Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

ISBN-13: 9780393937497

ISBN-10: 0393937496

 

Phychological Science 5th Edition by Michael Gazzaniga -Test Bank

 

Sample  Questions

 

CHAPTER 03: Biology and Behavior

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The basic building blocks of the nervous system are the:
A. neurons. C. dendrites.
B. synapses. D. glial cells.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 How Does the Nervous System Operate?

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Our body’s neural system is built from billions of nerve cells, also called:
A. neurotransmitters. C. axons.
B. neurons. D. genomes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 How Does the Nervous System Operate?

OBJ:   3.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In the nervous system, each neuron communicates:
A. with one or two other neurons.
B. with a random subset of the other neurons.
C. selectively with many other neurons.
D. with all the other neurons in the nervous system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 How Does the Nervous System Operate?

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In the nervous system, cells called ________ receive, integrate, and transmit information.
A. axons C. dendrites
B. neurons D. glial cells

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The extensions of a neuron that receive messages from other neurons are the:
A. nerves. C. dendrites.
B. cell body. D. axon terminal buttons.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The spinal cord is part of the ________ nervous system.
A. sensory C. somatic
B. peripheral D. central

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 The Nervous System Has Two Basic Divisions

OBJ:   3.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The brain and the spinal cord make up the ________ nervous system.
A. central C. primary
B. peripheral D. autonomic

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 The Nervous System Has Two Basic Divisions

OBJ:   3.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of:
A. the brain and spinal cord.
B. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
C. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
D. the central and peripheral nervous systems.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 The Nervous System Has Two Basic Divisions

OBJ:   3.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Neurons outside the brain and the spinal cord are part of the ________ nervous system.
A. secondary C. central
B. peripheral D. auxiliary

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 The Nervous System Has Two Basic Divisions

OBJ:   3.1A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Interneurons communicate:
A. within local or short distance circuits.
B. directly on muscles.
C. directly on sensory organs.
D. with glial cells.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The function of interneurons is to communicate:
A. between the brain and the spinal cord.
B. between the brain and sensory neurons.
C. outside of the brain.
D. within a neural circuit.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a basic type of neuron?
A. sensory neurons C. interneurons
B. motor neurons D. myelin neurons

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Imagine that scientists have developed an experimental medication that completely blocks the sensation of pain. This medication most likely targets:
A. the amygdala. C. interneurons.
B. the autonomic nervous system. D. somatosensory nerves.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A neuron without dendrites is most similar to:
A. a computer without a mouse.
B. a telephone that cannot receive incoming calls.
C. a light with no “off” switch.
D. a car that cannot go above 60 mph.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. What are the branchlike appendages that detect chemical signals from other neurons?
A. axons C. cell bodies
B. synapses D. dendrites

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following parts of a neuron integrates information from other neurons?
A. axon C. cell body
B. synapse D. dendrite

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Thara’s roommate has been complaining about having a “pinched nerve” from moving some furniture. What is she likely referring to as a nerve?
A. a single axon from a portion of her back to her spinal cord
B. a neuron that is part of her spinal cord
C. a bundle of axons from some nerves in her back
D. a neuron that connects to the pain center in her spine

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Axons:
A. transmit nerve impulses to terminal buttons and vary in length.
B. are always bundled with other axons to form nerves and are individually very short in length.
C. vary in length depending on whether they send or receive information.
D. are uniform in size throughout the body though capable of serving different functions.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What part of the neuron releases chemical signals?
A. axon C. cell body
B. terminal buttons D. dendrite

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a part of a neuron?
A. dendrite C. terminal button
B. cell body D. interneuron

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The extensions of a neuron that transmit information to other neurons are the:
A. dendrites. C. axons.
B. cell bodies. D. ion channels.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following sequences reflects the order in which a signal generally travels through a neuron?
A. dendrite à soma à axon à terminal buttons
B. terminal buttons à axon à cell body à dendrite
C. cell body à dendrite à axon à terminal buttons
D. dendrite à axon à cell body à terminal buttons

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The ________ capture(s) the incoming chemical signal while the ________ release(s) the chemical signal.
A. terminal buttons; dendrites C. cell body; axon
B. dendrites; terminal buttons D. axon; cell body

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A synapse is a:
A. chemical. C. signal.
B. joint. D. gap.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A myelin sheath is like the:
A. tuning dial of a radio. C. layers of a cake.
B. insulation of a wire. D. thermostat of a heater.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The nodes of Ranvier are:
A. unmyelinated portions of an axon. C. receptor sites on dendrites.
B. the bulblike endings of axons. D. myelinated portions of an axon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.1 Neurons Are Specialized for Communication

OBJ:   3.1C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When not active, neurons have a negative electrical charge. This is referred to as:
A. action potential. C. all-or-none principle.
B. resting membrane potential. D. electron principle.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 The Resting Membrane Potential Is Negatively Charged

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What is the state of the electrical charge when a neuron is said to be at resting potential?
A. Inside the neuron is more positive than outside the neuron.
B. Inside the neuron is more negative than outside the neuron.
C. Both the inside and outside of the neuron are of equal electrical charge.
D. The inside of the neuron is hyperpolarized.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 The Resting Membrane Potential Is Negatively Charged

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The two types of ions that control neuron firing are:
A. nitrogen and calcium. C. sodium and potassium.
B. calcium and sodium. D. potassium and magnesium.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 The Resting Membrane Potential Is Negatively Charged

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What allows the movement of sodium and potassium ions to the inside and the outside of the neuron to cause firing?
A. gating mechanisms contained within the cell wall
B. changes in the chemical structure of the ions
C. changes in the charge of the ions
D. refraction

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 The Resting Membrane Potential Is Negatively Charged

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. If your house was “selectively permeable” like a neuron, which of the following situations would be most likely?
A. Everyone would be welcome to enter.
B. All the doors would be open.
C. Only certain people would be allowed inside.
D. No one would be allowed to leave.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 The Resting Membrane Potential Is Negatively Charged

OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Another term for neuron firing is:
A. action potential. C. resting membrane potential.
B. somatic potential. D. ion potential.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Excitatory signals are ________, whereas inhibitory signals are ________.
A. depolarized; hyperpolarized
B. positively charged; negatively charged
C. hyperpolarized; depolarized
D. negatively charged; positively charged

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Typically, it takes about a 100 mV depolarization change to produce an action potential. Which of the following should result in an action potential?
A. inhibitory signals equaling approximately 110 mV
B. excitatory signals equaling 75 mV plus inhibitory signals equaling 25 mV
C. excitatory signals equaling 110 mV
D. inhibitory signals equaling 75 mV plus excitatory signals equaling 25 mV

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Inhibitory signals ________ polarization, ________ the likelihood of an action potential.
A. decrease; decreasing C. increase; decreasing
B. decrease; increasing D. increase; increasing

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The neural impulse, or ________, is a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon.
A. action potential C. neurotransmitters
B. resting membrane potential D. all-or-none principle

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Propagation of the action potential occurs:
A. along the axon at the nodes of Ranvier.
B. along the dendrites at the nodes of Ranvier.
C. between neurons at the synapse.
D. on the cell body.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The action of neural firing as it proceeds down the axon is similar to which of the following types of movement?
A. skipping C. running laps
B. crawling D. driving on a road

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. If you had a disorder that caused neurons to demyelinate, this would initially cause:
A. neurons to immediately begin to die.
B. dendrites to proliferate excessively.
C. the insulation of the axon to deteriorate.
D. a decreased number of nodes of Ranvier.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Why are the nodes of Ranvier important structures for neural firing?
A. They release neurotransmitters.
B. They are involved in reuptake.
C. They are the receptor sites for binding with neurotransmitters.
D. They are areas along the axon that speed transmission.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. You cannot fire a gun softly or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gunfire and a toilet’s flush follow the ________ law.
A. on-or-off C. binary response
B. this-or-that D. all-or-none

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication       OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What happens when the action potential reaches the terminal button?
A. The signal terminates, or ends.
B. The signal causes the vesicles to release neurotransmitters.
C. The terminal button sends it down the axon.
D. The signal causes reuptake of neurotransmitters in the synapse.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What do we call the neurons on the sending side of a synaptic cleft?
A. postsynaptic neurons C. interneurons
B. presynaptic neurons D. excitatory neurons

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What do we call the neurons on the receiving side of a synaptic cleft?
A. postsynaptic neurons C. interneurons
B. presynaptic neurons D. excitatory neurons

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. How do neurons communicate?
A. Terminal buttons plug into receptor sites on adjacent dendrites.
B. Neurotransmitters cross the synapse and bind with receptors on the postsynaptic dendrite.
C. Electric signals jump across the synapse to the adjacent neuron.
D. Chemicals released into the synapse are converted to neurotransmitters that bind with receptors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Chemical substances that carry messages directly from one neuron to the next are called:
A. agonists. C. enzymes.
B. neurotransmitters. D. hormones.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Using a key to open the front door of your house is analogous to the:
A. randomness of neural activation.
B. unique chemical structure of a neurotransmitter that fits certain receptor sites.
C. neurotransmitters that carry a secret code to neurons.
D. activity log that the nervous system maintains.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Cocaine causes the neurotransmitter dopamine to remain at the site of the synapse longer than it normally would; cocaine thus inhibits the process termed:
A. recycling. C. reuse.
B. reabsorption. D. reuptake.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. There are three events that can terminate a neurotransmitter’s influence in the synapse. Which of the following is NOT one of these events?
A. The neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic neuron.
B. Enzymes in the synapse destroy the neurotransmitter.
C. Autoreceptors signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing neurotransmitter.
D. The neurotransmitter alters its structure after release from the synaptic vesicle.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Scientists develop a new, highly addictive drug called PxH. Based on what you know about the effect of drugs on neural activity, which of the following is LEAST likely to be true?
A. PxH can be distinguished from naturally occurring neurotransmitters in the synapse.
B. PxH can alter how a neurotransmitter is synthesized.
C. PxH can change the concentration of a neurotransmitter in the synapse.
D. PxH can mimic neurotransmitters and bind to receptors.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1D

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A medication that blocks the reuptake of serotonin would lead to:
A. more serotonin in the synapse. C. more serotonin in the axon.
B. less serotonin in the synapse. D. less serotonin in the axon.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1D               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. An overdose of an acetylcholine agonist is most likely to produce:
A. fatigue. C. impulsiveness.
B. paralysis. D. anxiety.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Drugs affect neural communication in each of the following ways EXCEPT:
A. blocking reuptake.
B. blocking receptors.
C. destroying neurotransmitters.
D. eliminating the need for action potentials.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Drugs that produce their effects by mimicking neurotransmitters are called:
A. antagonists. C. acetylcholines.
B. agonists. D. reuptake inhibitors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Another way to think of agonists and antagonists, with respect to their involvement in the actions of neurotransmitters, is that agonists ________, whereas antagonists ________ the action of neurotransmitters.
A. help; hinder C. alter; maintain
B. hinder; help D. maintain; alter

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Joyce is experiencing tremors, muscular rigidity, cognitive disturbances, and mood disturbances.  Which of the following is most likely to improve Joyce’s condition?
A. epinephrine C. SSRI
B. L-DOPA D. endorphins

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Imagine you are part of the chain of activity on a production line. Your boss, who in his previous career was a neuroscientist, calls you an agonist. What would he be implying?
A. that you completely halt production
B. that you interfere with production
C. that you take stuff out of the process that is defective
D. that you facilitate production

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Drugs that block the effects of neurotransmitters by occupying their receptor sites are called:
A. antagonists. C. acetylcholines.
B. agonists. D. selective inhibitors.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. One mechanism of drugs is to alter the availability of neurotransmitters, thus affecting the functioning of neurons. Antagonistic drugs ________ the availability, whereas agonistic drugs ________ the availability.
A. increase; decrease C. eliminate; block
B. decrease; increase D. block; eliminate

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Imagine you are part of the chain of activity on a production line. Your boss, who in his previous career was a neuroscientist, calls you an antagonist. What would he be implying?
A. that you interfere with production
B. that you speed up production
C. that you take stuff out of the process that is defective
D. that you sleep on the job, doing nothing

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Regarding the role they play in behavior, neurotransmitters:
A. are very specific, with a separate neurotransmitter for each behavior.
B. may affect a variety of behaviors depending on the size of the action potential produced.
C. influence behavior through the function of a particular postsynaptic neuron.
D. convert enzymes at particular synapses.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A neurotransmitter that is important in muscle contraction is:
A. epinephrine. C. acetylcholine.
B. norepinephrine. D. dopamine.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Since curare interferes with acetylcholine functioning, we would assume it is a(n):
A. agonist.
B. antagonist.
C. substance that destroys neurons with acetylcholine receptors.
D. toxin released by neurons that binds to acetylcholine receptors.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Since nicotine increases acetylcholine functioning, we can assume it is a(n):
A. agonist.
B. antagonist.
C. substance that destroys neurons with acetylcholine receptors.
D. toxin released by neurons that binds to acetylcholine receptors.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following neurotransmitters would be most involved in enabling nerves that connect with muscles as you raise your arms above your head?
A. acetylcholine C. serotonin
B. epinephrine D. norepinephrine

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The effect of the botulism toxin (also known as Botox) on acetylcholine is to:
A. increase the amount of acetylcholine available.
B. inhibit the release of acetylcholine from the terminal buttons.
C. destroy acetylcholine within the synapse.
D. prevent the production of acetylcholine in the vesicles.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The phrase adrenaline rush refers to the action of the neurotransmitter:
A. dopamine. C. acetylcholine.
B. serotonin. D. epinephrine.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Penny consumes a recreational drug. She finds that she is extremely sensitive to what is going on around her, too vigilant in fact. The drug Penny consumed seems to enhance the activity of the neurotransmitter:
A. serotonin. C. norepinephrine.
B. GABA. D. glutamate.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Drugs that treat ________ make serotonin more available by blocking reuptake.
A. motor disturbances
B. memory disturbances and hallucinations
C. obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression
D. pain and somatic sensitivity

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Drugs that enhance the effects of GABA:
A. are used to treat depression.
B. affect the location of reception.
C. are used to treat anxiety disorders.
D. may cause seizures and hallucinations.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In the brain of someone who suffers from Parkinson’s disease, what is happening to the neurons involved with dopamine activity?
A. They are dying off. C. They are blocked for reuptake.
B. They are overproducing dopamine. D. They are rapidly multiplying.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Alcohol is a depressant, not a stimulant. Although alcohol may make people feel outgoing, it inhibits the nervous system by effectively increasing the binding of:
A. GABA. C. serotonin.
B. epinephrine. D. glutamate.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. GABA is to glutamate as ________ is to ________.
A. control; out of control C. arouse; paralyze
B. inhibit; excite D. awake; asleep

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Narcotics, such as heroin and morphine, are probably rapidly addictive because they:
A. block neural transmission. C. cause the release of GABA.
B. cause a placebo effect. D. bind to endorphin receptors.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.1 Neurotransmitters Influence Mental Activity and Behavior

OBJ:   3.1E

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. James experienced a brain injury and now he can only say “tan.” James’s injury most likely occurred in:
A. medulla oblongata. C. the brainstem.
B. motor cortex. D. Broca’s area.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.2 What Are the Basic Brain Structures and Their Function?

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Unlike a full set of electroencephalograms, examining event-related potentials means that an investigator is looking at:
A. average neural responses to an event.
B. the relatedness between different cognitive states.
C. electrical potentials.
D. multiple recordings.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.2 Scientists Can Now Watch the Working Brain

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. You wish to examine the structure of a person’s brain. Given the choice, you should use:
A. electrophysiology.
B. positron emission tomography.
C. magnetic resonance imaging.
D. functional magnetic resonance imaging.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.2 Scientists Can Now Watch the Working Brain

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the brain stem?
A. the pons C. the midbrain
B. the medulla D. the cerebellum

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Brain Stem Houses the Basic Programs of Survival

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following groups identifies the structures in the brain stem?
A. medulla, thalamus, amygdala
B. reticular formation, thalamus, amygdala
C. medulla, thalamus, reticular formation
D. medulla, pons, reticular formation

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Brain Stem Houses the Basic Programs of Survival

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which brain stem structure influences the sleep cycle, as well as general alertness?
A. reticular formation C. cerebellum
B. amygdala D. medulla

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Brain Stem Houses the Basic Programs of Survival

