented an ecologically friendly electric barbecue grill

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

10) You have been assigned a group project in your organizational behaviour course. You have six weeks to complete it. When will the midpoint transition occur?

  1. A) At about one week
  2. B) At about two weeks
  3. C) At about three weeks
  4. D) At about four weeks
  5. E) At about five weeks

Answer:  C

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

11) At what stage during group development does conflict often emerge?

  1. A) Forming
  2. B) Storming
  3. C) Norming
  4. D) Performing
  5. E) Adjourning

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

12) The hierarchy of most organizations is a series of informal, interlocked work groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

13) The punctuated equilibrium model only works for groups that successfully manage the midpoint transition.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

14) The proper sequence of group development activities is forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

15) Conflict is particularly likely to develop during the norming stage of group development.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

16) The punctuated equilibrium theory of group development has five phases.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

17) All groups go through the typical stages of group development.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

18) The concept of punctuated equilibrium applies to groups without deadlines.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

 

19) By definition, a group has at least ________ members.

Answer:  two

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

20) ________ refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group.

Answer:  Group structure

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

21) Distinguish between formal and informal work groups in organizations. Give an example of each.

Answer:  Formal work groups are established to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Examples include departments, task forces, and committees. Informal groups emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Examples might include a softball team, a fitness group or a wine tasting club.

Diff: 1     Type: ES     Page Ref: 242

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

22) Describe the five stages of group development. At which stage is conflict most likely to emerge?

Answer:  Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning are the five stages of group development. Conflict emerges in the storming stage.

Diff: 1     Type: ES     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

23) You have just formed a group as a part of a class assignment to complete a group project. You have four weeks to complete the project and present it to the class. What can you tell the other group members about how the group will develop and how they should proceed? What advice will you give them?

Answer:  According to the punctuated equilibrium model, the group will experience stretches of group stability punctuated by a critical first meeting (Phase 1), a midpoint change (midpoint transition) in group activity, and a rush to task completion (Phase 2). Based on the model, you can offer group members the following advice:

-Prepare carefully for the first meeting;

-as long as people are working, do not look for radical progress during Phase 1;

-manage the midpoint transition carefully;

-be sure that adequate resources are available to execute the Phase 2 plan;

-and resist deadline changes.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 244

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

24) You have just formed a group as a part of a class assignment to complete a group project. You want to make sure that it follows the different stages of group development. What are the different stages of group development and what should happen at each stage?

Answer:  The five stages of group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. During the forming stage, group members should orient themselves by “testing the waters.” During the storming stage, confrontation and criticism will occur, and group members must sort out roles and responsibilities. During the norming stage members must resolve issues that provoked storming and develop social consensus. During the performing stage, group members must devote their energies toward task accomplishment. And during the adjourning stage rites and rituals affirm the group’s successful development and members often exhibit emotional support for each other.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 243

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

25) What is group cohesiveness and what factors influence cohesiveness?

Answer:  Group cohesiveness refers to the degree to which a group is attractive to its members. The factors that influence cohesiveness are threat and competition, success, member diversity, size, and toughness of initiation.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.1 Discuss group development.

 

7.2

 

1) As a group size increases

  1. A) members become less inhibited about participating in group activities.
  2. B) members become more satisfied with group membership.
  3. C) the group consistently performs better.
  4. D) the time available for verbal participation by each member decreases.
  5. E) performance on conjunctive tasks improves.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

2) Which of the following equations is accurate?

  1. A) Potential performance = actual performance + process losses
  2. B) Process losses = potential performance + actual performance
  3. C) Potential performance = actual performance — process losses
  4. D) Actual performance = potential performance — process losses
  5. E) Process performance = actual performance — process losses

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

3) A group performing a disjunctive task will perform at the level of

  1. A) its best member.
  2. B) its worst member.
  3. C) the average performance of all its members.
  4. D) the member who is most friendly to other members.
  5. E) the relative process loss.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

4) One reason for members reporting less satisfaction in larger groups is

  1. A) they have more time to develop friendships with other group members.
  2. B) individual members can identify less easily with the success of the group.
  3. C) opportunities for participation increase in larger groups.
  4. D) conflict and dissension are less likely in larger groups.
  5. E) people are less inhibited about participating in larger groups.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

5) On which task is the presence of only one poor performer most likely to damage group performance?

  1. A) Conjunctive
  2. B) Disjunctive
  3. C) Reflexive
  4. D) Additive
  5. E) Complexive

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

6) A television news team consists of a reporter, a camera operator, and a sound technician. Their job is to get good news reports to the station in time to make the evening news. A bad story, a bad picture, or bad sound means they have failed. This is a(n) ________ task.

  1. A) additive
  2. B) disjunctive
  3. C) conjunctive
  4. D) reflexive
  5. E) complexive

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

7) Which of the following statements is most indicative of a process loss?

  1. A) As the task force got bigger, it encountered more coordination problems.
  2. B) Bill forgot how to program FORTRAN computer language because he hadn’t used it in ten years.
  3. C) Nan experienced role conflict when her boss told her to do something that she felt was unethical.
  4. D) Zeke worked harder when his colleagues were present than when he was alone.
  5. E) Carly was clearly the star of the group and they could not have completed the project on time without her participation.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

8) The relationship between group size and group ________ is particularly complex and highly contingent upon the task being performed.

