Description

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

ISBN-13 9780132693240
ISBN-10 0132693240

 

Practical Research Planning And Design 11th Edition by Paul D. Leedy – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3

 

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

 

 

The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize students familiar with a variety of ways to access information for the literature review.  Although the majority of students are likely to claim familiarity with searching professional electronic databases, many will be as novices at this skill.  An opportunity to access a professional electronic database and conduct a focused search of that database with the support of a small group of peers or the instructor will be valuable for many students.

 

Form groups of about three students who share similar research interests.  Have these students identify a question of interest (for the purposes of the activity) and then search appropriate electronic database(s) for relevant information.  It may be necessary to remind students periodically that the identified question should guide the search, not the other way around.   It is not uncommon for novice researchers to lose focus as they encounter a large number of interesting, but maybe only peripherally relevant, articles.

 

The groups of students and their research problem statements from the Chapter 2 activity would also be a good starting point for this exercise.

 

 

 

Chapter 3

 

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. The primary purpose for completing a thorough literature review as part of a research study is to:
  1. become an expert in your area of interest.
  2. provide evidence that your hypothesis is correct.
  3. help you interpret your own findings.
  4. point you toward the proper method to use.

 

  1. Jane wants to search for information about the variety of attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an effective and efficient search?
  1. “attention disorders”
  2. “ADHD,” “ADD,” and “children”
  3. “disorders” and “children”
  4. “attention disorders” and “children”

 

  1. A well-structured literature review:
  1. contains highly detailed descriptions of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.
  2. begins with those studies most closely related to the research problem, then opens up to a broader perspective.
  3. begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus to those studies most closely related to the research problem.
  4. contains general summaries of each work chosen for inclusion in the review.

 

  1. The review of the literature can be curtailed when:
  1. you are no longer encountering new ideas or information.
  2. all of the work done by top researchers in the area has been reviewed.
  3. all published work related to a topic has been reviewed.
  4. two to four weeks have been devoted to the search.

 

  1. A well-written literature review:
  1. avoids evaluation or critique of the literature reviewed, so as not to bias the opinion of the reader.
  2. emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is related to your    own research problem.
  3. avoids summarizing the work of others so that details of the original work are not lost in the reviewing process.
  4. emphasizes detailed reporting of each piece of research included in the literature review.

 

  1. Typically, the literature review should:
  1. include few or no works more than five years old to avoid having the work become prematurely obsolete.
  2. be limited to work coming out of the very best labs and universities in the country.
  3. give a broad overview of the area, without getting bogged down in the details of particular studies or theoretical perspectives.
  4. emphasize how the studies being reviewed are related to the research problem under consideration.

 

  1. While reading articles published in refereed journals about her research topic, Georgia repeatedly comes across references to a series of studies by one particular researcher. She’s unable to find those references in the collections of her university library.  Her best plan of action would be to:
  1. Summarize the research, noting the references were “cited by” the articles she did read.
  2. Include the references in her reference list but not cite them in the text.
  3. put in a request through the library loan program.
  4. Search the Internet for copies that may have been posted.

 

  1. Shar has read only about 20 refereed articles that relate to her primary research topic, but she’s finding that they tend to focus on the same basic patterns and arguments.  Her best plan of action at this point is to:
  1. stop reading; it’s time to bring the literature review to a close.
  2. reconsider her search terms and look more broadly for additional research articles.
  3. search for non-refereed articles that may contain useful information.
  4. email the authors of the articles she’s found and ask for additional sources.

 

  1. The best way to organize a review of the literature is:
  1. Chronologically, with the earliest research first.
  2. Chronologically, with the most recent research first.
  3. Thematically, with an emphasis on how the literature relates to your question.
  4. Critically, identifying flaws in previous studies that make your question relevant.

 

  1. While reading and taking notes on research in her area of interest, Dana wrote down quotations from each article, along with the page numbers. As she begins to synthesize the information and write her literature review, her best strategy is to:
  1. include the quotations and their sources to ensure she’s correctly representing the previous findings.
  2. paraphrase the quotations to demonstrate she understands the content.  If it’s paraphrased, she does not need citations.
  3. use key quotations, with full references, and then explain what they mean in the context of her research.
  4. summarize the main points in her own words and include the relevant citations to the original work.

