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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

 

World Politics Interests Interactions Institutions 2nd Edition By Jeffry A. -David A- Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 1

What Shaped Our World?

Concept Map

  1. Introduction
  2. Mercantilism

III.  British Hegemony

  1. Emergence of the Modern State
  2. Nineteenth-Century Politics
  3. Trade
  4. Gold Standard
  5. Colonial Imperialism
  6. The Thirty Years’ Crisis
  7. Twentieth-Century History
  8. World War I
  9. Interwar Period
  10. World War II
  11. The Cold War
  12. Superpowers
  13. Bloc Consolidation
  14. Bretton Woods
  15. Decolonization
  16. Developing World
  17. Post–Cold War
  18. End of the Cold War
  19. Economic Developments
  20. New Challenges

VII.  The Future

Multiple Choice

  1. A person born in Europe during the early 1800s and surviving into adulthood experienced which of the following?
  2. The breakup of European empires.
  3. The economic depression and stagnant economic growth.
  4. Constant large-scale war between great powers.
  5. A period of expanding democracy.
  6. A period of rapid economic growth.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 3  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Factual

  1. The world as a meaningful political and economic unit emerged:
  2. when the Roman Republic first became the Roman Empire.
  3. with the first successful unification of China.
  4. sometime after 1500.
  5. during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  6. after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 5  TOP: Emergence of the Modern State MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of mercantilism?
  2. The Spanish monarchy’s control of the gold and silver mines in Latin American colonies.
  3. The Dutch East Indies Company.
  4. European countries preferring to import only input goods and not finished products.
  5. Virginian tobacco farmers selling their product to England.
  6. Britain’s repeal of the Corn Laws.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 5–6  TOP: Mercantilism MSC: Applied

  1. Under mercantilism, a country wishing to expand would best start by:
  2. forming a common market, or mercantile, among countries in the region.
  3. encouraging its colonial territories to produce finished products.
  4. withdrawing its diplomats from its adversaries’ capitals.
  5. building up its military power.
  6. creating equitable terms of trade with its economic rivals.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 5–6  TOP: Mercantilism MSC: Conceptual

  1. Terms of trade refers to:
  2. the economic demands made by empires on their colonies.
  3. the contracts written up between importers and exporters to eliminate misunderstandings between trading partners.
  4. the level of difficulty of transporting goods between different countries.
  5. the vocabulary used by importers and exporters.
  6. the prices paid by a country for imports and what it receives its for exports.

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 6  TOP: Mercantilism MSC: Factual

  1. Mercantilist policies in Britain’s American colonies:
  2. cost Southern tobacco farmers less than the average American farmer.
  3. cost much more per American than the benefits they received from Britain.
  4. cost Americans much less than the benefits they received from the British.
  5. created costs that were evenly shared by all colonists.
  6. were a relatively small burden per person, considering the overall cost to Britain of protecting the colonies.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 5–6  TOP: Mercantilism MSC: Factual

  1. With which statement would a mercantilist disagree?
  2. “Wealth is power, and power is wealth.”
  3. “Foreign trade produces riches, riches produce power, and power preserves our trade and religion.”
  4. “Our colonies depend on our navy, our trade depends on our colonies, and our trade allows the state to maintain armies, increase the population, and provide for ever more glorious and useful functions.”
  5. “The colonies held by European powers are burdensome.”
  6. “State-sanctioned monopolies are healthy for the economy.”

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 6  TOP: Mercantilism | British Hegemony MSC: Applied

  1. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648:
  2. established British hegemony.
  3. marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
  4. marked the beginning of the modern system of states.
  5. promoted the Industrial Revolution.
  6. created equitable terms of trade.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 8  TOP: Emergence of the Modern State MSC: Factual

  1. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 did NOT:
  2. stabilize the borders of participants in the Thirty Years’ War.
  3. attempt to resolve any of the religious conflicts between states.
  4. call on states not to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries.
  5. establish sovereignty of states.
  6. make war illegal.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 8  TOP: Emergence of the Modern State MSC: Factual

  1. The sixteenth through eighteenth centuries were characterized by
  2. European states trying to overpower each other.
  3. peace and the dominance of one major European power.
  4. peace and the dominance of a few European powers.
  5. the rise of non-European powers through colonialism.
  6. liberalization of trading policies amongst European and African states

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 10  TOP: Mercantilism MSC: Applied

  1. The great European powers cooperated more and fought less during the nineteenth century, in part because of:
  2. the invention of new weapons that made war more costly.
  3. international institutions that prevented wars from occurring.
  4. the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
  5. the unification of Germany.
  6. increasingly free trade between countries.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 10–12  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Applied

  1. During the nineteenth century, the Great Powers of Europe had a common interest in:
  2. opposing revolutionary movements throughout Europe.
  3. allowing Russia to conquer neighboring parts of the declining Ottoman Empire.
  4. promoting democracy throughout Europe.
  5. continuing their own mercantilist practices.
  6. opposing absolutist monarchies throughout Europe.

