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Practical Research Planning And Design 11th Edition by Paul D. Leedy -Test Bank
- By definition, mixed-methods research designs
- include both relationship questions and difference questions in the same study.
- include both descriptive and inferential statistics in the analysis.
- include both quantitative and qualitative data.
- include a number of quantitative measures of student performance.
- Of the following, which best illustrates an example of a mixed-methods study?
- Jenka conducts interviews and observations in her study of transitional students.
- Vanda conducts observations and supplements her findings with class grades.
- Micky looks at percentages of successful transitions from the district and class grades.
- Svec interviews both parents and their children regarding transition.
- A study that relies primarily on quantitative data and uses qualitative data to follow up is considered an example of which approach to mixed methods design?
- Multiphase iterative
- Dorothy has been collecting both quantitative and qualitative data in parallel. She wanted to ensure triangulation with the hope that analyses of both data sets lead to similar conclusions about the phenomenon under investigation. Which design has Dorothy employed?
- Multiphase iterative
- Shenny has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data within the same time frame. Each data set aims to address related but different research questions. Which design has Shenny employed?
- Multiphase iterative
- Rodrigo wanted to investigate students’ feeling about reading for pleasure. First, he interviewed students and then he used insights from the interviews to construct a survey to collect quantitative data. Which design has Rodrigo employed?
- Sharon wanted to investigate student perceptions of homework. First, she distributed a survey to students and their parents and collected quantitative data. Second, she interviewed a few participants to gain insights on their survey responses. Which design has Sharon employed?
- Tacita is interested in how teachers’ classroom management practices change over time. She conducts observations of 8 teachers’ classrooms over the course of five years. She interviews the teachers and follows up with counts of referral data, disciplinary notes in children’s files, and number of notes home per teacher per year. This study can be described as a:
- QUAN-QUAL study
- QUAN-qual study
- QUAL-quan study
- Quantitative study
- The QUAN-qual model of mixed methods design is also known as
- Which of the following scenarios best illustrates a multiphase iterative design?
- A city has a typical voter turnout of 40% and so decides to implement a program to “get out the vote.” First, they interview 38 voting-age adults about their voting practice. Then, six weeks before the local election, they begin an advertising campaign in the local media, community services, and neighborhoods. After the election, they see that voter turnout remained at 40%. They conduct more interviews to find out why, and ask in particular about people’s response to the advertising campaign. They then begin planning a new campaign for the next election.
- A researcher is interested in how low-income families budget each month, identifying and balancing necessities with items that might be considered luxuries. She begins by conducting a small focus group, asking open-ended questions about budgeting and letting the group take the topic wherever they choose. From their responses, she develops a more extensive set of interview questions and conducts a series of individual interviews over a six-month period. After analyzing the data, she develops a detailed survey, which she administers to a large sample of families, asking them to fill it out every other month for a year.
- A team of medical researchers wants to understand why parents do not consistently take their children to the hospital for evaluation after falling and hitting their heads during play or sports. They conduct a two-phase study in which 283 parents first complete a 26-item survey regarding their parenting practices, medical knowledge of head injury and concussion, and medical histories. The team analyzes the survey results and formulates a set of focused interview questions, then calls a subset of the original sample and invites them to participate in a 2-hour interview.
- A sociologist is interested in whether the increase of gender-nontraditional characters on television affects the way people think about laws on equal treatment. He contacts a sample of 16 individuals in his community who are active in civil rights organizations and conducts four focus groups to identify target television shows and key questions to ask in a second phase of his study. He then does a qualitative content analysis of the targeted television shows and uses that analysis to develop a set of interview questions. He then contacts a random sample of individuals across the country and invites them to participate in the interview via computer.
- Mixed-methods research that has more than one phase usually employs which type of sampling method?
- stratified random
- Mixed-methods researchers should ask themselves, “Are the quantitative and qualitative data equally relevant to the same or related topics and research question(s)?” This question is most useful to help the researcher evaluate:
- the validity of the study.
- the purpose of the study.
- the type of analysis to be used in the study.
- the conclusions drawn as a result of the study.
- What are the general advantages of conducting a mixed-methods study, rather than two or more different studies, to address a single research question?
- Why do mixed-methods studies require special consideration of the ethics involved in conducting the study? Explain, using an example to support your claims.
PLANNING AND PREPARING A Final Research Report
To assist students in recognizing different styles of technical writing, return again to the pool of articles collected for the Chapter 1 activity. Ask students to sort the articles into the various styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) they represent. Having categorized the articles, it will be easy to compare and contrast how headings, citations, referencing, and so on are handled in each style.
This group activity will help students pull together all that they have learned about research. Form small groups of students who are heterogeneous in terms of experience and research interest. Have each small group critique a research report using the checklist provided in Chapter 12. If time allows, you might ask groups to critique two research reports: one chosen as a good example of a high-quality research report and one chosen as a poor example. If each group is critiquing the same article (or articles), groups can compare critiques and discuss any differences of opinion. Alternatively, the activity could conclude with a whole-group discussion of each article and how well it conforms to standards of good technical writing.
This activity is a good assessment tool as well as a good learning tool. As part of a final exam, students can read a short research article and critique it using the checklist provided in the chapter.
pLANNING AND PREPARING A Final Research Report
- Before beginning to write a report of your own research study, you should first:
- confirm the required style or format.
- surf the Internet for published reports on similar topics.
- complete all data collection and analyses.
- find a friend or colleague who is willing to read it when it’s finished.
- Alana has completed a study on the development of political attitudes in adolescence as part of her graduate studies. She begins her dissertation by stating, “Previous research has shown…” and then summarizes the related literature on her topic. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- Introduce your hypotheses immediately after the review of the literature.
- Begin with a statement of the problem, in context, before introducing previous research.
- Discuss the studies in chronological order, ending with the most recent study, to highlight how your study fits into the history of research on this topic.
- Define “political attitudes” in the first paragraph, to ensure that the readers will be able to follow the literature review.
- Marc is working on his dissertation. He wants the introductory section to be thorough and easy to understand, so for any terms that might be ambiguous, he explains how he’s defined the term, why he’s defined it in that particular way rather than in another way, and an example. Which of the following pieces of advice is his advisor most likely to give him for revision?
- Keep it up; it’s important to be clear and define your terms so that everyone is on the same page.
- Cut back — for a dissertation, assume that your reader is familiar with your topic and explain only new terminology.
- Take out the examples; a definition and explanation should be clear enough to an intelligent reader.
- Move any operational definitions to the method section, where you should explain how variables are measured.
- Kimathi conducted a case study that included a series of interviews. He knows that he should describe his research methods in sufficient detail that someone else could replicate his study exactly, so in a section titled “Methodology,” he includes all of his interview questions, and all accompanying follow-up probes, in a lengthy table. Which of the following pieces of advice is his advisor most likely to give him for revision?
- keep all the questions in the table, but exclude the follow-up probes.
- describe the purpose of the interview and how it was conducted in the method section and put all the questions into the appendix.
- include only sample questions in the method section but put the full interview protocol in an appendix.
- include only the interview questions that led to significant results.
- Estrella has completed a qualitative study, and although she coded and organized her data, she did not conduct any statistical analyses. She thus does not want to present a separate results section in her paper. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- It’s okay to go straight to conclusions since she doesn’t have statistical results.
- She does not need a results section in the paper itself as long as she presents all her data in an appendix.
- Every paper really needs a dedicated results section, so she should include this section in the paper.
- However the section is labeled, she should present a summary of the data, in detail, in the body of the paper.
- Tiffani has completed an experiment with a factorial design and begins to write the section of her report titled “Results.” She starts by saying she conducted a factorial analysis of variance and then describes, in sequence, each of the other statistics she ran. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- Present only the statistics that provide evidence to support the original research hypothesis.
- Be sure that the reader can understand how each analysis is related to the problem or subproblem.
- After each individual statistic, provide a clear conclusion so that readers fully understand what it shows.
- Don’t forget to back up your numbers with thick description of the data so that readers will be able to replicate the study.
- Zara finished a survey study and found unexpected results — in some cases, the analyses showed that variables were correlated, but Zara had no a priori hypothesis about those variables. She is unsure whether to include these results at all in the final report. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- Present the unexpected results, perhaps after she presents the results that relate directly to the original questions and hypotheses.
- Present only the statistics that provide evidence to support the original research hypothesis in the results section and save the others for a discussion section.
- Consider revising the introduction, possibly with a review of more literature, to see if the unexpected results should have been expected after all.
- Present the results in the order in which she ran the analyses, without distinguishing that some were unexpected.
- Ami conducted a quasi-experimental study for her thesis. In her final report, she includes one section titled “Results and Conclusions.” In that section, she presents statistical analyses, the limitations of her study, and plans for future research. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- That looks good — everything is covered in one place so it’s easy for the reader.
- Include interpretations of the data — how do the data help us answer the research question?
- Take out the section on limitations — no need to draw attention to a study’s weaknesses.
- For a quasi-experimental study, a separate Results section is really needed.
- Monisha conducted a narrative study that turned out exactly opposite of what she expected. She ends the report of her study with a brief summary of the findings and a more lengthy discussion of the importance of the research question, including a new literature review that might explain her unexpected findings. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- Don’t lose sight of what you actually found — suggesting new research is great, but in this report focus first on interpreting the data you have and reflecting on any possible weaknesses in your design.
- It was smart to do a new literature review — but it should replace the old one, so that the results do not appear to be unexpected; you should reorganize the paper with a new prediction.
- Sometimes research doesn’t turn out as we expect, but those studies generally don’t get published. So don’t spend too much time on a revision of this paper.
- Instead of a new literature review at the end of the paper, include more information about the possible weaknesses of the method, analyses, and interpretations. That way the reader will have a better understanding of why the results are so unexpected.
- Yanfeng completes a qualitative action research study as part of his student teaching experience. His report includes front matter in which he acknowledges the people who helped with the study and an appendix showing his interview questions. When discussing his results, he presents quotations from the participants, who were students in his class. He uses only their initials, to preserve their anonymity. In his conclusions, he notes the next steps he plans to take in the classroom, based on his results. Which of the following pieces of advice is his advisor most likely to give him for revision?
- It’s okay as is — because Yanfeng was in the classroom as a student teacher, preserving anonymity is impossible.
- Remove the acknowledgments so that any information about the school is anonymous, and then the initials are anonymous and so okay.
- Revise the results section so that the students are not identifiable, but keep the acknowledgments.
- Remove the acknowledgments section and the students’ initials to preserve everyone’s anonymity.
- Malia did a lot of reading for her dissertation project as she tried to narrow her topic to something that was researchable. She looked at primary and secondary sources, journal articles, Internet sites, and even interviewed a few people who are prominent in the field. She kept careful notes, and when writing the literature review for her project she discussed only those studies that were directly relevant to the research question she ultimately focused on. However, she wants to be sure that her advisors know she completed a comprehensive search of the literature, so she includes a full bibliography chapter, listing all the sources she read. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her for revision?
- For a dissertation project, that’s sensible —in a dissertation, a student needs to show that she is an expert in the area.
- Revise the reference list to include only those sources cited in the paper.
- Revise the literature review to include all the sources you read.
- Instead of a chapter, use an appendix of “Additional Sources” so that the readers can see the full list.
- As part of her graduate work, Liana conducted an ethnographic study, which included several participant observers — undergraduate students who received course credit for their participation across a full semester. Liana is unsure whether to include the students as co-authors on a conference proposal she is submitting, in which she summarizes the main findings of the study. Which of the following pieces of advice is her advisor most likely to give her?
- Include them, because their participant observation required substantial intellectual contribution to the project.
- Do not include them, because they received course credit for their participation.
- Only include the students whose observations were used to support the conclusions you drew.
- Include them for the conference presentation but not a later journal article, because journals have more rigid rules about shared authorship.
- Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project. Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.