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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS
 
Reading Understanding and Applying Nursing Research Revised Reprint 4th Edition By James A.Fain – Test Bank
Sample  Questions

 

Introduction to Nursing Research

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   Quantitative research uses the following methods of data collection except:

A. surveys.
B. questionnaires.
C. participant observation.
D. psychosocial instruments.

 

 

____    2.   Knowledge is information acquired in a variety of different ways. Methods used to acquire this knowledge are referred to as:

A. scientific integrity.
B. scientific rigor.
C. triangulation.
D. ways of knowing.

 

 

____    3.   When a researcher uses a qualitative and quantitative approach to collecting data, this is referred to as:

A. scientific integrity.
B. scientific rigor.
C. triangulation.
D. ways of knowing.

 

 

____    4.   A type of research method emphasizing the meaning of an experience is termed:

A. qualitative.
B. quantitative.
C. scientific integrity.
D. scientific method.

 

 

____    5.   A group of individuals who collaborate on a research project from beginning to dissemination of findings are referred to as a:

A. research consumer.
B. research team.
C. principal investigator.
D. consultant.

 

 

____    6.   An example of a specialty journal is:

A. Nursing Research.
B. Research in Nursing and Health.
C. Oncology Nursing Forum.
D. Western Journal of Nursing Research.

 

 

____    7.   Research that is done to examine findings of another researcher using the same variables but different subjects is referred to as:

A. exploration.
B. replication.
C. empiricism.
D. rigor.

 

 

____    8.   The development of a solid foundation of reliable knowledge typically is built from which type of research?

A. basic research
B. action research
C. evaluation research
D. qualitative research

 

 

____    9.   Which of the following is not a basic assumption of science?

A. Science cannot provide answers to all questions.
B. It is possible to distinguish between more and less plausible claims.
C. Researchers should follow certain agreed upon norms and practices.
D. Science is best at solving value conflicts.

 

 

____  10.   Who is the current Director of the National Institutes of Nursing Research (NINR)?

A. Dr. Rebecca Patton
B. Dr. Julie Gerberding
C. Dr. Patricia Grady
D. Dr. Elias Zerhouni

 

Understanding Evidence-Based Practice

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   Reasons for a research-practice gap include all of the following except:

A. Nurses lack the skill of reading research reports.
B. Nurses don’t develop an opportunity for acceptance of change.
C. Nurses are encouraged by administration to resist change in practice.
D. Nurse researchers and clinicians use different language.

 

 

____    2.   Hierarchy of evidence from strongest (clinical trials) to weakest (opinion) is also referred to as:

A. evidence-based practice.
B. appraising evidence.
C. research utilization.
D. evidence databases.

 

 

____    3.   One of the largest biomedical research literature databases is:

A. MEDLINE.
B. MD Consult.
C. CANCERLIT.
D. InfoPOEMS.

 

 

____    4.   All of the following are examples of evidence databases except:

A. HealthSTAR.
B. AIDSLINE.
C. MD Consult.
D. NursingPlus.

 

 

____    5.   A conscientious, explicit use of best evidence in making decisions about care is often termed:

A. evidence databases.
B. evidence-based medicine.
C. evidence guidelines.
D. best evidence guidelines.

 

 

____    6.   What resource provides the latest information on evidence-based clinical practice guidelines?

A. National Guideline Clearinghouse
B. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
C. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness
D. Cochrane Review of Methodology Database

 

 

____    7.   A statistical method that synthesizes findings from several studies is often referred to as:

A. descriptive analysis.
B. inferential analysis.
C. meta analysis.
D. multivariate analysis.

 

 

____    8.   The term _____ is often referred to as a delay in using research findings in practice.

A. systematic reviews
B. research-practice gap
C. evidence-based practice
D. evidence database

 

 

____    9.   One of the strongest pieces of evidence a researcher can identify when addressing and answering clinical questions is the use of:

A. individual case-control studies.
B. case studies.
C. expert opinion.
D. randomized clinical trials.

 

 

____  10.   One of the weakest pieces of evidence a researcher can identify when addressing and answering clinical questions is the use of:

A. individual case-control studies.
B. case studies.
C. expert opinion.
D. randomized clinical trials.

 

 

Selecting and Defining a Problem

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   The statement of purpose in a research study should:

A. identify the design of the study.
B. identify the intent or objective of the study.
C. specify the type of people to be recruited in the study.
D. describe the study.