ANS: A DIF: Medium REF: Pages 10–12  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Applied

  1. When European colonialism began in the sixteenth century:
  2. the largest cities in the world were all found in Europe.
  3. the colonizers benefited from rapid industrialization.
  4. European technology was centuries ahead of anywhere else in the world.
  5. Europeans though of Asia as being filled with powerful rivals.
  6. economic activity in the rest of the world was stagnant.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 9  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of these countries had global hegemonic influence in the nineteenth century?
  2. Japan.
  3. England.
  4. The United States.
  5. France.
  6. Spain.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 12  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Factual

  1. A major change in the balance of power within nineteenth-century Europe was spurred by:
  2. the unification and growth of Germany.
  3. the unification of China.
  4. the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
  5. the war between Russia and Japan.
  6. the withdrawal of England from active intervention in European politics.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 11  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Factual

  1. In the nineteenth century, England promoted international economic stability by:
  2. building up its army, rather than its navy.
  3. withdrawing from active intervention in world politics.
  4. refusing to repeal the Corn Laws.
  5. going off the gold standard frequently.
  6. leading the world in promoting free trade.

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Pages 11–12  TOP: British Hegemony MSC: Applied

  1. The Corn Laws:
  2. were British labor regulations for farmers.
  3. were mandates on household consumption of grain in Britain.
  4. were British tax credits for manufactured goods.
  5. were British tariffs on imported grain.
  6. created poverty reduction programs for British agricultural workers.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 12  TOP: Mercantilism | Trade MSC: Factual

  1. All of the following led to increasingly globalized world trade in the nineteenth century EXCEPT:
  2. use of steamships.
  3. growth of railroads.
  4. creation of new colonies in Africa.
  5. invention of the telegraph.
  6. adoption of the gold standard.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 11–12  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Applied

  1. A country “on” the gold standard:
  2. could print as much paper money as it needed.
  3. used only gold to make purchases.
  4. used only gold coins.
  5. promised to exchange its currency for gold at an established rate.
  6. had its loans from other countries guaranteed by gold.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 13  TOP: Gold Standard MSC: Factual

  1. What did NOT increase under Pax Brittanica?
  2. Investment.
  3. Immigration.
  4. International trade.
  5. The capacity for communication.
  6. Wars among the major European powers.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 10  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements regarding colonialism is NOT true?
  2. Colonial expansion by European countries renewed significantly after 1870.
  3. Nationalist sentiment within European countries encouraged colonialism.
  4. European countries had colonized all parts of Africa by 1890.
  5. Europeans’ desire for more markets and resources contributed to the rush for colonies.
  6. Rising major powers such as Germany and Japan sparked competition for colonies.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 13–14  TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics MSC: Applied

  1. By the early twentieth century, the balance of power between major countries was most affected by:
  2. the continued isolation of Japan.
  3. the rise of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
  4. the rise of the Ottoman Empire.
  5. the persistent isolation of the United States.
  6. the unification of Germany.

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 15  TOP: Twentieth-Century History MSC: Factual

  1. After World War I:
  2. the German economy rebounded relatively quickly.
  3. the United Nations was created to avoid another war.
  4. the League of Nations was created to avoid another war.
  5. few new countries became independent.
  6. the Austrian and Ottoman empires survived until the next war.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 20  TOP: Interwar Period MSC: Factual

  1. A consequence of World War I was:
  2. the consolidation of European empires.
  3. rapid decolonization of areas of the British and French empires.
  4. deflation in the largest European economies.
  5. a successful Communist revolution in Russia.
  6. decreasing support for right-wing groups in Italy.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 20  TOP: World War I MSC: Factual

  1. With regard to the “war debts–reparations tangle”:
  2. France and England stopped insisting that Germany repay its loans.
  3. France and England insisted that the United States repay loans made before World War I.
  4. the United States stopped insisting that France and England repay loans made during World War I.
  5. the United States insisted that the French and Germans repay loans made during World War I.
  6. Germany had no difficulty paying the reparations it agreed to at the conclusion of World War I.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 21  TOP: Interwar Period MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following did NOT characterize the interwar period?
  2. The United States dramatically increased liberalization throughout the globe.
  3. France and Germany clashed diplomatically.
  4. Russia became isolated.
  5. The Austro-Hungarian empire dissolved into a series of small states.
  6. The French and British were weaker after the war.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Pages 20–21  TOP: Interwar Period MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following increased during the Great Depression?
  2. Economic activity.
  3. Protectionism.
  4. Industrial production.
  5. Liberalization.
  6. Globalization.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 21  TOP: Interwar Period MSC: Factual

  1. After World War II, the United States and Western Europe:
  2. increased tariffs and other forms of protection.
  3. sought to create a single, common market between the two regions.
  4. sought to increase their security through the Warsaw Pact.
  5. rejected calls to return to a gold standard–based currency system.
  6. collaborated in implementing the Bretton Woods system.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 23  TOP: Bloc Consolidation MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is NOT an explanation for the commencement of the Cold War?
  2. The United Nations was immediately viewed as a pro–United States organization, so the Soviet Union refused to cooperate at all with it.
  3. Since there were only two superpowers, it was inevitable that they would compete for influence in Europe.
  4. Disagreements were inevitable between a capitalist democracy and a communist one-party system.
  5. Interactions between the United States and the Soviet Union became hostile and suspicious.
  6. Each viewed the other as a threat to its allies in Europe.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 22–24  TOP: Bloc Consolidation MSC: Conceptual