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.

 

  1. Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages of 20 and 29.” Conducting a keyword search on “couples” and “responsibility,” Kirby has generated a lengthy list of research articles.  He decides to shorten the list of potential articles by eliminating all articles that were not published in prestigious research journals.  He will include all the remaining articles in his literature review.  What is your opinion of Kirby’s approach to selecting articles for the literature review?

 

  1. You are reading a literature review written by a novice researcher in your field. You notice that the researcher seems to have relied heavily on an Internet search while conducting the literature review.  Your hunch is supported when you glance at the reference page and find a long list of Internet addresses.  What goes through your mind regarding the quality and adequacy of the literature review in this situation?

 

 

Chapter 4

 

PLANNING YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT

 

 

This exercise gives students experience working through the complexities of planning a well-designed study.  As a starting point, return to the groups of students and their research problems from the Chapter 3 exercise.

 

Have students work in their groups to identify (a) appropriate methodologies (quantitative or qualitative) for exploring the research problem or subproblems previously identified and (b) appropriate measurement instruments.  Students can also be asked to discuss possible threats to internal and external validity in their chosen approach.  Last, but not least, students will need to review their plan to assure that the study is being conducted in an ethical manner.   Ask each group to hand in a detailed written document at the end of the activity.

 

 

Chapter 4

 

PLANNING YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

 

  1. Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one does NOT necessarily characterize data?
  1. Data may be elusive.
  2. Data can be volatile.
  3. Data are ever changing.
  4. Data reveal truth.

 

  1. Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village for three years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers in the community.  When Charlotte was observing, she was collecting:
  1. primary data.
  2. secondary data.
  3. informal data.
  4. nonempirical data.

 

  1. Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an anthropologist living in an Incan village for three years and becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other anthropologists, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho weaving.  For Mira, Charlotte’s book constitutes:
  1. hearsay data.
  2. secondary data.
  3. informal data.
  4. primary data.

 

  1. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high-school students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large research literature regarding similar influences on learning, and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of high school history students.  Moreover, as a researcher she is uneasy with a lack of structure.  You recommend that Dr. Davenport conduct a ______ study.
  1. quantitative
  2. qualitative

 

  1. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early adolescents come to make a connection between their personal lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don’t. Furthermore, among those who see the connection, why do some become committed to environmentalism while others do not?  Dr. Greenwald looks forward to probing the thoughts of young teens on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues through “14-year-old eyes.”  You recommend that Dr. Greenhill conduct a ______ study.
  1. quantitative
  2. qualitative

 

  1. Replications in experimental research are generally conducted to facilitate
  1. internal validity.
  2. external validity.
  3. internal reliability.
  4. external reliability.

 

  1. Marcy is concerned that her findings may be due to an extraneous uncontrolled variable and not her treatment. Marcy is most concerned with:
  1. triangulation.
  2. respondent validation.
  3. external validity.
  4. internal validity.

 

  1. When a qualitative researcher asks the participants, “Do the conclusions I’ve drawn make sense to you” the researcher is evaluating:
  1. the trustworthiness of the study.
  2. the reliability of the study.
  3. the external validity of the study.
  4. the Hawthorne effect.

 

  1. An ordinal scale of measurement:
  1. assigns a name to a category.
  2. is tied to an absolute zero.
  3. incorporates equal units of measurement.
  4. communicates greater than and less than relationships.

 

  1. An interval scale of measurement:
  1. assigns a name to a category.
  2. communicates rank-order information.
  3. incorporates equal units of measurement.
  4. is tied to an absolute zero.

 

  1. The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is that only one of them:
  1. includes an absolute zero.
  2. uses equal units of measurement.
  3. supports the use of statistical analyses.
  4. is used in research with human subjects.

 

  1. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report how politically conservative they are.  It includes a 7-point scale where 1 is “not at all conservative” and 7 is “extremely conservative.”  This is an example of a/an:
  1. nominal scale.
  2. ordinal scale.
  3. interval scale.
  4. ratio scale.