  1. A) cohesiveness
  2. B) member participation
  3. C) member satisfaction
  4. D) performance
  5. E) norms

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

9) Which of the following is an example of process loss?

  1. A) No one in the group could remember how to work the video machine.
  2. B) Because the group was so large, communication became a problem.
  3. C) After losing the game, the team was much less cohesive.
  4. D) After they failed to land the big contract, the status of the sales staff decreased.
  5. E) The source of the quality problems could have originated in any one of three separate departments.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

10) As a group performing an additive task gets bigger

  1. A) process losses decrease.
  2. B) the average productivity per member decreases.
  3. C) group cohesiveness should increase.
  4. D) potential group productivity decreases.
  5. E) the performance of the best member becomes more critical to group success.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

11) Which of the following is an additive task for a group?

  1. A) Picking grapes at harvest
  2. B) Passing water buckets along a human chain
  3. C) Writing a short story
  4. D) Working in a self-managed group
  5. E) Looking for a single error in a complicated computer program

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

12) Diverse groups tend to develop more ________ than less diverse groups.

  1. A) roles
  2. B) poorly
  3. C) quickly
  4. D) slowly
  5. E) loyalty norms

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

13) Tasks that depend on the performance of the best group member’s performance are

  1. A) disjunctive.
  2. B) conjunctive.
  3. C) injunctive.
  4. D) reflexive.
  5. E) complexive.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

14) The group had trouble coordinating its efforts because it was so big. This is an example of

  1. A) a conjunctive task.
  2. B) social loafing.
  3. C) a process loss.
  4. D) role ambiguity.
  5. E) punctuated equilibrium.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

15) Which of the following type of group can enhance team creativity and innovation?

  1. A) Self-managed
  2. B) Informal
  3. C) Cohesive
  4. D) Diverse
  5. E) Cross-functional

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

16) The Stinky Cheese Company has decided to form work teams in all of their plants. They are most concerned about team creativity and innovation. What type of teams should they use?

  1. A) Self-managed teams
  2. B) Virtual teams
  3. C) Cohesive teams
  4. D) Diverse teams
  5. E) Cross-functional teams

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

17) Which of the following can badly damage cohesiveness in diverse groups?

  1. A) Deep diversity
  2. B) Surface diversity
  3. C) Age
  4. D) Gender
  5. E) Race

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

18) Many examples of “whistle-blowing” are signals of

  1. A) person-role conflict.
  2. B) role ambiguity.
  3. C) inter-role conflict.
  4. D) intersender role conflict.
  5. E) intrasender role conflict.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

19) On an additive task, the presence of an especially strong group member can compensate for a weak group member.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

20) On a conjunctive task, the presence of an especially strong group member can compensate for a weak group member.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

21) Potential group performance minus process losses equals actual group performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

22) One of the members of Jim’s self-managed work team had forgotten how to use Excel. This is an example of a process loss.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

23) The self-managed work teams at Excelsior Widgets were so large that confusion and poor coordination existed within every team. This is an example of a process loss.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

 

24) On disjunctive tasks, potential group performance should depend on the performance of the best member.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

25) Large groups promote greater member satisfaction than small groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

26) A sequential assembly line type of task is an example of a conjunctive task.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

27) As group size increases, the time available for verbal participation by each member increases.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

28) Process losses damage group performance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

29) Disjunctive tasks depend on the performance of the best group member.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

30) Once they develop, more and less diverse groups can be equally cohesive and productive.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

 

31) Surface diversity can badly damage group cohesiveness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

32) When working on a ________ task the potential performance of a group depends on the performance of its best member.

Answer:  disjunctive

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

33) “One weak link in the chain” severely damages a group’s performance on a(n) ________ task.

Answer:  conjunctive

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

34) For a(n) ________ task, the potential performance of the group equals the sum of the individual members’ performances.

Answer:  additive

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

35) Actual group performance equals potential performance minus ________.

Answer:  process losses

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

36) The most basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and ________.

Answer:  member diversity

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 245

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

37) ________ groups have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive.

Answer:  Diverse

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

 

 

38) Explain the difference between additive tasks, disjunctive tasks, and conjunctive tasks. Give an example of each.

Answer:  Additive tasks are those tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual members (e.g., moving a heavy crate). Disjunctive tasks are those tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member (e.g., debugging a software program). Conjunctive tasks are those tasks in which the performance of the group is limited by its poorest performer (e.g., sequential tasks such as assembly lines).

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.2 Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups.

7.3

 

1) A manager recommends an employee for a promotion because the employee stood up for the manager during a leadership crisis. Which reward allocation norm led the superior to recommend this employee for promotion?

  1. A) Reciprocity
  2. B) Equity
  3. C) Equality
  4. D) Social responsibility
  5. E) Performance

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

2) Lisa is a very religious person whose boss tells her to offer an illegal bribe to a government official to obtain a lucrative contract. What kind of role conflict is she experiencing?

  1. A) Person-role
  2. B) Interrole
  3. C) Intrasender
  4. D) Intersender
  5. E) Role ambiguity

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

3) Darlene is a physician who is employed as the director of research for a large drug company. She often worries that her actions as a manager could possibly violate the physicians’ code of professional conduct. This is most clearly an example of ________ conflict.

