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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Principles Of  Web Design The Web Technologies Series 5th Edition by Joel Sklar – Test Bank
Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3: Site Planning

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. A good Web site design requires a detailed initial planning phase.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   106

 

  1. What you and the design team want the Web site to accomplish and what your users want from your site rarely differ.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. A good electronic commerce (e-commerce) site provides users with quick access to the item they want, detailed product descriptions, and easy, secure ordering.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   114

 

  1. The lines between the roles of people working on a Web site are generally clear and well-defined.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   121

 

  1. The marketing department staff are the graphic artists responsible for the look of the site.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   121

 

  1. If the Web server runs a different operating system from your local development system, any filename or directory structure inconsistencies encountered in transferring your files to the server may break local URL links.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   122

 

  1. On a Unix system, “Picture.gif ” and “picture.gif ” are recognized as the same file.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   123

 

  1. It is best when naming your files to leave out special characters such as <, >, /, , &, *, and blank spaces.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   124

 

  1. A partial URL includes the protocol the browser uses, the server or domain name, the path, and the filename.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   125

 

  1. Plan your site by creating a storyboard flowchart that shows the structure and logic behind the content presentation and navigation choices you offer.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   128

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. For a Web site, users probably care most about ____.
a. graphics quality c. how quickly they can find information
b. animations d. accessibility features

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. ____ sites establish a Web presence for a business or commercial venture.
a. Billboard c. Portal
b. Publishing d. Virtual gallery

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   112

 

  1. ____ sites act as a gateway to the Web and offer an array of services including searching, e-mail, shopping, news, and organized links to Web resources.
a. Publishing c. Portal
b. Blog d. Billboard

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   113

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a personal Web page that reflects the personality and interests of the author.
a. intranet c. portal
b. blog d. virtual gallery

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   113

 

  1. ____ sites are collaborative Web sites that allow contributions from multiple authors.
a. Portal c. Wiki
b. Blog d. Public-service

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   114

 

  1. A(n) ____ is a smaller, limited version of the Internet on a company’s private local area network (LAN), accessible only to those who are authorized to use their network.
a. internal net c. intranet
b. extranet d. mininet

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   115

 

  1. If possible, analyze your audience and produce an audience ____.
a. definition c. plan
b. profile d. diagram

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   115

 

  1. ____ programs are programs that you can download and use for a trial period.
a. Closed-source c. Freeware
b. Open-source d. Shareware

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   120

 

  1. ____ are the people responsible for creating the HTML code, troubleshooting the site, and testing the site across different operating systems and Web browsers.
a. Software programmers c. Database administrators
b. HTML developers d. Server administrators

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   121

 

  1. ____ are the graphic artists responsible for the look of the site.
a. Writers and information designers c. XHTML developers
b. Marketers d. Designers

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   121

 

  1. Many ____ are responsible for creating a site style guide and defining typographic conventions, as well as consistency, grammar, spelling, and tone.
a. designers c. writers
b. software programmers d. marketers

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   122

 

  1. ____ are responsible for data security backup and data recovery.
a. Database administrators c. Software programmers
b. XHTML developers d. Designers

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   122

 

  1. ____ take care of the sticky technical issues such as firewalls, ports, internal security, file administration, and backup procedures.
a. Designers c. Server administrators
b. Software programmers d. Database administrators

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   122

 

  1. Filenames on the ____ operating system are case sensitive.
a. Windows 3.x c. UNIX
b. Macintosh d. Windows XP

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   123

 

  1. HTML text files must end in ____.
a. .html or .jpg c. .htm or .html
b. .xml or .xtm d. .xhtm or .xhtml

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   124

 

  1. Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) files must end in ____.
a. .gf c. .gif
b. .png d. .jpg

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   124

 

  1. ____ URLs omit the protocol and domain or server name, and specify the path to the file on the same server.
a. Partial c. Full
b. Incomplete d. Complete

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   125

 

  1. A(n) ____ path points to the computer’s root directory, indicated by a leading (forward) slash in the file path.
a. absolute c. partial
b. relative d. complete

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   126

 

  1. ____ paths tell the browser where a file is located relative to the document the browser currently is viewing.
a. Absolute c. Partial
b. Complete d. Relative

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   126

 

  1. To build a link from a page to another page residing one level higher in the directory structure, use ____ in the path statement.
a. ..// c. ./
b. ../ d. …/