  1. As the Cold War began, the United States opposed Soviet influence by all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. creating regional security alliances.
  3. providing economic aid to Western Europe.
  4. helping Japan and Germany rebuild their economies.
  5. promoting free trade among Western countries.
  6. providing military aid to countries in Eastern Europe.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 23–24  TOP: Bloc Consolidation MSC: Applied

  1. The United States and its allies created international institutions at the end of World War II:
  2. because World War II had ended inconclusively.
  3. in response to institutions created by the Soviet Union.
  4. in order to create a stable free-trade economic system.
  5. to increase control over their colonies.
  6. because international institutions had been effective before the war.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 23  TOP: Bloc Consolidation MSC: Conceptual

  1. The Bretton Woods system sought to reduce protection on goods exchanged between countries with the:
  2. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.
  3. International Monetary Fund.
  4. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
  5. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance.
  6. Marshall Plan.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 23  TOP: Bretton Woods MSC: Factual

  1. After World War II, the Bretton Woods–based economic system:
  2. tied participating currencies to the U.S. dollar.
  3. reduced commitments to social welfare programs.
  4. reduced the scope of unemployment insurance.
  5. increased the level of trade barriers in the developing world.
  6. allowed for floating currency regimes.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 24  TOP: Bretton Woods MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following institutions is a member of the Bretton Woods system?
  2. European Union.
  3. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  4. United Nations.
  5. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
  6. International Monetary Fund.

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 24  TOP: Bretton Woods MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements about nuclear weapons is true?
  2. The Soviet Union initially had more nuclear weapons than the United States.
  3. Nuclear weapons were ultimately unimportant in the Cold War competition between the Soviet Union and United States.
  4. There was never a real possibility that the United States or the Soviet Union would use their nuclear weapons.
  5. The Soviet Union did not have enough nuclear weapons to attack the United States or its allies.
  6. The United States and the Soviet Union’s nuclear capabilities effectively prevented both countries from attacking each other.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 25  TOP: Bloc Consolidation MSC: Factual

  1. In the decades after World War II the Soviet Union did all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. create a military alliance with countries in Eastern Europe.
  3. promote economic cooperation between its own allies.
  4. establish military cooperation with China.
  5. oppose the independence of colonies in the developing world.
  6. compete with the United States for allies in the developing world.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 24–26  TOP: Bloc Consolidation MSC: Applied

  1. Why did the United States fight “proxy wars” during the Cold War?
  2. Since it did not have the military capability to launch a direct attack on the Soviet Union, the United States attacked Soviet allies.
  3. The conflict in Vietnam proved the effectiveness of indirect attacks on Soviet allies.
  4. The United States thought fighting wars “by proxy” would be cheaper.
  5. The United States hoped it could surprise the Soviet Union by not directly attacking it.
  6. The United States feared a devastating war if it directly attacked the Soviet Union.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 27  TOP: Decolonization MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following statements about United States intervention during the Cold War is true?
  2. The United States refused to intervene in democratic countries.
  3. The United States used its military and intelligence services to undermine only governments under the direct control of the Soviet Union.
  4. The United States used its military and intelligence services to prevent countries from electing governments who were sympathetic to the Soviet Union.
  5. The United States rarely intervened in civil conflicts outside its own borders, because it respected the sovereignty of other countries.
  6. The United States rarely used its military and intelligence services in Asia, because it feared retaliation from the Soviet Union.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 26  TOP: Decolonization MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements about Soviet intervention during the Cold War is true?
  2. The Soviet Union rarely intervened in civil conflicts outside its own borders. because it was focused on winning the nuclear arms race.
  3. The Soviet Union refused to send its military to intervene in European countries such as Hungary and Czechoslovakia, because it feared retaliation from the United States.
  4. The Soviet Union intervened only in countries with socialist or Marxist governments, since they were already Soviet allies.
  5. The Soviet Union rarely intervened in the developing world, because it thought poor countries were likely to become communist without Soviet help.
  6. The Soviet Union sent arms and advisors to many developing countries in hopes of helping sympathetic groups seize power.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 24  TOP: Decolonization MSC: Applied

  1. The Soviet Union used its military power to preserve or extend its influence in all of the following cases EXCEPT:
  2. Hungary in 1956.
  3. France in 1971.
  4. Czechoslovakia in 1968.
  5. Afghanistan in 1979.
  6. Vietnam in 1965.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 26–27  TOP: Decolonization MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following factors did NOT encourage decolonization?
  2. The major powers began to implement favorable trade and investment policies that led to economic development in their colonies.
  3. American businesses hoped they would have more access to markets in developing countries.
  4. Nationalist movements became stronger.
  5. Since the Soviet Union was known to be anticolonial, Americans feared colonialism would make African and Asian countries involved in independence movements become Soviet allies.
  6. World War II weakened the European colonial powers.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Pages 27–28  TOP: Decolonization MSC: Conceptual