  1. A) person-role
  2. B) intrasender
  3. C) intersender
  4. D) interrole
  5. E) role ambiguity

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

4) Who is experiencing interrole conflict?

  1. A) Jack is vice-president of sales and marketing.
  2. B) The straw boss on the construction job was unsure if he was a worker or a supervisor.
  3. C) The head of engineering told Jan to do one thing, and the head of design told her to do the opposite.
  4. D) The plant manager debated in his mind whether he should open the valve and risk polluting the environment.
  5. E) Michael’s boss told him to relax as he handed him another report to finish by the end of the day.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

5) The members of a work group are paid a group bonus according to the productivity of the group. Because of this, each member expects the other to perform at the highest level. This expectation is an example of which aspect of group structure?

  1. A) Status
  2. B) Cohesiveness
  3. C) A norm
  4. D) A role
  5. E) A disjunctive task

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

6) Which of the following statements about norms is TRUE?

  1. A) A person can have his or her own private, personal norm.
  2. B) Norms are generally unrelated to attitudes.
  3. C) Norms are not an aspect of group structure.
  4. D) Norms cannot be targeted at a specific individual.
  5. E) Normative influence is often unconscious.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

7) The workforce petitioned management to be paid on an individual piece rate basis. Which reward allocation norm do the workers favour?

  1. A) Social responsibility
  2. B) Equality
  3. C) Equity
  4. D) Reciprocity
  5. E) Loyalty

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

8) The boss who constantly changes his mind can cause uncertainty for an employee. To put this another way

  1. A) intrasender role conflict can cause role ambiguity.
  2. B) role ambiguity can cause intersender role conflict.
  3. C) person-role conflict can cause role ambiguity.
  4. D) role ambiguity can cause interrole conflict.
  5. E) intersender role conflict can cause interrole conflict.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

9) Which aspect of group structure most closely reflects the way members evaluate each other?

  1. A) Size
  2. B) Roles
  3. C) Norms
  4. D) Status
  5. E) Diversity

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

10) Higher status group members ________ than lower status members.

  1. A) are addressed more frequently
  2. B) have more influence
  3. C) communicate more
  4. D) participate more
  5. E) all of the above

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

11) Which of the following statements about status and communication is TRUE?

  1. A) Lower-status members do more talking.
  2. B) Most people like to communicate with others at their own status or lower.
  3. C) Communication has a tendency to move down the status hierarchy.
  4. D) Status has very little relation to communication in organizations.
  5. E) People can be inhibited from communicating upward if status differences are large.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

12) Janice thought that her summer job as a municipal garbage collector would be easy. Unfortunately, her supervisor tells her to do one thing one day and the exact opposite the next day. Janice’s role ambiguity

  1. A) is inherent in the job she performs.
  2. B) stems from a role sender.
  3. C) stems from the social facilitation effect.
  4. D) is a function of intersender role conflict.
  5. E) is a function of person-role conflict.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

13) Which of the following statements about status is TRUE?

  1. A) Informal status in the organization is more likely than formal status to carry over into the community.
  2. B) In most organizations, formal and informal status systems are equivalent.
  3. C) All organizations have both formal and informal status systems.
  4. D) In organizations, status symbols are more a part of the informal status system than the formal status system.
  5. E) Most organizations try not to tie status symbols to assigned roles.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

14) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) The “class clown” fills an emergent role in his or her school.
  2. B) People with similar attitudes are less likely to form a group than those with different attitudes.
  3. C) A group has at least three members.
  4. D) Moving a heavy crate is a disjunctive task.
  5. E) Equity norms allocate rewards equally to everyone in the group.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

15) Positions in a group that have attached to them a set of expected behaviours are called

  1. A) roles.
  2. B) norms.
  3. C) status symbols.
  4. D) attributes.
  5. E) conjunctive tasks.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

16) Robin is a member of a task force that may do away with her own department. Robin is most obviously experiencing

  1. A) intrasender role conflict.
  2. B) person-role conflict.
  3. C) interrole conflict.
  4. D) role ambiguity.
  5. E) intersender role conflict.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

17) Which of the following types of role conflict is most likely to provoke role ambiguity?

  1. A) Intrasender role conflict
  2. B) Intersender role conflict
  3. C) Interrole conflict
  4. D) Person-role conflict
  5. E) Status-role conflict

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

18) The first-line supervisor who serves as the interface between “management” and “the workers” is most likely to experience ________ role conflict when labour relations are poor.

  1. A) intrasender
  2. B) intersender
  3. C) boundary
  4. D) person-role
  5. E) status

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

19) Which of the following factors is most influential in achieving formal organizational status?

  1. A) Age
  2. B) Assigned role in the organization
  3. C) Nationality and religion
  4. D) Ability to perform disjunctive tasks
  5. E) Loyalty norms

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

20) Organizations that allocate rewards to those who truly need the rewards have adopted a reward system that is based on a(n) ________ norm.

  1. A) social responsibility
  2. B) reciprocity
  3. C) equity
  4. D) equality
  5. E) loyalty

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

21) What is the most important function of norms?