 

  1. Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report their highest level of education by choosing from these options: “some high school,” “completed high school,” “some college,” or “completed 4-year college degree.”  This is an example of a/an:
  1. nominal scale.
  2. ordinal scale.
  3. interval scale.
  4. ratio scale.

 

  1. Professor Wellman is constructing a demographic questionnaire for use in a research project. One question asks students to report whether they are currently living in an “urban,” “suburban,” or “rural” setting.  This is an example of a/an:
  1. nominal scale.
  2. ordinal scale.
  3. interval scale.
  4. ratio scale.

 

  1. Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery items.  Sean’s confusion indicates a lack of ______ regarding the task.
  1. construct validity
  2. content validity
  3. criterion validity
  4. face validity

 

  1. A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that the two instruments are highly related, which supports the ______ of the new instrument.
  1. predictive validity
  2. content validity
  3. criterion validity
  4. face validity

 

  1. A researcher designed a new questionnaire to measure political conservatism. To test out his new instrument, he asks people leaving their polling place on election day to report their degree of political conservatism on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high) and then complete his questionnaire.  Results show that people who identified themselves as political conservatives also had the highest scores on his questionnaire.  This is an indication of the ______ of the new instrument.
  1. criterion validity
  2. content validity
  3. face validity
  4. predictive validity

 

  1. Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session.  They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly similar.  This is an example of ______ reliability.
  1. interrater
  2. internal consistency
  3. equivalent form
  4. test–retest

 

  1. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine.  Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question, they tend of disagree with the other nine.  This is an indication of good ______ reliability.
  1. interrater
  2. internal consistency
  3. equivalent form
  4. test–retest

 

  1. Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a senior citizens group in early April, then again in early May.  By comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the ______ reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
  1. interrater
  2. internal consistency
  3. equivalent form
  4. test–retest

 

  1. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
  1. Conduct the study in a controlled laboratory setting.
  2. Conduct a double-blind experiment.
  3. Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.
  4. Build in opportunities for triangulation.

 

  1. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the external validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
  1. Conduct the study in a real-life setting.
  2. Assure that you have a representative sample.
  3. Replicate the study under a variety of relevant conditions.
  4. Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.

 

  1. Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the credibility of a qualitative study. Which one is NOT?
  1. Spend extensive time in the field studying the phenomenon of interest.
  2. Acquire detailed descriptions of the phenomena being studied.
  3. Exclude participants who have experiences or opinions that are very different from those of others in the study.
  4. Ask participants to comment on the conclusions being drawn from the study.

 

  1. The requirement to keep information provided by research participants confidential applies:
  1. to legal minors (children under the age of 18), but not adults.
  2. only in cases where it is specifically requested by the participant.
  3. to all persons under almost all conditions.
  4. only in cases where participants divulge information that is potentially illegal.

 

  1. The primary role of the IRB is to
  1. ensure researchers are aware of federal and state laws regarding the handling of data.
  2. ensure that research participants are protected from harm and invasion of privacy.
  3. provide institution-specific ethical guidelines for research involving humans.
  4. evaluate whether the researchers are qualified and the research will be meaningful.

 

  1. Sara conducted a study in her sixth grade classroom. The study focused on students’ interests in science classes.  Sara shared what individual students said about their interest in science with the seventh-grade teachers to help place students in next years’ classes.  Was Sara’s sharing this information in accordance with ethical research practices?
  1. In this case it was ethical to share students’ data since it will help them in their education.
  2. In this case it was ethical to share students’ data since the study was conducted in school.
  3. In this case, it was unethical to share students’ data since that information was confidential.
  4. In this case, it was unethical to share students’ data since the information was anonymous.

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students.  Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitative approach to studying these questions.  State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a qualitative research approach.  Then explain why your question is better addressed using a qualitative, rather than a quantitative, methodology.

 

  1. Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods. She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students.  Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a quantitative approach to studying these questions.  State a specific research question related to her general research problem that lends itself well to a quantitative research approach.  Then explain why your question is better addressed using a quantitative, rather than a qualitative, methodology.