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   128

 

  1. The ____ information structure guides the user along a straightforward path.
a. tutorial c. Web
b. linear d. hierarchical

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   129

 

  1. In the ____ structure, the user navigates through the concept, lesson, and review pages in order.
a. tutorial c. Web
b. linear d. hierarchical

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   130

 

  1. Many smaller Web sites follow the ____-type content structure, which is nonlinear, allowing the user to jump freely to any page from any other page.
a. tutorial c. Web
b. linear d. hierarchical

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   131

 

  1. The ____ structure is probably the most commonly used information design.
a. cluster c. Web
b. linear d. hierarchical

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   131

 

  1. The ____ structure is ideally suited to electronic shopping.
a. linear c. catalog
b. hierarchical d. cluster

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   133

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is the design document for your site.

 

ANS:  site specification

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   111

 

  1. Many of the major search engines have been converted into ____________________ to attract more users.

 

ANS:  portals

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   113

 

  1. Telecommuting employees can be reached via a(n) ____________________, which is a part of the private intranet extended outside the organization via the Internet.

 

ANS:  extranet

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   115

 

  1. ____________________ are statistics that are gathered by Web servers and then analyzed.

 

ANS:  Web analytics

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   117

 

  1. If you think your user is the average person browsing the Web, you may have to adopt settings that represent the ____________________ to satisfy the widest audience.

 

ANS:  lowest common denominator

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   120

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is the unique address of a file’s location on the World Wide Web.

 

ANS:

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

Uniform Resource Locator

URL

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   125

 

  1. You should use ____________________ URLs in your HTML code when linking to another Web site.

 

ANS:  complete

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   125

 

  1. You should plan your site by creating a(n) ____________________ flowchart that shows the structure, logic, and taxonomy behind the content presentation and navigation choices you offer.

 

ANS:  storyboard

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   128

 

  1. To make your Web site live, you transfer your Web site files to a(n) ____________________, a computer connected to the Internet and running server software.

 

ANS:  Web server

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   135

 

  1. A(n) ____________________ is an alias that points to your actual location on the Web server.

 

ANS:  domain name

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   137

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Briefly describe billboard, portal, E-commerce, and product support Web sites.

 

ANS:

Billboard—These sites establish a Web presence for a business or commercial venture. In many cases, they are informational and offer limited content, acting as an online business card or brochure rather than offering Web-based interaction. Many smaller businesses build this type of site first and then expand as necessary, adding functions when needed.

 

Portal—Portals act as gateways to the Web and offer an array of services including searching, e-mail, shopping, news, and organized links to Web resources. Many major search engines have been converted into portals to attract more users. These sites are often heavy with advertising content, which is their main source of revenue.

 

E-commerce, catalog, and online shopping—The Web as a shopping medium continues to expand as more users improve their Internet access and learn to trust the security of online commerce.Web commerce competes successfully with traditional retailing, offering many advantages over mail-order shopping, such as letting the customer know immediately whether an item is in stock. Other types of commerce on the Web include stock trading, airline ticketing, online banking, auctions, and more. Many software vendors offer turnkey systems that can be integrated with existing databases to speed the development of a commerce site. A good electronic commerce (e-commerce) site provides users with quick access to the item they want, shopping carts and wish lists to store their choices, detailed product descriptions, and easy, secure ordering.

 

Product support—The Web is a boon to consumers who need help with a product. Manufacturers can disseminate information, upgrades, troubleshooting advice, documentation, and online tutorials through their Web sites. Companies that provide product support information on the Web often find that the volume of telephone-based customer support calls decreases. Software companies especially benefit from the Web; users can download patches and upgrades and use trial versions of software before they buy.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   112-115

 

  1. Describe the process of selecting software tools for developing your Web site.

 

ANS:

Determining the software requirements for your Web site is important during the planning process. Try to choose software that matches the complexity and needs of your site so that you do not end up with a tool that is either underequipped or overspecialized. Simple Web sites, including many student sites, can be built with one of the many shareware and freeware tools that are available on the Web. As your site and skills grow, you might choose to move up to more robust tools such as Adobe Creative Suite or individual Adobe tools such as Dreamweaver. Microsoft offers Expression Web as its Web site design tool. These tools offer complete coding, design, and site management capabilities. You may also need graphics tools, database software, and online credit and shopping programs, based on the skills and talents of the members of your Web site team.

 

One popular type of software is shareware, programs that you can download and use for a trial period. After the trial period, users can register the software for a relatively small fee compared to commercially produced software. Another type of software, freeware, is available free of charge or with an optional donation fee if you want to contribute to support the software developers’ efforts.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   120

 

  1. What roles do project management, HTML developers, designers, and server administrators play in Web site development?

 

ANS:

Project Management—The project management team is responsible for planning, scheduling, and integrating the many tasks that it takes to create a Web site. They create the milestones for deliverables and balance the staffing resources to keep the project on schedule and within budget. The project manager coordinates communication among the team members and keeps the focus on the deliverables promised to the client.

 

HTML developers—These are the people responsible for creating the HTML code, conforming to standards, validating code, troubleshooting the site, and testing the site across different operating systems and Web browsers.

 

Designers—Designers are the graphic artists responsible for the look of the site.They use graphic design software, such as Adobe Photoshop or Adobe Fireworks. Designers are responsible for the wireframes, page template design, navigation icons, color scheme, and logos. If your site uses photographic content, the designers are called upon to prepare the photos for online display.They might also create animations and interactive content using Macromedia Flash.

 

Server administrators—Get to know and appreciate the technical people who run your Web server. They take care of the sticky technical issues such as firewalls, ports, internal security, file administration, and backup procedures. Consult with them to determine your Web site’s default filename and directory structure. They also can manage the server logs that contribute to your Web analytics reporting to determine how many visitors your site is attracting, where the visitors are coming from, and what pages they like best.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   121-122

 

  1. What are relative and absolute paths? How do they affect the development of a Web site?

 

ANS:

You will probably build your Web site on a computer that is different from the computer that hosts your site.Keep this in mind when you are designing the directory and file structure. All of the files for your Web site will need to be transferred from your computer to the Web server that will be hosting your site. Because your files will be transferred to another computer, any URLs you specify to link to other pages in your site must include paths that are transferable. This is why you should never specify an absolute path in your partial URLs. An absolute path points to the computer’s root directory, indicated by a leading (forward) slash in the file path:

 

/graphics/logo.gif

 

If you include the root directory in your partial URLs, you are basing your file structure on your development machine’s file system. If the files are moved to another machine, the path to your files will not apply, and your site will include links that do not work because the browser cannot find the files.

 

To avoid this problem, use relative paths. Relative paths tell the browser where a file is located relative to the document the browser currently is viewing. Because relative paths are not based on the root directory, they are transferable to other computers.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   125-126

 

  1. Describe the linear, Web, hierarchical, and cluster information structures.

 

ANS:

The linear information structure guides the user along a straightforward path. This structure lends itself to booklike presentations; once into the content, users can navigate backward or forward. Each page can contain a link back to the main page if desired. Pages may also contain links to a related subtopic. If the users jump to the subtopic page, they can return to the page that contains the subtopic link. This structured navigation returns them to the same point in the content path.

 

Many smaller Web sites follow the Web-type content structure, which is nonlinear, allowing the user to jump freely to any page from any other page. If you choose to use this type of content structure, make sure that each page includes clear location information and a standardized navigation bar that not only tells users where they are, but where they can go.

 

The hierarchical structure is probably the most commonly used information design. It lends itself to larger content collections because the section pages break up and organize the content at different levels throughout the site. Navigation is primarily linear within the content sections. Users can scan the content on the section page, and then choose the content page of their choice.When they finish reading the content, they can return to the section page. The site map allows users to navigate freely throughout the site.A navigation bar on each page lets the user jump to any section page, the main page, and the site map.

 

The cluster structure is similar to the hierarchical structure, except that every topic area is an island of information, with all pages in each cluster linked to each other.This structure encourages exploration within a topic area, allowing the user to navigate freely through the content. All pages contain a navigation bar with links to the section pages, main page, and site map.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   129-133

 

Chapter 5: Web Typography

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The consistent use of type to express hierarchy of your content provides valuable information cues to the reader.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   192

 

  1. In strict typography terms, a font is the name of the type, such as Times New Roman or Futura Condensed.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   192

 

  1. The computer screen has a higher resolution than the printed page, making fonts that are legible on paper easier to read on-screen.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   197

 

  1. Including text as graphics means users cannot search for that text.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   197

 

  1. You generally want to use absolute units for Web pages because they can be scaled to an individual user’s display type.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   198

 

  1. Measurements stated in em are always relative to their environment.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   199

 

  1. Child elements do not inherit the percentage values of their parents.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    REF:   199

 

  1. You can string together a list of font families, separated by commas, supplying a selection of fonts that the browser can attempt to match.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   202

 

  1. When using the font shortcut property, the font properties other than font size and font family are optional.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   210-211

 

  1. Negative values for the text-indent property let you create a hanging indent.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    REF:   212

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Designing for the Web restricts your ____ choices to those that your users have installed on their computers.
a. font size c. color
b. font d. letter

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   192

 

  1. ____ develops a strong visual identity.
a. Variability c. Using large fonts
b. Using many font colors d. Consistency

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   193

 

  1. If you design your pages using a font that your user does not have installed, the browser defaults to ____ on a Macintosh.
a. Arial c. Verdana
b. Times d. Courier

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   193

 

  1. ____ fonts have strokes that finish the top and bottom of each letter.
a. Times c. Serif
b. Sans-serif d. Block

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   194

 

  1. ____ is an expanded font—each letter takes up more horizontal space than letters in the other font families
a. Verdana c. Times
b. Arial d. Trebuchet MS

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   196

 

  1. In general, ____ text on a ____ background is easiest to read.
a. lighter; light c. darker; dark
b. lighter; dark d. darker; light

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   197

 

  1. The ____ is a printing measurement, traditionally equal to the horizontal length of the capital M in any given font size.
a. ex c. em
b. pica d. point

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   199

 

  1. ____ values are always relative to another value.
a. Pixel c. Percentage
b. Point d. Absolute

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   199

 

  1. The ____ unit is equal to the height of the lowercase x in any given font.
a. ex c. em
b. pica d. inch

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   200

 

  1. ____ fonts are fixed-width fonts.
a. Cursive c. Sans-serif
b. Fantasy d. Monospace

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   203

 

  1. ____ fonts are primarily decorative.
a. Cursive c. Sans-serif
b. Fantasy d. Monospace

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   203

 

  1. You can specify a list of alternate fonts using ____ as separators.
a. commas c. semicolons
b. colons d. periods

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   205

 

  1. The ____ property gives you control over the specific sizing of your type.
a. font-style c. font-size
b. font-family d. font-variant

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   206

 

  1. The CSS specification recommends a scaling factor of ____ between font sizes for the computer display.
a. 1.1 c. 1.3
b. 1.2 d. 1.5

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   206

 

  1. The designers of CSS2, Hakon Lie and Bert Bos, recommend that you always use the ____ value to set font sizes on your Web pages.
a. em c. px
b. ex d. pt

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   207

 

  1. The ____ property lets you specify italic or oblique text.
a. font-style c. font-size
b. font-family d. font-variant

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   208

 

  1. The ____ property lets you define small capitals, which are often used for chapter openings, acronyms, and other special purposes.
a. font-style c. font-size
b. font-family d. font-variant

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   208

 

  1. The ____ property lets you set the weight of the typeface.
a. font-style c. font-size
b. font-weight d. font-variant

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   209

 

  1. The numeric values for font weight express nine levels of weight from ____.
a. 1 to 9 c. 100 to 900
b. 10 to 90 d. 1000 to 9000

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   209

 

  1. Use the ____ property to set horizontal alignment for the lines of text in an element.
a. text-decoration c. text-indent
b. text-height d. text-align

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   213

 

  1. The ____ value is not supported by all browsers.
a. left alignment c. right alignment
b. justify d. center alignment

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   214

 

  1. The ____ vertical-align property value raises the baseline of the box to the proper position for superscripts of the parent’s box.
a. text-top c. sub
b. top d. super

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    REF:   216

 

  1. The ____ vertical-align property value aligns the top of the box with the top of the parent element’s font.
a. text-top c. sub
b. top d. super

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    REF:   216

 

  1. The ____ property lets you adjust the white space between letters.
a. word-spacing c. text-spacing
b. letter-spacing d. line-height

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    REF:   218

 

  1. The ____ properties lets you control the visual characteristics of elements that have a display property value of list-item.
a. bullet-style c. list-style
b. list-item-style d. list-design

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    REF:   230

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. You should communicate the hierarchy of information in your Web pages with changes in the size, ____________________, or color of the typeface.

 

ANS:  weight

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   192

 

  1. To control more effectively how text appears on your pages, think in terms of font ____________________.

 

ANS:  families

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   194

 

  1. ____________________ fonts consist of block letters without serifs.

 

ANS:  Sans-serif

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   194

 

  1. Because its ____________________ (the height of the letter x in the font) is smaller than that of other fonts, Times can be hard to read.

 

ANS:  x-height

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   196

 

  1. ____________________ units are better suited to print destinations than Web destinations.

 

ANS:  Absolute

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   198

 

  1. ____________________ are the basic picture element of a computer display.

 

ANS:  Pixels

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   200

 

  1. ____________________ is the measure of how many pixels fit on a screen.

 

ANS:  Resolution

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   200

 

  1. The CSS font properties allow you to control the ____________________ of your text.

 

ANS:  appearance

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   202

 

  1. Monospace is commonly used to mimic ____________________ text or for programming code.

 

ANS:  typewritten

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   203

 

  1. The ____________________ form of a typeface is simply normal text slanted to the right.

 

ANS:  oblique

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   208

 

ESSAY

 

  1. How can you design your Web pages for legibility?

 

ANS:

Where the text wraps at the end of each line depends on the font and the display characteristics of the browser. Because its x-height (the height of the letter x in the font) is smaller than that of other fonts, Times can be hard to read, even though it is a serif typeface. This makes it a poor choice for a default font. Trebuchet is a sans-serif face that has a large x-height and rounded letter forms for easy screen legibility. Arial is widely available and is the most commonly used sans-serif font.Verdana is an expanded font—each letter takes up more horizontal space than letters in the other font families.This makes the text easier to read online, but takes much more space on the page.

 

The size and face of the type you use on your pages determine the legibility of your text. The computer screen has a lower resolution than the printed page, making fonts that are legible on paper more difficult to read on screen. Keep fonts big enough to be legible, and avoid specialty fonts that degrade when viewed online.To aid the reader, consider adding more white space to the page around your blocks of text and between lines as well.Test your content with both serif and sans-serif body text. Finally, make sure that you provide enough contrast between your text color and the background color; in general, darker text on a light background is easiest to read.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   196-197

 

  1. Describe the concept of absolute units and relative units. Specifically describe the em and ex units.

 

ANS:

Absolute Units: CSS lets you use absolute measurement values that specify a fixed value. The measurement values require a number followed by one of the unit abbreviations. By convention, do not include a space between the value and the measurement unit. The numeric value can be a positive value, negative value, or fractional value. For example, the following rule sets margins to 1.25 inches:

 

p {margin: 1.25in;}

 

You generally want to avoid using absolute units for Web pages because they cannot be scaled to the individual user’s display type. Absolute units are appropriate when you know the exact measurements of the destination medium. For example, if you know a document will be printed on 8.5 X 11-inch paper, you can plan your style rules accordingly because you know the physical dimensions of the finished document. For this reason, absolute units are better suited to print destinations than Web destinations. Although the point is the standard unit of measurement for type sizes, it is not the best measurement value for the Web. Because computer displays vary widely in size, they lend themselves better to relative units of measurement that can adapt to different monitor sizes and screen resolutions.

 

Relative Units: The relative units are designed to let you build scalable Web pages that adapt to different display types and sizes. This practice ensures that your type sizes are properly displayed relative to reach other or to the default font size set for the browser.

 

Relative units are always relative to the inherited size of their containing element. For example, the following rule sets the font size for the <body> element to 1.5 times (150%) the size of the browser default:

 

body {font-size: 150%;}

 

Child elements inherit the percentage values of their parents. For example, a <p> element within this body element inherits the 150% sizing.

 

The em Unit: The em is a printing measurement, traditionally equal to the horizontal length of the capital letter M in any given font size. In CSS the em is equal to the font size of an element. It can be used for both horizontal and vertical measurement. In addition to stating font sizes, em is useful for padding and margins as well.

 

The size of the em is equivalent to the font size of the element. For example, if the default paragraph font size is 12-point text, the em equals 12 points. Stating a text size of 2 em creates 24-point text—two times the default size. This is useful because it means that measurements stated in em are always relative to their environment.

 

The ex Unit: The ex unit is equal to the height of the lowercase letter x in any given font. Ex is a less reliable unit of measurement than em because the size of the letter x changes in height from one font family to another, and the browser cannot always calculate the difference correctly. Most browsers simply set the ex value to one-half the value of the font’s em size. Ex is not commonly used to set font sizes.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   198-200

 

  1. What are the five generic font families? Describe each briefly. What is the advantage of being able to use generic font families?

 

ANS:

Serif fonts are the traditional letter form, with strokes (or serifs) that finish off the top and bottom of each letter. The most common serif font is Times.

 

Sans-serif fonts have no serifs. They are block letters. The most common sans-serif fonts are Helvetica and Arial.

 

Monospace fonts are fixed-width fonts. Every letter has the same horizontal width. Monospace is commonly used to mimic typewritten text or for programming code.

 

Cursive fonts are designed to resemble handwriting. Although often displayed as Comic Sans, this choice can provide inconsistent results.

 

Fantasy fonts are primarily decorative. Fantasy is not a widely used choice.

 

The practice of using generic names ensures greater portability across browsers and operating systems because it does not rely on a specific font being installed on the user’s computer.

 

The following rule sets <p> elements to the default sans-serif font:

 

p {font-family: sans-serif;}

 

Of course, If you don’t specify any font family, the browser displays the default font, usually some version of Times.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   203

 

  1. Describe the text-align, line-height, and text-decoration properties.

 

ANS:

text-align: Use the text-align property to set horizontal alignment for the lines of text in an element. You can specify four alignment values: left, center, right, and justify. The justify value lines up the text on both horizontal margins, adding white space between the words on the line, like a column of text in a newspaper. The following style rule sets the <p> element to justified alignment:

 

p {text-align: justify;}

 

When choosing an alignment value, keep the default settings for the language and the user’s preferences in mind. For example, most western languages read from left to right, and the default alignment is left. Unless you are trying to emphasize a particular section of text, use the alignment with which most readers are comfortable. Both right and center alignment are fine for short sections of text, but they make reading difficult for lengthier passages.

 

Justified text lets you create newspaper-like alignment where the lines of text all have the same length. The browser inserts white space between the words of the text to adjust the alignment so both margins of the text align. Justify is not supported by all browsers, and different browsers might justify the text differently.

 

line-height: CSS allows you to specify either a length or percentage value for the line height, which is also known as leading, the white space between lines of text. The percentage is based on the font size. Setting the value to 150% with a 1em font size results in a line height of 1.5em.The following rule sets the line height to 150%:

 

p {line-height: 150%;}

 

The line-height property can increase the legibility of your text. Adding to the default line height inserts additional white space between the lines of text. On a display device, increasing the white space helps guide the user’s eyes along the line of text and provides rest for the eye.

 

text-decoration: Text decoration lets you underline text, an effect that has particular meaning in a hypertext environment. Your users know to look for underlined words as the indicators for hypertext links. Any text you underline appears to be a hypertext link. Except for text links, underlining is an inappropriate text style for a Web page.

 

The text-decoration property lets you remove the underlining from the <a> element. The user commonly relies on underlining text to indicate a hypertext link. However, some Web sites choose to remove link underlining, indicating links with a color different from the standard text color. You can remove the underlining from your anchor elements with the following rule:

 

a {text-decoration: none;}

 

Users with sight disabilities can have trouble finding the links in your content if you choose to remove the underlining. Alternately, a user can override the author’s style rules by setting preferences in his or her browser or applying his or her own style sheet.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   213-215 | 219-220

 

  1. Describe the list-style-type, list-style-image, and the list-style-position properties.

 

ANS:

list-style-type: The list-style-type property lets you customize the list marker to a variety of different values.

 

The list-style-type property lets you specify one of three types of markers for a list. You can choose a symbol, a numbering system, or an alphabetical system. CSS allows a wide variety of marker values. Remember to test support for these markers in different browsers.

 

list-style-image: The list-style-image property lets you easily attach an image to a list and have it repeated as the marker symbol.

 

The list-style-image property lets you replace the standard symbol with an image of your choice. The following code shows the style rule that attaches an image to a bulleted list:

 

ul {list-style-image: url(pawprint.gif);}

 

list-style-position: The list-style-position property lets you determine the placement of the list marker, either inside or outside the list-item content box. The default value is outside.

 

PTS:   1                    REF:   231-234