  1. A) To increase group cohesiveness
  2. B) To prevent social loafing
  3. C) To prevent intersender role conflict
  4. D) To provide regularity and predictability of behaviour
  5. E) To prevent interrole conflict

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

22) What kinds of roles develop in organizations?

  1. A) Designated roles and assigned roles
  2. B) Designated roles and informal roles
  3. C) Assigned roles and informal roles
  4. D) Designated roles and emergent roles
  5. E) Formal roles and informal roles

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

23) Selma and Sam have just started new jobs at the same company. After one month, Selma has become known by her co-workers as the new software engineer, and Sam has become known as the office gossip. What kind of roles are these?

  1. A) Selma’s role is designated and Sam’s role is designated.
  2. B) Selma’s role is designated and Sam’s role is assigned.
  3. C) Selma’s role is assigned and Sam’s role is designated.
  4. D) Selma’s role is emergent and Sam’s role is emergent.
  5. E) Selma’s role is designated and Sam’s role is emergent.

Answer:  E

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

24) What elements can lead to role ambiguity?

  1. A) Organizational factors, individual factors, role senders,
  2. B) Individual factors, role senders, focal person
  3. C) Organizational factors, individual factors, focal person
  4. D) Organizational factors, role senders, focal person
  5. E) Individual factors, group factors, organizational factors

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

25) All of the following are frequent outcomes of role ambiguity EXCEPT

  1. A) absenteeism.
  2. B) job stress.
  3. C) dissatisfaction.
  4. D) reduced organizational commitment.
  5. E) intentions to quit.

Answer:  A

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

26) Employees who straddle the boundary between the organization and its clients or customers are especially likely to encounter what form of role conflict?

  1. A) Intrasender role conflict
  2. B) Intersender role conflict
  3. C) Interrole conflict
  4. D) Person-role conflict
  5. E) All of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

27) Whistle-blowing is often a signal of what form of role conflict?

  1. A) Intrasender role conflict
  2. B) Intersender role conflict
  3. C) Interrole conflict
  4. D) Person-role conflict
  5. E) None of the above

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

28) Which of the following has levelled status barriers?

  1. A) Clothing
  2. B) Casual Friday policies
  3. C) Job titles
  4. D) Email
  5. E) Work schedules

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

29) Studies of jury deliberations have found that jurors with high social status

  1. A) participate more.
  2. B) have more effect on the verdict.
  3. C) participate less and have more effect on the verdict.
  4. D) participate more and have more effect on the verdict.
  5. E) participate more and have less effect on the verdict.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

30) Much normative influence is unconscious.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

31) The most important function that norms serve is to increase group cohesiveness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

32) The production manager tells Louis to do one thing and the sales manager says to do the opposite. Louis is experiencing intersender role conflict.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

33) According to the text, norms are personal, individual standards of conduct.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

34) Seniority is the most important criterion in a formal status system.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

35) The boss who is constantly changing his mind is likely to provoke intrasender role conflict in employees.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

36) The controller told Jan to do one thing and the controller’s secretary told Jan to do the opposite. Jan is experiencing interrole conflict.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

37) Role conflict is defined as a lack of clarity of job goals or methods.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

38) Jim is quiet and shy. He takes a job as a bouncer in a nightclub. This may provoke person-role conflict.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

39) The informal status system of an organization involves status symbols such as company cars, large offices, and first class air travel.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

40) Role ambiguity is defined as the presence of incompatible role expectations.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

41) The manager who can’t make up her mind will likely cause her employee to experience intrasender role conflict.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

42) Reward allocation norms, such as equity norms, means that all group members expect to be treated equally.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

43) High status persons tend to initiate and receive less communication than low status persons.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

 

44) Most Western organizations tend to stress allocation of rewards according to some combination of equity and social responsibility.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

45) Expectations that social units have regarding the behaviour of others are called ________.

Answer:  norms

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 247

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

46) ________ are positions in a group that have attached to them a set of expected behaviours.

Answer:  Roles

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

47) Jim’s boss tells him to do one thing one minute and the opposite thing the next minute. Jim is experiencing ________.

Answer:  intrasender role conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

48) The controller tells Tina to do one thing and the firm’s legal counsel tells her to do the opposite. Tina is experiencing ________.

Answer:  intersender role conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

49) Jason had trouble balancing the demands of work with the needs of his family. Jason is experiencing ________.

Answer:  interrole conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

50) Stanley decided that he just didn’t have the right personality for sales. In terms of role dynamics, Stanley is experiencing ________.

Answer:  person-role conflict

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

51) One’s rank or social position in a group is called ________.

Answer:  status

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

52) ________ occurs when job goals or the method of performing one’s job is unclear.

Answer:  Role ambiguity

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

53) By definition, incompatible role expectations cause ________.

Answer:  role conflict

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

54) Managers are most likely to develop norms regarding the performance and ________ of employees.

Answer:  attendance

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

55) Studies of jury deliberations show that jurors with higher ________ participate more and have more effect on the verdict.