 

 

____    2.   Sources of researchable problems can include:

A. researcher’s own experience.
B. practical issues that require solutions.
C. theory and past research.
D. all of the above

 

 

____    3.   A statement that clearly describes the problem, makes a case for why it needs to be investigated, and often culminates by having the researcher articulate the problem in question form is found in what section of a research proposal?

A. theoretical rationale
B. definition of terms
C. problem statement
D. methods

 

 

____    4.   Which of the following statements best describes the problem statement, “To what extent do health practices influence the health of American citizens?”

A. acceptable as stated
B. not a research problem because it addresses a moral issue
C. not acceptable as stated because it leads an independent variable
D. not acceptable because of the vagueness of concepts stated

 

 

____    5.   In developing a problem statement, a researcher speaks to each of the following except:

A. variables.
B. population.
C. design.
D. focus of study.

 

 

____    6.   Computer database searchers can be done:

A. at the library.
B. online at home.
C. using a CD-ROM.
D. all of the above

 

 

____    7.   The feasibility of a study should be considered in light of:

A. cost and time required to conduct the study.
B. skills required of the researcher.
C. potential ethical concerns.
D. all of the above

 

 

____    8.   A good qualitative problem statement:

A. defines the independent and dependent variables.
B. conveys a sense of emerging design.
C. specifies a research hypothesis to be tested.
D. specifies a relationship between or among variables.

 

 

____    9.   Explanations of concepts or variables in terms of how they are defined in a particular study are referred to as:

A. operational definitions.
B. primary sources.
C. secondary sources.
D. scientific literature.

 

 

____  10.   Journals that determine acceptance of manuscripts based on peer review are referred to as a:

A. scientific journal.
B. theoretical journal.
C. referred journal.
D. electronic journal.

Applying Appropriate Theories and Conceptual Models

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   One of the primary functions of theory is to:

A. summarize existing knowledge.
B. summarize existing hypotheses.
C. suggest new relationships and make new predictions.
D. suggest new theories.

 

 

____    2.   ________ is the idea that knowledge comes from experience.

A. Rationalism
B. Logic
C. Replication
D. Empiricism

 

 

____    3.   Which scientific method follows these steps: observation/data, patterns, theory?

A. inductive
B. deductive
C. scientific inquiry
D. empirical model

 

 

____    4.   Which scientific method focuses on testing hypotheses developed from theory?

A. inductive
B. deductive
C. scientific inquiry
D. empirical model

 

 

____    5.   Which of the following is characteristic of good theory or explanation?

A. It is parsimonious.
B. It is testable.
C. It is general enough to apply to more than one person, place, or situation.
D. all of the above

 

 

____    6.   Which of the following is not a central concept in conceptual models of nursing?

A. person
B. social support
C. health
D. environment

 

 

____    7.   Theories that are more specific than middle-range theories and identify specific guidelines for practice are called:

A. grand theories.
B. nursing theories.
C. practice theories.
D. borrowed theories.

 

 

____    8.   The nurse-theorist Sr. Callista Roy is associated with what grand theory?

A. Patient-Centered Approach to Nursing
B. Theory of Human Becoming
C. Health as Expanding Consciousness
D. Adaptation Model

 

 

____    9.   The Theory of Chronic Sorrow is an example of what type of theory?

A. grand
B. borrowed
C. middle-range
D. practice

 

 

____  10.   What form of reasoning is the process of drawing a specific conclusion from a set of premises?

A. rationalism
B. deductive
C. inductive
D. probabilistic

 

 

Formulating Hypotheses and Research Questions

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   A research hypothesis always:

A. is based on research data.
B. predicts a relationship.
C. asks a question.
D. none of the above

 

 

____    2.   Which of the following statement is in the form of a null hypothesis?

A. The child has a learning disability.
B. There is a correlation between smoking and lung function.
C. There is no difference between males and females on the variable quality of life.
D. There is a positive relationship between grades and time spent studying.

 

 

____    3.   As a general rule, researchers tend to use ____ level of significance.

A. 99%
B. 95%
C. 50%
D. none of the above

 

 

____    4.   Hypotheses in qualitative studies usually:

A. are very specific and stated prior to beginning the study.
B. are often generalized as data are collected, interpreted, and analyzed.
C. are never used.
D. are always stated after the research has been completed.

 

 

____    5.   Hypotheses that do not specify a particular direction in relation to variables under study are called:

A. nondirectional hypotheses.
B. directional hypotheses.
C. extraneous hypotheses.
D. null hypotheses.

 

 

____    6.   Research hypotheses are sometimes referred to as:

A. null hypotheses.
B. extraneous hypotheses.
C. alternative hypotheses.
D. directional hypotheses.

 

 

____    7.   Hypotheses can be classified as:

A. simple or complex.
B. nondirectional versus directional.
C. research versus statistical.
D. all of the above

 

 

____    8.   Identify the dependent variable in the following hypothesis: “Exercisers exhibit higher self-efficacy scores compared to nonexercises.”

A. exercisers
B. nonexercisers
C. self-efficacy
D. none of the above

 

 

____    9.   Identify the independent variable in the following hypothesis: “Adults in an overweight group will have lower health responsibility scores compared to those in a normal weight group.”

A. health responsibility
B. adults
C. overweight group versus normal weight group
D. none of the above

 

 

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

 

____    1.         When p < 0.05 is reported in a journal article, it means the author has rejected the null hypothesis (assuming the author is using a significance level of 0.05).

 

Selecting the Sample and Setting

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   All members of a population have an equal chance of being selected as subjects in a research project. This is called:

A. randomization.
B. random assignment.
C. random sample.
D. random quota.

 

 

____    2.   You decide to select a sample of 100 subjects of whom 10% will be African American, 10% Hispanic, and 80% white. Identify the appropriate sampling design.

A. simple random sampling
B. cluster sampling
C. systematic sampling
D. quota sampling

 

 

____    3.   You put all the names of the students in a class into a jar, mix them up, and draw out names of your subject. Identify the appropriate sampling design.

A. simple random sampling
B. cluster sampling
C. systematic sampling
D. quota sampling

 

 

____    4.   The sampling error is usually _____ with _____ samples and _____ as the sample _____.

A. smaller, larger, increases, decreases
B. larger, larger, decreases, increases
C. smaller, smaller, increases, decreases
D. larger, larger, decreases, decreases

 

 

____    5.   The selection of a sample for a research study affects the study’s:

A. replicability.
B. interaction effects.
C. internal validity.
D. external validity.

 

 

____    6.   Which of the following techniques yield a simple random sample?

A. choosing volunteers from an introductory nursing class to participate
B. listing individuals by ethnic group and choosing a proportion from within each group at random
C. numbering all elements of a sampling frame and using a random number table to pick individuals
D. randomly selecting schools, and then sampling everyone within each school

 

 

____    7.   Which of the following is not a form of nonrandom sampling?

A. snowball sampling
B. convenience sampling
C. purposive sampling
D. All are forms of nonrandom sampling.

 

 

____    8.   Individuals who are available and volunteer as subjects in a research study are used in the sampling method called:

A. convenience.
B. cluster.
C. random.
D. stratified.

 

 

____    9.   Which sampling method is the best way to select a group of subjects if you are interested in making statements about the larger population?

A. convenience
B. cluster
C. random
D. stratified

 

 

____  10.   Determining the sample interval (represented by k), randomly selecting a number between 1 and k, and including each kth element in your sample are steps for which type of sampling method?

A. simple random
B. stratified
C. cluster
D. systematic

 

 

Data Collection Methods

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   Which of the following is not a method of data collection?

A. questionnaires
B. interviews
C. experiments
D. observations

 

 

____    2.   Qualitative observation is usually done for exploratory purposes; it is also referred to as:

A. structures.
B. naturalistic.
C. complete.
D. probed.

 

 

____    3.   When data has been originally collected at an earlier time by a different person for a different purpose, this is often referred to as:

A. primary data.
B. experimental data.
C. field notes.
D. secondary data.

 

 

____    4.   Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires are used in research. Which of the following statements is true?

A. Open-ended questions directly provide quantitative data.
B. Closed-ended questions provide quantitative data.
C. Open-ended questions provide qualitative data.
D. Closed-ended questions directly provide qualitative data.

 

 

____    5.   An item that directs participants to different follow-up questions depending on their response is called a _____.

A. response set bias
B. probe
C. semantic differential
D. contingency question

 

 

____    6.   The tendency for participants to respond to an item on a questionnaire in a way that does not reflect the real situation is called a _____.

A. response set bias
B. probe
C. semantic differential
D. contingency question

 

 

____    7.   A question during an interview such as, “Why do you feel that way,” is called a _____.

A. response set bias
B. probe
C. semantic differential
D. contingency question

 

 

____    8.   Likert scales are sometimes referred to as:

A. semantic differential scales
B. visual analogue scales
C. summative scales
D. Guttman scales

 

 

____    9.   You wish to construct a tool that will measure a subject’s perception of a concept using pairs of adjectives reflecting opposite feelings. A good choice would be:

A. Guttman
B. Likert
C. Thurstone
D. semantic differential

 

 

____  10.   Which of the following is true concerning observations?

A. It takes less time than self-report measures.
B. It costs less money than self-report measures.
C. It is often not possible to determine exactly why people behave the way they do.
D. all of the above

 

Selecting a Research Design

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   In an experimental research study, the primary goal is to isolate and identify the effect produced by the:

A. dependent variable.
B. extraneous variable.
C. confounding variable.
D. independent variable.

 

 

____    2.   There are several ways in which confounding extraneous variables can be controlled. Which control technique is considered the best?

A. matching
B. random assignment
C. counterbalancing
D. selection

 

 

____    3.   The group that receives the experimental treatment condition is called the:

A. experimental group.
B. control group.
C. participant group.
D. independent group.

 

 

____    4.   Which of the following is not a word used to describe a category (or type) of nonexperimental research?

A. survey research
B. correlational study
C. intervention study
D. retrospective study

 

 

____    5.   Which of the following could be used for randomly assigning subject’s to groups in an experimental study?

A. split halves
B. even versus odd numbers
C. use of table of random numbers
D. Researcher decides which group will be best.

 

 

____    6.   Control groups in experiments are used to:

A. provide a comparison for the effect of the independent variable.
B. test for an alternative causal connection.
C. eliminate bias.
D. provide external validity.

 

 

____    7.   True experiments are designed primarily to:

A. identify relationships among intervening, independent, and dependent variables.
B. discover new variables related to the research question.
C. identify individual differences.
D. determine causal connections.

 

 

____    8.   Investigators interested in the effects of nutrition on wound healing randomly assigned patients recovering from burn injuries to two groups. One group received protein supplements and the second group did not. The random assignment was used to:

A. eliminate the systematic influence of any other variable.
B. provide a control for earlier nutritional status.
C. make the groups equal in terms of the dependent variable.
D. obtain groups equal in number.

 

 

____    9.   In the above example, the investigators measured the amount of wound granulation, the number of wound infections, and the extent of the burn injury area. What finding would be most important to the researchers in relation to successful random assignment?

A. The supplement groups had greater granulation than the control group.
B. Both groups had equal granulation.
C. Both groups had equal extent of burn injury.
D. The supplemental group had fewer wound infections.

 

 

____  10.   The supplemental protein in the above example is a(an):

A. dependent variable.
B. independent variable.
C. extraneous variable.
D. intervening variable.

 

Interpreting and Reporting Research Findings

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   Which of the following is not one of the major sections of a research report?

A. abstract
B. introduction
C. footnotes
D. discussion

 

 

____    2.   In what section of a research report are results of a study explained and interpreted?

A. introduction
B. methods
C. results
D. discussion

 

 

____    3.   In which section of a research report do you find a step-by-step description of what subjects actually did in the study?

A. abstract
B. introduction
C. research design
D. data collection procedures

 

 

____    4.   The extent to which research findings can be generalized beyond the given research situation is referred to as:

A. statistical significance.
B. generalizability.
C. clinical significance.
D. refereed process.

 

 

____    5.   A brief summary of a research study is often referred to as a(an):

A. abstract.
B. statement of purpose.
C. abridged report.
D. hypothesis.

 

 

____    6.   Evidence for the reliability of measuring instruments used in a study appears in which section of a research report?

A. abstract
B. introduction
C. methods
D. results

 

 

____    7.   Indicate where in the research report the following statement is likely to be found.

 

“The sample consisted of 88 individuals with cancer, assessed as being at risk for nutritional problems, as indicated by weight loss of over 5% over a 2-month period or persistent changes in patterns of eating.”

A. introduction
B. methods
C. results
D. discussion

 

 

____    8.   Indicate where in the research report the following statement is likely to be found.

 

“The correlation of r = 0.40, found in the present study, is consistent with the work of Jones (1983), who reported similar results in her study of college-age adults.”

A. introduction
B. methods
C. results
D. discussion

 

 

____    9.   Authors refer to ____________ when determining an editor’s level of interest regarding the publishing of a research report.