  1. Developing countries created the nonaligned movement during the Cold War because:
  2. they opposed communist expansion in the Third World.
  3. they wanted to create closer ties with the Soviet Union.
  4. they wanted to create closer ties with the United States.
  5. they wanted to promote international economic development.
  6. they wanted to build upon their previous successes in embargoing industrial goods.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 28  TOP: Developing World MSC: Conceptual

  1. During the Cold War, developing countries:
  2. were more concerned about the spread of communism than the gap in wealth between industrialized and developing countries.
  3. sought to separate themselves from the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union.
  4. inevitably had to choose between allying with the United States or the Soviet Union.
  5. were often effective at improving the terms of trade between industrialized and developing countries.
  6. created effective cartels like the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries for other raw materials, such as copper and bananas.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 28  TOP: Developing World MSC: Applied

  1. Colonial powers resisted the independence of the following EXCEPT:
  2. British India.
  3. British Kenya.
  4. French Algeria.
  5. Dutch East Indies.
  6. the Soviet Union.

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: Page 28

TOP: Decolonization MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is an example of détente between the United States and the Soviet Union?
  2. The Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact.
  3. The Soviet Union put missiles in Cuba.
  4. The Soviet Union blocked access to Berlin.
  5. The United States agreed to limit its military weapons.
  6. The United States sent troops to Vietnam.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 29

TOP: End of the Cold War MSC: Applied

  1. The end of the Cold War was preceded by which event in the previous decade?
  2. Decreased military spending by the United States.
  3. Increased Soviet repression in Eastern Europe.
  4. Increased Soviet troops in Afghanistan in 1979.
  5. Policies of greater openness and economic reconstruction in the Soviet Union.
  6. Economic recovery in the Soviet Union.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 30  TOP: End of the Cold War MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following is an example of a free-trade area?
  2. World Trade Organization.
  3. European Union.
  4. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  5. African Union.
  6. Warsaw Pact.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 31  TOP: Post–Cold War: Economic Developments MSC: Applied

  1. Why would some countries after World War II form what would become the European Union?
  2. To fend off intervention by the United States in Europe.
  3. To improve relations with the Soviet Union.
  4. To increase tariffs on goods entering Europe.
  5. To increase trade and improve economic cooperation within Europe.
  6. To increase trade between European countries and their former colonies.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 31  TOP: Post–Cold War: Economic Developments  MSC: Conceptual

  1. The European Union:
  2. began in the 1950s, with collaboration on coal and steel production between a few countries.
  3. began in the 1960s, with a military alliance between France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.
  4. opted to allow most members to keep their traditional currencies, such as the French franc.
  5. raised barriers to impede the internal movement of labor among the member nations.
  6. included all European countries by the end of the 1990s.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 31  TOP: Post–Cold War: Economic Developments MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements about Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990 is true?
  2. The United States acted unilaterally when responding to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.
  3. The 1991 war against Iraq revealed the ineffectiveness of the United Nations in coordinating military responses to violations of international law.
  4. Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait by forces from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
  5. A large coalition of countries led by the United States invaded Iraq to end its occupation of Kuwait.
  6. A large coalition of countries under the auspices of the United Nations expelled Iraqi forces from Kuwait.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 32  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Applied

  1. Which statement best describes China and Vietnam in the early 1980s?
  2. Both countries strengthened their Communist economic systems.
  3. Both countries abandoned one-party rule.
  4. Both countries adopted capitalist economic reforms.
  5. China adopted capitalist economic reforms, but Vietnam did not.
  6. Vietnam maintained its one-party system, but China did not.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 32  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Factual

  1. In the 1990s, the United Nations:
  2. sent troops to Rwanda to mediate an end to a civil war in that country.
  3. launched air strikes against Bosnian Serbian forces in the former Yugoslavia.
  4. prevented the massacre of 8,000 Bosnian boys and men in the Srebrenica “safe area.”
  5. opposed the use of force against Iraq after that country invaded Kuwait.
  6. supported the use of force against Iraq to ensure that country stopped producing weapons of mass destruction.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 32  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements about the 2003 war with Iraq is true?
  2. The formation of the “coalition of the willing” to invade Iraq was a repudiation of traditional power politics.
  3. The war showed the effectiveness of the United Nations in coordinating military responses to violations of international law.
  4. Because the United States acted without the approval of the United Nations, the invasion marked a move toward American unilateralism.
  5. The invasion of Iraq marked a move by the United States away from unilateral foreign policy decisions.
  6. A “coalition of the willing” organized by the United Nations invaded Iraq to eliminate its weapons of mass destruction.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 33  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Applied

  1. Recent nonstate actors include all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. human rights organizations.
  3. terrorist organizations.
  4. labor-rights networks.
  5. regional economic agreements.
  6. environmental organizations.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 33  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Factual

  1. With regard to international institutions:
  2. nonstate actors have had little impact on international politics recently.
  3. international organizations have become less common in the current era.
  4. organizations like the United Nations have avoided becoming more involved in military conflicts since the end of the Cold War.
  5. the number of non-state groups has increased rapidly in the past two decades
  6. major powers are never forced to work with international institutions.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 33  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following is a good description of international politics twenty years after the end of the Cold War?
  2. The United States is unable to match the military spending of its chief rivals.
  3. The prospect of armed hostilities between the world’s major powers looms.
  4. There is a unipolar international political system led by the United States.
  5. There is a multipolar world divided between two great blocs.
  6. There has been a significant lessening of ethno-religious conflicts.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 34  TOP: Post–Cold War: New Challenges MSC: Applied

Essay

  1. States’ interests affect how they interact with one another. Explain how states’ interests in the nineteenth century led to less conflict between major powers in Europe.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Nineteenth-Century Politics

  1. How does mercantilism view the relationship between wealth and power? How does liberalism view this relationship? Which view is more persuasive? Why?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Mercantilism

  1. Why did major-power interests and interactions result in a peaceful nineteenth century, but a conflict-ridden twentieth century?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: British Hegemony | The Thirty Years’ Crisis | The Cold War

  1. World War I was supposed to be “the war to end all wars,” yet another catastrophic war occurred only two decades later. Explain how the League of Nations and major powers’ interests failed to prevent World War II.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: World War II

  1. How did the economic, political, and military interests of the major powers evolve over the course of the twentieth century?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Twentieth-Century History

  1. The victors in World War II created international institutions at the conclusion of the war to promote their own interests and to prevent future wars. Explain why they created these institutions, and how the institutions have affected the interaction of major countries during the Cold War.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: The Cold War

  1. The end of the Cold War presented new possibilities for the role of institutions such as the United Nations. How did the United Nations prevent conflict and promote cooperation after the Cold War ended?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Post–Cold War

  1. Many institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, were created by powerful countries to promote their own economic interests. Explain how and why developing countries have attempted to reform the international economy through their own organizations.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Developing World

  1. Will United States predominance continue for the next fifty years? Why or why not? What challenges does the United States face in the short term?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: The Future

  1. Are states likely to remain the most important actors in world politics in the next fifty years? What actors are likely to gain relevance at the expense of states?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Post–Cold War: Economic Developments

 

Chapter 3

Why Are There Wars?

Concept Map

  1. Introduction
  2. War
  3. Purpose of War
  4. Why Fight?
  5. Bargaining and War
  6. Compellence
  7. Deterrence

III.  Incomplete Information

  1. Resolve
  2. Credibility
  3. Coercion
  4. Brinkmanship
  5. Audience Costs
  6. Paying for Power
  7. Commitment Problems
  8. Future Bargaining
  9. Prevention
  10. Preemption
  11. Indivisible Goods
  12. Preventing War
  13. Costs
  14. Transparency
  15. Outside Enforcement
  16. Dividing Indivisibility

Multiple Choice

  1. Which is true of World War I?
  2. Leaders expected the war to be the longest war in history.
  3. Leaders thought the war would be average length and prepared for it.
  4. Leaders expected the war to be short.
  5. The war itself was mostly characterized by inactivity.
  6. The war claimed more lives than any other war in human history.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 81  TOP: War MSC: Factual

  1. What is perplexing about the Mexican-American war?
  2. That the United States wanted the southwest territories in the first place.
  3. That Mexico valued the territories beyond $25 million
  4. That the United States won the war.
  5. That the two states did not find a bargain to avoid the costs of war.
  6. That the United States only paid $15 million at the end of the dispute.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 82  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Applied

  1. Given the strict definition of war, all of the following are wars EXCEPT a conflict between:
  2. North Korea and South Korea in which 1,700 soldiers are killed.
  3. Peru and Ecuador in which 1,500 soldiers are killed.
  4. Rwanda and Congo in which 900 soldiers are killed.
  5. Honduras and El Salvador in which 1,000 soldiers are killed.
  6. India and Pakistan in which 2,000 soldiers are killed.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Page 84  TOP: War MSC: Factual

  1. Which is an example of interstate war?
  2. A government committing acts of genocide against an ethnic group, where several thousand civilians are killed.
  3. A government fighting a well armed rebel group within its territory, where several thousand soldiers have died on the battlefield.
  4. Two governments fighting each other, where several hundred soldiers have died on the battlefield.
  5. Two governments fighting each other, where several thousand soldiers have died on the battlefield.
  6. A government engaged in counter-insurgency activity against an international group that employs terrorism, in which several thousand people on both sides of the conflict have died.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 84  TOP: Purpose of War MSC: Applied

  1. What is NOT a broad school of thought that offers a causal explanation as to why war occurs?
  2. Realism.
  3. Bargaining theory.
  4. Misperceptions and mistakes by actors can lead to war between states.
  5. Leaders are irrational.
  6. Substate actors disproportionally benefit from war, do not bear the costs of war, and drive policy towards war.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 84–85  TOP: Purpose of War MSC: Conceptual

  1. Why do states fight wars?
  2. Most states are inherently aggressive.
  3. They have a conflict over something they value more than the cost of war and are unable to come to an agreement short of war.
  4. They have too much information about other states and realize they could win.
  5. War restores the status quo.
  6. They disagree over the rules of war.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 86  TOP: Why Fight? MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following is the most common reason a state would go to war?
  2. Two states claim the same territory.
  3. A state resents another state’s high tariffs on its imports.
  4. The populations of two states are composed of two conflicting ethnic groups.
  5. A state wants a neighboring state to change into a democratic government.
  6. A state thinks another state is cheating on an arms-reduction agreement.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 86  TOP: Why Fight? MSC: Applied

  1. States have conflicts over territory for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
  2. the population of one state has ethnic ties to land controlled by another state.
  3. the land in dispute has large oil reserves that either state could use.
  4. the states depend primarily on agricultural production.
  5. the land includes access to a river that is important for regional trade.
  6. a key mountain pass in the territory would make invasion of either state easier.

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: Pages 86–87  TOP: Why Fight? MSC: Applied

  1. Why would a state use war to change another state’s policies?
  2. War is the only way to change another state’s foreign policy.
  3. War is the first option considered by many states.
  4. The other state would not expect an attack because of its policies, so the war would be successful.
  5. One state’s policies significantly harm another state’s important interests.
  6. War is a quicker way to resolve disputes than waiting for international organizations to send peacekeepers.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Page 87  TOP: Why Fight? MSC: Conceptual

  1. Why would a state go to war to change another state’s regime?
  2. A state would not attempt to change another state’s regime, because that would be a violation of its sovereignty.
  3. International law allows states to attack another state whose government makes threats against its neighbors.
  4. War is the only way democratic states can change authoritarian regimes into representative governments.
  5. States will use war, when possible, to remove a regime in another country that is hostile to it.
  6. A state would change a regime that refused to trade with other states.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 88  TOP: Why Fight? MSC: Conceptual

  1. When two states decide to bargain:
  2. they agree to divide the disputed good equally.
  3. they will both end up better off than if they had not agreed to bargain.
  4. both are inherently agreeing to reject taking intransigent, “all or nothing,” positions while negotiating.
  5. both are inherently agreeing to reject the option of going to war over the conflict.
  6. one state might end up giving in to all of the demands of the other.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 89  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following describes a crisis?
  2. A state rejects an international agreement that most other states have ratified.
  3. A state threatens military force to achieve its bargaining goals.
  4. Two states decide to bargain over territory that both claim.
  5. A weaker state has to bargain with a stronger state.
  6. International organizations have to mediate a dispute between two states.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 89  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Factual

  1. Crisis bargaining is also known as:
  2. deterrence
  3. credible commitment
  4. rejecting ideal points
  5. interstate war
  6. coercive diplomacy

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 89  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Factual

  1. A state that provokes a crisis would most prefer:
  2. to go to war to achieve its goals.
  3. that the other state capitulate completely.
  4. that the other side agree to negotiations over the dispute.
  5. that an international organization would agree to mediate the dispute.
  6. that a more powerful country intervene in the dispute.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 117  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Applied

Use the following figure to answer questions 15–17.

 

  1. In the figure, what set of deals does A prefer to war?
  2. Those to the left of p − a.
  3. Those to the right of p − a.
  4. Those between p − a and p + b.
  5. Those to the left of p + b.
  6. Those to the right of p + b.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Page 90 (Figure 3.2)  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Applied

  1. In the figure, what set of deals does B prefer to war?
  2. Those to the left of p − a.
  3. Those to the right of p − a.
  4. Those between p − a and p + b.
  5. Those to the left of p + b.
  6. Those to the right of p + b.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 90 (Figure 3.2)  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Applied

  1. In the figure, what is the bargaining range?
  2. The distance to the left of p − a.
  3. The distance to the right of p − a.
  4. The distance between p − a and p + b.
  5. The distance to the left of p + b.
  6. The distance to the right of p + b.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 90 (Figure 3.2)  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Applied

  1. A state’s preferred outcome or settlement of a dispute is known as:
  2. an ideal point.
  3. a crisis.
  4. a bargain.
  5. coercion.
  6. diplomacy.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 90  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Factual

  1. Why would a state agree to a dispute settlement it did not like?
  2. It wants to win sympathy from other states.
  3. An international organization forced the state to accept the settlement.
  4. It lost its case in the World Court and had to comply with the decision.
  5. The cost of going to war over the dispute would be more costly than accepting the settlement.
  6. It expects the other side to reconsider and agree to a better deal.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 91  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following accurately describes the “bargaining range”?
  2. The possible outcomes that states can agree to without going to war over a dispute.
  3. The number of demands a state makes in a crisis.
  4. The types of demands a state makes in a crisis.
  5. The number of actors involved in a dispute.
  6. The amount of territory states claim in a dispute.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 91  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following statements about compellence is true?
  2. Compellence is an effort to preserve the status quo by threatening to use force.
  3. Compellence is an effort to force other actors to accept international mediation.
  4. Compellence is an effort to change the status quo by threatening to use force.
  5. Compellence is the effort to force other actors to fulfill their alliance obligations.
  6. Compellence is the effort to create an effective international peace agreement.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 92–93  TOP: Compellence MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is an example of compellence?
  2. The Soviet Union refusing to return control of the Kurile Islands to Japan.
  3. The United States invading the Dominican Republic in response to a military coup.
  4. The Soviet Union invading Afghanistan in order to support its allies in the Afghan government.
  5. The Soviet Union threatening to attack Europe.
  6. The United States threatening Cuba if it did not remove Soviet missiles during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 92–93  TOP: Compellence MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements about deterrence is true?
  2. Deterrence is an effort to preserve the status quo by threatening to use force.
  3. Deterrence is an effort to force other actors to accept international mediation.
  4. Deterrence is an effort to change the status quo by threatening to use force.
  5. Deterrence is the effort to force other actors to fulfill their alliance obligations.
  6. Deterrence is the effort to create an effective international peace agreement.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 92–93  TOP: Deterrence MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following is an example of deterrence?
  2. The Soviet Union cutting off trade with Western countries so that they could not use economic sanctions as leverage in arms agreements.
  3. The United States threatening to attack Iraq if it does not destroy its weapons of mass destruction.
  4. The Soviet Union placing missiles in Cuba so that it could threaten the United States.
  5. The United States threatening to increase tariffs on another country’s imports if that country first increases tariffs on U.S. products.
  6. China attacking when the United States sent its troops into North Korea during the Korean War.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 92–93  TOP: Deterrence MSC: Applied

  1. How is extended deterrence different from general deterrence?
  2. Extended deterrence continues for a long time.
  3. Extended deterrence applies to a large amount of territory.
  4. Extended deterrence applies to a state’s allies rather than the state itself.
  5. Extended deterrence applies to a country’s economic, political, and military infrastructure.
  6. Extended deterrence became possible only after the development of nuclear weapons.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 93  TOP: Deterrence MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following is an example of extended deterrence?
  2. The United States threatened to attack Moscow if the Soviet Union attacked West Germany.
  3. The United States threatened to retaliate with nuclear weapons if the Soviet Union attacked New York.
  4. West Germany threatened to attack East Germany if the Soviet Union tried to block the railroads and highways connecting West Germany to West Berlin.
  5. France obtained its own nuclear weapons, so that it could retaliate if the Soviet Union attacked Paris.
  6. China threatened to attack if the United States entered China from North Korea.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 93  TOP: Deterrence MSC: Applied

  1. In the case of the threat by the United States to attack Afghanistan in 2001, the status quo was:
  2. the attack by the United States on Afghanistan.
  3. Taliban control of Afghanistan.
  4. the United Nations approving an attack on Afghanistan.
  5. a continuing insurgency after the war.
  6. the defeat of the Taliban.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: Page 97  TOP: Bargaining and War MSC: Applied

  1. All of the following were reasons for Iraq to invade Kuwait in 1990 EXCEPT:
  2. Iraq’s economy was devastated by its war with Iran.
  3. Kuwait was pumping more oil than the limit it had agreed to, which decreased the price for Iraq’s oil.
  4. Iraq claimed Kuwait was pumping Iraqi oil near the border between the two countries.
  5. Kuwait refused to forgive the loans that it had made to Iraq.
  6. a fundamentalist Islamic group was on the verge of taking control of Kuwait’s government.

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Pages 97–98  TOP: Incomplete Information MSC: Factual

  1. How did incomplete information cause Kuwait to make a mistake when Iraq threatened to attack in 1990?
  2. Kuwait did not have diplomatic relations with Iraq and therefore did not have an opportunity to make concessions to Iraq.
  3. Kuwait did not know that Saddam Hussein was willing to wage war and decided not to make sufficient concessions.
  4. Kuwait did not know that Saddam Hussein had moved many of his troops to the border between Iraq and Kuwait.
  5. Kuwait had decided to make the concessions that Saddam Hussein wanted, but the message to Iraq was not properly sent by Kuwaiti bureaucrats.
  6. Kuwait did not know that the United States would come to its aid if a war were to occur.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 97–98  TOP: Incomplete Information MSC: Applied

  1. All of the following are reasons that it is difficult to know how likely an adversary is to go to war EXCEPT:
  2. information is often incomplete.
  3. many actors have private information.
  4. determining the capability of an adversary is difficult.
  5. keeping international organizations from getting involved in disputes is difficult.
  6. discerning the resolve of an opponent is difficult.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: Pages 100–103  TOP: Resolve MSC: Conceptual

  1. A state’s capabilities comprise all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. the number of troops that a state can mobilize.
  3. the quality of its armaments.
  4. its willingness to suffer many battle deaths in order to win a war.
  5. its economic resources.
  6. the number of other states that will ally with the state.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 101  TOP: Resolve MSC: Factual

  1. A state’s resolve consists of:
  2. the length of time it has spent negotiating with its opponents.
  3. the outcome of protracted negotiations.
  4. the superiority of its armaments.
  5. the quality of its military leadership.
  6. the willingness of a state to bear the costs of war in order to achieve its goal.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 99  TOP: Resolve MSC: Factual

  1. Which is the best definition of total war?
  2. A state mobilizes its entire military and economic resources.
  3. Most of the states in the world are involved in the war.
  4. Most of the states in one region are involved in the war.
  5. The war lasts more than three years.
  6. The war results in at least 1,000 battle deaths.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 95  TOP: Resolve MSC: Factual

  1. Why is resolve difficult to measure?
  2. Resolve depends on the intervention of international organizations.
  3. Resolve depends on the quality of a state’s military training.
  4. Resolve depends on how much a state is willing to pay and risk to achieve a particular goal.
  5. Resolve depends on how much a state trusts the other side.
  6. Resolve depends on how well a state can obscure facts about its armies from opponents.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 99–100  TOP: Resolve MSC: Conceptual