Answer:  social status

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 251

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

56) Gary Lee is the supervisor of the sheet metal shop at Kapster Enterprises. He is known for his friendly, easygoing manner and mild temperament. Recently, he was asked by his boss to introduce several new policies designed to tighten-up break times and reduce unnecessary overtime. Gary has always considered himself to be a friend as well as a supervisor to his employees. In fact he often socializes with them just as he did before he was promoted to supervisor. Now his boss wants him to start adopting a tougher, more controlling leadership style. His workers, on the other hand, want Gary to “cut them some slack” and give them more freedom in their duties. Discuss the three types of role conflict which Gary is experiencing.

Answer:  Gary is likely experiencing intersender role conflict (what the boss wants versus what the subordinates want), interrole conflict (he is both a friend and a supervisor to his workers), and person-role conflict (he may not have it in him to become tough on his employees, or anyone else, for that matter).

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

57) Describe four types of reward allocation norms which may affect how workers are paid and rewarded in organizations. Which one do you think is the fairest, overall? Why?

Answer:  Equity, equality, reciprocity, and social responsibility. The second part of the question challenges students to consider the merits of each norm, and to take a position in support of one. Of course, they all have merit, depending on the circumstances, but most organizations would officially support reward allocation based on some combination of equity and equality norms.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 248

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

58) What are the different kinds of role conflict and what can managers do to help prevent employee role conflict?

Answer:  Intrasender role conflict occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant. Intersender role conflict occurs when two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. Interrole conflict occurs when several roles are held by a role occupant that involve incompatible expectations. Person-role conflict occurs when role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant. Managers can help prevent employee role conflict by avoiding self-contradictory messages, conferring with other role senders, being sensitive to multiple role demands, and fitting the right person to the right role.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 250

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

59) Members of your organization are complaining that they are not sure how they should be performing their job and what methods they should be using to perform it. You have been assigned the task of finding out more about this problem in terms of what it is, what causes it, the consequences it can have, and how it can be prevented. What will you tell management about these issues?

Answer:  The problem is role ambiguity. Role ambiguity refers to a lack of clarity of job goals or methods of performing the job. A number of factors or elements can cause role ambiguity including organizational factors, role senders, and the focal person. The consequences include job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, lower performance, and intentions to quit. Managers can reduce role ambiguity by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback, especially for new employees and for those in more intrinsically ambiguous jobs.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 249

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.3 Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction.

 

7.4

 

1) The task force is large, successful, and experiencing moderate threat. Which factor would most likely prevent the task force from being cohesive?

  1. A) Its size
  2. B) Its success
  3. C) The threat
  4. D) Its homogeneous makeup
  5. E) Its tough initiation procedures

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

2) Highly cohesive work groups almost always

  1. A) have high levels of turnover.
  2. B) accomplish their own goals effectively.
  3. C) produce more than less cohesive groups.
  4. D) produce less than less cohesive groups.
  5. E) accomplish the goals of the organization effectively.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

3) Which factor is least likely to promote group cohesiveness?

  1. A) Losing a contest
  2. B) Winning a contest
  3. C) Competing in a contest
  4. D) Experiencing a tough initiation into the group
  5. E) Small group size

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

4) Highly cohesive groups tend to be ________ than less cohesive groups.

  1. A) more productive
  2. B) less productive
  3. C) more or less productive
  4. D) more conflict-ridden
  5. E) larger

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

5) Which of the following statements concerning group cohesiveness is FALSE?

  1. A) Smaller groups generally have a more difficult time becoming and staying cohesive.
  2. B) Groups that are tough to get into should be more attractive than those that are easy to join.
  3. C) A group becomes more attractive to its members when it has successfully accomplished some important goal.
  4. D) Under extreme threat or loss of a contest, group cohesiveness is likely to suffer.
  5. E) Voluntary turnover from highly cohesive groups should be low.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

6) Tough initiation into a group increases group cohesiveness.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

7) The performance of cohesive groups is consistently better than that of incohesive groups.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

8) To increase group cohesiveness, make the group extremely difficult to get into.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 253

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

9) Up to a point, threat promotes group cohesiveness.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

10) Higher levels of diversity on a team will lead to higher cohesiveness.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

11) Groups that are especially attractive to their members are labelled ________ groups.

Answer:  cohesive

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

12) Competition, success, small size, and a tough initiation are part of the recipe for forming a(n) ________ group.

Answer:  cohesive

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 252

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

13) Julia Franco, the VP of Operations at Zeta Manufacturing, is concerned about the consistently low levels of productivity in the assembly plant. At a meeting with company executives, she proposes the introduction of some social activities to increase cohesiveness among the workers, and thereby improve productivity. Gordon Wong, the VP of Human Resources, disagrees. “This group of workers is known to frequent the local pub everyday after work and vacation together on long weekends. If you increase cohesiveness any further, productivity will probably come to a complete halt!” Who do you think is correct? Explain your answer.

Answer:  This question is intended to test students’ understanding of the relationship between cohesiveness, norms, and performance. Like Julia, many students automatically assume that high cohesiveness will lead to improved performance. However, this is only true if the group productivity norms support the goals of the organization. If, as Gordon suggests, cohesiveness is high and group productivity norms are poor from an organizational standpoint, then increasing cohesiveness will not lead to improved performance. Julia may have to reduce the cohesiveness of the group first (e.g., by removing key members, adding new members, or perhaps introducing competition or conflict into the group) and then encourage the adoption of better performance norms, perhaps through an incentive program, as one example, before trying to increase cohesiveness.