A. manuscript guidelines
B. a query letter
C. the review process
D. publication guidelines

 

 

____  10.   Another way of communicating findings associated with a research report, other than publication would be through:

A. use of query letters.
B. use of the research process.
C. oral presentations.
D. use of refereed journals.

Critiquing Research Reports

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   Which of the following is the correct order of sections associated with a research report?

A. conclusions, methods, introduction, results
B. methods, introduction, conclusions, results
C. introduction, methods, results, conclusions
D. results, conclusions, introduction, methods

 

 

____    2.   Which is not a question to ask when evaluating a research report?

A. Were the instruments used valid?
B. Was the sample representative?
C. Were the procedures clearly stated to be reproducible?
D. Were the results published in an important journal?

 

 

____    3.   In critiquing a research report, where would the researcher make clear why a particular study is important to investigate?

A. research question
B. definition of terms
C. justification of the study
D. purpose of the study

 

 

____    4.   In critiquing a research report, where does the researcher state the particular question(s) to be investigated?

A. introduction
B. definition of terms
C. justification of the study
D. purpose statement

 

 

____    5.   In critiquing a research report, where would recommendations made by the researcher for nursing practice be found?

A. methods
B. results
C. implications
D. data analysis

 

 

____    6.   In critiquing a research report, where would the researcher find information on possible sources of sampling error and sample size?

A. methods
B. results
C. implications
D. data analysis

 

 

____    7.   In critiquing a research report, where would the researcher find a discussion related to findings associated with the conceptual basis of the study?

A. methods
B. results
C. discussion
D. data analysis

 

 

____    8.   In critiquing a research report, include all of the following except:

A. supportive and encouraging comments.
B. suggestions that are not overly unrealistic.
C. clear, concise statements in communicating with authors.
D. flattery with comments to boost a researcher’s self-esteem.

 

 

____    9.   When critiquing a research report, avoid all of the following except:

A. nitpicking or finding fault on trivial details associated with the report.
B. providing explanations that justify your comments.
C. forgetting that your purpose is to advise the researcher and improve the clarity of the report.
D. writing the critique in a condescending manner.

 

 

____  10.   In deciding whether to prepare the research report for publication, come to a decision on:

A. whether the research report is free from flaws.
B. whether the research report is important enough for publication.
C. whether other colleagues would be interested in the topic.
D. all of the above

Critiquing Research Reports

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

____    1.   Which of the following is the correct order of sections associated with a research report?

A. conclusions, methods, introduction, results
B. methods, introduction, conclusions, results
C. introduction, methods, results, conclusions
D. results, conclusions, introduction, methods

 

 

____    2.   Which is not a question to ask when evaluating a research report?

A. Were the instruments used valid?
B. Was the sample representative?
C. Were the procedures clearly stated to be reproducible?
D. Were the results published in an important journal?

 

 

____    3.   In critiquing a research report, where would the researcher make clear why a particular study is important to investigate?

A. research question
B. definition of terms
C. justification of the study
D. purpose of the study

 

 

____    4.   In critiquing a research report, where does the researcher state the particular question(s) to be investigated?

A. introduction
B. definition of terms
C. justification of the study
D. purpose statement

 

 

____    5.   In critiquing a research report, where would recommendations made by the researcher for nursing practice be found?

A. methods
B. results
C. implications
D. data analysis

 

 

____    6.   In critiquing a research report, where would the researcher find information on possible sources of sampling error and sample size?

A. methods
B. results
C. implications
D. data analysis

 

 

____    7.   In critiquing a research report, where would the researcher find a discussion related to findings associated with the conceptual basis of the study?

A. methods
B. results
C. discussion
D. data analysis

 

 

____    8.   In critiquing a research report, include all of the following except:

A. supportive and encouraging comments.
B. suggestions that are not overly unrealistic.
C. clear, concise statements in communicating with authors.
D. flattery with comments to boost a researcher’s self-esteem.

 

 

____    9.   When critiquing a research report, avoid all of the following except:

A. nitpicking or finding fault on trivial details associated with the report.
B. providing explanations that justify your comments.
C. forgetting that your purpose is to advise the researcher and improve the clarity of the report.
D. writing the critique in a condescending manner.

 

 

____  10.   In deciding whether to prepare the research report for publication, come to a decision on:

A. whether the research report is free from flaws.
B. whether the research report is important enough for publication.
C. whether other colleagues would be interested in the topic.
D. all of the above