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Damage to this brain area would have a profound impact on motor learning.
A. Broca’s area C. cerebellum
B. brain stem D. cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.2 The Cerebellum Is Essential for Movement

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer. Apparently, alcohol had affected Yves’s ________.
A. cerebellum C. reticular formation
B. thalamus D. hippocampus

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.2 The Cerebellum Is Essential for Movement

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Anke is working in a laboratory and comes across a rat that is grossly overweight and seems unable to stop eating. The researcher tells Anke this rat has a brain lesion. Which part of the brain most likely has the lesion?
A. amygdala C. frontal lobe
B. hypothalamus D. brain stem

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Information travels from our sensory receptors to the ________ in the brain, which relays it to higher association areas.
A. basal ganglia C. thalamus
B. hypothalamus D. cerebellum

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The thalamus receives nearly all sensory information before relaying it to the cortex. What is the one sensation that is the EXCEPTION to this rule?
A. smell C. sound
B. sight D. taste

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to a study by Maguire and colleagues, which part of a taxi driver’s brain is more likely to be larger than normal, and why?
A. frontal lobe; quick motor reactions
B. hippocampus; more detailed representations of the spatial world
C. cerebellum; quick motor reactions
D. thalamus; more detailed representations of the spatial world

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. This brain structure is associated with the formation of memories.
A. thalamus C. hippocampus
B. amygdala D. hypothalamus

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The amygdala plays an important role in ________ , whereas the hippocampus plays an important role in ________.
A. fear or emotional reactions; spatial memory
B. emotions; automatic behaviors
C. spatial memory; fear or emotional reactions
D. automatic behaviors; emotions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following subcortical structures plays an important role in fear processing?
A. hypothalamus C. amygdala
B. hippocampus D. basal ganglia

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The basal ganglia is a system of subcortical structures critical for:
A. planning and producing movement.
B. regulating emotions.
C. synthesizing incoming information.
D. thinking.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following structures is important for experiencing reward?
A. frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex
B. nucleus accumbens of the basal ganglia
C. frontal lobe of the basal ganglia
D. nucleus accumbens of the cerebral cortex

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Damage to this brain structure can produce symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease.
A. hypothalamus C. amygdala
B. hippocampus D. basal ganglia

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Pleasurable and desirable experiences activate dopamine neurons in which structure of the basal ganglia?
A. thalamus C. amygdala
B. hippocampus D. nucleus accumbens

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 Subcortical Structures Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following structures is NOT considered a part of the cerebral cortex?
A. occipital lobes C. temporal lobes
B. parietal lobes D. hippocampal lobes

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the cerebral cortex?
A. It has a wrinkled appearance.
B. It is the largest part of the human brain.
C. The corpus callosum provides connections between the two hemispheres.
D. Damage to this area typically results in death.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A young child is referred to Dr. Marco’s psychology practice following a severe accident. The child had vision prior to the accident, but because of a blow to the head, she can no longer see. Her eyes are still fully functional. Based on this information, Dr. Marco determines that the brain area most likely damaged in the accident is the:
A. frontal lobe. C. temporal lobe.
B. parietal lobe. D. occipital lobe.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Jonas has experienced a relatively severe right hemisphere stroke. As a result, he has been diagnosed with hemineglect. That is, he is unable to notice anything on the left side of his body. The location of the stroke is most likely within the:
A. frontal lobe. C. temporal lobe.
B. parietal lobe. D. occipital lobe.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT correct?
A. The frontal lobe plays a significant role in thinking and movement.
B. The occipital lobe plays a significant role in vision.
C. The parietal lobe plays a significant role in touch.
D. The temporal lobe plays a significant role in the integration of movement and sight.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Auditory information is received in which lobe of the cerebral cortex?
A. occipital C. temporal
B. parietal D. frontal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the temporal lobe?
A. primary auditory cortex C. specialized visual areas
B. fusiform face area D. nucleus accumbens

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Joaquim has experienced a relatively severe left hemisphere stroke. As a result, he has been diagnosed with an inability to identify faces and understand what is spoken to him. The location of his stroke is most likely within the:
A. frontal lobe. C. temporal lobe.
B. parietal lobe. D. occipital lobe.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Early in the twentieth century, António Egas Moniz developed:
A. the hemispherectomy. C. the lobotomy.
B. the basal ganglia ablation. D. germline therapy.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The complexity and organization of which brain area in humans is believed to be responsible for what distinguishes humans from other animals?
A. thalamus C. cerebral cortex
B. hippocampus D. prefrontal cortex

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Remembering

 

  1. Brad has experienced a relatively severe left hemisphere stroke. As a result, he is unable to move his right arm and has a great deal of difficulty with planning and with maintaining attention. The location of his stroke is most likely the:
A. frontal lobe. C. temporal lobe.
B. parietal lobe. D. occipital lobe.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. You and a classmate engage in a debate over what part of the brain makes humans highly intelligent. Your friend correctly argues that the frontal lobe is important. However, being a fine psychology student, you point out that it is not the ________ but the ________ that makes the frontal lobe critical.
A. size; complexity and organization C. myelination; number of neurons
B. complexity and organization; size D. number of neurons; myelination

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.2 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Terry, a split-brain patient, is shown two pictures simultaneously: the right side of her visual field is presented with a pencil, and the left side of her visual field is presented with a pen. When Terry is asked what she saw, she will say “pencil.”  Why?
A. The left hemisphere is primarily responsible for language production.
B. The right hemisphere is primarily responsible for language production.
C. The left visual field is primarily responsible for object processing.
D. The right visual field is primarily responsible for object processing.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.2 Splitting the Brain Splits the Mind