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 254

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.4 Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness.

 

7.5

 

1) Which of the following is an example of a process loss?

  1. A) Performance norm
  2. B) Disjunctive task
  3. C) Reduced status
  4. D) Social loafing
  5. E) Loyalty norm

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 246

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

 

2) Social loafing is an example of

  1. A) role conflict.
  2. B) role ambiguity.
  3. C) a disjunctive task.
  4. D) punctuated equilibrium.
  5. E) a process loss.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

3) What are the two forms of social loafing?

  1. A) The free loader effect and the free rider effect
  2. B) The free loader effect and the sucker effect
  3. C) The free rider effect and the sucker effect
  4. D) The free rider effect and the solo effect
  5. E) The free rider effect and the loafer effect

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

4) All of the following are ways to counteract social loafing EXCEPT

  1. A) making individual performance more visible.
  2. B) establishing a superordinate goal.
  3. C) increasing performance feedback.
  4. D) increasing feelings of indispensability.
  5. E) making sure that the work is interesting.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

5) Social loafing is a motivation problem.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 3     Type: TF     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

6) Social loafing is a ________ problem.

Answer:  motivation

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

 

7) In the ________, people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of their fellow group members.

Answer:  free rider effect

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

8) In the ________, people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding, that is, they are trying to restore equity in the group.

Answer:  sucker effect

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

9) The tendency to withhold physical or ________ effort when performing a group task is called social loafing.

Answer:  intellectual

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

10) Describe the two main forms of social loafing. What are some ways to counteract them?

Answer:  Free rider effect and sucker effect. Ways to counteract them include increasing the visibility of individual performance, making the work more interesting, increasing workers’ feelings of indispensability, increasing performance feedback, and rewarding group performance.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

11) You have just formed a group as a part of a class assignment to complete a group project. You are concerned that some of the group members are not going to put in the physical or intellectual effort required to complete their tasks. What is this called and what are its different forms? What can you to prevent this problem in your group?

Answer:  The problem is social loafing which refers to the tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. The two forms of it are the free rider effect and the sucker effect. To prevent or counteract social loafing you can make individual performance more visible, making the work more interesting, increase group members’ feelings of indispensability, increase performance feedback, and reward group performance.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 255

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.5 Explain the dynamics of social loafing.

 

 

7.6

 

1) Conventional specialized ________ usually disappear when effective self-managed teams are used by organizations.

  1. A) norms
  2. B) aspirations
  3. C) tasks
  4. D) values
  5. E) roles

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

2) A successful self-managed work team would probably NOT be

  1. A) extremely large.
  2. B) high in social skills.
  3. C) highly cohesive.
  4. D) performing an interesting task.
  5. E) high in expertise.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

3) Which factor is most important in leading to the success of a self-managed work team?

  1. A) Extra pay
  2. B) Large size
  3. C) An interesting task
  4. D) Great similarity of members
  5. E) Great diversity of members

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

4) Self-managed work groups typically

  1. A) are used only for white-collar work.
  2. B) have highly specialized, carefully defined roles within the group.
  3. C) suffer from the free rider effect.
  4. D) perform best when assigned to very routine tasks.
  5. E) must have stable membership to be effective.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

5) What kind of tasks are most appropriate for self-managed work groups?

  1. A) Blue-collar
  2. B) White-collar
  3. C) Complex and challenging
  4. D) Routine and boring
  5. E) Conjunctive

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

6) The team members’ shared beliefs that their team can successfully perform a given task is known as

  1. A) self-efficacy.
  2. B) mutual-gain.
  3. C) collective efficacy.
  4. D) mutual satisfaction.
  5. E) collective self-interest.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

7) Just because a sports team has the most talented players, it does not necessarily mean the team will be the most successful in the league. The team usually needs to have a strong sense of ________ in order to become better than simply the sum of its players.

  1. A) fear
  2. B) homogeneity
  3. C) ethnic diversity
  4. D) self-efficacy
  5. E) collective efficacy

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

 

8) The textbook cites the example of how job seekers at Britain’s Pret A Manger sandwich and coffee shops must work in a shop for a day and then the staff votes on whether the person can join the team. This is one strategy that can be used to help ensure the ________ of a new employee.

  1. A) heredity
  2. B) compensation
  3. C) homogeneity
  4. D) heterogeneity
  5. E) fit

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

9) What kind of jobs have self-managed teams been used for?

  1. A) White-collar
  2. B) Blue-collar
  3. C) White-collar and blue-collar
  4. D) Medical and professional
  5. E) Professional

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

10) All of the following are common areas of training for self-managed teams EXCEPT for

  1. A) technical training.
  2. B) social skills training.
  3. C) language skills training.
  4. D) business training.
  5. E) quality control training.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 259

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

11) Shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task is known as

  1. A) group cohesiveness.
  2. B) superordinate goals.
  3. C) shared mental models.
  4. D) collective efficacy.
  5. E) social norms.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

12) What is collective efficacy?

  1. A) shared beliefs that a team can successfully achieve a goal
  2. B) shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task
  3. C) team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is
  4. D) attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration
  5. E) shared beliefs that a team will outperform other teams

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

13) Self-managed work teams are most effective when the tasks that they are required to perform are simple rather than complex.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

14) Self-managed work teams are most effective when the members develop a very high degree of role specialization.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

15) Self-managed work teams are most effective when they experience a fairly high degree of member turnover. This prevents the team from becoming “stale.”

