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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Organizational Development The Process of Leading Organizational Change 4th Edition By Donal L. – Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3: Core Values and Ethics of Organization Development

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. A ______ is defined as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.”
  2. value
  3. value statement
  4. value system
  5. value framework

Ans: A

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Defining Values
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following reasons identifies that values are important to OD practitioners due to values giving direction and specifying guiding principles rather than exact behavior?
  2. Values guide choices about how to proceed.
  3. Values provide a larger vision that extends beyond any individual intervention.
  4. Values distinguish OD from other methods of consulting and change.
  5. Values can help prompt dialogue and clarify positions.

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Are Values Important to the OD Practitioner?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following reasons identifies that values are important to OD practitioners as consultants learn to work with the client to develop programs that meet the client’s needs and maintain the objectives and underlying values ?
  2. Values provide a larger vision that extends beyond any individual intervention.
  3. Values distinguish OD from other methods of consulting and change.
  4. Values can help prompt dialogue and clarify positions.
  5. Values help evaluate how well something went.

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Are Values Important to the OD Practitioner?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. While the humanistic values are initially viewed as worthy, what is one negative aspect that has been noted?
  2. They are too confusing to understand.
  3. They are too idealistic to implement in practice.
  4. They do not apply to OD.
  5. They are too realistic.

Ans: b

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Core Values of Organization Development
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following current values in organization development centers around the concept of working within a function or level, for example?
  2. Participation, involvement, and empowerment
  3. The importance of groups and teams
  4. Growth, development, and learning
  5. Valuing the whole person

Ans: B

AACSB: Groups and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Importance of Groups and Teams
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following current values in OD relates to the concept of creating healthy environments that promote collaboration rather than competition?
  2. Participation, involvement, and empowerment
  3. The importance of groups and teams
  4. Valuing the whole person
  5. Dialogue and collaboration

Ans: D

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Dialogue and collaboration
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT related to valuing the  «whole person » ?
  2. Respecting one’s feelings as people.
  3. Acknowledging and recognizing diversity and the benefits that individual differences bring to the organization
  4. Admitting that individuals may need to give up when things are too challenging.
  5. Understanding that people can make contributions beyond those for which they were originally hired.

Ans: C

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Valuing the Whole Person
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. OD values have transitioned over time and have, for example, moved away from the idea of « game-playing” to a view of ______.
  2. people are essentially good.
  3. authentic behavior.
  4. willingness toward risk.
  5. greater emphasis on collaboration.

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Table 3.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. OD values have transitioned over time and have, for example, moved away from «seeing individuals as fixed » toward a view of ______.
  2. seeing them as being in process
  3. accepting and utilizing them
  4. making appropriate confrontation
  5. trusting them

Ans: A

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Table 3.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. OD values have transitioned over time and have, for exaxmple, moved away from «use of status for maintaining power and personal prestige » toward a view of ______.
  2. confirming them as human beings
  3. making appropriate confrontation
  4. use of status for organizationally relevant purposes
  5. greater emphasis on collaboration

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Table 3.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ is perhaps the most foundational of OD’s democratic values.
  2. Management
  3. Change
  4. Participation
  5. Growth

Ans: C

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Participation, Involvement, and Empowerment
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The practitioner’s charge, with respect to change, is to ______.
  2. help the organization develop and manage the change that it seeks to create, giving the opportunity for participation and thereby transitioning ownership to organization members.
  3. to impose the change on the group or demand it of the individuals.
  4. contribute to organizational decision-making processes in an effort ensure organizational members are involved.
  5. essentially mandate change whether there is enthusiastic members within the organization or not.

Ans: A

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Participation, Involvement, and Empowerment
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Inviting employees to solve complex problems may not be effective if they do not have the skill set is an example of which of the following complex factors?
  2. Organizational members may not be prepared or trained to participate.
  3. Participation is risky when members feel suspicious of being asked to step outside of long-held hierarchical patterns.
  4. Characteristics of organizational structure inhibit an individual’s choice to participate.
  5. Increasing participation is detrimental to members if it is not authentic.

Ans: A

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Participation, Involvement, and Empowerment
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. According to Beckhard (1969), the basic building block of an organization is ______.
  2. individuals
  3. teams
  4. applications
  5. technology

Ans: B

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Importance of Groups and Teams
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What value, perhaps, differentiates OD from most other management and consulting work?
  2. The Importance of Groups and Teams
  3. Growth, Development, and Learning
  4. Valuing the Whole Person
  5. Dialogue and Collaboration

Ans: B

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Growth, Development, and Learning
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Having an optimistic view of people and groups implies that engagements and interventions should be constructed as opportunities for learning so that the organization can learn not only to solve the problem but also ______.
  2. think about your own beliefs, skills, and attitudes
  3. learn from mistakes based on experience
  4. acknowledge and recognize the value a consultant can provide and ensure they are contacted when needed
  5. learn how problems or situations such as this one can be addressed next time without the reliance on a consultant

Ans: D

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Growth, Development, and Learning
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which current value in OD relates to recognizing individual’s feelings and acknowledging workforce diversity?
  2. Dialogue and Collaboration
  3. Growth, Development, and Learning
  4. Valuing the Whole Person
  5. Authenticity, Openness, and Trust

Ans: C

AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Valuing the Whole Person
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which current value in OD relates to ensuring conflicts are brought to light in an effort to address them in a healthy manner with appropriate communication?
  2. Dialogue and Collaboration
  3. Growth, Development, and Learning
  4. Valuing the Whole Person
  5. Authenticity, Openness, and Trust

Ans: A

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Dialogue and Collaboration
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Many organizational practices have historically resulted in ignoring or silencing alternative voices, and this has been especially true for ______.
  2. members whose identities were identical to those of management
  3. members who preferred to speak up in organizational meetings
  4. members whose identities were not identical to those of management
  5. members who preferred to remain silent in organizational meetings

Ans: C

AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Valuing the Whole Person
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Being authentic means
  2. being competitive while seeking status and authority.
  3. withholding information in an effort to succeed.
  4. telling followers what they want to hear.
  5. being straightforward, genuine, honest, truthful.

Ans: D

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Authenticity, Openness, and Trust
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a way in which leaders demonstrate trust?
  2. giving employees information
  3. misleading to gain status
  4. explaining organizational direction, values, principles, rationales
  5. allowing employees to make decisions

Ans: B

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Authenticity, Openness, and Trust
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is a way in which leaders demonstrate trust?
  2. withholding information
  3. dictating practices
  4. including employees in dialogues and discussion
  5. misleading to gain status

Ans: C

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Authenticity, Openness, and Trust
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of leadership demands consistency in words and actions as followers look to leaders’ behavior to assess whether their talk is forthright and can be trusted?
  2. Authentic leadership
  3. Transactional leadership
  4. Situational leadership
  5. Transformational leadership

Ans: A

AACSB: Leading in organizational situations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Authenticity, Openness, and Trust
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. OD has moved more toward ______ because practitioners are more frequently asked to consult on organizationwide changes.
  2. organization analytics
  3. organization effectiveness
  4. organization communication
  5. organization leadership

Ans: B

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Changes to OD Values Over Time and the Values Debate
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a negative implication of OD having a business results emphasis?
  2. moves OD away from humanistic values
  3. OD would not be holding true to its origin
  4. allows OD practitioners to help clients achieve the outcomes they seek
  5. OD could near an end as a distinct field of study

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Changes to OD Values Over Time and the Values Debate
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following challenges in holding to the OD values relates to practitioners being tempted to quickly and arbitrarily use favorite tools or latest techniques in an attempt to be cutting edge?
  2. Financial and economic tensions
  3. The push to see OD as technology
  4. Management culture and expectations
  5. Research

Ans: B

AACSB: Information technology

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Challenges to Holding Organization Development Values
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following challenges in holding to the OD values relates to a practitioner finding it easier to describe approaches to solving a problem rather than to engage in a philosophical statement about values to a potential client?
  2. Financial and economic tensions
  3. The push to see OD as technology
  4. Management culture and expectations
  5. Research

Ans: A

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Challenges to Holding Organization Development Values
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following challenges in holding to the OD values relates to academia viewing OD as a set of techniques that resulted in certain outcomes rather than if techniques appropriately applied to core values of the field ?
  2. Financial and economic tensions
  3. The push to see OD as technology
  4. Management culture and expectations
  5. Research

Ans: D

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Challenges to Holding Organization Development Values
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following challenges in holding to the OD values relates to managers seeking rapid solutions to immediate problems while demonstrating a positive ROI?
  2. Financial and economic tensions
  3. The push to see OD as technology
  4. Management culture and expectations
  5. Research

Ans: C

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Challenges to Holding Organization Development Values
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. For example, many OD practitioners hold values of environmental and social responsibility and justice, and these results can be seen as enduring effects of their work. Which of the following reasons of why values are important to OD practitioners relates to this?
  2. Values guide choices about how to proceed.
  3. Values provide a larger vision that extends beyond any individual intervention.
  4. Values distinguish OD from other methods of consulting and change.
  5. Values can help prompt dialogue and clarify positions.

Ans: B

AACSB: Social responsibility

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Are Values Important to the OD Practitioner?
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Which of the following reasons identifies that values are important to OD practitioners due to the humaninstic nature of OD ensuring growth, development, and learning?
  2. Values guide choices about how to proceed.
  3. Values provide a larger vision that extends beyond any individual intervention.
  4. Values distinguish OD from other methods of consulting and change.
  5. Values help evaluate how well something went.

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Are Values Important to the OD Practitioner?
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. For example, values can be a point for personal reflection and self-evaluation as a consultant. Which of the following reasons of why values are important to OD practitioners relates to this?
  2. Values guide choices about how to proceed.
  3. Values provide a larger vision that extends beyond any individual intervention.
  4. Values distinguish OD from other methods of consulting and change.
  5. Values help evaluate how well something went.

Ans: D

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Are Values Important to the OD Practitioner?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Interdependent teams, such as marketing, human resources, finance, and so forth, are organized by their respective ______.
  2. small business unit
  3. function
  4. level
  5. leader

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Importance of Groups and Teams
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Interdependent teams, such as vice presidents and shift managers, are organized by their respective ______.
  2. small business unit
  3. function
  4. level
  5. leader

Ans:

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Importance of Groups and Teams
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Individuals also form ______ groups that are comprised of colleagues, friends, and associates from various departments.
  2. formal
  3. informal
  4. planned
  5. unplanned

Ans: B

AACSB: Individual and group behavior

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Importance of Groups and Teams
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. One’s skills, beliefs, and attitudes are likely to be ______ as time (5–10 years) has passed.
  2. different
  3. the same
  4. stagnant
  5. identical

Ans: A

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Growth, Development, and Learning
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Dysfunctional energy is a key indicator that which of the values needs to be espoused?
  2. Valuing the Whole Person
  3. The Importance of Groups and Teams
  4. Dialogue and Collaboration
  5. Authenticity, Openness, and Trust

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Dialogue and Collaboration
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT viewed as a business effectiveness outcome?
  2. increasing productivity
  3. enhancing quality
  4. developing a competitive advantage
  5. increased collaboration

Ans: D

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Changes to OD Values Over Time and the Values Debate
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT viewed as a traditional humanistic value?
  2. developing a competitive advantage
  3. increased collaboration
  4. authentic behavior
  5. improved empowerment

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Changes to OD Values Over Time and the Values Debate
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which content area within the Statement of Ethics discusses serving the long-term well-being of stakeholders?
  2. Responsibility to Ourselves
  3. Responsibility for Professional Development and Competence
  4. Responsibility to Clients and Significant Others
  5. Responsibility to the OD-HSD Profession

Ans: C

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Appendix
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

True/False

  1. Values are simple and never seem complex.

Ans: F

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Defining Values
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. “Improving organizational life for all members” is part of the humanistic orientation.

Ans: T

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Core Values of Organization Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Participation is a “silver bullet” to eliminate all organizational problems.

Ans: F

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Participation, Involvement, and Empowerment
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Successful team functioning is essential to larger systemwide success.

Ans: T

AACSB: Interpersonal relations and teamwork

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Importance of Groups and Teams
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Individual employees can often make contributions to an organization beyond those for which they were originally hired.

Ans: T

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Valuing the Whole Person
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The expression of anger and conflict are not natural and normal reactions to organizational change.

Ans: F

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Valuing the Whole Person
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Collaborative practices thrive in a competitive environment in which it is valued and rewarded to withhold information or mislead to gain status and authority.

Ans: F

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Authenticity, Openness, and Trust
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. OD practitioners can easily “turn on” new values or “turn off” old values within organizations as they engage in their consultation.

Ans: F

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Authenticity, Openness, and Trust
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Ethical conflicts do not occur for OD professionals.

Ans: F

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Statement of Organization Development Ethics
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Humanistic concerns and business effectiveness do not always need to be contradictory objectives for OD practitioners.

Ans: T

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Changes to OD Values Over Time and the Values Debate
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

 

Essay

 

  1. Discuss how organizational values have transitioned over time.

Ans: Responses may vary. Table 3.1 provides several examples that could be discussed in detail. AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Core Values of Organization Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Briefly explain the six current values in organization development.

Ans: Responses may vary. The six values that should be discussed include (1) Participation, involvement, and empowerment; (2) The importance of groups and teams; (3) Growth, development, and learning; (4) Valuing the whole person; (5) Dialogue and collaboration; and (6) Authenticity, openness, and trust

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Core Values of Organization Development
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss the four key challenges to holding organization development values.

Ans: The four areas to discuss include (1) Financial and economic tensions; (2) The push to see OD as technology; (3) Management culture and expectations; and (4) Research.

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Challenges to Holding Organization Development Values
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Why are values important to OD practitioners?

Ans: Responses may vary. Students should include some detail regarding (1) They guide choices about how to proceed; (2) They provide a larger vision that extends beyond any individual intervention; (3) They distinguish OD from other methods of consulting and change; (4) They help prompt dialogue and clarify positions; and (5) They can help us evaluate how we did.

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Why Are Values Important to the OD Practitioners?
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. How do you see ethics guiding OD practitioners?

Ans: Responses may vary. Students may have personal examples they choose to share. Some information may be pulled from the Appendix of the textbook.

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Statement of Organization Development Ethics
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Chapter 7: Data Gathering

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

 

  1. ______ is an intervention in itself, because it completes the picture of the organization and expands the knowledge for both the client and practitioner.
  2. Contracting
  3. Data gathering
  4. Diagnosis
  5. Feedback

Ans: B

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. In data gathering, despite various warnings, unfortunately, ______ often trumps accurate data and careful diagnosis.
  2. speed
  3. consistency
  4. bias
  5. diligence

Ans: A

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Importance of Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ are those initial explanations of the situation that highlight symptoms of which the client is most painfully aware.
  2. Presenting problems
  3. Underlying problems
  4. Interventions
  5. Data gathering methods

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ are described as the root cause or core, fundamental issues that are producing symptoms within the organization.
  2. Presenting problems
  3. Underlying problems
  4. Interventions
  5. Data gathering methods

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which step in the data gathering process discusses the client or another representative explaining to organizational members what data are being gathered, by whom, using what methods, and for what purposes?
  2. Determine approach to be used
  3. Announce project
  4. Prepare for data collection
  5. Collect data

Ans: B

AACSB: Systems and processes in organizations

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Data Gathering Process
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Data gathering through ______ relies heavily on cooperation form organizational members who will only open up to discuss serious issues if they trust the individual asking questions.
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Most OD interviews are ______.
  2. formal
  3. structured
  4. semistructured
  5. unstructured

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A practitioner can be more confident that enough people have been chosen when interviews begin to gather ______.
  2. new information
  3. relevant information
  4. repetitive information
  5. impractical information

Ans: C

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When scheduling interviews regarding interpersonally sensitive topics, contact is best done via ______.
  2. in person or phone.
  3. e-mail.
  4. electronic poll.
  5. text message.

Ans: A

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. What type of environment is best for interviews?
  2. general public
  3. in a frequently visited location
  4. private location free from distraction
  5. within the workplace where colleagues can overhear

Ans: C

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Information is ______ if no one other than the consultant will know what was said in the interview.
  2. anonymous
  3. confidential
  4. shared
  5. identifiable

Ans: B

AACSB: Social responsibility

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ are usually a small number of organizational members who are facilitated by a consultant who poses questions and then allows for group discussion.
  2. Interviews
  3. Focus groups
  4. Observations
  5. Unobtrusive measures

Ans: B

AACSB: Group and individual behaviors

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Avoiding ______ can be a challenge as part of focus groups because some participants may be reluctant to offer a different view, especially if members have a close relationship outside of the focus group.
  2. mindshift
  3. bias
  4. assimilation
  5. groupthink

Ans: D

AACSB:

Cognitive Domain:

Answer Location:
Difficulty Level:

 

  1. When selecting participants for focus groups, there is an advantage to utilizing ______ groups; these employees may share a similar background because they have something in common.
  2. heterogeneous
  3. homogeneous
  4. random
  5. purposeful

Ans: B

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Historically speaking, ______ has been one of the most commonly used methods of data gathering.
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observations

Ans: C

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Surveys/Questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The benefit to ______ is you can collect data from a large group of participants at one time.
  2. interviews
  3. unobtrusive measures
  4. observations
  5. surveys/questionnaires

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Surveys/Questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Most surveys use a combination of fixed-response and ______ questions.
  2. closed-ended
  3. open-ended
  4. essay
  5. ranking

Ans: B

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Surveys/questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Given the nature of a global environment, which of the following is necessary when development surveys/questionnaires?
  2. translate or localize questions
  3. indicate a bias toward particular groups/regions
  4. ask questions that can be answered multiple ways
  5. do not define terms

Ans: A

AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Surveys/questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following methods of data gathering allows the consultant to collect data on actual behavior rather than reports of people’s behavior?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observations

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: comprehension

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Self-report data are always a reflection of past events, whereas ______collects data on what is happening in the present.
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observation

Ans: D

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Observations are likely to alter the circumstances and potentially change the behavior of those being observed, often referred to as ______.
  2. groupthink
  3. the Hawthorne Effect
  4. Small Group Polarization.
  5. the Placebo Effect

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Data gathering through the use of ______ is when data are generally readily available because they are produced during the ordinary course of organizational activity.
  2. interviews
  3. surveys/questionnaires
  4. observations
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which type of unobtrusive measure could include articles in local newspapers, employee newsletters, or other forms of artifacts?
  2. historical data
  3. official documents
  4. databases
  5. online environment

Ans: A

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Job descriptions, personnel fiels, or meeting minutes are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. official documents
  4. databases
  5. online environment

Ans: B

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Social media sites, wikis, and review sites are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. official documents
  4. online environment
  5. physical environment

Ans: C

AACSB: Information technology

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Architecture, signage, and design of work areas are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. databases
  4. official documents
  5. physical environment

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The potential expense, time and data intensive, only provides one perspective, and time-consuming analysis are all disadvantages of which of the following data gathering methods?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: A

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Typically takes a short amount of time and allows a broad range of topics to be addressed are two advantages of which of the following data gathering methods?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: C

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. High validity and can provide triangulation are two advantages of which of the following data gathering methods?
  2. focus groups
  3. surveys/questionnaires
  4. observations
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following criteria when selecting a data gathering method relates to potential cost in terms of money and time?
  2. investment required
  3. access
  4. relevance to problem
  5. accuracy

Ans: A

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following criteria when selecting a data gathering method discusses prone to bias?
  2. access
  3. relevance to the problem
  4. accuracy
  5. flexibility

Ans: C

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level:

 

  1. Difficulty in following up in depth on a single issue and the potential for a low response rate are two disadvantages to which data gathering method?
  2. interviews
  3. unobtrusive measures
  4. focus groups
  5. surveys/questionnaires

Ans: D

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. For example, a survey cannot be altered in design once it has been administered, which relates to which criteria when selecting data gathering methods?
  2. access
  3. flexibility
  4. investment required
  5. relevance to the problem

Ans: B

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When a practitioner discloses who made a particular comment during an interview even after pledging to the respondent that comments would remain anonymous is an example of which ethical issue?
  2. collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. informed consent
  5. data protection

Ans: B

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues With Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Secure locations, using pseudonyms, and destroying audio/video after transcription are examples of items to consider under which ethical issue?
  2. collusion
  3. misuse of data
  4. informed consent
  5. data protection

Ans: D

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues with Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Architecture, break room area, and uniforms are all examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. historical data
  3. online environment
  4. formal physical environment
  5. personal physical environment

Ans: C

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Employee bulletin boards and desk decorations are examples of which of the following unobtrusive measures?
  2. official documents
  3. historical data
  4. formal physical environment
  5. personal physical environment

Ans: D

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Unobtrusive Measures
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A few members dominating the discussion is a critical disadvantage of which data gathering method?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. observations
  5. unobtrusive measures

Ans: B

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Potential for little preparation and the opportunity to be “in the moment” are advantages to which data gathering method?
  2. interviews
  3. focus groups
  4. surveys/questionnaires
  5. observations

Ans: D

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Table 7.1
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to Argyris, ______ information is necessary for the client to learn and for the interventionist to help.
  2. Useful
  3. Specific
  4. Valid
  5. Detailed

Ans: C

AACSB: Written and oral communication

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Importance of Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

 

True/False

  1. Interventions designed to address presenting problems but that do not address underlying problems are likely to still produce long-term results.

Ans: F

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Without greater detail and multiple perspectives regarding the nature and extent of the problem, the chosen interventions may target the wrong areas.

Ans: T

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Presenting Problems and Underlying Problems
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Interviews are probably the most common method of data collection in OD.

Ans: T

AACSB: Application of knowledge

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Interviews
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Focus groups are typically deemed appropriate for very sensitive issues.

Ans: F

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. When conducting focus groups, a process is utilized that is very similar to interviewing.

Ans: T

AACSB: Reflective thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Focus Groups
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. An organizational survey that appears to promise change will only deepen or increase cynicism among members if nothing is done with the results.

Ans: T

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Surveys/Questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Having a background in statistical analysis is not useful when working with surveys/questionnaires.

Ans: F

AACSB: Statistics/quantitative methods

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Surveys/questionnaires
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Observations are extremely useful for studying unusual problems or infrequent interactions.

Ans: F

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Observations
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Organizational policies that restrict use of personnel files is an example of an access criteria when selecting data gathering methods.

Ans: T

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. OD practitioners should treat their own research practices and research practices with an organization differently with regard to informed consent.

Ans: F

Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues With Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

Essay

 

  1. What are three reasons that data gathering should be taken seriously?

Ans: Responses may vary, however, these items would be appropriate starting points: (1) good data collection generates information about organizational functioning, effectiveness, and health; (2) data collection can be a force that can spark interest in change; (3) practitioners who do data collection well can continue fostering the relationship among all involved.

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain:  Analysis

Answer Location:  The Importance of Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Outline the five-step approach to the data gathering process.

Ans: Details regarding the following steps should be discussed: (1) Determine approach to be used; (2) Announce project; (3) Prepare for data collection; (4) Collect data; and (5) Do data analysis and presentation

AACSB: Integrating knowledge across fields

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Data Gathering Process
Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Discuss data gathering methods, including pros and cons of each.

Ans: Responses may vary, but the methods to be discussed should include Interviews, Focus groups, Surveys/questionnaires, Observations, Unobtrusive measures.

AACSB: Analytical thinking

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Data Gathering Methods
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Discuss the criteria to be considered when choosing a data gathering strategy.

Ans: Responses may vary, but key items to be included are (1) Investment required; (2) Access; (3) Relevance to the problem; (4) Accuracy, and (5) Flexibility

AACSB: Making sound decisions

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Creating a Data Gathering Strategy and Proposing an Approach
Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Identify ethical issues that are present with data gathering.

Ans: Responses may vary, but key information should include the misuse of data, the notion of informed consent, data protection, and whom is benefitted.

AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Ethical Issues with Data Gathering
Difficulty Level: Hard