 

  1. Concepts, ideas, opinions, feelings, and other intangible entities are often labeled as “insubstantial phenomena.” Select one of the following 3 phenomena that would be considered insubstantial, and explain two different ways — one qualitative and one quantitative — that you might measure it:  a) the closeness of undergraduates’ social network friends; b) the “campus climate” at your university; c) “irrational exuberance” about the stock market.

Chapter 5

 

WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 

 

To help students recognize the elements of a well-written research proposal, there is no substitute for the opportunity to study a variety of samples.  This is especially true if the samples include both well-written and poorly written research proposals.  Many graduate instructors will have drafts of dissertation and thesis proposals at their disposal, and these may very well reflect a range of quality.  These are a good source of examples, but it is important to get permission from the authors of the proposals prior to their use in class.  In addition, it is a good idea to use these samples anonymously.  This is especially critical if a work is being used as an example of a poorly written proposal or if the author may be known to students in the current class.

 

If such examples are not available, the collections of theses or dissertations housed at many university libraries can be another good source of examples.  Of course, these are completed projects, not proposals.  However, a well-written research proposal is very much like a dissertation or thesis report, except that it ends with the proposed data analysis.  A little time spent browsing this collection should yield a set of examples that range in methodology, field of study, and quality.

 

Form small groups of students who are heterogeneous in terms of experience and research interest.  Have each small group examine a number of writing samples and rank them according to quality.  Ask students to provide a narrative that explains their ranking.  If time allows, you may end the activity with whole-group presentations in which students summarize the strengths and weaknesses identified in the writing samples they studied.

 

 

Chapter 5

 

WRITING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals:
  1. are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail.
  2. justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature.
  3. are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology.
  4. include an autobiographical section that explains how the researcher became interested in the research topic.

 

  1. A proposal for a quantitative study typically begins with:
  1. a statement of the problem and its setting.
  2. a review of the literature on this topic.
  3. the hypotheses and operational definitions.
  4. an abstract summarizing the entire study.

 

  1. A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these elements in this order:
  1. an explanation of how the findings will fit with the larger literature.
  2. the theoretical framework and underlying assumptions.
  3. a statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding questions.
  4. the hypotheses and operational definitions.

 

  1. Farhat is interested in the reading practices of Turkish families. He needs to prepare a research proposal for the Ministry of Education to be able to conduct the study. Which of the following is NOT likely part of his shared plan?
  1. A description of his instrumentation for the study
  2. A time schedule for how the study will progress
  3. A discussion of his sampling procedure
  4. An analysis of data he has already collected

 

  1. Sophie is preparing a qualitative research plan for her study that explores the stories of young cancer survivors. Of the following, which is Sophie likely to include in her plan?
  1. A description of her hypothesis
  2. A discussion of the representativeness of sample
  3. A section that demonstrates relevance of the study
  4. A presentation of her initial findings

 

  1. Amida recognizes that there are limitations to her proposed research study that explores students’ opinions about campus mental health resources. As she writes her plan where will she share these limitations?
  1. The first section where she describes the problem and setting
  2. The review of related literature
  3. The section where she discusses treatment of the data
  4. The summary of her qualifications as a researcher

 

  1. In regard to the style you will use for headings and subheadings in the research proposal:
  1. there are no special formatting requirements unless the document is a thesis or dissertation.
  2. all disciplines recognize the major formal styles, so it is a matter of personal choice.
  3. the writer is free to show creativity as long as s/he is consistent throughout the document.
  4. disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so you must find out what the expectations are.

 

  1. Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
  1. plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
  2. do not need to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.
  3. make revisions to the first draft of the proposal only if they are requested by a reviewer.
  4. may need to edit the first draft of the proposal for typos, but not content.

 

  1. When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
  1. will know which data analytic techniques are appropriate for your study without a detailed explanation.
  2. is an expert in the area you are addressing and will be familiar with common issues, variables, instruments, etc.
  3. can discern for him/herself what the importance of the study is.
  4. knows nothing about the proposed project, so all the details must be thoroughly explained.

 

  1. When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and interpreted:
  1. it is best to provide only a general plan as things will probably change over the course of the study anyway.
  2. it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.
  3. it is impossible to be highly detailed until one has the actual data in hand.
  4. an overly specific plan may bias the analyses or interpretation, impairing the validity of the study.

 

  1. Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision process. Which one is NOT?
  1. Reconsider the feasibility of what you are proposing to do.
  2. Carefully assess the logic and organization of the information in the document.
  3. Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too “cold” in your mind.
  4. Seek feedback from knowledgeable others.

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study. Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

 

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

 

 

An ideal way to gain insight into the meaning of descriptive statistics, such as indices of central tendency and the correlation coefficient, is to calculate these for variables that are highly familiar to students.  Create a brief questionnaire to be completed by class members that includes demographic information, such as age, gender, height, program of study, semesters in college, place of birth, and so on.  Make sure the questions generate both continuous and categorical data.  Ask class members to complete this questionnaire.

 

Have the students work in small groups to do three things: (a) compile the information on the questionnaires, (b) determine which index of central tendency is most appropriate for describing each variable, and (c) calculate that index.  Errors can be detected by asking groups to compare their answers.

 

Chapter 6

 

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Of the following research topics, which is most likely to be an observational study?
  1. The relationship between hours of exercise and sleep.
  2. The difference in minutes a day exercising between boys and girls.
  3. The types of exercise students engage in after school.
  4. Students’ feelings about after-school track practice. 

 

  1. Correlational research allows the researcher to answer questions such as:
  1. what is the relationship between Variable A and Variable B?
  2. does change in Variable A cause change in Variable B?
  3. is there a significant difference between scores on Variable A and scores on Variable B?
  4. does change in Variable B causes change in Variable A?

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a good research question for a correlational study?
  1. What are the attitudes of the parents about our districts new homework policy?
  2. Is there a relationship between student achievement and homework completion?
  3. Are there differences in parent attitudes about homework between mothers and fathers?
  4. How much homework does the average fifth grade teacher in our district assign?

 

  1. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in people’s preference for action movies. The researcher locates 50 people at each of the following ages: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 years.  She asks them to rate their preference for action movies in relation to other sorts of movies.  This is an example of which type of design?
  1. longitudinal
  2. nested
  3. cross-sectional
  4. panel

 

  1. A researcher wishes to study developmental changes in the music people prefer to listen to. The researcher locates 50 people who are about 20 years old.  She sends these people a questionnaire every year for the next 10 years asking about the types of music they prefer to listen to.  This is an example of which type of design?
  1. longitudinal
  2. nested
  3. cross-sectional
  4. panel

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios best illustrates a cohort-sequential design?
  1. Don studies high school seniors’ concerns about world events during their post-secondary experiences.  He surveys the entire senior class state-wide. He surveys them again every year for eight years.
  2. Melanie is conducting a survey for her thesis that examines administrative policies in middle schools that are intended to decrease bullying.  After developing her survey and piloting the instrument with a small group, she then administers the instrument to a sample of 2300 middle-school administrators.
  3. Jana wants to understand what predicts student success on the statewide standardized biology competency test. She administers the Biology Interest Survey (BIS) to all of her students at the start of the term and then categorizes students into two groups:  those who have taken biology before and those who have not.  She then administers an in-class exam at the end of the term.
  4. Molly’s study examines the benefits of exercise on weight loss. In one group she advocates exercise as well as a new diet program.  In the comparison group she only presents the diet program.  Those in the comparison group find out that some of Molly’s clients are in an exercise program too, so they form an exercise group on their own.

 

  1. Among survey methods, _____ generally generate the highest response rate.
  1. telephone interviews
  2. interviews using video-conferencing
  3. face-to-face interviews
  4. online surveys

 

  1. Advantages of questionnaires include all of the following EXCEPT:
  1. large numbers of people can be contacted for a relatively low cost.
  2. data can be gathered from a large number of people in a relatively short period of time.
  3. participants may feel more confident about their anonymity and therefore respond more honestly.
  4. because questions are in written form, they are less likely to be misunderstood by respondents.

 

  1. Regarding the length of questionnaires to be used in survey research, which of the following statements is most accurate?
  1. Including a large number of items on the survey assures that you will get useful data for all of your trouble.
  2. Keeping the survey short makes it more likely people will be willing to complete it.
  3. A relatively lengthy survey communicates your seriousness about the research endeavor so people will be more willing to complete it.
  4. Shorter surveys produce data that are ambiguous and therefore not useful.

 

  1. “How unhappy are you with your current salary?”

This question violates which rule of good survey writing?

  1. It is not quantifiable.
  2. It makes an unwarranted assumption.
  3. It fails to keep the respondent’s task simple.
  4. It uses technical language that may not be known to all.

 

  1. The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about:
  1. 80%
  2. 65%
  3. 50%
  4. 35%

 

  1. Angeline is conducting an observational study of aggression on the playground. She is especially interested in whether boys are reprimanded more than girls for aggressive actions.  The best instrument for her to use to collect her data would be:
  1. A checklist
  2. A rating scale
  3. A rubric
  4. A survey

 

  1. Geoffrey is conducting a descriptive study focused on women’s rights. As part of his project, he reviews articles published in U.S. newspapers between 1850 and 1940.  The best instrument for him to use would be:
  1. A checklist
  2. A rating scale
  3. A rubric
  4. A survey

 

  1. Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her region to determine what, if any, water conservation practices they employ in their home gardening.  Polly sends her survey to 150 randomly selected gardeners in each state.  Polly is using:
  1. purposive sampling.
  2. proportional stratified sampling.
  3. systematic sampling.
  4. stratified random sampling.

 

  1. Paul Pollster, a political psychologist, wants to determine whether rates of voter participation in his home state vary between rural, urban, and suburban voters. He notes that there are more rural voters than suburban or urban voters in the state.  Paul should use ______ in this study.
  1. simple random sampling
  2. cluster sampling
  3. proportional stratified sampling
  4. systematic sampling

 

  1. Simon Cinema wants to know what the audience thought of tonight’s advanced screening of a heralded psychological thriller called “I Can’t Sleep.” He and his research assistants stand outside the theatre exit and ask every fifth person leaving the theatre to answer several questions about their impression of the movie.  Simon is using:
  1. systematic sampling.
  2. stratified random sampling.
  3. convenience sampling.
  4. purposive sampling.

 

  1. Danny Drive wants to know the relationship between intrinsic motivation and course grade among math students. He contacts a local professor who teaches several general education math classes and asks about the possibility of gathering data in her classes.  Danny is using:
  1. simple random sampling.
  2. cluster sampling.
  3. convenience sampling.
  4. systematic sampling

 

  1. Edward Ethics is studying public opinion regarding prayer in public schools. He plans to gather survey data from a number of churches on Sunday mornings.  He also wants to include a number of people who are not associated with an organized religion in his sample.  Edward is using:
  1. stratified random sampling.
  2. cluster sampling.
  3. convenience sampling.
  4. purposive sampling.

 

  1. Graham recruited student volunteers to participate in his dissertation study. He set up several times for students to come to a specified classroom and read various types of instructional materials and to be tested.  He ran all of his control conditions first and then for each session he placed all students at the session in the same treatment condition.  This is problematic because those who volunteered early are likely different than those who volunteered later.  This problem is primarily due to
  1. response bias.
  2. instrumentation bias.
  3. researcher bias.
  4. sampling bias.

 

  1. Jody is interested in studying home schooling because she thinks that students who are home-schooled can’t develop appropriate social skills. As part of her study she will be observing home-schooled children in social settings.  Jody’s planned study is particularly susceptible to
  1. response bias.
  2. researcher bias.
  3. sampling bias.
  4. instrumentation bias.

 

  1. Rori is observing elite marching bands as part of her dissertation study. She is particularly interested in drum major leadership styles and behavior.  She has found that the drum major at her current research site is very interested in showing off for her.  This is an example of
  1. response bias.
  2. researcher bias.
  3. sampling bias.
  4. instrumentation bias.

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

 

  1. In writing the cover letter to accompany a survey, novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data. Is this the best approach to take in the cover letter?  If not, what do you recommend instead?

 

  1. The authors of your textbook suggest that sampling bias is virtually unavoidable and that it is important to disclose and discuss possible sources of bias in the study report. Do you agree?  Explain your position.

 

  1. Under what circumstances would a researcher choose a longitudinal study over a cross-sectional study? Give a specific example of a question that could be addressed with a longitudinal study and explain why that developmental design is preferred.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

 

EXPERIMENTAL, Quasi-Experimental, AND EX POST FACTO DESIGNS

 

 

This activity will give students practice with recognizing experimental, quasi experimental and ex post facto research designs used in the work of others.

 

Have students form groups of about five.  Give each group a set of empirical articles that illustrate the various designs discussed in the chapter.  Have students do three things for each study in their set of articles: (a) identify the independent variable(s), (b) identify the dependent variable(s), and (c) identify what type of design was used.  If each group is working with the same set of articles, students can compare notes across groups to check for differing opinions.

 

The pool of articles collected from students for the Chapter 1 activity may provide plenty of samples of experimental and ex post facto designs.  If not, you’ll want to add articles to the sample set to assure that the students are working with a rich set of appropriate examples.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

 

EXPERIMENTAL, Quasi-Experimental, AND EX POST FACTO DESIGNS

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the:
  1. dependent variable.
  2. independent variable.
  3. confounding variable.
  4. constant.

 

  1. “There will be gender differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy.” In this hypothesis, gender is the:
  1. dependent variable.
  2. independent variable.
  3. confounding variable.
  4. constant.

 

  1. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”

In this hypothesis, mood elevation is the:

  1. dependent variable.
  2. independent variable.
  3. confounding variable.
  4. constant.

 

  1. “There will be differences in degree of mood elevation seen in depressed clients after receiving either cognitive-behavioral or psychoanalytic therapy.”

During a test of this hypothesis, it was discovered that some of the participants lived with family members and others lived alone.  This variable, living situation, is a/an _____.

  1. independent variable.
  2. dependent variable.
  3. constant.
  4. confounding variable.

 

  1. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method.  At the end of the semester, all students complete the same final exam.  In this design, students studying under the traditional method constitute the:
  1. placebo group.
  2. treatment group.
  3. sample.
  4. control group.

 

  1. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method.  At the end of semester all students complete the same final exam.  In this design, students studying under the problem-based method constitute the:
  1. placebo group.
  2. treatment group.
  3. sample.
  4. control group.

 

  1. In Katia’s remedial mathematics study, she collected pretest data from a group of participants. She divided the participants into three groups.  One group received no treatment, one group received instruction by a teacher-delivered intervention, one group received peer tutoring on the same problems.  After the intervention she tested their math skills. With which validity threat should Katia be most concerned?
  1. Maturation
  2. Testing
  3. Instrumentation
  4. Attrition

 

  1. Russell’s study compared GPA of those students who volunteered for academic study skills training and those who did not elect to take the training. He found that those who had the training also had higher GPA. With which validity threat should Russell be most concerned?
  1. Maturation
  2. Instrumentation
  3. History
  4. Selection

 

  1. Dow Jones wants to know whether a problem-based approach to teaching economics will result in higher academic performance than his traditional method. Of the six sections of Economics 101 at his university, Dr. Jones randomly assigns three sections to the traditional method and three sections to the problem-based method for Unit 1 of the course.  Then all sections switch instructional method for Unit 2.  He plans to compare the performance of the two groups of sections on their Unit 1 and Unit 2 exams.  The design of this study is:
  1. within subjects (repeated measures)
  2. quasi-experimental
  3. true experimental
  4. ex post facto

 

  1. Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for any years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach. Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study.  The dogs and their humans were randomly assigned to complete the Puppy Pride or Doggie Do-Right course.  At the end of the training programs, all of the dogs were scored on their level of obedience on a standardized dog obedience checklist (scores could range from 10 to 100).  The design of this study is:
  1. one-shot experimental
  2. ex post facto
  3. posttest-only control-group design
  4. within subjects

 

  1. Robbins wants to know if there are different opinions regarding the value of public school education between Native Americans who have at least one relative who attended Indian Boarding School and Native Americans who have no family experience with Indian Boarding School. Dr. Robbins contacts 35 Native American participants in each group.  He wants each group to include younger as well as older adults, and a mix of male and female participants.  He asks each person to complete a survey about their attitudes toward public education.  The design of this study is:
  1. pre-experimental
  2. factorial
  3. true experimental
  4. ex post facto

 

  1. PJ conducts an experimental study on the effects of soft music during high stakes science testing. He randomly assigns students at the school. In one condition he does not provide music for testing while in the other group he does provide the music.  He administers a pretest at the beginning of the year and a posttest at the end of the year.  PJ’s design is best described as a:

 

  1. Static group comparison
  2. Pretest-posttest control group design
  3. Control-group-time-series design
  4. Nonrandomized control-group pretest-posttest design

 

  1. As a secondary mathematics teacher, Hernandez conducted a study that explored whether giving children recess prior to testing helped their test performance. For one of the semesters, he sends half of his classes out for 10 minutes of recess prior to testing for the other half, he provides 10 minutes of free time after the test.  Which of the following best represents the design of Hernandez’s study?
  2. Static-group comparison
  3. Post-test only control group
  4. Solomon four group
  5. One-shot case study

 

  1. Millie is using a behavior checklist strategy as well as a prompted praise strategy when working with her second grade behavior disordered student, Kent. She uses both strategies within the same day going back and forth randomly between the two approaches, while recording his on-task behavior.  Which of the following designs is Millie employing?
  2. Multiple baseline
  3. Alternating-treatments
  4. Control group time series
  5. Static group comparison

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies a multiple-baseline design?

 

  1. Bryce is an occupational therapist working with Sandy, a brain-injured patient. Bryce has decided to test the effects of a graphing strategy with Sandy. He starts the graphing technique, while collecting data in the form of minutes of strength training per day. He discontinues the graphing technique still collecting minutes of strength training per day. Bryce then reintroduces the graphing technique.
  2. Laura has developed a new treatment to increase spatial ability. She randomly assigns students to either her intervention or a control condition.  In the treatment condition students engage in working puzzles for twenty minutes a day for 10 days.  Unfortunately, students don’t like her intervention and refuse to do puzzles for all of the days.
  3. Matthews, the school psychologist, is called by the third-grade teacher because one of the students, Seamus, has been referred for a new behavioral intervention plan, in which the teacher uses nonverbal signals as a positive consequence when Seamus engages in appropriate behavior. Mr. Matthews observes Seamus’s behavior in the regular classroom and in Art and Music class.  He records off-task behavior, calling out, and touching others for eight days.
  4. Ewa is an athletic trainer at the university. She conducts research on violence in sport.  She has designed a study to examine the effects of a new sportsmanship class.  She randomly assigns teams by sport to be in either her new class or not.  That is, some teams are in the class and others are not.  She then compares incidents of violence between groups.

 

  1. Kathy trains nurses. She designed a new assertive communication unit to include in her training.  She administers a pretest and then randomly assigns nurses to her treatment or a control condition. She tests their communication skills after the treatment.  She sees significant differences at immediate testing but after eight weeks she retests the nurses and finds no differences between her treatment and control students.      Which of the following best represents the design of Kathy’s study?
  2. Non-equivalent groups
  3. Solomon four group
  4. Pretest-posttest control group
  5. Post-test only control group

 

  1. The primary difference between the Solomon four-group design and the two-factor experimental design is that ONLY the two-factor experimental design:
  2. involves four groups of participants.
  3. requires random assignment of participants to groups.
  4. has a measurement before initial treatment.
  5. includes two different treatments.

 

  1. A meta-analysis is used when:
  1. the researcher wishes to analyze the analyses of a number of existing studies.
  2. there is little existing literature to use as a launching pad for a new study.
  3. the researcher has no access to sophisticated statistical techniques.
  4. several researchers jointly conduct a large-scale study.

 

 

 

 

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug treatment programs. Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility.  Program B is used at Winterdale adolescent facility.  Because random assignment to treatments is not possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible effects of sample bias?

 

  1. Factorial designs allow researchers to study the effects of more than one independent variable simultaneously. Why is this advantageous?  What information can factorial designs yield that nonfactorial designs cannot?