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

16) Collective efficacy refers to shared beliefs that a team can outperform other teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

17) Collective efficacy refers to shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

 

18) Rules and procedures are an important principle for the effectiveness of self-managed teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

19) ________ provide their members with the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision.

Answer:  Self-managed work teams

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

20) Conventional highly specialized ________ generally disappear in effective self-managed work groups.

Answer:  roles

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 258

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

21) Collective ________ consists of shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task.

Answer:  efficacy

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 256

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

22) What are self-managed teams and how should they be designed in terms of tasks, composition, and support.

Answer:  Self-managed teams are groups that have the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision. The tasks assigned to self-managed teams should be complex and challenging, requiring high interdependence among team members for accomplishment. The tasks should have the qualities of enriched jobs. In order for a self-managed team to become effective, its composition should focus on: stability of group membership; small size; members with a high level of task expertise and social skills; members similar enough to work well together but diverse enough to bring a variety of perspectives and skills to the task at hand. Support factors that can assist self-managed teams in staying effective are: training in various areas, rewards tied to team accomplishment, and management support that encourages independence.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 257

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.6 Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams.

 

 

7.7

 

1) All relevant specialties should be included when designing

  1. A) virtual teams.
  2. B) self-managed teams.
  3. C) cross-functional teams.
  4. D) any kind of team.
  5. E) task forces.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

2) When team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is, they are experiencing

  1. A) shared mental models.
  2. B) shared status.
  3. C) shared litmus testing.
  4. D) shared heritage.
  5. E) shared leadership.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

3) Instilling shared mental models in many cross-functional teams can often be challenging because of the

  1. A) reluctance to agree on what the project is.
  2. B) avoidance of revealing that each person has an opinion.
  3. C) slow moving process of working in a cross-functional team.
  4. D) resistance to cross-functional teams in organizations.
  5. E) divergent backgrounds of the team members.

Answer:  E

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

 

4) Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service are called

  1. A) self-managed teams.
  2. B) virtual teams.
  3. C) task forces.
  4. D) cross-functional teams.
  5. E) formal teams.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

5) What do Rubbermaid and Novartis and Wyeth have in common?

  1. A) They have used virtual teams.
  2. B) They have used self-managed teams.
  3. C) They have used cross-functional teams.
  4. D) They have used diverse work teams.
  5. E) They have all used task forces.

Answer:  C

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

6) Superordinate goals are an important factor that contribute to the effectiveness of

  1. A) cohesive groups.
  2. B) virtual teams.
  3. C) cross-functional teams.
  4. D) self-managed teams.
  5. E) diverse groups.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

7) The Really Sweet Candy Company is interested in developing new and innovative types of candy and has decided to form cross-functional teams. Which of the following is NOT something they need to consider if they want to ensure that the teams are effective?

  1. A) composition
  2. B) superordinate goals
  3. C) technical training
  4. D) autonomy
  5. E) rules and procedures

Answer:  C

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

8) A cross-functional team can also be self-managed.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

9) Superordinate goals are especially important for the effectiveness of self-managed teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

10) Training is an important principle for the effectiveness of cross-functional teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 259

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

11) The term for a team composed of individuals from several different departments is a ________ team.

Answer:  cross-functional

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

 

12) Superordinate goals are attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by ________.

Answer:  collaboration

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

13) Cross-functional team leaders need especially strong ________ skills in addition to task expertise.

Answer:  people

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

14) ________ are attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration.

Answer:  Superordinate

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

15) Shared ________ models mean that the team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is.

Answer:  mental

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

16) What does it mean when a project team is comprised of members with shared mental models? Please explain and provide a clear example. Why is it more challenging to have shared mental models in cross-functional teams?

Answer:  Shared mental models mean that team members share identical information about how they should interact and what their task is. (Insert example). Cross-functional teams present particular challenges because each team member is coming from a different part of the organization and/or has a different kind of professional background (e.g., Marketing versus Engineering).

Diff: 3     Type: ES     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Applied

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

 

 

17) What are cross-functional teams and what factors contribute to their effectiveness?

Answer:  Cross-functional teams are work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service. The factors that contribute to their effectiveness include: composition that consists of all relevant specialties; superordinate goals; close physical proximity of team members; autonomy from the larger organization; some basic decision rules and procedures; and leaders with strong people skills in addition to task expertise.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 261

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.7 Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams, and describe how they can operate effectively.

7.8

 

1) Which of the following is a primary feature of virtual teams?

  1. A) Team member stability
  2. B) Small group size
  3. C) Diversity of members
  4. D) Lack of face-to-face contact
  5. E) Superordinate goals

Answer:  D

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

2) The technologies used by virtual teams tend to be

  1. A) either asynchronous or synchronous ones.
  2. B) asynchronous ones.
  3. C) synchronous ones.
  4. D) chat and groupware.
  5. E) email, faxes, and voice mail.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

3) Virtual teams are

  1. A) groups that exist throughout an organization and include customers and suppliers.
  2. B) groups that use technology to accomplish their tasks and communicate with other groups in the organization.
  3. C) groups of people who have expertise in technology and are always available when a task needs to be completed.
  4. D) groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries.
  5. E) groups of individuals who are always available when the organization needs to form a team.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

4) Which of the following is the most accurate statement about virtual teams?