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Terry, a split-brain patient, is shown two pictures simultaneously: the right side of her visual field is presented with a pencil, and the left side of her visual field is presented with a pen. When Terry is asked to pick up the item she saw from an array of objects, she is most likely to pick up:
A. a pencil with her left hand. C. a pen with her left hand.
B. a pencil with her right hand. D. a pen with her right hand.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.2 Splitting the Brain Splits the Mind

OBJ:   3.2A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a function of the somatic nervous system?
A. feeling sad
B. feeling pins and needles when your arm falls asleep
C. feeling where your foot is as you step
D. feeling the position on the baseball as you are ready to throw it

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. As Beatriz works outside in her yard, she works up a pretty good sweat. This is due in part to the functioning of her:
A. somatic nervous system. C. central nervous system.
B. autonomic nervous system. D. endocrine system.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The body is made ready for defensive action by the ________ division of the autonomic nervous system.
A. somatic C. parasympathetic
B. sympathetic D. central

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Walking to his car late at night, Otto became extra vigilant and his body was on alert for danger. These responses were due to the actions of the:
A. somatic nervous system. C. central nervous system.
B. sympathetic system. D. endocrine system.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. After cautiously walking home and arriving safely from her late-night class, Selma notices her heart rate slows, as does her breathing. This automatic return to a normal state is due to the activity of the:
A. somatic nervous system. C. parasympathetic system.
B. sympathetic system. D. endocrine system.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Nasim is driving on a snow-covered road, and her car begins to slide. The quick behavioral response and the increased heart rate and respiration she experiences are most likely due to the ________ nervous system; the feeling of relief and decrease in heart rate and respiration once she has the car under control again are most likely due to the ________ nervous system.
A. parasympathetic; sympathetic C. autonomic; somatic
B. sympathetic; parasympathetic D. somatic; autonomic

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. As Andre came into the room in which his introductory psychology exam would take place, he noticed that his heart rate had increased due to his ________. As he settled into the test and was able to correctly answer the questions, he calmed down. This response was due to the ________.
A. endorphins; peripheral nervous system
B. sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
C. central nervous system; peripheral nervous system
D. endocrine system; autonomic nervous system

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems

OBJ:   3.3A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The ________ is a communication system that influences thoughts, behaviors, and actions via hormones.
A. somatic nervous system C. parasympathetic system
B. sympathetic system D. endocrine system

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Endocrine System Communicates Through Hormones

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Compared to neurotransmitters, hormones are:
A. chemically different.
B. less important for the body’s functioning.
C. slower to act and longer lasting.
D. unable to bind to target receptors.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Endocrine System Communicates Through Hormones

OBJ:   3.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Hormones are to ________ as neurotransmitters are to ________.
A. the endocrine system; the nervous system
B. disease; dysfunction
C. outside the skull; inside the skull
D. sex; feelings

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Endocrine System Communicates Through Hormones

OBJ:   3.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. With respect to their relative functions, the endocrine and nervous systems:
A. act separately and are specialized.
B. are interrelated; each system affects the other.
C. are identical, but the nervous system’s effects are more diffuse.
D. have little to no overlap.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Though hormones and neurotransmitters are often chemically identical, the effect of hormones is slower than the effect of neurotransmitters because hormones:
A. are delivered by the bloodstream.
B. are chemically very different from neurotransmitters.
C. are transported in the interstitial fluid.
D. affect only the peripheral nervous system.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 The Endocrine System Communicates Through Hormones

OBJ:   3.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. The endocrine glands involved with sexual behavior are called the:
A. thymus. C. gonads.
B. penis and vagina. D. pituitary.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 The Endocrine System Communicates Through Hormones

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. An injection of testosterone in a healthy adult man will ________ sexual behavior.
A. increase C. not change
B. decrease D. eliminate

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.3 The Endocrine System Communicates Through Hormones

OBJ:   3.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. The effects of the central nervous system on the endocrine system are largely mediated by which brain structure?
A. cerebral cortex C. cerebellum
B. hypothalamus D. thalamus

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In describing the effects of the endocrine system and nervous system, the best word would be:
A. independent. C. identical.
B. interactive. D. iterative.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The gland that controls the release of hormones in the endocrine system is the:
A. pineal. C. pituitary.
B. thyroid. D. adrenal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Human growth hormone is released by which gland?
A. pineal C. pituitary
B. thyroid D. adrenal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. If you could increase the level of releasing factors in a person, it would cause their ________ to release a ________.
A. hypothalamus; hormone C. hypothalamus; neurotransmitter
B. pituitary; hormone D. pituitary; neurotransmitter

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Growth hormone (GH) is released primarily through the regulatory action of the:
A. cerebral cortex. C. cerebellum.
B. hypothalamus. D. thalamus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be an effect of growth hormone?
A. increased intelligence C. increased strength
B. increased bone strength D. increased muscle mass

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What is one way the hypothalamus influences physical growth?
A. by affecting the release of growth hormone
B. by activating calcium receptors in the bones and tissues
C. by directing the reception of growth hormone at the receptor sites
D. by absorbing growth hormone

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You might think of the pituitary gland as the master gland because it:
A. is in the brain, the master of the body.
B. allows for the mastery of skills.
C. facilitates cognitive mastery of problems.
D. controls the release of hormones throughout the system.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Growth hormone is released primarily through the actions of the ________ and is released from the ________.
A. cerebral cortex; pineal gland C. cerebral cortex; pituitary gland
B. hypothalamus; pineal gland D. hypothalamus; pituitary gland

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.3 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System Are Coordinated

OBJ:   3.3B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The idea that the brain is extremely malleable and is continuously changing as a result of injury, experiences, or substances is known as:
A. the action potential. C. plasticity.
B. the all-or-none principle. D. synesthesia.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4 How Does the Brain Change?

OBJ:   3.4A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A child’s brain looks and behaves very differently than an adult’s brain due to changes in the structure of the brain over the lifetime. This phenomenon is due to a property known as:
A. developmental restructuring. C. neural networking.
B. neural plasticity. D. sociobiological influence.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4 The Brain Rewires Itself Throughout Life

OBJ:   3.4A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. In the studies that deprived animals of early visual input, why did the visual cortex fail to develop?
A. Sufficient stimulation was not received within the critical developmental period.
B. The eyes stopped functioning, so no information was received in the visual cortex.
C. The animals were too young for visual cortex development.
D. Plasticity is not found in the visual cortex.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4 Experience Fine-Tunes Neural Connections

OBJ:   3.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Jimmy’s crossed eyes were not diagnosed and treated until he was an adolescent. Based on your knowledge of critical periods, what do you think would be the result of the crossed eyes on his adult vision?
A. The crossed eyes will have no effect on his adult vision.
B. The crossed eyes are likely to result in poorer adult vision because they were not corrected until after the critical period.
C. The crossed eyes are unlikely to result in poorer adult vision because they were corrected within the critical period.
D. He will be blind because the correction occurred after the critical period.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.4 Experience Fine-Tunes Neural Connections

OBJ:   3.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Based on the study on enriched environments, what might you predict would be the effects of a superior preschool program versus an inferior preschool program on the mental development of human children?
A. There should be no effect, as intelligence is primarily genetic in humans.
B. The inferior program should result in greater mental development because the children would have to work harder to learn, providing an enriched experience.
C. The superior program should result in greater mental development, because the children would have experienced an enriched environment during their critical period.
D. There should be no effect because both preschool programs would occur outside the critical period for mental development in children.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.4 Experience Fine-Tunes Neural Connections

OBJ:   3.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements is a myth about brain plasticity across the life span?
A. Most forgetting occurs later in life.
B. Adult brains form no new cells.
C. Neurogenesis occurs across the life span.
D. Environmental conditions play a large role in neurogenesis.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.4 The Brain Rewires Itself Throughout Life

OBJ:   3.4A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following would be the best example of phantom limb syndrome?
A. not remembering that you have lost your arm
B. experiencing intense sensations in your leg, even though the leg has actually been amputated
C. dreaming about your missing limb as if it were still there
D. using a prosthetic limb

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.4 The Brain Rewires Itself Throughout Life

OBJ:   3.4A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Men and women have been shown to differ on all but which of the following?
A. how they solve complex problems
B. the degree to which they use language-related brain regions
C. the size of the brain
D. intelligence

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.4 Females’ and Males’ Brains Are Mostly Similar but May Have Revealing Differences

OBJ:   3.4B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which parts of women’s brains may be connected by more fibers than the equivalent parts in men’s brains?
A. front and back cortex C. top and bottom cortex
B. left and right hemisphere D. brain and spinal cord

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.4 Females’ and Males’ Brains Are Mostly Similar but May Have Revealing Differences

OBJ:   3.4B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. What is the typical outcome for young children who, due to disease or injury, have an entire brain hemisphere removed during a hemispherectomy?
A. The remaining hemisphere eventually takes on most of the lost hemisphere’s function.
B. The children are most likely profoundly cognitively disabled.
C. The children will be able to sit, but not walk.
D. There is no change in any function immediately after the surgery, due to immediate neural plasticity.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.4 The Brain Can Recover from Injury

OBJ:   3.4A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The term genetics is used to describe how:
A. physical characteristics are passed on through inheritance.
B. behavioral and personality characteristics are passed on through inheritance.
C. physical, behavioral, and personality characteristics are passed on through inheritance.
D. physical and behavioral characteristics are passed on through inheritance.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 What Is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science?          OBJ:    3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Regarding the factors potentially influencing behavior, which of the following statements is true?
A. Behavior overwhelmingly reflects genetics.
B. Behavior mainly stems from environmental causes.
C. Behavior is generated mainly by the endocrine system.
D. Behavior reflects an interaction between genetics and the environment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 What Is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science?          OBJ:    3.5C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. In considering a human characteristic, we could say that the ________ provides the options and the ________ determines which option is taken.
A. gene; genome C. genome; environment
B. environment; genome D. chromosome; genome

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The results of the Human Genome Project indicate that humans have approximately ________ as many genes as a fly or worm.
A. twice C. five times
B. four times D. six times

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A gene is:
A. a segment of DNA that is involved in producing proteins that carry out specific tasks.
B. the same as a chromosome.
C. a segment of RNA that carries out specific cellular building tasks.
D. programmed to produce protein irrespective of the environment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. DNA consists of:
A. two intertwined strands of protein molecules.
B. two intertwined strands of genes.
C. a series of intertwined cells.
D. two straight stands of protein molecules.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Genes are components of:
A. RNA. C. natural sugars.
B. DNA. D. protein.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. ________ are composed of ________, which in turn are made of ________.
A. Chromosomes; DNA; genes C. Genes; DNA; chromosomes
B. Chromosomes; genes; DNA D. Genes; chromosomes; DNA

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the units of genetics, from the smallest and most specific to the largest and most inclusive?
A. DNA à gene à chromosome C. gene à DNA à chromosome
B. DNA à chromosome à gene D. gene à chromosome à DNA

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What was the Human Genome Project?
A. an international effort to map the entire structure of the human genome
B. a research project dedicated to human cloning
C. an international investigation into the genetic basis of what it means to be human
D. an effort by the National Institutes of Health to determine genetic heritability

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to the most recent estimate from the Human Genome Project, humans have approximately how many genes?
A. 1,000 -5,000 C. over 100,000
B. 20,000 -30,000 D. three times as many as most animals

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Sherri has 23 chromosome pairs. How common is this in terms of human genotype?
A. atypical C. atypical but not abnormal
B. typical D. highly atypical and usually fatal

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 All of Human Development Has a Genetic Basis      OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology                 MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Gregor Mendel’s discovery of the transmission of dominant and recessive genetic characteristics occurred during which time period?
A. early 1700s C. about 1900
B. mid-1800s D. mid-1950s

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You wish to replicate Gregor Mendel’s experiments into recessive and dominant genes. After cross-pollinating pea plants with purple and white flowers, you would have the offspring plants pollinate with:
A. purple-flowered plants.
B. white-flowered plants.
C. plants with different-colored flowers.
D. themselves.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following came first?
A. Human Genome Project C. discovery of DNA
B. selective breeding D. gene silencing

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Darrius was visiting his cousin’s dairy farm. His cousin pointed out that they were using selective breeding to increase milk production. What did he mean?
A. They selected only certain cows to give milk.
B. They bred cows for milking and cows for meat together.
C. They used cows only for milking and not meat.
D. They controlled which cows were bred based on their prior milk production.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Beatrice’s mother and father both carry a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. The probability that Beatrice’s eyes are brown is:
A. .75. C. .25.
B. .50. D. 1.00.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Beau’s mother and father each carry a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. The probability that Beau’s eyes are blue is:
A. .75. C. 1.00.
B. .50. D. .25.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Genotype refers to the:
A. genetic information carried by a cell.
B. physical or behavioral characteristics actually expressed.
C. results of a genetic mutation.
D. probability of a gene being expressed.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Phenotype refers to the:
A. genetic information carried by a cell.
B. physical or behavioral characteristics actually expressed.
C. results of a genetic mutation.
D. probability of a gene being expressed.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. An instructor looking at her class is also looking at:
A. stereotypes. C. genotypes.
B. archetypes. D. phenotypes.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. A genotype is ________, whereas a phenotype is ________.
A. underlying; observed C. genetic; environmental
B. expressed; inherited D. dominant; recessive

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. At conception, one’s ________ is fixed, whereas one’s ________ is always changing throughout one’s lifetime.
A. genotype; phenotype C. genotype; dominant gene
B. phenotype; genotype D. dominant gene; genotype

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Personality is most likely a ________ trait.
A. dominant C. polygenic
B. recessive D. amorphous

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. People, even from the same family, vary in intelligence. This variation suggests that intelligence is:
A. controlled by a single gene. C. genetically determined.
B. a function of personality. D. polygenic.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The Smith children, although genetically related, all show slight variations in the color of their skin. These variations are most likely the result of:
A. single genotype expression. C. polygenic effects.
B. cell division. D. dominant gene effects.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is a source of evidence that human skin color is genetically more complex than flower color in Mendel’s experiments?
A. Humans are more complicated than plants.
B. Humans have a large range of skin tones.
C. Mammals and plants follow completely different genetic principles.
D. Humans do not have dominant genes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.5 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. The fertilized egg is known as the:
A. gamete. C. zygote.
B. ovum. D. allele.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The process by which chromosomes duplicate and the cell divides into new cells with identical chromosome structure is called:
A. fertilization. C. mutation.
B. cell division. D. conception.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is the closest to being true?
A. Nearly all mutations are harmful.
B. Nearly all mutations are beneficial.
C. Most mutations are either very harmful or highly beneficial.
D. Most mutations are benign, with little effect.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The mutation that became the recessive characteristic for sickle-cell anemia is adaptive in:
A. malaria-prevalent environments.
B. non–African Americans only.
C. African Americans.
D. no known environments and, as a recessive characteristic, is likely to die out.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why are gametes unique?
A. They contain half of every chromosome pair.
B. They allow a doubling of the paired chromosomes.
C. They exclusively contain X or Y chromosomes.
D. They are fertilized zygotes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Cell division refers to which of the following processes?
A. the process by which cells mutate
B. the duplication of chromosomes as the cell divides into two new cells with identical chromosome structure
C. the cell divides into two new but genetically unique and specialized cells
D. the process by which a cell undergoes a polygenic effect

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is the name for the mutation in which moths become a darker color as an adaptation to pollution?
A. industrial melanism C. color variation
B. evolutionary coloration D. genotypic melanism

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You wish to conduct a long-term experiment to test the hypothesis that industrial melanism could theoretically cause changes to moth coloring. You create a large controlled environment that includes moths, their predators, and trees. You observe moth coloring over many generations before, and then after, you do what?
A. Increase the number of predators C. Darken the tree trunks
B. Introduce new prey D. Remove sunlight

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 5, Professional Development                               MSC:              Applying

 

  1. In sexual reproduction, both parents contribute one half of the chromosomes. The sperm carry:
A. Y chromosomes only. C. X or Y chromosomes.
B. X chromosomes only. D. X and Y chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In sexual reproduction, both parents contribute one half of the chromosomes. The egg carries:
A. Y chromosomes only. C. X or Y chromosomes.
B. X chromosomes only. D. X and Y chromosomes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which the individual is unable to produce the blood-clotting factor. It is a sex-linked genetic mutation. If the mother carries the mutation on one of her X chromosomes but not the other, the chances of her son inheriting the mutated X, and thus developing the disease, would statistically be:
A. 100 percent. C. 25 percent.
B. 50 percent. D. 0 percent.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction

OBJ:   3.5A

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following phenomena would NOT be part of a study in behavioral genetics?
A. the effect of one environment on another environment
B. the effect of genetic information on environments
C. the effect of environmental and genetic interactions on biological phenomena
D. the effect of environmental and genetic interactions on psychological phenomena

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Most behavioral geneticists are primarily interested in:
A. mapping the human genome.
B. discovering how genes control psychological but not biological behaviors.
C. proving that genes have a stronger influence on behavior than does environment.
D. discovering the degree of genetic and environmental influence on psychological phenomena.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional Development

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. In considering the relative contributions of genes and environment, most scientists would agree that:
A. environment plays the more important role in shaping behavior.
B. only genes shape behavior.
C. social context has little effect on behavior.
D. genes and environment interact to determine behavior.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. In studies of monozygotic twins separated at birth and adopted into different environments, there are:
A. no similarities.
B. only physical similarities.
C. only broad personality trait similarities.
D. sometimes a surprising number of similarities with regard to idiosyncratic behaviors.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Ana is studying the similarity of monozygotic versus dizygotic twins, examining characteristics ranging from criminality to math aptitude to introversion. It is likely that she is working in the field of:
A. child development. C. behavioral genetics.
B. psychometrics. D. genometrics.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 5, Professional Development

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Bill and his sister, Ann, are twins; however, they cannot be:
A. monozygotic twins. C. fraternal twins.
B. dizygotic twins. D. raised apart.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Adoption studies are an important tool of behavioral genetics because they:
A. allow us to examine the effects of nonrelated mothering.
B. allow us to look at the contributions of environment and genetics on behavior.
C. are so rare.
D. show that environment overwhelms the effect of genes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Which variables of behavioral genetics can be examined with adoption studies?
A. genetics only C. genetics and environment
B. environment only D. parenting

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. In general, siblings of different ages raised together have:
A. the same genes but different environments.
B. the same environment but different genes.
C. different genes and different environments.
D. the same genes and same environments.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Maria wants to determine whether genetics or environment has a greater influence on intelligence. The best technique for determining this influence would be a study using:
A. monozygotic twins who are reared apart.
B. dizygotic twins who are reared apart.
C. fraternal twins who are reared apart.
D. identical twins who are reared together.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. The advantage of studying monozygotic twins is that:
A. all of their behaviors are identical.
B. they are treated the same in their environment.
C. they are easy to locate and track for research.
D. they are genetically identical.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Analyzing

 

  1. Why do monozygotic twins have different phenotypes?
A. They have different genotypes.
B. They have nonshared environments.
C. They have the same environments but different genes.
D. They have only minor phenotypic variation across a few physical traits but no differences in psychological traits.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
A. Monozygotic twins have the same environment.
B. Dizygotic twins have the same genes.
C. Nontwin siblings share exactly the same genes.
D. Dizygotic twins have different environments.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. Heritability can best be understood:
A. in the way it applies to individuals.
B. as a population estimate.
C. as a way to understand variations between genetic groups.
D. as a qualitative description.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Heredity refers to:
A. the transmission of characteristics from parents to children through genetics.
B. the transmission of characteristics from parents to children through genetics and environment.
C. a statistical estimate of observed variation in a population caused by genetic variation.
D. the extent to which organisms differ from each other.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Heritability refers to:
A. the degree to which genes control a characteristic.
B. the degree to which shared environments account for a shared characteristic among siblings.
C. the degree to which a mother’s characteristics are passed on versus a father’s characteristics.
D. an estimate of how much of the variation in a characteristic is due to known genetic variation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. You conducted a large study that examined children who carry a gene linked to depression, who experienced severe environmental trauma, or both. Based on your knowledge regarding the interaction between environment and genetics, who is most likely to show signs of depression later in life?
A. those who showed early signs of depression
B. those who carried the gene linked to depression
C. those who showed both early signs of depression and carried the depression-linked gene
D. none of the children would be predicted to more likely develop depression

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genes Affect Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Applying

 

  1. According to the study conducted by Avshalom Caspi, boys who had been mistreated and showed the low-MAO gene were:
A. least likely to commit a crime.
B. responsible for more than half the crimes committed by the group.
C. no more likely to commit a crime than the boys without the low-MAO gene who had been mistreated.
D. no more likely to commit a crime than boys with the low-MAO gene who were not mistreated.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   3.5 Social and Environmental Contexts Influence Genetic Expression

OBJ:   3.5C               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. To study the influence of a single gene on behavior, researchers can render a mouse gene inactive or they can disrupt it. The results of this manipulation are called ________ mice.
A. inbred C. knockin
B. outbred D. knockout

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genetic Expression Can Be Modified

OBJ:   3.5B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following research goals is NOT a purpose of a knockout mouse?
A. to determine the effects of a removed or disrupted gene on the genome
B. to determine the effect of a removed or disrupted gene on other genes
C. to determine how a removed gene might interact with the environment
D. to reduce the need for MRIs and other techniques to study brain development

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   3.5 Genetic Expression Can Be Modified

OBJ:   3.5B

NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking  MSC:           Understanding

 

  1. Optogenetics is an important new method that gives new insights into which causal relationship?
A. genes causing behavior C. genes causing neuronal activity
B. neuronal activity causing behavior D. behavior causing neuronal activity

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   3.5 Genetic Expression Can Be Modified

OBJ:   3.5B               NAT:  APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology

MSC:  Analyzing