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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Psychopharmacology 1st Edition By Ettinger – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 1   Organization and Function of the Nervous System

 

1.1 Multiple Choice

 

  1. The average human brain contains nearly ________ neurons.
  2. 10 billion
  3. 100 billion
  4. 200 billion
  5. 1 trillion

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 1

 

  1. The three major classes of neurons are
  2. motor, sensory, and interneurons.
  3. efferent, afferent, and glia.
  4. motor, efferent, and afferent.
  5. glia, interneurons, and motor.

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 1

 

  1. The nucleus of a neuron resides within the
  2. terminal button.
  3. axon.
  4. cell body.
  5. dendrites.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 2

 

  1. The axon hillock is located
  2. at a cell’s terminal button.
  3. at gaps in a cell’s myelin.
  4. where the axon leaves the cell body.
  5. where dendrites connect to the cell body.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 3

 

  1. Myelin serves to
  2. increase the speed of conduction along the axon.
  3. insulate a cell’s axon from the electrical activity of adjacent axons.
  4. synthesize and store neurotransmitter substances.
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 3

 

  1. Neurotransmitters are stored and released from a cell’s
  2. terminal button.
  3. node of Ranvier.
  4. cell body.
  5. axon hillock.

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 3

 

 

  1. The pressures acting on charged ions include ________ and ________ pressures.
  2. hydrostatic; electrostatic
  3. diffusion; hydrostatic
  4. diffusion; electrostatic
  5. diffusion; glucostatic

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 5

 

  1. A neuron’s resting membrane potential is caused by
  2. sodium ions.
  3. a disequilibrium of positive and negatively charged ions inside and outside the axon.
  4. a high concentration of sodium inside the cell.
  5. potassium ions.

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 5

 

  1. The resting membrane potential has a charge of about ________ millivolts.
  2. 0
  3. +100
  4. –70
  5. –55

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 6

 

  1. The resting membrane potential is maintained because
  2. potassium ions cannot cross through the cell membrane to the outside.
  3. sodium ions cannot cross to the inside of the cell membrane.
  4. there is no pressure acting on sodium ions.
  5. there is no pressure acting on potassium ions.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 7

 

  1. Potassium is said to be at equilibrium during a resting potential because
  2. electrostatic pressure forcing it in equals the diffusion pressure forcing it out.
  3. diffusion pressure forcing it in equals the electrostatic pressure forcing it out.
  4. hydrostatic pressure forcing it in equals the electrostatic pressure forcing it out.
  5. it is equally concentrated inside and outside the cell.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 7

 

  1. Changes in the voltage of a cell that vary depending on the strength of stimulation are referred to as
  2. action potentials.
  3. depolarization.
  4. hyperpolarization.
  5. graded potentials.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 7

 

 

  1. When an axon is depolarized to approximately ________ millivolts, an action potential is initiated.
  2. –55
  3. –70
  4. 0
  5. +30

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 7

 

  1. Ion channels for sodium ions open when the membrane is ________ to about ________ millivolts.
  2. depolarized; –55
  3. polarized; –70
  4. charged; +30
  5. depolarized; 0

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 7

 

  1. The initiation of an action potential is a consequence of an ________ of ________ ions.
  2. influx; potassium
  3. efflux; chlorine
  4. influx; sodium
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 7

 

  1. During an action potential, the membrane voltage changes from ________ to about ________ millivolts on the inside relative to the outside.
  2. –70; 0
  3. 0; +50
  4. –70; +30
  5. –70; +55

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 7

 

  1. Local anesthetics such as lidocaine work by
  2. preventing the release of neurotransmitters signaling pain messages.
  3. blocking sodium channels so an action potential cannot occur.
  4. preventing cells from receiving signals from pain-transmitting neurons.
  5. blocking receptor sites for pain-signaling neurotransmitters.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 8

 

  1. An action potential is initiated at a cell’s
  2. dendrites.
  3. axon hillock.
  4. terminal button.
  5. node of Ranvier.

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 8

 

 

  1. Myelin is made up of ________ in the central nervous system.
  2. fat cells
  3. Schwann cells
  4. oligodendrocytes
  5. astrocytes

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 9

 

  1. Myelin is made up of ________ in the peripheral nervous system.
  2. fat cells
  3. Schwann cells
  4. oligodendrocytes
  5. astrocytes

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 9

 

  1. Gaps in myelin surrounding an axon are referred to as
  2. receptors.
  3. demyelination.
  4. nodes of Ranvier.
  5. synapses.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 9

 

  1. The total amount of neurotransmitter released during an action potential depends on
  2. how much sodium enters the terminal button.
  3. how much calcium is ejected from the terminal button.
  4. regulatory proteins that contain the neurotransmitter substance.
  5. how much calcium enters the terminal button.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 11

 

  1. Once released into the synaptic gap, neurotransmitter substances
  2. bind to receptor sites on both pre- and postsynaptic sites.
  3. are degraded by a breakdown enzyme.
  4. are returned to the transmitting cell via reuptake.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 12–13

 

  1. Receptor proteins that directly control either the opening or closing of specific ion channels are referred to as ________ receptors.
  2. ionotropic
  3. metabotropic
  4. postsynaptic
  5. presynaptic

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 12

 

 

  1. Receptor proteins that indirectly open or close ion channels through the activation of a second messenger are referred to as ________ receptors.
  2. ionotropic
  3. metabotropic
  4. postsynaptic
  5. presynaptic

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 12

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a second messenger?
  2. Sodium
  3. A G protein
  4. Acetylcholine
  5. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Answer: D

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 12

 

  1. Proteins on the presynaptic terminal that transport neurotransmitter substances back into the terminal button are referred to as
  2. G proteins.
  3. reuptake transporters.
  4. autoreceptors.
  5. metabotropic receptors.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 13

 

  1. Receptors on the presynaptic terminal that regulate neurotransmitter synthesis and storage are referred to as
  2. heteroreceptors.
  3. autoreceptors.
  4. metabotropic receptors.
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 16–17

 

  1. The main difference between autoreceptors and heteroreceptors is that
  2. heteroreceptors are activated by a different neuron and neurotransmitter, whereas autoreceptors are activated by the neuron they regulate.
  3. heteroreceptors are postsynaptic, whereas autoreceptors are presynaptic.
  4. heteroreceptors are metabotropic, whereas autoreceptors are ionotropic.
  5. heteroreceptors are excitatory, whereas autoreceptors are inhibitory.

Answer: A

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 17

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a criterion for a substance to meet the definition of a neurotransmitter?
  2. It must be synthesized and stored in the presynaptic neuron.
  3. It must cause a postsynaptic effect after it interacts with a receptor.
  4. It must be taken up intact by the transmitting neuron.
  5. It must have some mechanism for its degradation or reuptake.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 17

 

  1. Otto Loewi received the Nobel Prize in 1936 for his discovery of ________.
  2. dopamine
  3. norepinephrine
  4. serotonin
  5. acetylcholine

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 19

 

  1. The neurotransmitter that activates all neuromuscular synapses is called ________.
  2. norepinephrine
  3. acetylcholine
  4. dopamine
  5. muscarine

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 19

 

  1. The neurotransmitter of the mesolimbic system is called ________.
  2. norepinephrine
  3. serotonin
  4. adenosine
  5. dopamine

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 23

 

  1. The neurotransmitter involved in emotional behavior, arousal, and sleep that is derived from the amino acid tryptophan is called ________.
  2. dopamine
  3. norepinephrine
  4. serotonin
  5. acetylcholine

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 25

 

  1. The most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter is called ________.
  2. GABA
  3. serotonin
  4. norepinephrine
  5. glutamate

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 26

 

 

  1. The glutamate receptor that has been implicated as a mechanism for long-term potentiation is called ________.
  2. NMDA
  3. metabotropic
  4. kainate
  5. AMPA

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 27

 

  1. The most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter is called ________.
  2. GABA
  3. serotonin
  4. Substance P
  5. glutamate

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 28

 

  1. Alcohol binds to a specific receptor site on the ________ receptor complex.
  2. NMDA
  3. GABA
  4. dopamine
  5. norepinephrine

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 29

 

  1. The neurotransmitter that transmits pain signals in the spinal cord is called ________.
  2. serotonin
  3. glycine
  4. Substance P
  5. nonrepinephrine

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 30

 

  1. Anatomical sections through the brain along the axis from front to back are called ________ sections.
  2. coronal
  3. horizontal
  4. sagittal
  5. oblique

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 34

 

  1. The respiratory center of the brain is located in the ________.
  2. medulla
  3. pons
  4. medbrain
  5. cerebellum

Answer: A

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 35

 

 

  1. Damage to the ________ might lead to jerky, uncoordinated movements.
  2. medulla
  3. pons
  4. medbrain
  5. cerebellum

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 37

 

  1. A system of neurons originating deep in the brainstem which controls arousal, consciousness, and alertness is the ________ system.
  2. mesolimbic
  3. reticular activating
  4. striatal
  5. somatosensory

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 37

 

  1. Which of the following structures is NOT part of the limbic system?
  2. Hippocampus
  3. Amygdala
  4. Medulla
  5. Nucleus accumbens

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 38

 

  1. The mesolimbic-cortical system originates in the ________ and projects dopamine containing neurons to the ________.
  2. nucleus accumbens; frontal cortex
  3. septum; prefrontal cortex
  4. ventral tegmental area; frontal cortex
  5. ventral tegmental area; nucleus accumbens

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 39

 

  1. The ________ undergoes considerable degeneration with prolonged periods of stress, schizophrenia, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
  2. hypothalamus
  3. hippocampus
  4. thalamus
  5. basal ganglia

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 39

 

  1. The ventromedial nucleus, lateral nucleus, preoptic nucleus, and paraventricular nucleus are all parts of the
  2. hypothalamus.
  3. thalamus.
  4. basal ganglia.
  5. mesolimbic system.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 40

 

 

  1. The ________ controls most sensory input to the cortex and is involved in regulating attention and arousal.
  2. hypothalamus
  3. basal ganglia
  4. medulla
  5. thalamus

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 41

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the basal ganglia?
  2. Caudate nucleus
  3. Putamen
  4. Substantia nigra
  5. Nucleus accumbens

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 41

 

  1. Which of the following structures of the brain is affected by Parkinson’s disease?
  2. Thalamus
  3. Substantia nigra
  4. Nucleus accumbens
  5. Hippocampus

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 42

 

1.2 Discussion/Essay

 

  1. Why does a neuron rest at –70 millivolts inside the cell membrane with respect to outside the cell membrane?

 

  1. What are the differences between action potentials and graded potentials?
  2. How does an action potential propagate along an unmyelinated axon?
  3. How does myelin affect propagation? Why?
  4. What happens to a neurotransmitter once it has been released?
  5. What are receptors? What is their makeup?
  6. What are the differences between ionotropic and metabotropic receptors?
  7. What is a second messenger? Provide an example of one.
  8. Describe the mechanisms for both EPSPs and IPSPs.
  9. Describe the functions and differences between autoreceptors and heteroreceptors.
  10. Review the following major neurotransmitters: ACh, NE, DA, SE, glutamate, GABA, and endorphins.

 

 

Chapter 2   Psychopharmacology

 

2.1 Multiple Choice

 

  1. Pharmacokinetics refers to the study of
  2. mechanisms of drug action.
  3. how drugs are developed and manufactured.
  4. drug administration, distribution, and fate.
  5. how drugs interact.

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 44

 

  1. N-methyl-3-phenyl-3[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-propan-1-amine is an example of a drug’s ________ name.
  2. generic
  3. chemical
  4. brand
  5. trade

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 44

 

  1. Prozac is an example of a drug’s ________ name.
  2. generic
  3. trade
  4. brand
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 45

 

  1. The administration of hormones via skin patches is an example of ________ administration.
  2. subcutaneous
  3. transdermal
  4. intraperitoneal
  5. intramuscular

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 47

 

  1. Which of the following methods is typically used to administer drugs for experimentation to small laboratory animals (e.g., mice and rats)?
  2. Intravenous
  3. Subcutaneous
  4. Inhalation
  5. Intraperitoneal

Answer: D

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 47

 

 

  1. The route of drug administration that results in the fastest peak plasma levels is ________.
  2. inhalation
  3. oral
  4. intravenous
  5. intranasal

Answer: C

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 48

 

  1. The main advantage of administering drugs orally is
  2. it is relatively safe.
  3. its reliable absorption.
  4. it is easy to administer.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 48

 

  1. Cell membranes are made up of phospholipid molecules arranged in
  2. two layers with their negatively charged heads forming the inner and outer surfaces.
  3. a single layer with their hydrophobic tails facing inward.
  4. two layers with their positively charged heads forming the inner and outer surfaces.
  5. two layers with their positively charged tails forming the inner and outer surfaces.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 49

 

  1. Glucose and other larger substances are transported across cell membranes
  2. because of their fat solubility.
  3. because they are hydrophilic.
  4. by transporter protein molecules imbedded within the cell membrane.
  5. through gaps in the membrane surface.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 49

 

  1. In order for a drug to pass through cell membranes, it must be
  2. water-soluble.
  3. lipid-soluble.
  4. hydrophobic.
  5. hydrophilic.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 49

 

  1. The blood-brain barrier is constructed of
  2. tight junctions between astrocytic feet.
  3. an extra phospholipid layer in the cell membrane.
  4. negatively charged ions on the surface of the cell membrane.
  5. protein molecules imbedded in the cell membrane.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 50

 

 

  1. The blood-brain barrier
  2. is impermeable to all substances.
  3. is strongest in the area postrema of the medulla.
  4. prevents blood from leaving the brain.
  5. protects the brain from toxic substances, including most viruses and bacteria.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 51

 

  1. The blood-brain barrier is weakest in which of the following areas of the brain?
  2. The subfornical area near the lateral ventricles
  3. The area postrema of the medulla
  4. The meninges surrounding the brain
  5. Both a and b are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 51

 

  1. When a drug binds to inactive sites throughout the body, this is referred to as
  2. metabolism.
  3. receptor binding.
  4. depot binding.
  5. distribution.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 51

 

  1. A breathalyzer relies upon
  2. small amounts of alcohol being excreted through exhalation.
  3. small amounts of alcohol being excreted through perspiration.
  4. small amounts of alcohol remaining in the mouth after consumption.
  5. the detection of alcohol metabolites.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 51

 

  1. A drug’s half-life is
  2. the amount of time it takes for a drug’s peak plasma level to be metabolized by 50 percent.
  3. the amount of time it takes for a drug’s initial blood level to be metabolized by 50 percent.
  4. one-half of a drug’s shelf life.
  5. the amount of time it takes for a drug to be equally distributed to tissues throughout the body.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 53

 

  1. If a drug reaches tissue equilibrium one hour after administration and its plasma level decreases by one-half between hours 2 through 5 after administration, its half-life would be ________ hours.
  2. 5
  3. 4
  4. 3
  5. 2

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 53

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the half-life of the antidepressant Prozac?
  2. It has a half-life of about two days.
  3. It has an active metabolite with a half-life of almost six days.
  4. Because of its relatively long half-life, missing a daily dose may not be problematic.
  5. All of the above are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 53

 

  1. A drug will have a longer duration of action if it
  2. has a short half-life.
  3. has a long half-life.
  4. has higher initial blood plasma levels.
  5. doesn’t have an active metabolite.

Answer: B

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 53

 

  1. Dose response curves are typically
  2. linear functions describing drug effects at different doses.
  3. “S”-shaped functions describing drug effects at different doses.
  4. “S”-shaped functions describing how a single dose affects different people.
  5. “S”-shaped functions describing how drug tolerance develops.

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 54

 

  1. Most drugs have
  2. a single dose response curve representing all of its effects at different doses.
  3. multiple dose response curves representing all of its effects at different doses.
  4. two dose response curves—one representing its initial effects and the other representing its effects after tolerance develops.
  5. a single dose response curve that can shift depending on how long the drug has been used.

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 54

 

  1. Drug tolerance can be defined as a
  2. decrease in a drug’s effectiveness after repeated administration.
  3. decrease in the rate of a drug’s metabolism.
  4. shift to the right in a drug’s dose response curve after repeated administration.
  5. Both a and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 55

 

  1. Cross-tolerance typically occurs when
  2. tolerance to a drug is rapidly lost.
  3. tolerance to a drug of one class, such as opiates, contributes to tolerance to a drug from a different class, such as barbiturates.
  4. metabolizing enzymes for a drug of one class begin to metabolize a drug from a different class.
  5. tolerance to a drug contributes to tolerance to a similarly acting drug.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 55

 

 

  1. Metabolic tolerance could develop as a consequence of
  2. Pavlovian conditioning to drug-associated cues.
  3. downregulation of receptor sites for a drug.
  4. an increase in the synthesis of metabolizing enzymes.
  5. a shift in the dose response curve.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 55

 

  1. Cellular tolerance is typically a consequence of
  2. downregulation of receptors.
  3. an increase in the synthesis of metabolizing enzymes.
  4. Pavlovian conditioning of drug-associated cues.
  5. upregulation of receptor sites.

Answer: A

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 56

 

  1. If an animal expressed tolerance to a drug in one context but not in another, you would suspect this was an example of ________ tolerance.
  2. cellular
  3. metabolic
  4. behavioral
  5. associative

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 57

 

  1. If after demonstrating associative tolerance to opiates in a specific context, you exposed an animal to the context repeatedly without the drug, you would see
  2. upregulation of receptors.
  3. downregulation of receptors.
  4. extinction of tolerance in that context.
  5. habituation of tolerance.

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 57

 

  1. The neural mechanism underlying associative tolerance is most likely
  2. habituation to the drug.
  3. cross-tolerance.
  4. downregulation of drug receptors.
  5. metabolic tolerance.

Answer: C

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 57

 

  1. Associative tolerance is a consequence of ________, whereas behavioral tolerance is a consequence of ________.
  2. operant conditioning; Pavlovian conditioning
  3. habituation; Pavlovian conditioning
  4. Pavlovian conditioning; habituation
  5. Pavlovian conditioning; operant conditioning

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 57

 

 

  1. If a laboratory animal is trained to perform a complex motor task under the influence of alcohol and later fails to perform the task without alcohol, this would demonstrate
  2. associative tolerance.
  3. cross-tolerance.
  4. state-dependent learning.
  5. upregulation.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 57, 59

 

  1. The area of drug doses between a drug’s dose response curve for analgesia and its dose response curve for respiratory depression is called the
  2. LD50 dose
  3. LD100 dose
  4. therapeutic index
  5. placebo effect.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 59

 

  1. When a patient responds positively to an inert substance, this is referred to as
  2. tolerance.
  3. upregulation.
  4. the placebo effect.
  5. the pseudo effect.

Answer: C

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 60

 

  1. Pharmacodynamics refers to the study of
  2. mechanisms of drug action.
  3. how drugs are developed and manufactured.
  4. drug administration, distribution, and fate.
  5. how drugs interact.

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 62

 

  1. Drugs that increase or facilitate neurotransmission are called
  2. antagonists.
  3. partial antagonists.
  4. psychoactive.
  5. agonists.

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 62

 

  1. Drugs that decrease or interfere with neurotransmission are called
  2. antagonists.
  3. partial agonists.
  4. inactive.
  5. agonists.

Answer: A

Diff: 1              Page Ref: 62

 

 

  1. l-dopa, a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease, is classified as an ________ because it ________.
  2. antagonist; disrupts dopamine release
  3. agonist; is a precursor for dopamine synthesis
  4. antagonist; blocks dopamine receptors
  5. None of the above are correct

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 63

 

  1. A drug that blocks the reuptake of a neurotransmitter would be classified as a(n)
  2. agonist.
  3. antagonist.
  4. reuptake inhibitor.
  5. Both a and c are correct

Answer: D

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 63–64

 

  1. The degrading enzyme for the neurotransmitters dopamine and nonrepinephrine is ________.
  2. MAO
  3. acteylcholinesterase
  4. acetyldehydrogenase
  5. acetylaldehyde

Answer: B

Diff: 2              Page Ref: 64

 

  1. The drug Narcan (naloxone) is classified as an ________ because it ________.
  2. agonist; facilitates opiate binding to receptors
  3. antagonist; blocks opiate receptors
  4. antagonist; disrupts opiate synthesis and release
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: B

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 63

 

  1. Botox is classified as an ________ because it ________.
  2. antagonist; inhibits the release of acetylcholine
  3. agonist; blocks the reuptake of acetylcholine
  4. agonist; blocks the degradation of acetylcholine
  5. Both b and c are correct

Answer: A

Diff: 3              Page Ref: 66

 

2.2 Discussion/Essay

 

  1. Discuss why a drug needs to be lipid-soluble for it to have psychoactivity. Include in your discussion some details about membrane permeability and the blood-brain barrier.
  2. Why do intravenous and inhalation administration methods result in getting a drug into the brain more quickly than oral or transdermal administration?3. A drug that is lipid–soluble would be absorbed into all tissues and not just the brain. Does some of the drug absorbed by the peripheral tissues eventually get into the brain? If so, how?4. If a drug has a blood level at distribution equilibrium of 24 mg/L and a half-life of 4 hours, what would its blood level be after 12 hours?

    5. Describe the following mechanisms of drug tolerance: metabolic, cellular, and associative.

    6. Discuss the most likely candidates for the mechanism underlying associative tolerance.

    7. Describe both antagonists and agonists as mechanisms of drug action. Select a drug in each category and provide details on its mechanism of action. (e.g., Amphetamine is a norepinephrine agonist. It increases NE release and reverses NE transporters.)