  1. A) Although they were once a dream, they are now spreading and are used by numerous companies.
  2. B) Although they were once a dream, they are now being used by a small and select group of companies.
  3. C) Although they still remain a dream, some companies are now experimenting with them.
  4. D) Although they still remain a dream, some companies plan to begin using them in the next five to ten years.
  5. E) Although they were once a dream, it now appears that they will never deliver the benefits that many had hoped for.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

5) Which one of the following is NOT an advantage of virtual teams?

  1. A) Around-the-clock work
  2. B) Reduced travel time
  3. C) Reduced cost
  4. D) Larger talent pool
  5. E) Trust

Answer:  E

Diff: 1     Type: MC     Page Ref: 263

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

6) Research on virtual teams has found that, compared to face-to-face teams, virtual teams engage in a

  1. A) larger volume of information sharing.
  2. B) lower volume of information sharing.
  3. C) similar volume of information sharing.
  4. D) lower volume of unique information sharing.
  5. E) larger volume of redundant information sharing.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

7) A major disadvantage of virtual teams is that they increase

  1. A) instances of discrimination.
  2. B) stereotyping.
  3. C) the formation of cliques.
  4. D) personality conflicts.
  5. E) miscommunication.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 264

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

8) What type of group has a uniqueness advantage?

  1. A) Self-managed teams
  2. B) Virtual teams
  3. C) Cohesive teams
  4. D) Diverse teams
  5. E) Cross-functional teams

Answer:  B

Diff: 2     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

9) Which of the following is most accurate about virtual teams compared to face-to-face teams?

  1. A) Virtual teams engage in a larger volume of information sharing but are more likely to share unique information.
  2. B) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing and are less likely to share unique information.
  3. C) Virtual teams engage in a larger volume of information sharing and are less likely to share unique information.
  4. D) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing but are more likely to share unique information.
  5. E) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing that is more likely to be redundant information.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

10) Hybrid teams that combine face-to-face interaction with virtual interaction are especially likely to

  1. A) be cohesive.
  2. B) share information.
  3. C) experience role ambiguity.
  4. D) experience role conflict.
  5. E) have social loafing problems.

Answer:  B

Diff: 3     Type: MC     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

11) Virtual teams are often cross-functional in nature.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

12) The technologies of virtual teams are usually just asynchronous ones.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

13) Virtual teams allow for a better work-life balance.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 263

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

14) One of the primary features of virtual teams is the lack of face-to-face contact between team members.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

15) The recruitment of members for virtual teams should focus on good technical expertise rather than interpersonal skills.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

16) An important characteristic of virtual teams is that the members do not need to get to know each other.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

17) In many cases, virtual teams falter not due to weak technical skills but due to poor communication and cooperation.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

18) Virtual teams engage in a lower volume of information sharing compared to face-to-face teams.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

19) The uniqueness advantage has to do with cross-functional teams.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

20) Virtual teams are more likely to share unique information than face-to-face teams.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

21) The performance of virtual teams is especially dependent on them having a high volume of open communication.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

22) Hybrid teams that combine face-to-face interaction with virtual interaction are least likely to share information.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2     Type: TF     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

23) Virtual teams are often ________ in nature.

Answer:  cross-functional

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

24) Virtual teams are work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational ________.

Answer:  boundaries

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

25) Along with their reliance on computer and electronic technology, the primary feature of a virtual team is the lack of ________ contact between team members due to geographic dispersion.

Answer:  face-to-face

Diff: 1     Type: SA     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

26) When recruiting members for virtual teams, it is important to find people with good ________ skills, not just technical expertise.

Answer:  interpersonal

Diff: 2     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

 

27) Compared to face-to-face teams, virtual teams engage in a lower volume of ________ sharing.

Answer:  information

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

28) Compared to face-to-face teams, virtual teams are more likely to share ________ information which was not known by other team members.

Answer:  unique

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

29) The uniqueness advantage is associated with ________ teams.

Answer:  virtual

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

30) ________ teams can allow for a better work-life balance.

Answer:  Virtual

Diff: 3     Type: SA     Page Ref: 263

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

31) What are the lessons and things that managers should consider when developing virtual teams?

Answer:  Recruitment in terms of attitude and personality and good interpersonal skills in addition to technical expertise; invest in training for both technical and interpersonal skills; personalization (encourage team members to get to know each other); goals and ground rules should be clearly defined as well as rules for communication standards and responses, and provide feedback to keep team members informed of progress and the big picture.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 265

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.

 

32) Define virtual teams and discuss the advantages and challenges of virtual teams.

Answer:  Virtual teams are work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries. They have many advantages: around-the-clock work; reduced travel time and cost; and larger talent pool. The disadvantages are: miscommunication; the difficulty to develop trust; feelings of isolation; the costs of cutting-edge technology; and new challenges for management such as dealing with employees who are no longer in view.

Diff: 2     Type: ES     Page Ref: 262

Skill:  Recall

Objective:  7.8 Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective.