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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

Social Psychology 4th edition by Dacher Keltner  – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

APPLICATION MODULE 1: Social Psychology and Health

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In psychology, the term rumination refers to the
a. tendency to eat food thoroughly to aid digestion.
b. tendency to think about a stressful event over and over again.
c. digestive system dysfunction associated with exposure to multiple stressors.
d. illusion that we are in control of events.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress    OBJ:   AM1.1B

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is an immediate effect of increased cortisol levels?
a. reduced blood pressure
b. increased immune system activity
c. increased heart rate
d. blockage of the formation of traumatic memories

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress    OBJ:   AM1.1A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Gabriel is experiencing psychosocial stress during a job interview. Which area of Gabriel’s brain is responsible for initially processing information related to this threat?
a. the amygdala c. the fusiform gyrus
b. the basal ganglia d. the pineal gland

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress    OBJ:   AM1.1A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Because Kesa has been experiencing increased, prolonged stress as a result of going over negative events again and again in her mind, her psychologist has recommended that she try self-distancing. This means that she should
a. engage in distracting activities to divert attention away from herself.
b. think more about her friends and family and less about herself.
c. jog regularly to take her mind off of her problems.
d. focus on her feelings from the perspective of a detached observer.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress    OBJ:   AM1.1B

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Mikell has been thinking over and over again about a conflict she had with a coworker. As a consequence, she has allowed that stressful conflict to pervade her evenings and weekends when she is not at work. Her sister, Tori, also had a conflict with a coworker but seemed to forget about it almost immediately. When their friends are catching the common cold, which of these two will be more vulnerable to catching the cold as well?
a. Mikell, because her elevated stress levels will make her immune system less effective
b. Tori, because her elevated stress levels will make her immune system less effective
c. Tori, because she is likely to spend more time socializing with her sick friends
d. Mikell, because she is likely to spend more time socializing with her sick friends

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress    OBJ:   AM1.1B

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the purpose of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which involves increased cortisol and temporary immune system suppression?
a. to propagate the species through increased drive for reproduction
b. to increase survival value by storing up rather than expending energy reserves
c. to increase survival value by quickly responding to threats
d. to improve psychological health by suppressing memories of threatening events

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress    OBJ:   AM1.1A

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Eliot is from a lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhood than Carl. Which of the following is a likely reason why Eliot is at greater risk for increased stress and poorer physical health outcomes than Carl?
a. Eliot is more likely to be exposed to violent crime.
b. Eliot is less likely to have access to recreational spaces and parks.
c. Eliot is less likely to have easy access to health care centers.
d. All of the above are correct.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Culture and Health: Class, Stress, and Health Outcomes OBJ:   AM1.2A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. If we know that Jon left school after the eighth grade and has been working as a janitor for the past twenty years, what research-based predictions could we make about his health status?
a. Jon is more likely to have chronically low levels of cortisol.
b. Jon is more likely to die at an earlier age than those in higher-status jobs.
c. Jon is less likely to develop heart disease because his job involves less stress.
d. If Jon has children, they will be less likely to die in infancy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Culture and Health: Class, Stress, and Health Outcomes OBJ:   AM1.2A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Richard is a fairly wealthy man. As part of a research study, Richard is asked to indicate which rung of a ladder best represents his socioeconomic rank. How is Richard most likely to respond?
a. He will select one of the highest rungs.
b. He will select one of the middle rungs.
c. He will select one of the lowest rungs.
d. His response will depend on his subjective construal of his relative rank.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Culture and Health: Class, Stress, and Health Outcomes OBJ:   AM1.2A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Diana and Julie are asked to give presentations at work with only ten minutes to prepare. Diana has a good friend in the audience, whereas Julie does not. Who is likely to become the most stressed during the presentation?
a. Julie
b. Diana
c. They are likely to feel equally stressed.
d. Neither is likely to feel stressed.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Situational Factors and Health: Benefits of Social Connection

OBJ:   AM1.3A         MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Psychologist Shelley Taylor proposed that we can reduce stress and improve our own health by connecting with and providing support to others. The term she used for this approach is
a. tend-and-befriend. c. self-distancing.
b. seek-and-assist. d. tit-for-tat.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Situational Factors and Health: Benefits of Social Connection

OBJ:   AM1.3A         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following does the textbook NOT recommend as a means of reducing stress?
a. seeking out stressful situations to stimulate resilience
b. practicing meditation
c. exercising regularly
d. cultivating positive emotions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Situational Factors and Health: Benefits of Social Connection

OBJ:   AM1.3A         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Supporting and connecting with others ________ oxytocin, which in turn ________ cortisol levels.
a. increases; decreases c. increases; increases
b. decreases; decreases d. decreases, increases

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Situational Factors and Health: Benefits of Social Connection

OBJ:   AM1.3A         MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT among the findings of Shelley Taylor’s research on women with breast cancer?
a. Most women passively accepted their condition.
b. Older women felt grateful that they had been diagnosed as older rather than younger women.
c. Younger women felt grateful that they had more physical robustness to fight the disease.
d. Most women felt that they could control the course of the disease through diet and exercise.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4A         MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Some patients in a nursing home were given opportunities that increased their sense of control. Compared with nursing home patients who did not have these same opportunities, those with an increased sense of control
a. showed improvement in overall functioning.
b. were more likely to refuse opportunities to participate in group activities.
c. showed reduced happiness.
d. showed a decline in physical health.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4A         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following was found in breast cancer patients who were evaluated by their physicians as having better responses to the disease?
a. They relinquished control of their treatment to their doctors.
b. They reported having a sense of control over the course of the disease.
c. They were more likely to deny that they had cancer.
d. They were more likely to report intense anger at the cancer.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4A         MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT likely a mechanism by which optimism is associated with better physical health?
a. Optimists are more likely to engage in good health practices.
b. Optimists are more likely to respond to stress with less HPA axis activity.
c. Optimists are less likely to need to rely on others for support.
d. Optimists are more likely to develop good social support networks.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4B         MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Glenda was recently placed in a nursing home, and her physical health has been gradually deteriorating. Accordingly to the textbook, which of the following would be most likely to improve her health?
a. having the staff ensure that she is pampered
b. encouraging her to conserve her strength by resting
c. allowing her a greater sense of control
d. reducing stress by minimizing the amount of time visitors can stay

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4B         MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Sidney and Jane are suffering from a similar health condition. Sidney is optimistic that her health will improve, while Jane’s approach is to prepare herself for the worst. Which of the following outcomes is most likely?
a. Sidney’s health condition will improve more than Jane’s.
b. Jane’s health condition will improve more than Sidney’s.
c. Though Sidney and Jane take different approaches, both approaches are likely to benefit their health.
d. Neither Sidney nor Jane’s approach will affect their health conditions.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4B         MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following pieces of advice is likely to be most helpful for reducing stress and improving health outcomes?
a. “Your good health is in your hands.”
b. “Just let go and leave your health up to fate.”
c. “Think positive.”
d. Both a and c are likely to be helpful.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4A         MSC:  Applying

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Explain how rumination may contribute to chronic stress and then describe one way that rumination can be reduced.

 

ANS:

Rumination refers to the tendency to think about a stressful event over and over again, to the point where it becomes a continuous source of stress that touches on all facets of one’s life. Rumination can turn specific, short-term stressors into chronic, long-term stressors. Chronic stress, in turn, can expose the body to chronically high levels of cortisol, leading to health problems such as ulcers, heart disease, cancer, memory loss, increased vulnerability to the common cold, and premature cellular aging. One way to reduce rumination is to engage in self-distancing, which involves focusing on one’s feelings from the perspective of a detached observer. This approach can help people reflect on stressful events without becoming overwhelmed by negativity.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Evolution and Health: Short-Term and Chronic Stress

OBJ:   AM1.1B         MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Explain how differences in the social and physical environments of upper- and lower-SES neighborhoods can contribute to health disparities.

 

ANS:

People living in lower-SES neighborhoods are more likely to be exposed to air and water pollution, pesticides, and hazardous wastes, compared to those in upper-SES neighborhoods. Toxins like these can increase stress and can also harm the nervous system directly. In addition, lower-SES neighborhoods have fewer recreational spaces and parks, so residents have fewer opportunities to be outdoors, relax, and get exercise, which are important factors for reducing stress and improving health. Lower-SES neighborhoods also have a higher incidence of violent crime, and residents experience more pervasive feelings of threat. A fourth key difference is that lower-SES neighborhoods tend to have few healthy grocery stores or health care centers.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Culture and Health: Class, Stress, and Health Outcomes

OBJ:   AM1.2A         MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. What does research suggest about the relationship between close social connections and health outcomes? What factors are believed to explain this relationship?

 

ANS:

Research suggests that people with stronger social connections tend to live longer than those with few meaningful social ties. In a study of breast cancer patients, for example, David Spiegel and his colleagues found that participants who engaged in weekly sessions of emotionally supportive group therapy with other breast cancer patients lived longer than those assigned to a nonintervention control group. Strong social connections are believed to protect health by reducing psychological and physiological stress. For example, in one study, participants who had a supportive person in the audience during a stressful public speech task, compared to those who did not, had lower blood pressure readings during the speech. According to the tend-and-befriend model developed by Shelley Taylor and her colleagues, the hormone oxytocin may also be an important factor: the presence of supportive social connections increases oxytocin, which in turn reduces cortisol levels.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Situational Factors and Health: Benefits of Social Connection

OBJ:   AM1.3A         MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Imagine that you are designing a comprehensive stress reduction intervention for college students who are suffering from chronic health conditions. List two specific approaches that could be included in this intervention and describe how you would implement them. For each approach, provide one piece of evidence from the textbook that supports its role in reducing stress.

 

ANS:

Approaches included in the stress reduction intervention should center on increasing social support, personal control, or optimism. Increasing social support could involve encouraging students to seek support from friends and family, to utilize counseling services on campus, to join support groups, or even to provide support to others. Evidence for the effectiveness of social support interventions comes from a variety of sources, including Janice Kiecolt-Glaser and her colleagues’ research on social connections and mortality, Shelley Taylor and her colleagues’ research on supportive audiences and the tend-and-befriend approach, and David Spiegel and his colleagues’ research on emotionally supportive group therapy. Increasing personal control could involve helping students construct narratives of their health condition that involve feelings of mastery, autonomy, and efficacy rather than helplessness. Evidence for this approach comes from Shelley Taylor and her colleagues’ research on breast cancer patients and from Ellen Langer and Judith Rodin’s research on nursing home residents. Increasing optimism could involve helping students transform pessimistic beliefs into optimistic beliefs. Evidence for this approach comes from Charles Carver and Michael Scheier’s research on optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery and breast cancer and from Shelley Taylor and colleagues’ research on optimistic HIV patients.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Situational Factors and Health: Benefits of Social Connection

OBJ:   AM1.3A         MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Describe research that supports the role of perceived control in promoting good physical health.

 

ANS:

Research suggests that a sense of control, which refers to feeling mastery, autonomy, and efficacy in influencing important life outcomes, can benefit health. For example, in one study, breast cancer patients who reported a sense of control over their situation, believing that through diet, exercise, and/or positive beliefs they could influence the course of their disease, responded better to the disease, as assessed by their physicians. In a study of nursing home residents, residents who were given a greater sense of personal responsibility and control, including the opportunity to care for a plant, showed greater increases in happiness and better overall functioning, as rated by the nurses.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Construal and Health: Benefits of Perceived Control and Optimism

OBJ:   AM1.4A         MSC:  Remembering

 

CHAPTER 1: An Invitation to Social Psychology

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Social psychology can be defined as the ________ study of the ________ of individuals in social situations.
a. intuitive; behaviors
b. scientific; behaviors
c. scientific; feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
d. behavioral; thoughts and feelings

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following Supreme Court rulings was heavily influenced by social psychological research?
a. Roe v. Wade c. Marbury v. Madison
b. Brown v. Board of Education d. Miranda v. Arizona

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. “Absence makes the heart grow fonder” and “out of sight, out of mind” are both common sayings. A(n) ________ is most likely to conduct an experiment to identify the conditions or situations under which each of these assertions is accurate.
a. personality psychologist c. sociologist
b. social psychologist d. anthropologist

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1B               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Sandra thinks that smiling a lot during a job interview increases a person’s chances of getting a job offer. The main difference between Sandra’s folk theory and social psychological theories is that social psychological theories are
a. always more complicated.
b. almost always counterintuitive.
c. based on logic.
d. tested using the scientific method.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Social psychologists differ from personality psychologists because social psychologists tend to
a. rely primarily on correlational research.
b. argue that genetics do not exert causal effects on social behavior.
c. examine the influence of situations on behaviors.
d. stress individual differences in behavior.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is LEAST characteristic of the goals of social psychology?
a. understanding how people in different cultures think, feel, and behave
b. understanding how people control each other’s behaviors
c. evaluating the accuracy of folk theories about how situations influence behavior
d. understanding how personality traits predispose people to respond to major events in their lives

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Jacquie and Karen are both interested in the topic of divorce. Jacquie is a social psychologist and Karen is a sociologist. Compared to Karen, which of the following questions is Jacquie most likely to ask?
a. Do different divorce laws influence divorce rates?
b. Are divorce rates higher among people who are more educated?
c. Why does infidelity lead to divorce?
d. Is divorce more prevalent in northern states relative to southern states?

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following phenomena best illustrates the relationship between social influence and behavior?
a. acting more cooperative when you are in a good mood (as opposed to a bad mood)
b. preferring to drive with the car radio on (as opposed to off)
c. cycling faster when people are watching you (as opposed to when you are alone)
d. getting into more arguments when the temperature is above 80 degrees (as opposed to under 80 degrees)

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology

OBJ:   1.1A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Kurt Lewin’s concept, the field of forces, emphasizes that ________ underlie(s) much of human behavior.
a. genetics c. the characteristics of a situation
b. physical stimulation d. natural selection

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Kurt Lewin, the founder of modern social psychology, argued that the effects of psychological forces can be understood in the same way that ________ forces are understood.
a. physical c. personality
b. attribute d. armed

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Research on ________ suggests it is ________ for people to assume that dispositions are the underlying causes of most behaviors.
a. the fundamental attribution error; common
b. the fundamental attribution error; uncommon
c. channel factors; common
d. channel factors; uncommon

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2D               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The classic Milgram study showed that about ________ percent of participants delivered ________ to the “learner.”
a. 1; a 330-volt shock or higher (i.e., after the learner let out an agonized scream)
b. 10; no shocks
c. 20; a 450-volt shock (highest possible)
d. 60; a 450-volt shock (highest possible)

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to social psychologists, which of the following conditions is most likely to make someone do what an authority figure says to do—even if it involves hurting someone?
a. when people know ahead of time that an authority figure will be ordering them around
b. when people have been raised in abusive families
c. when people can hold an authority figure responsible for his or her actions
d. when people are used to hurting other people

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2B               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The “Good Samaritan” study conducted by Darley and Batson (1973) examined helping behavior in seminary students at Princeton University. These students were either rushed or not rushed to get to an appointment. Results of this study showed that
a. participants who viewed religion as a means toward personal salvation were less likely to help someone than participants who viewed religion as a means toward moral and spiritual values.
b. when rushed, only participants who viewed religion as a means toward personal salvation were less likely to help someone.
c. when rushed, only participants who viewed religion as a means toward moral and spiritual values were less likely to help someone.
d. the nature of participants’ religious orientations did not predict helping behavior; only being rushed or not predicted helping.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2B               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Your waiter seems to be doing everything wrong. He has forgotten to take your drink order. He delivers someone else’s food to your table. He does not come out and say it, but his facial expressions seem to say he’d rather be someplace else. If you assume his behavior is caused primarily by ________, your assumption is consistent with the fundamental attribution error.
a. channel factors
b. situational factors he can control
c. his disposition
d. situational factors beyond his control

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2D               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following scenarios is LEAST consistent with the fundamental attribution error?
a. When someone swerves into your lane while driving, you think to yourself, “This person is a terrible driver!”
b. When someone at a party smiles at you, you think to yourself, “This person smiles at everyone.”
c. When you slip and fall down at a shopping mall, you think to yourself, “I was born clumsy!”
d. When someone talks loudly to his or her friend on the bus, you think to yourself, “This person might be talking to someone who has a hearing problem.”

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2D               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The president of a fraternity wants to increase the number of fraternity members who volunteer for nonprofit organizations in the community. Which of the following strategies would BEST fit with Kurt Lewin’s concept of channel factors?
a. induce guilt among members who are not currently volunteering
b. leave information about when and how members might volunteer on the counter
c. offer a prize to the member who volunteers the most hours
d. ask members to publicly commit to a particular volunteering opportunity

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2C               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following concepts is most relevant to people who want to get someone to act on his or her intentions?
a. channel factors
b. the fundamental attribution error
c. tension systems
d. naturalistic fallacy

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2C               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Marco, a physics major, and Tim, a social work major, always take the bus together to school. Today the bus was delayed. Tim is going to be late for a midterm. Marco does not have class for a few hours. While walking from the bus stop, Marco and Tim pass a woman crying on a bench. According to Darley and Batson’s “Good Samaritan” study, how are Marco and Tim likely to behave?
a. Marco is more likely to help the women given that he does not have to rush to a midterm.
b. Tim is more likely to help the women because he will feel especially heroic helping despite being in a rush.
c. As a social work major, Tim is more likely to help the woman.
d. As a physics major, Marco is more likely to help the woman.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2B               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What do the results of the “Milgram Experiment” and Darley and Batson’s “Good Samaritan” study have in common?
a. They both highlight the power of the situation in determining behavior.
b. They both highlight how people respond differently to the same situation.
c. They both highlight cultural differences in behavior.
d. They both highlight universality in behavior across cultures.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation

OBJ:   1.2B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. ________ psychology stresses the fact that objects are perceived by active, usually unconscious, interpretations of what the object represents as a whole.
a. Behavioral c. Cognitive
b. Gestalt d. Personality

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The term construal refers to
a. an expectation about how group members should behave.
b. a personal interpretation about situations and other people’s behaviors.
c. perceiving situations by means of an automatic registering device.
d. generalized knowledge about the physical and social world.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of schemas?
a. They are exactly the same across many different kinds of situations.
b. They guide our expectations in only a few situations.
c. They do not influence our judgments.
d. They are elaborate collections of systematized knowledge.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Pro-affirmative action advocates try to activate schemas related to ________, whereas anti-affirmative action advocates try to activate schemas related to ________.
a. fairness; diversity
b. diversity; fairness
c. African Americans; Caucasians
d. Caucasians; African Americans

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Judy is always complimenting people with whom she works. Bob, one of Judy’s best friends, thinks that Judy is genuinely thoughtful and friendly. Sarah, who does not know Judy well, thinks that Sarah is shallow and fake. This example suggests how friendship influences
a. behaviors. c. construals.
b. personality. d. folk theories.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following methods is most clearly suited for testing whether construals exert a causal effect on game performance?
a. manipulating the name of a game
b. manipulating room temperature during the game
c. manipulating moods after a game has been played
d. manipulating the age of study participants

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Professor Hansen expects that students will sit quietly and take notes during his large lecture course. Thus, a student who talks in class and never opens a notebook violates Professor Hansen’s ________about students.
a. theory of mind c. construal
b. automaticity d. schema

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3B               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A stereotype is best characterized as a type of
a. schema. c. attribution.
b. channel factor. d. theory of mind.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Construal

OBJ:   1.3B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The mind processes information in two different ways in a social situation. Automatic processing is often based on ________, whereas controlled processing is often based on ________.
a. careful thought; emotional factors
b. emotional factors; careful thought
c. dispositional factors; situational factors
d. situational factors; dispositional factors

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Studies that find that unprejudiced people can still show negative implicit attitudes toward people of different races highlight the importance of distinguishing between
a. automatic and controlled processing.
b. nonconscious and automatic processing.
c. conscious and explicit processing.
d. stereotypes and schemas.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. A key difference between automatic processes and controlled processes is that automatic processes
a. are objectively more accurate.
b. run only serially.
c. do not influence behavior.
d. can operate in parallel.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Research conducted by Bargh, Chen, and Burrows (1996) illustrates how seemingly trivial aspects of a situation can influence behavior in ways of which people are not aware. These researchers showed that
a. people will walk more slowly after hearing words related to the elderly (for example, “cane” and “Florida”) than words unrelated to the elderly.
b. when people encounter novel stimuli with their arms extended away from their bodies, their attitudes toward these stimuli tend to be more favorable than when their arms are flexed (bent back toward the shoulder).
c. people are more cooperative when they play “The Wall Street Game” than the “Community Game.”
d. people process different facial features in parallel.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. You are driving home from school and suddenly realize that you have not noticed anything you have driven past for the last few minutes. This experience of driving without paying attention to your route is an example of ________ processing.
a. automatic c. biased
b. explicit d. controlled

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. While boarding a plane, Doug feels fear when he notices another passenger sitting in his seat looking agitated, sweating profusely, and holding a backpack. In this situation, Doug’s
a. emotional reaction is probably controlled by careful, systematic thought.
b. emotional reaction probably occurs before careful, systematic thought takes over.
c. careful, systematic thought is probably controlled by his emotional reaction.
d. careful, systematic thought probably occurs before his emotional reaction takes over.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Maisie, a junior in high school, is studying for her SAT exam. Although she is tired after a long day of school, she sits down with her study guide and slowly works through five new math problems. Maisie is likely utilizing
a. controlled processing. c. an independent mind-set.
b. automatic processing. d. an interdependent mind-set.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. ________ molds animals and plants so that traits that enhance the probability of survival are passed on to subsequent generations.
a. Social Darwinism c. Natural selection
b. Naturalistic fallacy d. Connectionism

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following do people share with animals, especially higher primates?
a. social taboos c. wariness around spiders
b. belief in the supernatural d. facial expressions

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The naturalistic fallacy refers to the claim that
a. things should be different from the way they are now.
b. people can overcome many things they are predisposed to do.
c. the process of evolution can select for disadvantageous characteristics.
d. the way things are is the way they should be.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Imagine the following scenario: In a research study of theory of mind, children are shown a candy box with the lid closed. The researcher asks them to predict what is in the box. Naturally, the children say, “Candy.” Next, the researcher shows the children that, in reality, there are pencils in the box. Finally, the researcher asks the children to predict what a friend will say is in the box. ________ four-year-olds would most likely tend to say ________.
a. Nonautistic; “Pencils” c. Autistic; “Candy”
b. Nonautistic; “Candy” d. Autistic; “Popcorn”

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. According to evolutionary theory, males put ________ investment in their offspring than females because males ________.
a. less; have more opportunities to produce offspring
b. more; have fewer opportunities to produce offspring
c. less; are more likely to die before their offspring reach maturity
d. more; are less likely to die before their offspring each maturity

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. One of the most commonly used social neuroscience techniques is known as functional magnetic resonance imaging. This technique detects ________ to determine which parts of the brain are active during certain activities.
a. electrical activity c. blood flow
b. radioactive isotopes d. neurotransmitter levels

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why might Social Darwinism be a distorted application of Darwin’s theory?
a. It assumes that some groups of people are more deserving of survival than others.
b. It assumes that many characteristics that people share are the result of natural selection.
c. It assumes that some groups of people are stronger than others.
d. It assumes that many human behaviors and institutions are universal.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT consistent with the evolutionary perspective?
a. People share many practices and institutions with animals, especially higher primates.
b. Behavioral propensities are subject to selection pressures.
c. Physical characteristics are subject to selection pressures.
d. People will inevitably do what they are biologically predisposed to do.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Theory of mind is important for group living because it
a. is necessary for language acquisition.
b. can treat autism.
c. can prevent misunderstandings that could lead to aggression or death.
d. decreases selection pressures.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What advantage do social neuroscience techniques (such as functional magnetic resonance imaging) have over other research methods used in social psychology?
a. Neuroscience techniques distinguish between proximal and distal causes of behavior.
b. Neuroscience techniques correlate social behavior with regions of brain activity.
c. Neuroscience techniques distinguish between cultural and evolutionary causes of behavior.
d. Neuroscience techniques correlate individual behavior with evolutionary causes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The propensity to show facial expressions and the tendency to live in groups are related in that they both
a. strongly vary across cultures.
b. are human universals.
c. appear only in humans.
d. are signs of the naturalistic fallacy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following studies takes a social neuroscience approach?
a. measuring changes in participants’ heart rates in response to receiving negative feedback from a romantic partner
b. measuring changes in participants’ heart rates in response to receiving an electric shock
c. measuring changes in participants’ brain activations in response to receiving negative feedback from a romantic partner
d. measuring changes in participants’ brain activations in response to receiving an electric shock

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same           OBJ:    1.5A

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. In an independent culture, a person’s sense of self tends to be based largely on
a. personal achievements. c. political or religious values.
b. bringing credit to his or her family. d. group membership.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Societies may differ from each other in many ways, but it is important to recognize that
a. there are also regional and subcultural differences within any large society.
b. people living within the same society tend to think and behave similarly.
c. there are few individual differences within a society.
d. broad generalizations about psychological differences between societies rarely are supported by research findings.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In the United States, a large luxury sedan is marketed by the slogan “Feel good about yourself. Drive a Lexmark.” According to broad generalizations surrounding the individualist-collectivist distinction, why might this slogan be LESS successful in Japan?
a. because people in Japan already have extremely high levels of self-esteem
b. because people in Japan tend not to base their self-worth on personal status
c. because people in Japan are less materialistic than Americans
d. because people in Japan prefer smaller, more intimate cars

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is a fundamental difference between individualist and collectivist cultures?
a. Independent cultures tend to value group status and success, whereas collectivist cultures do not.
b. Independent cultures have few social norms, whereas collectivist cultures have many.
c. Independent cultures tend to view family relationships as voluntary, whereas collectivists tend to see family relationships as more binding.
d. Independent cultures tend to emphasize hierarchical relationships with others, whereas collectivist cultures do not.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Which statement is most consistent with the beliefs of an individualist culture?
a. Eat, drink, and be merry.
b. Live by the sword, die by the sword.
c. Different strokes for different folks.
d. The nail that stands out gets pounded down.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Pat has listed ten things that describe who he is. The first three are “I am a son,” “I am fun when I am with my friends,” and “I am a manager.” Pat is most likely part of a(n) ________ culture.
a. evolutionary c. interdependent
b. independent d. universal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. A reader for American schoolchildren from the 1930s shows a little boy running, whereas a reader for Chinese children from the same time period shows a boy with his brother. What cultural difference does this highlight?
a. Individualistic cultures place a higher value on self-esteem than collectivistic cultures.
b. Individualistic cultures emphasize individual action, whereas collectivistic cultures emphasize relationships.
c. Individualistic cultures emphasize active relationships, whereas collectivistic cultures emphasize passive relationships.
d. This example does not relate to any consistent cultural difference.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Tamara just bought a brand new purse. According to research on culture and social class in the United States, how is Tamara likely to respond when her best friend buys the same purse?
a. If Tamara is from the upper class, she is likely happy to share the similarity with her best friend.
b. If Tamara is from the middle class, she is likely happy to share the similarity with her best friend.
c. If Tamara is from the working class, she is likely disappointed that she is no longer unique.
d. If Tamara is from the middle class, she is likely disappointed that she is no longer unique.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different    OBJ:   1.6A

MSC:  Applying

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Define social psychology and explain how this field differs from the fields of personality psychology and sociology.

 

ANS:

Social psychology is the scientific study of the feelings, thoughts, and behaviors of individuals in social situations. Social psychology emphasizes the power of the situation to extract behavior in consistent ways across different people. In contrast, personality psychology emphasizes the consistency of a person’s personality or behavior across different situations. Social psychologists focus on individual behavior, whereas sociologists emphasize the behavior of people in the aggregate.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology   OBJ:   1.1B

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe the benefits of a social psychological approach to understanding why people behave the way they do. That is, how does social psychology go beyond basic human intuition? Why is this important?

 

ANS:

Social psychology goes beyond basic human intuition by testing research questions and theories using the scientific method. This is important because without testing our intuitions empirically, we are unable to know whether they are accurate.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology   OBJ:   1.1A

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Now that you know what social psychology is, generate three social psychological research questions to which you would like the answers.

 

ANS:

Many social psychological questions are acceptable, as long as they pose a potential link between social situations and cognition, emotion, or behavior.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Characterizing Social Psychology   OBJ:   1.1A

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. What is a channel factor? How is this concept relevant to health-care usage?

 

ANS:

A channel factor is a situational circumstance that may appear unimportant on the surface but may actually have great consequences for behavior, either facilitating or blocking it, or guiding behavior in a particular direction. Several answers regarding the relevance of channel factors to health-care usage are acceptable, including Howard Leventhal’s research. He showed that when participants formed a concrete plan regarding when and how they would visit the student center to get a tetanus shot, the likelihood of getting the shot increased. Another channel factor relevant to health-care usage is the distance to the closest health-care facility.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   The Power of the Situation             OBJ:   1.2C

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Many believe that the atrocities committed by the Nazis during World War II or by American soldiers at Abu Ghraib prison were the work of bad seeds. Others believe that almost anyone is vulnerable to these kinds of antisocial behaviors given the right situational circumstances. Take a stance one way or the other, and present two pieces of social psychological research that support your perspective.

 

ANS:

According to the chapter, anyone is vulnerable to these kinds of antisocial behaviors given the right situational circumstances. Several pieces of evidence in support of this position are acceptable. For example, the “Milgram Experiment” showed that the majority of participants would deliver potentially fatal shocks to a fellow participant if an authority figure urged them to do so. In Zimbardo’s “Stanford Prison Experiment,” participants randomly assigned to the role of “guard” engaged in verbal abuse and inflicted physical humiliation.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation             OBJ:   1.2B

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. While you are having dinner at a restaurant, your waiter is rude and makes snide comments. What would the fundamental attribution error predict about the cause to which you will attribute the waiter’s behavior?

 

ANS:

The fundamental attribution error is the failure to recognize the importance of situational influences on behavior, and the corresponding tendency to overemphasize the importance of dispositions on behavior. Accordingly, you are likely to assume that the waiter is a generally rude person rather than thinking that he or she is having a bad day or is just overwhelmed by the number of patrons in the restaurant.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation             OBJ:   1.2D

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Describe Kurt Lewin’s idea of the field of forces. Compare the forces that act on the physical world and those that act on the psychological world.

 

ANS:

The field of forces idea suggests that the behavior of both an object and a person varies as a function of the forces that are acting on it. Several examples of forces that act on the physical world are acceptable, including viscosity, gravity, pressure, and so on. Several examples of forces that act on the psychological world are acceptable, such as a person’s attributes and, most importantly, the social situation.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Power of the Situation             OBJ:   1.2A

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. What is a construal? Describe two different ways in which a person might construe the same situation.

 

ANS:

A construal is an interpretation or inference about the stimuli or situations people confront. Several answers regarding the ways in which a person construes a situation are acceptable. For example, the same person may be construed as a migrant worker or an illegal alien.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Role of Construal                               OBJ:    1.3A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What are schemas? Describe one advantage of using schemas as well as one disadvantage.

 

ANS:

A schema is an organized body of stored knowledge. Several answers are acceptable regarding the advantages and disadvantages of using schemas. For example, schemas allow us to process information efficiently and to use past information to guide our expectations rather than having to start from scratch each day. However, we may judge others in inaccurate or biased ways when we rely on our schemas.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   The Role of Construal                               OBJ:    1.3B

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Describe automatic and controlled processing and give one example of each.

 

ANS:

Automatic processing is quick and nonconscious and is often based on emotional factors. Several examples of automatic processing are acceptable, including a fear reaction to an agitated person carrying a backpack at the airport. Controlled processing is systematic and conscious and is often based on careful thought. Several examples of controlled processing are acceptable, including considering that the agitated person carrying a backpack at the airport is probably just late for his or her flight.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Automatic versus Controlled Processing

OBJ:   1.4A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What is the naturalistic fallacy? Explain how this phenomenon is relevant to racism.

 

ANS:

The naturalistic fallacy is the claim that the way things are is the way things should be. Several examples of how this phenomenon is relevant to racism are acceptable, including the notion that if racial groups within a society have differential access to resources and education, this is the way it should be. That is, according to the naturalistic fallacy, one might argue that some racial groups are on the top in a society because they are more intelligent or advanced, whereas other racial groups are on the bottom in a society because they are less intelligent or advanced.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same

OBJ:   1.5A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe two aspects of behavior that appear to be universal—that is, common across many different cultures. Why, according to the evolutionary perspective, would different cultures manifest these commonalities?

 

ANS:

Several answers are acceptable, including group living, theory of mind, gender roles, and those listed in Table 1.1. According to the evolutionary perspective, in the process of evolution, humans acquired these behavioral propensities because they helped us adapt to the physical and social environment, and, therefore, these propensities became ingrained in human genetic material.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same

OBJ:   1.5A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe the emerging field of social neuroscience. What tools are used by social neuroscientists? Describe one interesting finding coming from this field.

 

ANS:

Social neuroscience evaluates the neural underpinnings of social behavior. To conduct this research, social neuroscientists rely on neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, which reveals activation in the brain based on the degree of blood flow to a region. Several interesting findings coming from this field are acceptable as long as they relate changes in the brain to social experiences.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Evolution and Human Behavior: How We Are the Same

OBJ:   1.5A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Summarize the differences between independent and interdependent cultures.

 

ANS:

In independent cultures people tend to think of themselves as distinct social entities, whereas in interdependent cultures people tend to define themselves as part of a collective. Several differences are acceptable, including beliefs and values, conceptions of the self and others, and personal goals and strivings.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different

OBJ:   1.6A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Compare and contrast the evolutionary and cultural perspectives on human behavior.

 

ANS:

Both evolutionary and cultural psychologists evaluate influences on human behavior. The evolutionary perspective argues that many aspects of human behavior are the result of natural selection, behavioral tendencies that became ingrained in our genes because they enhance our ability to survive and reproduce. Evolutionary psychologists argue that the universality we see in human behavior across cultures (e.g., facial expressions, group living) lends support to their perspective. The cultural perspective, in contrast, argues that many aspects of human behavior are determined by the culture in which one finds himself or herself. Cultural psychologists argue that the differences in human behavior across cultures (e.g., social relations, self-understanding) lend support to their perspective.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Culture and Human Behavior: How We Are Different

OBJ:   1.6A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

CHAPTER 3: The Social Self

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Ji-Min thinks of herself as outgoing, a big sister, a runner, and intelligent. These are aspects of Ji-Min’s
a. self-schema. c. social-self.
b. self-appraisal. d. self-esteem.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Social Self

OBJ:   3.1A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Dan McAdams writes about and does research on the “narrated self,” which consists of
a. our personality traits.
b. our independent or interdependent self-construals.
c. the story we tell about our social self.
d. how other people describe our social self.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Social Self

OBJ:   3.1A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. At his first therapy session Curtis discusses his relationship history. He describes each romantic partner, what the relationship was like, why it ended, and what he took away. This tale that he weaves for his therapist conveys his
a. working self-concept. c. narrated self.
b. self-schema. d. reflected self-appraisal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Social Self

OBJ:   3.1A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Self-schemas are
a. wishes and aspirations people have for themselves.
b. objective standards that people use to learn about their own abilities, attitudes, and personality traits.
c. beliefs about the roles, obligations, and duties people assume in groups.
d. knowledge-based summaries of our beliefs and feelings about the self in particular domains.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   The Nature of the Social Self

OBJ:   3.1A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Although Emil generally thinks of himself as both a good student and a good son, while visiting with his mom over the holidays he is thinking more about being a good son. That this good son aspect of his identity is more on his mind when he is with his mom illustrates the idea of
a. the ought self. c. self-schemas.
b. the actual self. d. the working self-concept.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2B               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. According to Cooley’s theory of the “looking-glass self,” we learn about ourselves through
a. completing different kinds of personality tests.
b. imagining what other people think of us.
c. our parents telling us what we like and dislike, and what we are good at.
d. deep reflection about our behaviors, preferences, and attitudes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Frank Sulloway’s research on the relationship between birth order and personality shows that
a. younger siblings tend to be more agreeable than older siblings.
b. older siblings tend to be less honest than younger siblings.
c. younger and older siblings are equally open to novel ideas and experiences.
d. older siblings tend to be less achievement oriented than younger siblings.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The part of our self-knowledge that is conscious to us at any given time is called the
a. self-concept. c. working self-concept.
b. collective self-concept. d. distinctive self-concept.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Members of which of the following tend to have interdependent self-construals?
a. New Zealand
b. many African cultures
c. many Northern European cultures
d. the United States

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2C               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The quote “the squeaky wheel gets the grease” reflects which type of self-construal?
a. independent c. communal
b. interdependent d. distinctiveness

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2C               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. ________ is useful in developing our self-concept, but it can lead us to lose some self-esteem, at least temporarily.
a. Upward comparison c. Self-affirmation
b. Downward comparison d. Self-aggrandizement

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2D               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Research on gender and the self-concept indicates that compared with men, women are more likely to
a. experience confusion over how they should define themselves.
b. view themselves as unique and different from others.
c. define themselves in terms of social characteristics and relationships.
d. notice their own internal responses, such as increases in physiological arousal.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2C               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Consider the following finding from a study conducted in the United States that asked children to describe themselves: “Forty-four percent of children who were born outside of the United States mentioned this biographical fact when describing themselves, whereas only 7 percent of those born in the United States mentioned their place of birth.” This finding best supports the ________ hypothesis.
a. contrasting traits c. social comparison
b. self-perception d. distinctiveness

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2B               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Barbara just received a B on her test. She learns that one of her friends got an A on the same test, and another friend got a C. Later that night, Barbara tells her roommate that she did “really well” relative to other people in the class. According to social comparison theory, Barbara appears to have engaged in ________ comparison.
a. upward c. promotional
b. downward d. prevention

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2D               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Bill has an older brother named Dan. Both Bill and Dan are physics professors. According to Frank Sulloway’s research on birth-order effects, Bill should
a. conduct more research.
b. be more demanding of his students.
c. be more open to “off-the-wall” or “revolutionary” theories.
d. be more physically attractive.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. According to Festinger’s social comparison theory, people often form judgments about their traits and abilities by comparing themselves with others. According to the theory, this process is most likely to occur when
a. the people around them are judgmental and unkind.
b. people have a clear and detailed self-concept.
c. the people around them have superior traits and abilities.
d. people have no objective standard by which to judge themselves.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2D               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Ahmed tends to think of himself as a very creative and confident person. What kind of self-construal is Ahmed demonstrating?
a. an independent self-construal
b. an interdependent self-construal
c. a promotion-focused self-construal
d. a prevention-focused self-construal

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2C               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. According to research, self-construals vary within a culture. Which American man below is most likely to have an independent self-construal?
a. John, who is a middle-class teacher
b. George, who is a lower-class factory worker
c. Paul, who is an upper-class businessman
d. Richard, who is a middle-class office manager

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self

OBJ:   3.2C               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Luisa generally feels good about who she is. However, she just received a low grade on her chemistry midterm, so she is currently feeling bad about herself. Luisa has________ and ________.
a. a positive actual self; a negative ought self
b. a negative actual self; a negative ought self
c. high trait self-esteem; low state self-esteem
d. high state self-esteem; low trait self-esteem

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Who is likely to be the most defensive about getting negative feedback on a class paper?
a. Marta, who has unstable high self-esteem
b. Ye-Jun, who has stable high self-esteem
c. Aleksi, who has unstable low self-esteem
d. Maya, who has stable low self-esteem

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3C

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Research shows that state self-esteem can be influenced by
a. odors. c. ambient light levels.
b. complex weather patterns. d. momentary mood states.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. According to Baumeister and his colleagues, high self-esteem has a dark side. These researchers have argued that
a. people with very high self-esteem are particularly sensitive to insults, which could then lead to violence.
b. most people with high self-esteem are psychopaths who lack the ability to empathize with others.
c. people with high self-esteem are more likely to become alcoholics.
d. few people with high self-esteem have the modesty and humility needed to sustain satisfying close personal relationships.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3C

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about culture and self-esteem is the most accurate?
a. People from Western cultures are more likely to say or do things to enhance other people’s self-esteem (relative to people from Asian cultures).
b. The Japanese praise each other for their achievements more often than Americans do.
c. People from Asian cultures generally feel worse about themselves than people from Western cultures.
d. Americans utter many more self-complimentary statements during conversations (relative to Japanese individuals).

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Recall that Steve Heine and colleagues compared how Canadian and Japanese students responded to positive or negative feedback after taking a creativity test. After the feedback, participants took a second creativity test. Results showed that
a. overall, the Japanese tended to score better on both creativity tests.
b. regardless of feedback type, the Japanese tended to score worse on the second creativity test (relative to the Canadians).
c. Canadians worked longer on the second creativity test after receiving positive feedback than after receiving negative feedback.
d. the Japanese worked longer on the second creativity test after receiving positive feedback than after receiving negative feedback.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Gene is given a questionnaire that has statements like these printed on it: “I take a positive view of myself” and “I feel that I have a number of good qualities.” He is asked to indicate how much he agrees with these kinds of statements. This questionnaire is meant to measure Gene’s
a. self-consciousness. c. self-esteem.
b. identity cues. d. self-discrepancies.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Although doing his job well is an important aspect of Jim’s self-concept, he is just not good at his job. Correspondingly, he is starting to feel bad about himself. According to ________ , Jim will feel better about himself if he gets a new job that he is good at.
a. self-verification theory
b. sociometer hypothesis of self-esteem
c. principle of self-handicapping
d. contingencies of the self-worth account of self-esteem

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. According to the contingencies of the self-worth account of self-esteem (Crocker and Wolfe, 2001), a person’s self-evaluations
a. are stable across situations and time.
b. depend on success and failure in important life domains.
c. are learned through principles of classical conditioning.
d. are a direct result of parenting styles.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. According to the sociometer hypothesis,
a. self-esteem is an internal, subjective index of the extent to which people feel included or excluded by others.
b. people are social animals who thrive on conflict and dominating others.
c. people use reflection and social comparison processes to maintain a positive self-image.
d. people strive for accurate beliefs about the self in order to form adaptive judgments and decisions.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Sara’s best friend just told her that she does not want to hang out any more. Sara’s self-esteem plummets. She then calls three other good friends to see if they want to get dinner together. They say yes and Sara feels better about herself. Sara’s feelings and behaviors reflect which psychological theory?
a. the self-evaluation maintenance model
b. the self-verification theory
c. the self-discrepancy theory
d. the sociometer hypothesis

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Different theories make different predictions about the source of a person’s self-esteem. For example, sociometer theory argues that self-esteem depends on ________, whereas the contingencies of self-worth account argues that self-esteem depends on ________.
a. social acceptances versus social rejection; success versus failure in important life domains
b. success versus failure in important life domains; social acceptance versus social rejection
c. being independent; maintaining social harmony
d. maintaining social harmony; being independent

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Esteem    OBJ:   3.3B

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. The “better-than-average” effect refers to the finding that people
a. tend to assume others are better than themselves at difficult tasks.
b. tend to think that they are above average.
c. who are better than average are happier.
d. who are better than average are actually more modest about their abilities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When is the “better-than-average” effect most likely to occur?
a. when people use objective, concrete measures of performance to assess their abilities
b. when people assess their abilities on ambiguous traits that can be construed in different ways
c. when men are rating their performance compared with women
d. when people are rating themselves on negative traits

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Researchers have studied whether college students’ beliefs about their academic talents relate to self-esteem and well-being in college. Results show that students who ________ at the start of college experienced ________ in self-esteem and well-being over the following four years.
a. had self-enhancing beliefs; declines
b. did not have self-enhancing beliefs; declines
c. experienced self-discrepancies; declines
d. experienced self-discrepancies; increases

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Research supporting self-verification theory has shown that people
a. selectively attend to information that is consistent with their self-views.
b. want to be seen as mysterious and, therefore, hide their true selves from others.
c. tend to form relationships with others who view them in positive ways.
d. tend to remember positive feedback more than negative feedback.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. One implication of Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance model is that
a. we are biased to believe that our friends’ self-concepts are similar to our own.
b. we can expect our good friends to help us succeed at anything because all of our successes reflect well on them.
c. we should choose friends whom we outperform in domains relevant to our self-concept but who are talented in domains that are not relevant to the self.
d. our friends’ competencies (or lack thereof) do not influence our self-concept.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. ________ holds that people are motivated to view themselves in a favorable light and that they do so through reflection and social comparison.
a. Self-discrepancy theory
b. The self-evaluation maintenance model
c. Self-verification theory
d. The five-factor model

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When our college football team wins, we are more likely to wear our school’s colors the following Monday and to use the pronoun we when describing the game-winning touchdown or goal. According to Abraham Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance model, these behaviors illustrate how the process of ________ can be used to boost our self-esteem.
a. reflection c. positive reference
b. social comparison d. public self-consciousness

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. People strive for stable and accurate beliefs about the self. This motivation is emphasized by ________ theory.
a. self-verification c. self-validation
b. self-determination d. self-presentation

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4B               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. According to self-verification theory, people with negative self-views tend to remember ________ feedback more. In contrast, people with positive self-views tend to remember ________ feedback more.
a. negative; positive c. inaccurate; accurate
b. positive; negative d. accurate; inaccurate

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Adina has low self-esteem. She always feels uncomfortable in social situations. According to research on self-verification theory, with whom would Adina most likely choose to be friends?
a. Kevin, who told her she’s the coolest girl he knows
b. Mitchell, who told her she’s kind of awkward
c. Raymond, who is high in self-monitoring
d. Lars, who is low in self-monitoring

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation

OBJ:   3.4B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Travis is trying to lose weight but loves eating chips. He avoids the chip aisle whenever he is at the grocery store. However, at his friend’s holiday party, there is a big bowl of chips on the table. According to Ayelet Fishbach’s research on automatic self-control, what is likely to happen when Travis notices the bowl of chips at the party?
a. He decides to avoid eating cookies instead of chips.
b. He realizes he loves chips too much to stop eating them.
c. He starts to think about his goal of losing weight.
d. He does not think about his goal of losing weight.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5C

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The processes by which people initiate, alter, and control their behavior in the pursuit of their goals is called
a. self-discrepancy. c. self-verification.
b. self-enhancement. d. self-regulation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5C

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Jim has been trying to lose weight and spent all day ignoring the bowl of candy bars on his coworker’s desk. When Jim gets home that evening, he feels exhausted and eats an entire container of ice cream. According to the researchers Baumeister, Vohs, and Tice, Jim is probably experiencing
a. food cravings. c. ego strength.
b. ego depletion. d. prevention focus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5B

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Tiara is worried about bad things happening. She tries not to do poorly in her classes and avoids getting into fights with her boyfriend. Tiara is ________ focused.
a. prevention c. ought
b. promotion d. ideal

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Matthew Galliot and his colleagues asked participants to engage in an initial self-control task, such as suppressing their emotions. Next, participants drank Kool-Aid sweetened with either sugar or an artificial sweetener. How did the drink affect participants’ performance on a later self-control task?
a. Participants who drank the artificial sweetener drink did better on the second self-control task.
b. Both groups of participants did poorly on the second self-control task.
c. Participants who drank the sugar drink did better on the second self-control task.
d. Both groups of participants did well on the second self-control task.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5B

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Recall Tory Higgins’s argument that people compare their “actual selves” with other “selves” and that these comparisons have important motivational implications. Which of the following is NOT among the selves to which Higgins refers?
a. optimal c. ought
b. ideal d. actual

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5A

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Experimental evidence on self-discrepancy theory shows that being induced to think that your actual self resembles your ________ self increases ________.
a. ideal; anxiety
b. ought; guilt
c. ought; sensitivity to negative outcomes
d. ideal; sensitivity to positive outcomes

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5A

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Looking ten years ahead, Lola dreams of being a celebrated writer. According to self-discrepancy theory (Higgins, 1987), Lola is reflecting on her ________ self.
a. unattainable c. actual
b. ought d. ideal

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior    OBJ:   3.5A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Goffman’s idea of face refers to
a. our self-schemas.
b. our self-esteem.
c. how other people think about us.
d. who we want others to think we are.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Recall that Berglas and Jones (1978) led male participants to believe that they were going to either succeed or have difficulty on an upcoming test. Next, participants were given the chance to ingest either a performance-enhancing drug or a performance-inhibiting drug. Who preferred the performance-inhibiting drug?
a. All participants did, regardless of their beliefs about success or difficulty.
b. No participants did, regardless of their beliefs about success or difficulty.
c. participants who thought they would succeed on the test
d. participants who thought they would have difficulty on the test

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Jim tends to act in accordance with his internal inclinations, impulses, and dispositions. Also, he is not very attuned to the social context in which he finds himself. Thus, Jim would score ________ on a measure of ________.
a. high; self-handicapping c. high; self-monitoring
b. low; self-handicapping d. low; self-monitoring

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Ryan begins his twenty-page sociology paper at about 5 p.m. on the night before the paper is due. At around 6 p.m., Gary requests a favor that would take several hours. Ryan grants the favor and ends up leaving himself just a few hours to complete the paper. Later, when friends ask Ryan about his paper grade, he says, “I got a D because I was helping Gary all night instead of writing.” This scenario exemplifies a self-presentation process called
a. self-handicapping. c. overjustification.
b. self-fulfilling prophecy. d. self-promotion.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. How are self-monitoring and self-handicapping related?
a. They are both forms of social comparison.
b. They are both forms of impression management.
c. They are both forms of self-affirmation.
d. They are both forms of self-verification.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Candice is not doing very well in her art class but wishes she was a great artist. According to research on self-presentation, when she goes on social networking sites, what is she likely to convey about her artistic abilities?
a. that she is, in fact, a good artist
b. that she is not very good at art
c. that she is not interested in art at all
d. that her best friend is an artist

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The general process by which we control others’ beliefs about us is called
a. self-handicapping. c. self-monitoring.
b. impression management. d. private self-consciousness.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Self-Presentation

OBJ:   3.6A               MSC:  Remembering

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe social comparison theory. When will one engage in upward versus downward comparison?

 

ANS:

Social comparison theory argues that people compare themselves to others in order to obtain an accurate assessment of their own opinions, abilities, and internal states. Social comparison is particularly likely when there are no objective standards for evaluation. When people want to feel good about themselves, they are likely to engage in downward comparison, comparing themselves to others that are slightly inferior or worse off. When people want to improve, they are likely to engage in upward comparison, comparing themselves to others that are slightly superior or better off.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self            OBJ:   3.2D

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Amber and Courtney are sisters. Amber is the oldest and Courtney is the youngest. According to Frank Sulloway’s research on birth order, how might Amber’s and Courtney’s personalities differ? Describe the evolutionary principle that underlies these differences.

 

ANS:

Sibling conflict is common, particularly when resources are scarce. From an evolutionary perspective, one way to reduce this conflict is through diversification, the tendency for siblings to develop different personalities and, therefore, fill different niches within the family. Older siblings, who are larger, typically assert a more powerful role in the family and are invested in the status quo (which tends to benefit them). Thus, older siblings, like Amber, are likely to be assertive and dominant, achievement oriented, and conscientious. Given that this niche is filled, younger siblings must find ways to peacefully coexist and to search out their own places within the family and the world. Thus, younger siblings, like Courtney, are likely to be more agreeable and more open to new experiences and ideas.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self            OBJ:   3.2A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The “Who Are You?” task asks students to write down things that describe who they are. Interesting cultural differences emerge in how students respond. Generate five responses that are characteristic of someone from an independent culture and five responses that are characteristic of someone from an interdependent culture. Then, describe how these responses differ.

 

ANS:

Many responses are acceptable. Those characteristic of someone from an independent culture should be context-free and refer to personality and personal preferences. Those characteristic of someone from an interdependent culture should be context-dependent and refer to relationships.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Origins of the Sense of Self            OBJ:   3.2C

MSC:  Creating

 

  1. Describe differences in self-esteem across independent and interdependent cultures.

 

ANS:

Independent cultures are more concerned with self-esteem than interdependent cultures. This emphasis on self-esteem manifests in many domains, including parenting practices and even story- books. Correspondingly, people in independent cultures tend to have higher levels of self-esteem than those in interdependent cultures. These differences may derive from the situations that members of these cultures are likely to encounter. For example, people in interdependent cultures are encouraged to engage in assisted self-criticism more than those in independent cultures. By contrast, members of independent cultures are praised for their achievements more often. Importantly, however, it is not that people in interdependent cultures feel bad about themselves. Rather, they are focused on other ways of feeling good, for example, by self-improvement and collective goals.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Self-Esteem   OBJ:   3.3B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe Crocker and Wolfe’s contingencies of self-worth account of self-esteem and Leary’s sociometer hypothesis. According to each theory, what is the source of an individual’s level of self-esteem?

 

ANS:

Crocker and Wolfe’s contingencies of self-worth account argues that self-esteem is defined by successes and failures in life domains that are important to the individual. The importance of each life domain, for example, academics, competition, virtue, appearance, and family support, varies across people. In contrast, the sociometer hypothesis argues that self-esteem is based in just one domain, the degree to which the individual is currently being accepted or rejected by others.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Esteem   OBJ:   3.3B               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Challenge the idea that one’s level of self-esteem (high versus low) is the only aspect of self-esteem that relates to well-being or outcomes.

 

ANS:

Other aspects of self-esteem besides level (high versus low) have been linked to important outcomes. For example, individuals who have inflated high self-esteem (i.e., high self-esteem that is not supported by outstanding abilities or accomplishments) have been shown to react in a volatile and even violent fashion to perceived criticisms. In addition, the stability of one’s self-esteem is related to outcomes, particularly for people high in self-esteem. Those with unstable high self-esteem are more reactive to feedback than people with stable high self-esteem (and even people with low self-esteem).

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Esteem   OBJ:   3.3C               MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Imagine that you are a social psychologist and a parent comes to you because he is worried that his child has low self-esteem. Based on your reading, design an intervention to boost the child’s self-esteem. Describe the research/theory that supports your proposed plan.

 

ANS:

Various interventions and supporting research/theories are acceptable. For example, students may consider helping the child notice or build social relationships that involve a high degree of acceptance (e.g., sociometer hypothesis), helping the child to succeed in important life domains or shifting which domains are seen as important (e.g., contingencies of self-worth account), inducing a more interdependent mind-set in the child that is concerned with self-improvement rather than self-esteem, affirming the child is in domains that are not under threat (self-affirmation theory), and directing the child to engage in more downward social comparison (self-evaluation maintenance model).

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Esteem   OBJ:   3.3B               MSC:  Creating

 

  1. According to Taylor and Brown, positive illusions about the self are associated with higher levels of happiness and well-being. Describe two pieces of evidence in support of this prediction, as well as one piece of evidence that challenges it.

 

ANS:

Several research findings are acceptable, including the following: Correlational research demonstrates that well-adjusted people have more positive illusions about themselves. Moreover, Taylor and colleagues’ experimental work finds that people with positive illusions demonstrate a healthier set of coping responses to stressful situations. In contrast, other researchers have found that people with positive illusions about themselves are seen as narcissistic.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation    OBJ:   3.4A

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Describe Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance model. Show how this model is relevant to understanding whom we choose as friends.

 

ANS:

Tesser’s self-evaluation maintenance model argues that people are motivated to view themselves favorably and that they do so through two processes. In areas that are not particularly important

to our self-definition, we engage in reflection, flattering ourselves by associating with others’ accomplishments. That is, we are likely to choose friends who are doing well in their respective fields or activities (as long as we are not trying to succeed in the same area) because we can bask in their reflected glory. Second, when an area is important to our self-definition, we engage in comparison. When we are superior to others, we engage in downward comparison, which makes us feel good about ourselves. So, we are happy to be friends with people we are outperforming. When we are inferior to others, we engage in upward comparison, which makes us feel bad about ourselves. This is particu- larly the case when we are close to the other. So, if a friend is outperforming us in an important life domain, we are likely to either decrease our closeness to this friend or decrease the importance of that life domain.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation    OBJ:   3.4A

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Provide two pieces of evidence that challenge the idea that people always strive to maintain or increase the positivity of their self-views (hint—consider self-verification theory).

 

ANS:

People are not just motivated to maintain or increase the positivity of self-views. Self-verification theory argues that people are also motivated to be seen in ways consistent with how they see themselves. Self-verification enhances feelings of prediction and control. People who have positive self-views indeed prefer and seek out positive feedback. In contrast, people who have more negative self-views seem to prefer and seek out more negative feedback. Research supports this perspective, showing, for example, that people with negative self-views are more likely to attend to and remember negative feedback, and even prefer to interact with negative evaluators.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Motives Driving Self-Evaluation    OBJ:   3.4B

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. Explain self-discrepancy theory and the various “selves” to which this theory refers. Then discuss how discrepant “selves” could influence an individual’s well-being.

 

ANS:

Self-discrepancy theory argues that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce the discrepancy between the actual self and both the ideal and ought selves. The actual self is the self that people believe they are. The ideal self embodies people’s wishes and aspirations, while the ought self is concerned with the duties, obligations, and external demands people feel compelled to honor. Well-being suffers when there is a discrepancy between these selves. If there is an actual-ideal discrepancy, people tend to feel dejection-related emotions such as disappointment and shame. If there is an actual-ought discrepancy, people tend to feel agitation-related emotions such as guilt and anxiety.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior

OBJ:   3.5A               MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Explain the concept of ego depletion, and give two examples of situations in which this could occur.

 

ANS:

Ego depletion is a state produced by acts of self-regulation, in which people lack the energy or resources to engage in further acts of self-regulation. Several examples of situations that produce ego depletion are acceptable, including physical exercise, emotion regulation, and squeezing a hand grip.

 

DIF:    Moderate        REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior

OBJ:   3.5B               MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Compare automatic and deliberate (controlled) forms of self-regulation.

 

ANS:

We are conscious of deliberate or controlled forms of self-regulation. Although deliberate self- regulation is self-directed, and often effective, it requires energy or effort. Thus, if an individual engages in an act of deliberate self-regulation, he or she may experience ego-depletion, a state in which the individual lacks the energy or resources to engage in further acts of self-control. Automatic forms of self-regulation occur outside of conscious awareness. For example, being presented with a temptation may serve to unconsciously prime the long-term goal with which it is associated. Corres- pondingly, the individual is likely to behave in goal-directed ways (e.g., cookies priming your goal to eat healthy).

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Regulation: Motivating and Controlling Behavior

OBJ:   3.5C               MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Define impression management and explain how self-monitoring and self-handicapping are related to this concept.

 

ANS:

Impression management refers to our attempts to control the impressions other people form about us. Self-monitoring is the tendency to monitor one’s behavior to fit the current situation. When self- monitoring, one shifts self-presentation to fit the prevailing context, thereby controlling others’ impressions. Self-handicapping is the tendency to engage in self-defeating behavior in order to have an excuse ready in case of poor performance or failure. That is, one may control the favorable impres- sion of others by being able to blame failure on the self-defeating behavior rather than on one’s lack of ability or smarts.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Presentation                            OBJ:   3.6A

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe potential costs of engaging in self-presentation. That is, how could attempts to maintain the favorable impression of others negatively impact our health or well-being? Give two examples.

 

ANS:

If healthy practices are embarrassing or damage the public image we are trying to present, we are less likely to engage in them. Many examples are acceptable, such as the following: People are often embarrassed about buying condoms and are, therefore, less likely to do so. Relatedly, embarrassment about their weight may prevent obese individuals from exercising or seeking medication. Concerns about looking attractive may induce people to sunbathe excessively or get plastic surgery. Moreover, adolescents are likely to engage in risky behaviors such as drinking and doing drugs to cultivate social approval.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Self-Presentation                            OBJ:   3.6A

MSC:  Evaluating