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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
Psychology Applied To Modern Life Adjustment In the 21st Century By Weiten – Dunn – Test Bank
Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 3

STRESS AND ITS EFFECTS

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

The Nature of Stress

  1. Describe the nature of stress, and discuss how common it is.
  2. Distinguish between primary and secondary appraisal of stress.
  3. Summarize the evidence on ambient stress.
  4. Explain how culture and ethnicity are related to stress.

 

Major Sources of Stress

  1. Distinguish between acute, chronic, and anticipatory stressors.
  2. Describe frustration as a source of stress.
  3. Outline the three types of internal conflict, and discuss typical reactions to conflicts.
  4. Analyze evidence on life change as a source of stress.
  5. Discuss evidence on pressure as a source of stress.

 

Responding to Stress

  1. List three categories of negative emotions commonly elicited by stress.
  2. Discuss the role of positive emotions in the stress process.
  3. Explain the effects of emotional arousal on coping efforts, and describe the inverted-U hypothesis.
  4. Describe the fight-or-flight response, and contrast it with the tend-and-befriend response.
  5. Identify the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome.
  6. Distinguish between the two major pathways along which the brain sends signals to the endocrine system in response to stress.
  7. Clarify the concept of coping.

 

The Potential Effects of Stress

  1. Explain the phenomenon of choking under pressure.
  2. Summarize evidence regarding how stress can affect cognitive functioning.
  3. Identify the symptoms and causes of burnout.
  4. Discuss the potential impact of stress on psychological health.
  5. Discuss the prevalence, symptoms, and causes of posttraumatic stress disorder.
  6. Discuss the effects of stress on physical health.
  7. Articulate three ways in which stress might lead to beneficial effects.

 

Factors Influencing Tolerance

  1. Explain how social support moderates the impact of stress.
  2. Describe the hardiness syndrome and how it influences stress tolerance.
  3. Clarify how optimism is related to stress tolerance.
  4. Describe the potential problem of unrealistic optimism.

 

APPLICATION: Reducing Stress through Self-Control

  1. Explain why traits cannot be target behaviors in self-modification programs.
  2. Identify the three kinds of information you should pursue in gathering your baseline data.
  3. Discuss how to use reinforcement to increase the strength of a response.
  4. Explain how to use reinforcement, control of antecedents, and punishment to decrease the strength of a response.
  5. Analyze issues related to fine-tuning and ending a self-modification program.

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES Item Number
1.      Describe the nature of stress and discuss how common it is. 1, 2, 3, 4, TF1
2.      Distinguish between primary and secondary appraisal of stress. 5, 6, 7, 8, SA1
3.      Summarize the evidence on ambient stress. 9, 10, SG1
4.      Explain how culture and ethnicity are related to stress. 11, 12, 13
5.      Distinguish between acute, chronic, and anticipatory stressors. 14, 15, 16, SG2
6.      Describe frustration as a source of stress. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21
7.      Outline the three types of internal conflict, and discuss typical reactions to conflicts. 17, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, TF2, SA2
8.      Analyze evidence on life change as a source of stress. 17, 18, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, SG3, TF3, TF4
9.      Discuss evidence on pressure as a source of stress. 18, 33, 34, 35, 36
10.  List three categories of negative emotions commonly elicited by stress. 37, 38, 39
11.  Discuss the role of positive emotions in the stress process. 40, 41, 42, SA3
12.  Explain the effects of emotional arousal on coping efforts, and describe the inverted-U hypothesis. 43, 44, 45, 46, SG4
13.  Describe the fight-or-flight response, and contrast it with the tend-and-befriend response. 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, SG5
14.  Describe the three stages of the general adaptation syndrome. 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, SA4
15.  Distinguish between the two major pathways along which the brain sends signals to the endocrine system in response to stress. 66, 67, 68, SG6, TF5
16.  Clarify the concept of coping. 69, 70, SA5
17.  Explain the phenomenon of choking under pressure. 71, 72, 73, TF6
18.  Summarize evidence on how stress can affect cognitive functioning. 74, 75
19.  Identify the symptoms and causes of burnout. 76, 77, 78, 79, SG7, SA6
20.  Assess the potential impact of stress on psychological health. 80, 81
21.  Discuss the prevalence, symptoms, and causes of posttraumatic stress disorder. 82, 83, TF7
22.  Discuss the effects of stress on physical health. 84, 85, SG8, TF8
23.  Articulate three ways in which stress might lead to beneficial effects. 86, 87, SA7
24.  Explain how social support moderates the impact of stress. 88, 89, 90, SG9, TF9, SA8
25.  Describe the hardiness syndrome and how it influences stress tolerance. 91, 92, 93
26.  Clarify how optimism is related to stress tolerance. 94, 95, 96, 97, SA9
27.  Describe the potential problem of unrealistic optimism. 98, 99
28.  Explain why traits cannot be target behaviors in self-modification programs. 100, 101, TF10, SA10
29.  Identify the three kinds of information you should pursue in gathering your baseline data. 102, 103, SA10
30.  Discuss how to use reinforcement to increase the strength of a response. 104, 105, SG10

 

 

31.  Explain how to use reinforcement, control of antecedents, and punishment to decrease the strength of a response. 106, 107
32.  Analyze issues related to fine-tuning and ending a self-modification program. 108, 109

Key: Multiple-Choice question numbers appear first, followed by Study Guide question numbers (SG), True/False (TF), and Short Answer (SA).

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The emerging consensus among contemporary researchers is that stress is
  2. a stimulus event that presents difficult demands.
  3. the response of physiological arousal elicited by a troublesome event.
  4. a special stimulus-response transaction in which one feels threatened.
  5. a series of events that tend to elicit overwhelming feelings of anxiety.

 

ANS: c             REF: 71

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. One accepted definition of stress is
  2. any potentially upsetting event that occurs in one’s environment.
  3. any circumstance that threatens well-being and taxes coping abilities.
  4. any negative change that occurs in the course of life.
  5. anything that causes chronic illness in organisms.

 

ANS: b             REF: 71

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the nature of stress is correct?
  2. Routine hassles may have significant negative effects on mental and physical health.
  3. Major stressful events are more strongly related to mental health than are minor hassles.
  4. Most people effectively deal with everyday stress through the use of defense mechanisms.
  5. Experts generally agree that major and minor stressors are independent of each other.

 

ANS: a             REF: 71

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Lazarus’s findings on hassles suggest that the effects of stress are
  2. cumulative.
  3. mutually exclusive.
  4. specific to different domains.
  5. inversely related to the number of demands.

 

ANS: a             REF: 71

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Whether or not an event is stressful is most likely to depend on
  2. how much physiological arousal it causes.
  3. how much change there is.
  4. how one appraises and adapts to the event.
  5. whether one is prepared for the event.

 

ANS: c             REF: 72                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. Primary appraisal is an initial evaluation of whether an event is
  2. imminent.
  3. detrimental to one’s health.
  4. relevant and stressful.
  5. expected.

 

ANS: c             REF: 72

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Secondary appraisal involves
  2. making plans to avoid the situation.
  3. tapping into your defense mechanisms.
  4. soliciting a second opinion about a stressful event.
  5. evaluating your coping resources and options.

 

ANS: d             REF: 72

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The notion that “stress lies in the eye of the beholder” suggests that
  2. coping strategies tend to vary from individual to individual.
  3. people’s appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective.
  4. there are certain events that just about everyone finds stressful.
  5. the appraisal of stress generally involves the use of visual imagery.

 

ANS: b             REF: 73

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. The term “ambient stress” refers to
  2. stress that seems to have no identifiable source.
  3. specific situations in which stress is most likely to occur.
  4. chronic environmental conditions that place adaptive demands on people.
  5. stressful situations that result from demands placed on us by others.

 

ANS: c             REF: 73

OBJ: 3             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Crowding and noise have been identified as sources of ___________ that have been found to be correlated with elevated stress hormones.
  2. acute stress
  3. traumatic stress
  4. ambient stress
  5. rational stress

 

ANS: c             REF: 73                       NOT: New

OBJ: 3             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. _______________ has been a major source of stress in many societies around the world.
  2. Religious conflict
  3. Cultural change
  4. Intergenerational disagreement
  5. Coping deficiency

 

ANS: b             REF: 74

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following may be a significant cause of stress for immigrants?
  2. Covert discrimination
  3. Overt interracial conflict
  4. Acculturation
  5. Effects of modernization

 

ANS: c             REF: 74                       NOT: New

OBJ: 4             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. One challenge faced by members of ethnic minorities in dealing with everyday discrimination is that manifestations of such discrimination are often
  2. imaginary.
  3. ambiguous.
  4. minor.
  5. consistent.

 

ANS: b             REF: 74                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 4             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Acute stressors
  2. are threatening events that have a relatively short duration and clear endpoint.
  3. are unpleasant environmental conditions to which one must adjust.
  4. are conditions that have a relatively long duration and no apparent time limit.
  5. always lead to physical illness.

 

ANS: a             REF: 75

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no apparent time limit are referred to as
  2. ambient stressors.
  3. cultural stressors.
  4. acute stressors.
  5. chronic stressors.

 

ANS: d             REF: 75

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Dealing with a rude store clerk and waiting for the results of an examination are two examples of
  2. acute stressors.
  3. ambient stressors.
  4. environmental stressors.
  5. chronic stressors.

 

ANS: a             REF: 75

OBJ: 5             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a major source of stress described in your textbook?
  2. Change
  3. Internal conflict
  4. Frustration
  5. Socialization

 

ANS: d             REF: 75-76                  NOT: New

OBJ: 6-8          KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The four major types of stress described in your textbook are
  2. pressure, anxiety, environment, and social demands.
  3. frustration, anger, pressure, and change.
  4. frustration, internal conflict, pressure, and change.
  5. internal conflict, pressure, anxiety, and social demands.

 

ANS: c             REF: 75-78                  MSC: WWW                NOT: New

OBJ: 6-9          KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. According to psychologists, frustration occurs when
  2. feelings of anger are aroused.
  3. the pursuit of some goal is thwarted.
  4. incompatible motivations are activated.
  5. individuals perceive subjective threat.

 

ANS: b             REF: 75

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a common kind of frustration leading to stress?
  2. Anger
  3. Anxiety
  4. Losses
  5. Subjective threat

 

ANS: c             REF: 75

OBJ: 6             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. _________ may be a common effect of environmental or ambient stress.
  2. Conflict
  3. Frustration
  4. Change
  5. Trauma

 

ANS: b             REF: 75

OBJ: 6             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Internal conflict occurs when
  2. pursuit of an important goal is thwarted.
  3. an event is perceived as threatening.
  4. two incompatible behavioral impulses compete for expression.
  5. ambiguous stimuli are encountered in the environment.

 

ANS: c             REF: 76                       NOT: New

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Generally, which kind of conflict tends to be the least stressful?
  2. Approach-approach
  3. Avoidance-avoidance
  4. Approach-avoidance
  5. All types are equally stressful.

 

ANS: a             REF: 76

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. You want to ask someone for a date, but you are afraid of being rejected. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?
  2. Approach-approach
  3. Avoidance-avoidance
  4. Approach-avoidance
  5. Frustration-aggression

 

ANS: c             REF: 76

OBJ: 7             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. You are a talented artist and good at mathematics. You enjoy both and don’t know which to major in at college. Which of the following types of conflict applies to your situation?
  2. Approach-approach
  3. Avoidance-avoidance
  4. Approach-avoidance
  5. Frustration-aggression

 

ANS: a             REF: 76

OBJ: 7             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Approach-avoidance conflicts often produce
  2. vacillation.
  3. frustration.
  4. aggression.
  5. self-directed anger.

 

ANS: a             REF: 76                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research supports a previous theory that internal conflicts generate considerable psychological stress. The theorist who proposed this was
  2. Freud.
  3. Watson.
  4. Selye.
  5. Maslow.

 

ANS: a             REF: 76

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. ________________ is any noticeable alteration in one’s life circumstances.
  2. Stress
  3. Life conflict
  4. Life change
  5. Dissonance

 

ANS: c             REF: 77

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Holmes and Rahe concluded that change is stressful
  2. only when it is undesirable.
  3. only when it is overwhelming.
  4. whether it is undesirable or desirable.
  5. only when accompanied by pressure.

 

ANS: c             REF: 77

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale was designed to measure
  2. frustration.
  3. all kinds of stress.
  4. change-related stress.
  5. the anxiety produced by certain events.

 

ANS: c             REF: 77

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Research with the Social Readjustment Rating Scale has shown that people with higher scores
  2. are less susceptible to stress.
  3. know from experience how to handle stress.
  4. tend to have pessimistic outlooks on life.
  5. are vulnerable to physical and psychological problems.

 

ANS: d             REF: 77

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Current research indicates that
  2. positive change is typically more stressful than negative change.
  3. only negative change is stressful.
  4. we have little reason to believe that change is inevitably stressful.
  5. all change is inevitably stressful.

 

ANS: c             REF: 78                       NOT: New

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Whenever others expect you to conform to their expectations or perform in certain ways, you tend to experience
  2. anger.
  3. conflict.
  4. frustration.
  5. pressure.

 

ANS: d             REF: 78                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following researchers designed a scale to measure pressure as a form of life stress?
  2. Albert Bandura
  3. Thomas Holmes
  4. Neil Miller
  5. Wayne Weiten

 

ANS: d             REF: 79

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Weiten’s research on the stressful effects of pressure indicates that there is a strong relationship between pressure and
  2. the appraisal of stress.
  3. measures of procrastination.
  4. a variety of psychological problems.
  5. stress-induced physiological arousal.

 

ANS: c             REF: 79

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. According to research, Janet has found studying for finals and her graduate exams so stressful that the only behavior NOT likely to occur is
  2. poorer academic performance.
  3. escape behaviors such as drinking.
  4. increased depression.
  5. increased concentration.

 

ANS: d             REF: 79

OBJ: 9             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate             NOT: New

 

  1. Psychologists study responses to stress at which of the following levels?
  2. Behavioral
  3. Emotional
  4. Physiological
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 80

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. ___________ are largely uncontrollable and are accompanied by physiological changes.
  2. Conflicts
  3. Pressures
  4. Stressors
  5. Emotions

 

ANS: d             REF: 80

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Research findings indicate that subjective cognitive appraisals may influence a person’s __________ responses to stressors.
  2. emotional
  3. social
  4. controllable
  5. perceptual

 

ANS: a             REF: 80                       NOT: New

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Fredrickson et al. (2003) found that the frequency of pleasant emotions correlated __________ with resilience and the frequency of negative emotions correlated ___________ with resilience.
  2. positively; negatively
  3. negatively; positively
  4. positively; positively
  5. negatively; negatively

 

ANS: a             REF: 82

OBJ: 11           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. Research suggests that positive emotional reactions to stress may have the adaptive quality of enhancing
  2. fear reactions.
  3. social, intellectual, and physical resources.
  4. avoidance strategies.
  5. use of defense mechanisms.

 

ANS: b             REF: 82                       MSC: WWW                NOT: New

OBJ: 11           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States found that emotions of anger, sad, glad, hopeful, and content were statistically significant in relation to
  2. defense mechanisms.
  3. resilience.
  4. the parasympathetic system.
  5. feelings of sympathy.

 

ANS: b             REF: 82

OBJ: 11           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The correlation between test-related anxiety and exam performance is thought to be
  2. positive.
  3. negative.
  4. U-shaped.
  5. nonexistent.

 

ANS: b             REF: 82

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Optimal level of arousal is related to
  2. level of self-esteem.
  3. the complexity of the task.
  4. personality type.
  5. optimism of the individual.

 

ANS: b             REF: 82

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Sometimes, anxiety helps us by motivating us to study for a test, but if we become too anxious, we pass our optimal level of arousal and spend too much time worrying instead of studying. This type of correlation is described as
  2. a downward spiral.
  3. the inverted-U hypothesis.
  4. negative.
  5. positive.

 

ANS: b             REF: 82

OBJ: 12           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Research on the inverted-U hypothesis is
  2. in need of refinement.
  3. inconsistent.
  4. based on animal learning.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 83                       NOT: New

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The “fight-or-flight” response was first described by
  2. Martin Seligman.
  3. Ray Rosenman.
  4. Walter Cannon.
  5. Hans Selye.

 

ANS: c             REF: 83                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The fight-or-flight response occurs in the
  2. cerebral cortex.
  3. parasympathetic division of the limbic system.
  4. sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.
  5. synaptic vesicles in the brain.

 

ANS: c             REF: 83

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. The fight-or-flight response is a reaction that begins in response to a threat. This is a(n) _________ reaction.
  2. involuntary
  3. voluntary
  4. unusual
  5. cultural

 

ANS: a             REF: 83

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
  2. conserves bodily resources.
  3. arouses sympathy for those in stressful circumstances.
  4. mobilizes bodily resources for emergencies.
  5. calms the body after the fight-or-flight response.

 

ANS: c             REF: 83                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. New research on gender and the fight-or-flight response indicates that
  2. fighting may be more adaptive for females than males because females need to fight off predators from their offspring.
  3. fighting and fleeing may be less adaptive for females because both responses may endanger offspring.
  4. men are more likely to fight and women are more likely to flee.
  5. men and women are equally likely to expend a lot of effort on the care of offspring in times of stress.

 

ANS: b             REF: 84

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual   DIF: Moderate

 

  1. An alternative to the fight-or-flight response that may be present for females is the
  2. tend-and-befriend response.
  3. lock-and-load response.
  4. freeze-and-free-up response.
  5. cat-and-mouse response.

 

ANS: a             REF: 84

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. In humans, the fight-or-flight response is less adaptive than it was in ancestral humans because
  2. our stresses are usually of short duration.
  3. social evolution has surpassed biological evolution.
  4. most modern human stresses can’t be managed with these strategies.
  5. modern humans don’t have adequate equipment to fight or flee from threats.

 

ANS: c             REF: 84                       NOT: New

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Hans Seyle’s work was important because it showed
  2. how prolonged physiological arousal that is meant to be adaptive could lead to diseases.
  3. how ambient stress could lead to a traumatic stress response.
  4. that positive change is just as stressful as negative change.
  5. that children do not react to stress the same way that adults do.

 

ANS: a             REF: 85

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Being followed when walking home late at night or narrowly escaping a car accident are experiences that would activate the
  2. resistance reaction.
  3. alarm reaction.
  4. non-sympathetic nervous system.
  5. exhaustion reaction.

 

ANS: b             REF: 84

OBJ: 14           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. ___________ is credited with formulating the theory of stress reactions called the general adaptation syndrome.
  2. Hans Selye
  3. Neal Miller
  4. Walter Cannon
  5. Michael Scheier

 

ANS: a             REF: 84

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Selye exposed lab animals to various stressors and found that
  2. each individual animal responded to stress differently.
  3. each type of stress caused a particular physiological response.
  4. patterns of physiological arousal were similar, regardless of the type of stress.
  5. patterns of physiological arousal seemed to depend on the intensity of the stress.

 

ANS: c             REF: 84

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The general adaptation syndrome is a
  2. general coping strategy for dealing with stress.
  3. severe stress-related psychological disorder.
  4. set of bodily responses to stress.
  5. physiological-based solution for stressful problems.

 

ANS: c             REF: 84                       NOT: New

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The correct order of stages in the general adaptation syndrome is
  2. resistance, alarm, exhaustion.
  3. alarm, exhaustion, resistance.
  4. resistance, exhaustion, alarm.
  5. alarm, resistance, exhaustion.

 

ANS: d             REF: 84                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. In the __________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body attempts to adapt to continued stress.
  2. alarm
  3. exhaustion
  4. resistance
  5. extinction

 

ANS: c             REF: 84

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. You hate mathematics and feel a knot forming in your stomach when you read in the college catalog that Calculus I is required for your chosen major. You are in the _____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
  2. alarm
  3. exhaustion
  4. resistance
  5. extinction

 

ANS: a             REF: 84

OBJ: 14           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. You realize that no matter how much you hate mathematics, you will not be able to drop out of calculus class this semester if you want to go to the graduate school of your choice. You hunker down for a miserable semester of hard and studious labor. You are in the ____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
  2. alarm
  3. exhaustion
  4. resistance
  5. extinction

 

ANS: c             REF: 84                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 14           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. After barely squeezing through Anatomy 101 with a passing grade, you sleep 16 hours a day for the first 10 days of summer break and refuse to see any of your friends. You are in the ____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome.
  2. alarm
  3. exhaustion
  4. resistance
  5. extinction

 

ANS: b             REF: 85

OBJ: 14           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Seyle’s general adaptation model has been criticized because
  2. it ignores cultural influences on stress.
  3. the order in which the stages occur may vary between individuals.
  4. it ignores individual differences in the appraisal of stress.
  5. there is no link between stress and physical illness.

 

ANS: c             REF: 85

OBJ: 14           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following is least likely to have a negative impact on the immune system?
  2. Caring for an elderly parent
  3. Receiving long-term disability following an automobile accident
  4. Remaining in a hostile work environment while waiting for a better job opportunity to come along
  5. Spending the weekend with hostile family members

 

ANS: d             REF: 85

OBJ: 14           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. ______ are hormones that help mobilize the body for action.
  2. Amphetamines
  3. Immunosteroids
  4. Catecholamines
  5. Neurotransmitters

 

ANS: c             REF: 85

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The “master gland” of the endocrine system is the
  2. pituitary.
  3. adrenal cortex.
  4. adrenal medulla.
  5. hypothalamus.

 

ANS: a             REF: 86

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Mounting evidence from research indicates that stress may ______ the functioning of the immune system.
  2. stimulate
  3. destroy
  4. suppress
  5. enhance

 

ANS: c             REF: 86

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. _______ involves active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands of stress.
  2. Coping
  3. Adjustment
  4. Stress tolerance
  5. General adaptation

 

ANS: a             REF: 87                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 16           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. By definition, coping efforts are
  2. not necessarily adaptive or maladaptive.
  3. necessarily healthy.
  4. permanent.
  5. effective.

 

ANS: a             REF: 87

OBJ: 16           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Pressure to perform may disrupt attention to task performance by
  2. making one feel self-conscious.
  3. making one focus on the task.
  4. encouraging one to focus on the source of the pressure.
  5. overemphasizing the importance of the task.

 

ANS: a             REF: 88

OBJ: 17           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Recent research on the effect of pressure on task performance in “normal” subjects suggests that
  2. choking under pressure is fairly common.
  3. choking under pressure is just an excuse.
  4. choking under pressure is a phenomenon unique to amateur performers.
  5. normal people are less likely to choke under pressure than are professional athletes.

 

ANS: a             REF: 88

OBJ: 17           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Your friend Terry, who has been practicing free-throw shots in the backyard, just won the chance to shoot a half-court basket for a $10,000 prize at a professional basketball game. Research indicates that Terry is
  2. more likely to make the shot in front of a large crowd than in the backyard, because the added pressure increases the ability to filter out distractions.
  3. less likely to choke under the pressure than a professional athlete, because professionals have their job on the line.
  4. very likely to choke under pressure.
  5. likely to catch a cold just before the game because of a reduced immune system from the acute stress.

 

ANS: c             REF: 88

OBJ: 17           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research findings indicate that on a cognitive task, stress may increase one’s tendency to
  2. systematically review options.
  3. jump to conclusions too quickly.
  4. consider a variety of options.
  5. organize information into categories.

 

ANS: b             REF: 88

OBJ: 18           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT cited in your text as a disruptive effect of severe stress on cognitive functioning?
  2. Inability to integrate new information
  3. Reduced working memory efficiency
  4. Inability to deal with interpersonal issues
  5. Poorly organized view of options

 

ANS: c             REF: 88                       NOT: New

OBJ: 18           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Physical and emotional exhaustion and a lowered sense of self-efficacy due to work-related stress is called
  2. burnout.
  3. reaction formation disorder.
  4. the general adaptation syndrome.
  5. posttraumatic stress disorder.

 

ANS: a             REF: 88                       MSC: WWW                NOT: New

OBJ: 19           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of burnout?
  2. Lowered self-efficacy
  3. Immediate traumatic stresses
  4. Cynicism
  5. Emotional exhaustion

 

ANS: b             REF: 88

OBJ: 19           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. According to Leiter and Maslach, what causes burnout?
  2. Traumatic experiences in the workplace
  3. Ongoing job stressors
  4. Personal weakness
  5. Being recognized for one’s work

 

ANS: b             REF: 89

OBJ: 19           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Signs of burnout in the workplace include
  2. decreased production.
  3. increased health problems.
  4. increased absenteeism.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 89

OBJ: 19           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Research reveals that stress often contributes to the onset of which of the following?
  2. Depression
  3. Schizophrenia
  4. Eating disorders
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 91

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Mark has been working in a men’s clothing store for over a year. Most days, he is the only employee present and does all tasks and sales on his own. The owner of the store rarely stops by, and when he does, he complains that Mark has not sold enough. Mark may have some psychological problems due to chronic stress. Which of the following is an unlikely reaction?
  2. Insomnia
  3. Sexual difficulties
  4. Homicidal feelings
  5. All of these

 

ANS: c             REF: 89                       NOT: New

OBJ: 20           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder involves
  2. immediate reaction to stressful war experiences.
  3. stress reactions in anticipation of a traumatic event.
  4. psychological disturbance due to the experience of a major traumatic event.
  5. psychotic reactions to chronic stress, which emerge after one leaves the stressful environment.

 

ANS: c             REF: 89

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following appears to be a key factor in predicting who is most likely to develop PTSD following a traumatic event?
  2. The age of the victim
  3. The place of the traumatic event
  4. The intensity of the traumatic event
  5. Biological aspects of the individual

 

ANS: c             REF: 91                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Psychosomatic diseases are
  2. common reactions to single traumatic events.
  3. psychological disturbances associated with burnout.
  4. imaginary physical ailments caused by psychological factors.
  5. genuine physical ailments caused partly by psychological factors.

 

ANS: d             REF: 91

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Psychosomatic disease ______ because of research on stress.
  2. has fallen into disuse
  3. is popular
  4. is unrelated to stress
  5. none of these

 

ANS: a             REF: 91                       NOT: New

OBJ: 22           KEY Factual                DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a beneficial effect that may result from stress?
  2. Satisfies the need for stimulation and challenge
  3. Increases optimism
  4. Promotes personal growth
  5. Inoculates against later stresses

 

ANS: b             REF: 93

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The school of modern psychology that was developed to offset the perceived emphasis in psychology on pathology and suffering is called
  2. psychodynamic psychology.
  3. behaviorism.
  4. positive psychology.
  5. coping psychology.

 

ANS: c             REF: 93

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. ______ variables are factors that can soften the impact of stress on physical and mental health.
  2. Intervening
  3. Dependent
  4. Moderator
  5. Extraneous

 

ANS: c             REF: 94                       MSC: WWW

OBJ: 24           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The best description of social support is
  2. charity work to take one’s mind off stressful problems.
  3. support from various social agencies.
  4. various types of aid from one’s social networks.
  5. one’s ability to aid others in need of support.

 

ANS: c             REF: 94

OBJ: 24           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Who of the following people is most likely to develop stress-related illness?
  2. Susan, who lives alone but volunteers at the local skilled nursing home two times per month
  3. John, who lives with two good friends from high school
  4. Jaime, who lives with a quiet roommate, belongs to a big family, works for a growing company, and is described as a very “sociable” guy by all who know him
  5. Dora, who lives alone, works from her home, and prefers to keep to herself

 

ANS: d             REF: 95

OBJ: 24           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Kobasa found strong stress tolerance to be related to
  2. a belief that situational variables control one’s destiny.
  3. a passive approach to life.
  4. a sense of commitment.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: c             REF: 96

OBJ: 25           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following executives is NOT exhibiting a quality related to hardiness?
  2. Al is very committed to his work and sees his job as a part of his identity.
  3. Bob finds a way to reframe problems at work as challenges rather than burdens.
  4. Clara loves the challenge at work of meeting deadlines that are outside of her control.
  5. Drew sees everything as a competition and works hard to outdo all of the other employees.

 

ANS: d             REF: 96                       NOT: New

OBJ: 25           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. A behavior pattern marked by commitment, challenge, and control that appears to be related to stress resistance is called
  2. hardiness.
  3. optimism.
  4. autonomic passivity.
  5. autonomic reactivity.

 

ANS: a             REF: 96

OBJ: 25           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The general tendency to expect good outcomes is called
  2. hardiness.
  3. optimism.
  4. social support.
  5. sensation-seeking.

 

ANS: b             REF: 96

OBJ: 26           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. People who exhibit an optimistic explanatory style tend to attribute setbacks to
  2. others’ shortcomings.
  3. temporary situational factors.
  4. a bad home environment.
  5. personal traits.

 

ANS: b             REF: 96

OBJ: 26           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The Life Orientation Test (LOT) was designed to measure
  2. optimism.
  3. hardiness.
  4. conscientiousness.
  5. sensation-seeking.

 

ANS: a             REF: 96

OBJ: 25           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. In stressful circumstances, optimists are more likely than pessimists to
  2. be realistic about the situation.
  3. decline any offers of social support.
  4. use their most effective defense mechanisms.
  5. engage in action-oriented, problem-focused coping.

 

ANS: d             REF: 97

OBJ: 26           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Unrealistic optimism
  2. cannot harm anyone.
  3. may lead to risky behaviors.
  4. contributes to hardiness.
  5. is adaptive.

 

ANS: b             REF: 97                       NOT: New

OBJ: 27           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Jane believes she is unlikely to get lung cancer because she has decided to only smoke until she finishes college and she has heard that only smoking for a few years eliminates the risk of lung cancer. Her attitude is an example of
  2. pessimistic explanatory style.
  3. optimistic explanatory style.
  4. unrealistic optimism.
  5. ambiguous style.

 

ANS: c             REF: 97                       NOT: New

OBJ: 27           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Bob is working on behavior self-modification because he would like to be less irritable at work. His attempts are ______ because he has focused on a personality trait.
  2. unlikely to succeed
  3. likely to succeed
  4. unrelated to his success
  5. none of these

 

ANS: a             REF: 98                       NOT: New

OBJ: 28           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The best way to approach self-modification is to focus on _____ rather than _____.
  2. specific behaviors; personality traits
  3. personality traits; specific behaviors
  4. infrequent responses; specific behaviors
  5. personality traits; typical responses

 

ANS: a             REF: 98                       NOT: New

OBJ: 28           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. To gather baseline data for self-modification, you should do all but which of the following?
  2. Determine the initial response level
  3. Monitor events immediately after the target response
  4. Monitor typical consequences
  5. You should do all of these

 

ANS: b             REF: 98-99                  NOT: New

OBJ: 29           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Mary has noticed that when she watches an exciting basketball game, she eats more snack food. She has identified
  2. an initial response level.
  3. an antecedent.
  4. a typical consequence.
  5. her baseline data.

 

ANS: b             REF: 98                       NOT: New

OBJ: 29           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The best way to increase response strength in self-modification is through
  2. positive reinforcement.
  3. finding a reward effective for that person.
  4. choosing a readily available reinforcer.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 99-100                NOT: New

OBJ: 30           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Robert has decided to reinforce his increased study time target by adding a star to a chart every time he studies one hour. He has decided that every 20 stars, he can do an activity with his friends for four hours. His idea is a form of
  2. shaping.
  3. self-denial.
  4. token economy.
  5. satiation.

 

ANS: c             REF: 100                     MSC: WWW                NOT: New

OBJ: 30           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. To decrease a response, you may use
  2. negative reinforcement.
  3. control of antecedents.
  4. punishment.
  5. any of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 100-101              NOT: New

OBJ: 31           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Denise has decided to decrease her target behavior of unhealthy eating by avoiding the fast-food and cookie aisles of the grocery store. She is using the method of
  2. control of antecedents.
  3. reinforcement.
  4. shaping.
  5. punishment.

 

ANS: a             REF: 100                     NOT: New

OBJ: 31           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Some behavior modification programs have common flaws. Rory found that she had too long of a delay between behavior and reinforcement. She should
  2. give up.
  3. fine-tune her program.
  4. suck it up and keep trying.
  5. depend on weaker reinforcers.

 

ANS: b             REF: 101                     NOT: New

OBJ: 32           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. The best way to end a self-modification program is
  2. let it fade away, but notice if old patterns return.
  3. phase it out.
  4. set an ending goal.
  5. any of these.

 

ANS: d             REF 101                      NOT: New

OBJ: 32           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS FROM STUDY GUIDE

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered a form of ambient stress?
  2. Crowding
  3. Air pollution
  4. Excessive heat
  5. Unrealistic expectations

 

ANS: d             REF: 73                       NOT: New

OBJ: 3                         KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following would be considered an example of an acute stressor?
  2. Having your home threatened by severe flooding
  3. Ongoing pressures from a hostile boss at work
  4. Persistent financial strains produced by huge credit-card debts
  5. The demands of caring for a sick family member for an extensive period of time

 

ANS: a             REF: 75                       NOT: New

OBJ: 5             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Research on life change and stress began when Thomas Holmes, Richard Rahe, and their colleagues set out to explore the relation between stressful life events and
  2. frustration.
  3. aggressive behavior.
  4. physical illness.
  5. schizophrenia.

 

ANS: c             REF: 77                       NOT: New

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. According to the inverted-U hypothesis, performance on a task
  2. usually decreases with emotional arousal.
  3. usually increases with emotional arousal.
  4. peaks at the optimal level of arousal for the particular task.
  5. peaks at about the same level no matter what the task is.

 

ANS: c             REF: 82-83                  NOT: New

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. In contrast to the traditional fight-or-flight model of responding to stress, Shelley Taylor and her colleagues have suggested that females may be more likely to engage in a ______ response.
  2. run-and-hide
  3. tend-and-befriend
  4. lock-and-load
  5. wait-and-see

 

ANS: b             REF: 83-84                  NOT: New

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. When a person experiences stress, the brain sends signals to the endocrine system along two pathways. The structure that appears to initiate action along both pathways is the
  2. adrenal gland.
  3. catecholamine.
  4. hypothalamus.
  5. pituitary gland.

 

ANS: c             REF: 85                       NOT: New

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Burnout is associated with all but which of the following?
  2. Increased absenteeism
  3. Increased sense of self-efficacy
  4. Reduced productivity at work
  5. Increased vulnerability to health problems

 

ANS: b             REF: 88-89                  NOT: New

OBJ: 19           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Stress is associated with the onset and course of which of the following illnesses?
  2. Stroke
  3. Cancer
  4. Heart disease
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 91                       NOT: New

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the effects of social support on stress is NOT accurate?
  2. Social support is favorably related to physical health.
  3. Social support is beneficial only when it is provided by immediate family members.
  4. Providing social support to others can have psychological and physical benefits.
  5. Social support may serve as a protective buffer from stress.

 

ANS: b             REF: 94-95                  NOT: New

OBJ: 24           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. A token economy is a system for doling out symbolic reinforcers that are exchanged later for a variety of genuine
  2. placebos.
  3. reinforcers.
  4. antecedents.
  5. contingencies.

 

ANS: b             REF: 100                     NOT: New

OBJ: 30           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Everyday hassles have NOT been found to be predictive of mental or physical health.

 

ANS: false       REF: 71

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. When trying to resolve an approach-avoidance conflict, it is best to focus on lowering the avoidance gradient.

 

ANS: true         REF: 76

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Individuals who score low on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale are more likely to develop illnesses than those who score high.

 

ANS: false       REF: 77

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Current research indicates that change is inherently and inevitably stressful.

 

ANS: false       REF: 78

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Corticosteroids help inhibit tissue inflammation in case of injury during times of stress.

 

ANS: true         REF: 86

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. On well-learned tasks that should be executed almost automatically, the self-conscious person may focus too little attention on the task.

 

ANS: false       REF: 88

OBJ: 17           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. The types of traumas that can cause PTSD are more common than most people realize.

 

ANS: true         REF: 90

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Psychosomatic diseases are unique to heart and lung problems.

 

ANS: false       REF: 91

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Strong social support has been found to be a key factor in reducing the likelihood of PTSD among Vietnam War veterans.

 

ANS: true         REF: 95

OBJ: 24           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Behavior self-modification is likely to be ineffective in controlling stress.

 

ANS: false       REF: 98                       NOT: New

OBJ: 28           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the statement, “Stress is in the eye of the beholder.”

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 72           OBJ: 2

 

  1. Briefly describe the three types of conflict and give an example of each. Which type of conflict is most likely to produce vacillation? Why?

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 76           OBJ: 7

 

  1. How do positive emotions promote resilience in the face of stress?

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 81-82      OBJ: 11

 

  1. Describe a criticism of Hans Selye’s model of the general adaptation syndrome.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 85           NOT: New       OBJ: 14

 

  1. Explain how coping responses may be either healthy or unhealthy.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 87           OBJ: 16

 

  1. Describe burnout and its possible causes. Do you think it’s possible for college students to suffer from “academic burnout”?

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 88-89      OBJ: 19

 

  1. Define the term “positive psychology” and explain the rationale for this movement.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 93           OBJ: 23

 

  1. Briefly explain how social networks can be beneficial or detrimental to efforts to cope with stress.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 94-95      OBJ: 24

 

  1. Define the term “explanatory style.” What are some of the things that optimists do that are helpful in coping with stress?

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 96-97      OBJ: 26

 

  1. Give an example of a self-modification program. Label and describe the target behavior and the three areas of baseline data for your example.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 97-99      NOT: New       OBJ: 28 and 29

Chapter 5

PSYCHOLOGY and physical Health

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

Stress, Personality, and Illness

  1. Describe the Type A personality and evidence regarding its most toxic element.
  2. Understand possible explanations for the link between hostility and heart disease.

3    Summarize evidence relating emotional reactions and depression to heart disease.

  1. Discuss the evidence linking stress and personality to cancer.
  2. Summarize evidence linking stress to a variety of diseases and immune functioning.
  3. Evaluate the strength of the relationship between stress and illness.

 

Habits, Lifestyles, and Health

  1. Identify some reasons for why people develop health-impairing habits.
  2. Discuss the health effects of smoking and the dynamics of giving up smoking.
  3. Summarize data on patterns of alcohol use and social costs of drinking.
  4. Discuss the health risks and determinants of obesity.
  5. Outline the key elements in effective weight-loss efforts.
  6. Provide examples of links between nutrition and health and three general goals to foster sound nutrition.
  7. Assess benefits and risks of exercise.
  8. List four guidelines for embarking on an effective exercise program.
  9. Describe AIDS and summarize evidence on the transmission of the HIV virus.

 

Reactions to Illness

  1. Summarize evidence on patterns of treatment-seeking behavior.
  2. Explain the appeal of the “sick role.”
  3. Identify the factors that tend to undermine doctor-patient communication and how to improve it.
  4. Discuss the prevalence of nonadherence to medical advice and its causes.

 

APPLICATION: Understanding the Effects of Drugs

  1. Explain the concepts of drug tolerance, physical and psychological dependence, and overdose.
  2. Summarize the main effects and risks of narcotics and sedatives.
  3. Describe the main effects and risks of stimulant drugs and hallucinogens.
  4. Outline the main effects and risks of marijuana and ecstasy (MDMA).

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Item Number

1.   Describe the Type A personality and evidence regarding its most toxic element. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, TF1, TF2
2.   Understand possible explanations for the link between hostility and heart disease. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, SG1, TF3, SA1
3    Summarize evidence relating emotional reactions and depression to heart disease. 18, 19, TF4
4.   Discuss the evidence linking stress and personality to cancer. 20, 21
5.   Summarize evidence linking stress to a variety of diseases and immune functioning. 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
6.   Evaluate the strength of the relationship between stress and illness. 27, 28, 29, SG2, TF5
7.   Identify some reasons for why people develop health-impairing habits. 30, 31
8.   Discuss the health effects of smoking and the dynamics of giving up smoking. 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, SG3, TF6, TF7, SA2
9.   Summarize data on patterns of alcohol use and the health risks and social costs of drinking. 38, 39, 40, 41, SA3
10. Discuss the health risks and determinants of obesity.  42, 43, 44, SG4, SA4, SA5
11. Outline the key elements in effective weight-loss efforts. 45, 46
12. Provide examples of links between nutrition and health and outline three general goals to foster nutrition. 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, SG5, SA6
13. Assess the benefits and risks of exercise. 57, 58, 59
14. List four guidelines for embarking on an effective exercise program. 60, 61, SA7
15. Describe AIDS and summarize evidence on the transmission of the HIV virus. 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, SG6, TF8, TF9, SA8
16. Summarize evidence on patterns of treatment-seeking behavior. 70, 71
17. Explain the appeal of the “sick role.” 72, 73
18. Identify the factors that tend to undermine doctor-patient communication and how to improve it. 74, 75, SG7, SA9
19. Discuss the prevalence of nonadherence to medical advice and its causes. 76, 77, SG8
20. Explain the concepts of drug tolerance, physical and psychological dependence, and overdose. 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, SG9, TF10
21. Summarize the main effects and risks of narcotics and sedatives. 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, SG10
22. Describe the main effects and risks of stimulant drugs and hallucinogens. 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, SA10
23. Outline the main effects and risks of marijuana and ecstasy (MDMA). 98, 99, 100, 101, 105

Key: Multiple-Choice question numbers appear first, followed by Study Guide question numbers (SG), True/False (TF), and Short Answer (SA).

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Before the 20th century, the principal threats to health in our society were
  2. farm accidents.
  3. heart diseases.
  4. contagious diseases.
  5. various forms of cancer.

 

ANS: c             REF: 139

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. ______ play a larger role in chronic diseases than contagious diseases.
  2. Lifestyles
  3. Viruses
  4. Infections and viruses
  5. Lifestyles and stress

 

ANS: d             REF: 138

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The greatest threat to health in our society today is posed by
  2. homicide.
  3. chronic diseases.
  4. contagious diseases.
  5. environmental toxins.

 

ANS: b             REF: 138                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a chronic disease?
  2. Cancer
  3. Stroke
  4. Influenza
  5. Heart disease

 

ANS: c             REF: 139                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is known to be the principal cause of coronary heart disease?
  2. Diabetes
  3. Atherosclerosis
  4. Alzheimer’s disease
  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder

 

ANS: b             REF: 141

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. ________ psychology is the area concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health.
  2. Health
  3. Clinical
  4. Community
  5. Psychosociology

 

ANS: a             REF: 140

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. ______ is the gradual narrowing of the coronary arteries.
  2. Cancer
  3. Influenza
  4. Atherosclerosis
  5. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

 

ANS: c             REF: 141

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The name of the condition when the heart is temporarily deprived of adequate blood flow is
  2. atherosclerosis.
  3. coronary heart disease.
  4. myocardial ischemia.
  5. myocardial infarction.

 

ANS: c             REF: 141

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. A heart attack is called
  2. atherosclerosis.
  3. coronary heart disease.
  4. a myocardial ischemia.
  5. a myocardial infarction.

 

ANS: d             REF: 141

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Angina is
  2. a psychosomatic condition.
  3. chest pain.
  4. a mild heart attack.
  5. a heart attack.

 

ANS: b             REF: 141

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. The Type A behavior pattern is most closely linked to which of the following physical ailments?
  2. Cancer
  3. Asthma
  4. Alzheimer’s disease
  5. Coronary heart disease

 

ANS: d             REF: 142

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Hank continually loses his temper when waiting in lines. He has very little patience for other people and is driven to be highly successful. Hank’s personality is called
  2. Type A
  3. Type AeH
  4. Hostile subtype
  5. Domineering subtype

 

ANS: a             REF: 142

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following characteristics is most closely associated with the Type A personality?
  2. Hostile
  3. Patient
  4. Permissive
  5. Cooperative

 

ANS: a             REF: 142

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following characteristics is most closely associated with the Type B personality?
  2. Impatient
  3. Easy-going
  4. Competitive
  5. Time-conscious

 

ANS: b             REF: 142

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following characteristics is least closely associated with the Type B personality?
  2. Patient
  3. Easy-going
  4. Competitive
  5. Relatively relaxed

 

ANS: c             REF: 142

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Which component of Type A behavior seems to be most responsible for the increased rate of heart attacks?
  2. Anger and hostility
  3. Highly driven work goals
  4. Competitiveness
  5. Impatience and time urgency

 

ANS: a             REF: 142                     NOT: New

OBJ: 2             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Living alone following a cardiac event _____ a person’s risk for a subsequent heart attack.
  2. decreases
  3. increases
  4. is unrelated to
  5. is equal to

 

ANS: b             REF: 143                     NOT: New

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Bobby tends to suppress his feelings. He is more likely to _____ about events.
  2. ruminate
  3. have heightened negative feelings
  4. be depressed
  5. all of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 144                     NOT: New

OBJ: 3             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Depression _____ one’s chance of developing heart disease.
  2. increases slightly
  3. doubles
  4. decreases
  5. is unrelated to

 

ANS: b             REF: 144                     NOT: New

OBJ: 3             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. ______ refers to malignant cell growth, which may occur in many organ systems in the body.
  2. Cancer
  3. Atherosclerosis
  4. Myocardial ischemia
  5. Coronary heart disease

 

ANS: a             REF: 144

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. The evidence linking psychological factors to the onset of cancer is
  2. strong.
  3. moderate.
  4. extremely weak.
  5. non-existent; little research has been done.

 

ANS: c             REF: 145                     NOT: New

OBJ: 4             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The immune response is
  2. a series of steps taken by Type A personalities.
  3. the body’s defensive reaction to invasion.
  4. one of the isolation effects of depression.
  5. none of the these.

 

ANS: b             REF: 146

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following has been found to impair immune functioning in animals?
  2. Shock
  3. Restraint
  4. Crowding
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 146

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Studies of the immune system in humans have found that stress
  2. has very little effect on immune activity.
  3. can lead to the destruction of lymphocytes.
  4. is related to increased levels of immune activity.
  5. is related to decreased levels of immune activity.

 

ANS: d             REF: 147                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Researchers have found a correlation between reduced immune activity and scores on
  2. Weschler Intelligence Scale.
  3. Somatic Rating Scale.
  4. several occupational interest inventories.
  5. the Social Readjustment Rating Scale.

 

ANS: d             REF: 147

OBJ: 5             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Who is most likely to have an impact on their immune function?
  2. Ray, whose wife died
  3. Janet, whose house burned down
  4. George, who totaled his car
  5. Beatrice, who cares for her child with cerebral palsy

 

ANS: d             REF: 147

OBJ: 5             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Virtually all of the research on stress and physical health in humans is
  2. anecdotal.
  3. correlational.
  4. experimental.
  5. observational.

 

ANS: b             REF: 147                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The strength of the relationship between stress and health is
  2. very weak.
  3. weak.
  4. modest.
  5. strong.

 

ANS: c             REF: 147

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Dr. VanGundy is researching the relationship between stress and subsequent health in normal individuals. He is likely to find a correlation around
  2. .10.
  3. .25.
  4. .40.
  5. .60.

 

ANS: b             REF: 147

OBJ: 6             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The most likely explanation for people’s tendency to act in self-destructive ways is that
  2. people have an innate desire for sensation-seeking.
  3. most people tend to believe that bad things happen to bad people.
  4. many health-impairing habits involve activities that are quite pleasant at the time.
  5. people engage in health-impairing behavior “on the spur of the moment,” without giving much thought to the consequences.

 

ANS: c             REF: 148

OBJ: 7             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. People have a tendency to ______ the risk of their own health-impairing habits, and ______ the risks associated with others’ self-destructive behaviors.
  2. overestimate; underestimate
  3. underestimate; overestimate
  4. accurately view; overestimate
  5. underestimate; accurately view

 

ANS: d             REF: 148

OBJ: 7             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. In the U.S., about _________ % of females and ________ % of males smoke.
  2. 18; 24
  3. 26; 21
  4. 15; 30
  5. 30; 30

 

ANS: a             REF: 149

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult               NOT: New

 

  1. In the U.S., college students smoke __________ compared to the general population.
  2. more for males; less for females
  3. less for males; more for females
  4. less for males and females
  5. more for males and females

 

ANS: d             REF: 149

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research shows that smoking increases the likelihood of developing
  2. cancer.
  3. heart disease.
  4. arteriosclerosis.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 150

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following has been shown to increase the risk of such diseases as lung cancer, arteriosclerosis, and emphysema?
  2. Obesity
  3. Smoking
  4. Poor nutrition
  5. Lack of exercise

 

ANS: b             REF: 150                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Health risks after quitting smoking decline until they reach a normal level after about
  2. 1 year.
  3. 5 years.
  4. 10 years.
  5. 15 years.

 

ANS: d             REF: 150                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research shows that long-term success rates for efforts to quit smoking are about
  2. 10%.
  3. 25%.
  4. 50%.
  5. 80%.

 

ANS: b             REF: 151

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. On college campuses, alcohol appears to contribute to about ______ of student rapes.
  2. 20%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%
  5. 90%

 

ANS: d             REF: 153

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. In our society, alcohol is associated with which of the following crimes?
  2. Murder
  3. Child abuse
  4. Spouse abuse
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 153

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is considered one of the common warning signs of alcoholism?
  2. Serving alcoholic drinks to close relatives
  3. Drinking to modify uncomfortable feelings
  4. Having several drinks at a social gathering
  5. Drinking alcohol openly

 

ANS: b             REF: 153                     NOT: New

OBJ: 9             KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. Excessive drinking is correlated with which of the following?
  2. Heart disease
  3. Stomach cancer
  4. Cirrhosis of the liver
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 154

OBJ: 9             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Typically, people are considered obese if their weight exceeds their ideal body weight by
  2. 20%.
  3. 40%.
  4. 60%.
  5. 80%.

 

ANS: a             REF: 154                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Researchers have found that in terms of their weight, adult adoptees tend to resemble their______ more than their ______.
  2. adoptive parents; biological parents
  3. biological parents; adoptive parents
  4. adoptive siblings; biological siblings
  5. biological siblings; adoptive siblings

 

ANS: b             REF: 153

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no long-term factors that influence it. This theory is called
  2. wishful thinking.
  3. settling-point.
  4. inertia.
  5. durability.

 

ANS: b             REF: 156                     NOT: New

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. In order to lose one pound, you need to burn up ______ more calories than you consume.
  2. 500
  3. 1,000
  4. 3,500
  5. 5,000

 

ANS: c             REF: 156

OBJ: 11           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Harry wants to lose 50 pounds. He should
  2. sharply increase his exercise.
  3. sharply reduce his food intake.
  4. decrease his food intake and increase his exercise, both in moderate ways.
  5. sharply increase his exercise while simultaneously reducing his food intake dramatically.

 

ANS: c             REF: 156

OBJ: 11           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Ahmed maintains a diet high in serum cholesterol, eating an abundance of eggs, cheese, butter, and shellfish. Ahmed may well be increasing his risk of
  2. arthritis.
  3. emphysema.
  4. heart disease.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: c             REF: 157

OBJ: 12           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. High caffeine consumption is likely to elevate one’s risk for
  2. depression.
  3. hypertension.
  4. prostate cancer.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: b             REF: 158

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. ______ may increase one’s risk for cardiovascular disease.
  2. Eating fish
  3. Consuming omega 3 fatty acids
  4. Avoiding processed meats
  5. Eating a low-fiber diet

 

ANS: d             REF: 157

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following nutritional habits can increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases and health problems?
  2. Obesity
  3. High-fat diets
  4. Low-fiber diets
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 157-158

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. Nutritional deficiencies among Americans are most likely a result of
  2. low income.
  3. lack of knowledge about nutrition.
  4. inability to find appropriate foods.
  5. emphasis in the media on “convenience” foods.

 

ANS: b             REF: 158

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a nutrient essential for physical well-being?
  2. Fats
  3. Starchoglycens
  4. Proteins
  5. Carbohydrates

 

ANS: b             REF: 158

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. _____ is a collection of processes through which an organism utilizes the materials required for survival and growth.
  2. Biopsychology
  3. Nutrition
  4. Acculturation
  5. Mitochondria

 

ANS b              REF: 157                     NOT: New

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The main function of vitamins and minerals is to
  2. strengthen the immune system.
  3. provide energy sources for the body.
  4. help release energy from other foods.
  5. provide roughage to facilitate digestion.

 

ANS: c             REF: 158                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. ______ provide(s) roughage that facilitates digestion.
  2. Fiber
  3. Protein
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals

 

ANS: a             REF: 158

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. It’s a good idea to increase consumption of healthy carbohydrates, natural sugars, and ample fiber. You can do this by eating more food from which of the following groups?
  2. Breads and cereals
  3. Fish, chicken, turkey
  4. Milk and milk products
  5. Fruits, vegetables, whole grains

 

ANS: d             REF: 160

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult               NOT: New

 

  1. Recent studies suggest that physical fitness is associated with a decreased risk for which of the following?
  2. Colon cancer in men
  3. Breast cancer in women
  4. Reproductive cancer in women
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 160

OBJ: 13           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. To affect mortality rates, people need to exercise
  2. strenuously on a regular basis.
  3. with a brisk half-hour walk daily.
  4. strenuously three times a week.
  5. carefully for the first year.

 

ANS: b             REF: 160                     NOT: New

OBJ: 13           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Eric has been feeling depressed and has a lot of tension and anxiety while he looks for a new job. He wonders if regular exercise will be of benefit. Given the research, what would you tell him?
  2. He’s right. Research supports his assumptions.
  3. He’s right. He needs to get in better shape to get a job.
  4. He’s wrong. People who are depressed can only be helped by medication.
  5. He’s wrong. Exercise has nothing to do with improving moods.

 

ANS: a             REF: 160-161              NOT: New

OBJ: 13           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. An exercise activity that you find enjoyable
  2. is likely to increase the physical benefits of exercise.
  3. makes it easier to follow through and exercise regularly.
  4. tends to detract from the psychological benefits of exercise.
  5. reduces the likelihood that you’ll get caught in the “competition trap.”

 

ANS: b             REF: 161

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT good advice for devising an exercise program?
  2. Increase your participation gradually.
  3. Exercise regularly without overdoing it.
  4. Look for an activity that you will find enjoyable.
  5. You should try to “exercise through” any minor injuries.

 

ANS: d             REF: 162                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 14           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. ______ is a disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and eventually disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus.
  2. HIV
  3. Hemophilia
  4. Myocardial ischemia
  5. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

 

ANS: d             REF: 162

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. AIDS is the final stage of the HIV infection process, which typically manifests itself about ______ years after the original infection.
  2. 1
  3. 5
  4. 8
  5. 15

 

ANS: c             REF: 162

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Treatment with which of the following has recently been found to hold promise for substantially longer survival for AIDS victims?
  2. Prozac
  3. Exhibitory retrovirus therapy
  4. Intease inhibitors
  5. Highly active antiretroviral therapy

 

ANS: d             REF: 162

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. HIV infection transmission is _____ in male to female compared with female to male.
  2. equally likely
  3. about eight times more likely
  4. rare
  5. about eight times less likely

 

ANS: b             REF: 162                     NOT: New

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. Highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment for AIDS
  2. is highly effective in lengthening survival.
  3. has undetermined long-term efficacy.
  4. has adverse side effects.
  5. is all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 162                     NOT: New

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Worldwide, which of the following is the most common mode of transmission of the HIV virus?
  2. Sharing food
  3. Heterosexual relations
  4. Sexual contact among homosexual men
  5. The sharing of needles by intravenous drug users

 

ANS: b             REF: 162

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following statements about AIDS is accurate?
  2. Having AIDS and being infected with HIV are basically the same thing.
  3. People who donate blood on a regular basis are in danger of contracting AIDS.
  4. AIDS can be readily transmitted through casual contact with infected individuals.
  5. HIV carriers often remain healthy and symptom-free for many years after they are infected.

 

ANS: d             REF: 163                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is good advice for minimizing the risk of developing AIDS?
  2. You should have sexual contact with fewer partners.
  3. You should use condoms to control semen exchange.
  4. You should curtail sexual behaviors that increase the probability of mixing semen and blood.
  5. All of these statements constitute good advice.

 

ANS: d             REF: 163                     NOT: New

OBJ: 15           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. People who are eager to seek medical care are most likely to be which of the following?
  2. Highly psychotic
  3. High in extroversion
  4. High in neuroticism
  5. High in sensation-seeking

 

ANS: c             REF: 164                     NOT: New

OBJ: 16           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. George has decided to seek medical treatment for a severe rash that has remained for three days. His decision involves
  2. identifying symptoms as an indication of illness.
  3. deciding it warrants medical attention.
  4. arranging the care appointment and time.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 164-165              NOT: New

OBJ: 16           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. For which of the following reasons is someone most likely to play the sick role?
  2. To escape the demands of others
  3. To deflect attention from themselves
  4. To establish the basis for a malpractice lawsuit
  5. To continue to receive medical insurance payments

 

ANS: a             REF: 165

OBJ: 17           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is least likely to be a consequence of playing the “sick role”?
  2. Decreased demands from others
  3. Delayed professional care
  4. Increased concern from others
  5. Increased affection from others

 

ANS: b             REF: 165

OBJ: 17           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a common barrier to effective provider-patient communication?
  2. Many providers use too much medical jargon.
  3. Medical visits are usually very brief, allowing little time for discussion.
  4. Some patients are evasive about their real concerns because they fear a serious diagnosis.
  5. Some providers are reluctant to challenge their patients’ subjective interpretation of their own symptoms.

 

ANS: d             REF: 166                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 18           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Doctors and nurses often
  2. believe their explanations are clear.
  3. like to speak in technical terms to show their knowledge.
  4. underestimate their patients’ understanding.
  5. do not care if instructions are followed properly.

 

ANS: a             REF: 166                     NOT: New

OBJ: 18           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. People are most likely to follow the instructions they receive from healthcare professionals when
  2. the instructions are punctuated with impressive medical jargon.
  3. they like, respect, and understand the health care professional.
  4. they don’t fully understand the instructions, but feel the need to do something.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: b             REF: 166

OBJ: 19           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following factors is likely to be the most important in increasing patients’ adherence to medical advice?
  2. More detailed instructions from the practitioner
  3. A larger number of practitioners from which to choose
  4. The dissemination of literature about common medical problems
  5. The communication process between the practitioner and the patient

 

ANS: d             REF: 166

OBJ: 19           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Difficult

 

  1. Tolerance involves
  2. physical dependence on a drug.
  3. psychological dependence on a drug
  4. gradual increase in responsiveness to a drug with continued use.
  5. progressive decrease in responsiveness to a drug with continued use.

 

ANS: d             REF: 168                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. When a person must continue to take a drug in order to avoid withdrawal illness, the person has developed
  2. abuse.
  3. tolerance.
  4. physical dependence.
  5. psychological dependence.

 

ANS: c             REF: 168

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. When a person must continue to take a drug in order to satisfy an intense emotional and mental craving the person has developed
  2. abuse.
  3. tolerance.
  4. physical dependence.
  5. psychological dependence.

 

ANS: d             REF: 168

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Physical distress caused by the termination of drug use is called
  2. extinction.
  3. tolerance.
  4. withdrawal illness.
  5. reverse tolerance.

 

ANS: c             REF: 168

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Abstinence syndrome is another term for
  2. abuse.
  3. withdrawal illness.
  4. physical dependence.
  5. psychological dependence.

 

ANS: b             REF: 168

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Drugs from which of the following groups carry the greatest risk of overdose?
  2. Narcotics
  3. Cannabis
  4. Stimulants
  5. Hallucinogens

 

ANS: a             REF: 169                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Narcotics are
  2. drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain.
  3. drugs that tend to increase activity in the central nervous system.
  4. drugs that are notable for distorting sensory and perceptual experience.
  5. sleep-inducing drugs that decrease activity in the peripheral nervous system.

 

ANS: a             REF: 169

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. One of heroin’s main effects is that it creates ________ in the user.
  2. a sense of invulnerability
  3. revelatory hallucinations
  4. unbounded energy
  5. euphoria

 

ANS: d             REF: 169

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is NOT considered a narcotic?
  2. Heroin
  3. Cocaine
  4. Codeine
  5. Morphine

 

ANS: b             REF: 169

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The most significant narcotics problem in modern Western society is the use of
  2. heroin.
  3. cocaine.
  4. codeine.
  5. morphine.

 

ANS: a             REF: 169                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following risks is NOT typically associated with narcotics use?
  2. Overdose
  3. Flashbacks
  4. Infectious diseases
  5. Physical dependence

 

ANS: b             REF: 169

OBJ: 21           KEY: Conceptual         DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Drugs that induce sleep and decrease central nervous system activation are usually classified as
  2. sedatives.
  3. stimulants.
  4. hallucinogens.
  5. amphetamines.

 

ANS: a             REF: 170

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. The use of sedatives may result in personal injury because they
  2. trigger hallucinations such as flying.
  3. produce a strong physical dependence.
  4. cause motor coordination to deteriorate.
  5. suppress pain warnings of physical harm.

 

ANS: c             REF: 170

OBJ: 21           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. Which of the following groups of drugs tends to increase central nervous system activation and behavioral activity?
  2. Narcotics
  3. Sedatives
  4. Stimulants
  5. Barbiturates

 

ANS: c             REF: 170

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is considered a stimulant?
  2. Heroin
  3. Cocaine
  4. Morphine
  5. Marijuana

 

ANS: b             REF: 170

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a risk associated with the use of stimulants?
  2. Drug-induced psychosis
  3. Deterioration of physical health
  4. Strong psychological dependence
  5. All of these

 

ANS: d             REF: 170

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Use of which of the following groups of drugs is most likely to result in distortions in sensory and perceptual experience?
  2. Sedatives
  3. Stimulants
  4. Hallucinogens
  5. All of these

 

ANS: c             REF: 171                     MSC: WWW

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following drugs is NOT considered a hallucinogen?
  2. LSD
  3. Hashish
  4. Psilocybin
  5. Mescaline

 

ANS: b             REF: 171

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. A spontaneous, vivid recurrence of a previous drug-induced experience is called a(n)
  2. overdose.
  3. flashback.
  4. hallucination.
  5. psychotic episode.

 

ANS: b             REF: 171

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is least likely to be a risk associated with the use of hallucinogens?
  2. Flashbacks
  3. Death from overdose
  4. Acute panic during a “bad trip”
  5. Precipitation of psychological disorders

 

ANS: b             REF: 171

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Marijuana, hashish, and THC are all derived from
  2. opium.
  3. cannabis.
  4. the peyote cactus.
  5. Central American mushrooms.

 

ANS: b             REF: 171

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a cannabis derivative?
  2. THC
  3. MDMA
  4. Hashish
  5. Marijuana

 

ANS: b             REF: 171

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following is a risk associated with the use of cannabis?
  2. Overdose
  3. Chromosome damage
  4. Physical dependence
  5. Psychological dependence

 

ANS: d             REF: 171

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. The drug formulated in 1912 but not widely used until the 1990s is
  2. LSD.
  3. THC.
  4. MDMA.
  5. heroin.

 

ANS: c             REF: 172                     NOT: New

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. A problem with MDMA is
  2. it can affect the immune system.
  3. it contains toxic by-products.
  4. it has long-term negative cognitive effects.
  5. all of these.

 

ANS: d             REF: 173                     NOT: New

OBJ: 23           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS FROM STUDY GUIDE

 

  1. Recent studies suggest that ______ may be more important for coronary risk than other elements of the Type A personality.
  2. ambition
  3. anger and hostility
  4. strong competitive orientation
  5. impatience and time urgency

 

ANS: b             REF: 142                     NOT: New

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Research consistently indicates that the strength of the relationship between stress and health is
  2. weak.
  3. modest.
  4. strong.
  5. negligible.

 

ANS: 2             REF: 147                     NOT: New

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. The percentage of people who smoke has ______ since the mid-1960s.
  2. remained stable
  3. declined noticeably
  4. increased slightly
  5. increased dramatically

 

ANS: b             REF: 149                     NOT: New

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. That there may be a genetic vulnerability to obesity is supported by the finding that
  2. some people burn off calories faster than others.
  3. people who lose weight tend to gain back the weight they lost.
  4. adoptees resemble their biological parents more than their adoptive parents.
  5. obese people have more fat cells than other people.

 

ANS: c             REF: 155                     NOT: New

OBJ: 10           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. In order to foster sound nutrition, one should increase consumption of all but which of the following?
  2. Saturated fats
  3. Foods with fiber
  4. Whole-grain carbohydrates
  5. Polyunsaturated fats

 

 

ANS: a             REF: 160                     NOT: New

OBJ: 12           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. HIV can be transmitted
  2. through the exchange of bodily fluids, especially semen and blood.
  3. by the sharing of needles by intravenous drug users.
  4. through unprotected sexual contact with affected individuals.
  5. through all of the above means.

 

ANS: d             REF: 162                     NOT: New

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Noncompliance with instructions received from physicians
  2. accounts for the vast majority of serious illnesses in our society.
  3. may be due to the patients’ failure to understand the instruc­tions.
  4. is generally caused by lack of confidence in the medical delivery system.
  5. is not a major factor in the medical care system.

 

ANS: b             REF: 166                     NOT: New

OBJ: 18           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Patients are more likely to follow prescribed treatments when their physicians
  2. do follow-ups.
  3. are the same sex as they are.
  4. hold degrees in the relevant area of medicine.
  5. provide them with written instructions.

 

ANS: a             REF: 166                     NOT: New

OBJ: 19           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

  1. When people need to consume larger and larger doses of a drug to obtain the desired effect, they have developed ______ on/for the drug.
  2. physical dependence
  3. tolerance
  4. psychological dependence
  5. all of these

 

ANS: b             REF: 168-169              NOT: New

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following statements about hallucinogenic drugs is NOT accurate?
  2. Psychological dependence is a common problem.
  3. They have no potential for physical dependence.
  4. They temporarily impair intellectual functioning.
  5. Repetitious, frightening flashbacks can be troublesome.

 

ANS: a             REF: 171                     NOT: New

OBJ: 22           KEY: Factual               DIF: Difficult

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Atherosclerosis is sometimes called a heart attack.

 

ANS: False       REF: 141

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Cardiovascular diseases cause equal deaths in men and women.

 

ANS: True       REF: 141                     NOT: New

OBJ: 1             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Type B personalities tend to be patient and easy-going.

 

ANS: True       REF: 142

OBJ: 2             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Depression is associated with heart disease.

 

ANS: True       REF: 144

OBJ: 3             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

  1. Research has shown that stress causes illness.

 

ANS: False       REF: 147                     NOT: New

OBJ: 6             KEY: Factual               DIF: Easy

 

 

  1. In the U.S., female college students smoke less than the general population but male college students smoke more.

 

ANS: False       REF: 149

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. On average, smoking decreases life expectancy by a little over 13 years.

 

ANS: True       REF: 149

OBJ: 8             KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. It is nearly impossible to transmit HIV through casual contact.

 

ANS: True       REF: 162                     NOT: New

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. In heterosexual relations, the transmission rate of HIV is about eight times higher in male-to-female than female-to-male.

 

ANS: True       REF: 162

OBJ: 15           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

  1. Abstinence syndrome occurs after a person withdraws from a psychologically dependent drug.

 

ANS: False       REF: 168

OBJ: 20           KEY: Factual               DIF: Moderate

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Compare and contrast the Type A and Type B personalities, and discuss the health risks that are associated with Type A behavior.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 142         OBJ: 2

 

  1. Briefly discuss several reasons why people who smoke are reluctant to give it up.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 150-151  OBJ: 8

 

  1. Identify and briefly describe some of the chief warning signs associated with problem drinking.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 153         OBJ: 9

 

 

  1. Briefly explain the settling-point theory of obesity.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 156         NOT: New       OBJ: 10

 

  1. Briefly discuss the notion of dietary restraint as a contribution to obesity.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 156         OBJ: 10

 

  1. Briefly explain why it’s a good idea to consume a balanced variety of foods.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 158         OBJ: 12

 

  1. Describe several points of devising an exercise program.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 161-162  OBJ: 14

 

  1. Explain why heterosexuals are at risk for HIV infection.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 162         OBJ: 15

 

  1. Discuss the problems that arise in clear doctor-patient communication and ways to ensure better patient assertiveness and treatment compliance.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 165-166  OBJ: 18

 

  1. Briefly describe several controversial aspects of marijuana use.

 

ANS: Answer not provided      REF: 171-172  OBJ: 23