  1. A risk-return trade-off is the idea that:
  2. there is always a risk to selling weapons to other states.
  3. states can get the best deal by threatening all-out war with another state.
  4. states can minimize the chance of war by exchanging diplomatic missions.
  5. states can reduce the risk of war during a crisis by returning diplomatic messages quickly.
  6. states have to minimize the chance of war while at the same time getting the best deals they can.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Page 96  TOP: Resolve MSC: Factual

  1. What is a credible threat?
  2. A threat that the target of the threat believes will be carried out.
  3. A threat made by a reliable ally.
  4. Any attempt to intimidate opponents by making threats.
  5. A dangerous crisis.
  6. A threat that could possibly be carried out, even if it is unlikely.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 96  TOP: Credibility MSC: Factual

  1. Why is it difficult to make a threat of attack seem credible to an opponent?
  2. States rarely have the capability to actually attack another country.
  3. The opponent can easily tell when the threatening state is bluffing.
  4. Opponents have access to enough information about the other state to discredit its threats.
  5. The threat of such a war can seem too costly to be a reasonable option.
  6. The opponent may not realize how costly war can be.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 96–97  TOP: Credibility MSC: Conceptual

  1. All of the following are reasons that the United States failed to convince Saddam Hussein that the attack on Iraqi troops in Kuwait would be successful EXCEPT:
  2. the United States kept its troop movements secret.
  3. the United States knew its attack strategy had a high possibility of success, but could not reveal details to Saddam Hussein without jeopardizing its plan.
  4. the United States failed to make sufficient statements about the importance of freeing Kuwait from Iraqi control.
  5. Saddam Hussein thought the United States would entail enormous costs by directly attacking Iraqi troops where they had the strongest defenses.
  6. Saddam Hussein could not believe that United States society would accept a large number of battle deaths.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 97  TOP: Credibility MSC: Applied

  1. When leaders attempt to convince others that their state is stronger than it really is, it is called:
  2. deterrence.
  3. compellence.
  4. bargaining.
  5. incomplete information.
  6. bluffing.

ANS: E DIF: Easy REF: Page 98  TOP: Credibility MSC: Factual

  1. The United States did not believe China would intervene in the Korean War, because:
  2. the Chinese government had been an ally of the United States.
  3. the Chinese had no apparent strategic interest in protecting North Korea.
  4. China obviously lacked the capability to effectively launch an attack against U.S. troops.
  5. the Chinese government sent its threat message indirectly through India, which did not indicate a large cost to making the threat.
  6. United States troops were acting under the authority of the United Nations.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Page 99  TOP: Credibility MSC: Applied

  1. Why do states use brinkmanship?
  2. States are always on the verge of going to war.
  3. States can signal a high level of resolve by making a threat that appears likely to trigger extraordinary costs.
  4. States can make significant threats but know they will always be able to hold back from starting a war.
  5. States know that there is no possibility of a crisis escalating into a devastating nuclear war.
  6. A state can pretend to be taking a tough stand to please domestic groups while secretly negotiating a peaceful settlement with other states.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 100  TOP: Brinkmanship MSC: Conceptual

  1. A brinkmanship crisis resembles which type of game (from game theory)?
  2. Prisoner’s Dilemma.
  3. Stag Hunt.
  4. Battle of the Sexes.
  5. Turkey Shoot.
  6. Chicken.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 100–101  TOP: Brinkmanship MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which of the following is an example of tying hands?
  2. A leader accompanying a threat with troop movements near its rival’s borders.
  3. A leader, during private negotiations, promising war if an adversary does not back down.
  4. An elected leader publicly promising war if an adversary does not back down.
  5. A threat being accompanied with covert action that undermines a rival.
  6. A leader accompanying a public threat with increased military spending.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 102  TOP: Audience Costs MSC: Applied

  1. Why might audience costs affect the possibility of war?
  2. The states in a dispute may decide to hold secret negotiations so that privileged information will not become public.
  3. Members of the United Nations Security Council may feel peer pressure to vote in favor of an intervention to prevent war.
  4. An elected leader may make a threat and be compelled to carry it out in order to get reelected.
  5. A state might be delayed in beginning a war, because other countries may compel it to have the dispute heard by the World Court.
  6. Third-party countries observing a conflict may decide to become involved.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Page 102  TOP: Audience Costs MSC: Conceptual

  1. What is paying for power?
  2. Buying a political office.
  3. Investing more money into an international organization.
  4. Offering financial incentives to a major power to join you in an alliance.
  5. Mobilizing and deploying a large military force.
  6. Bribing a rival state.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 103–4  TOP: Paying for Power MSC: Applied

  1. All of the following could change future bargaining power EXCEPT:
  2. Israel retaining control of the strategically important Golan Heights.
  3. China’s economy growing at a more rapid rate than the U.S. economy.
  4. Iran beginning a nuclear weapons program.
  5. Libya giving up its nuclear weapons program.
  6. North Korea’s current leader dying and a military junta taking control.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 105–6  TOP: Future Bargaining MSC: Applied

  1. Which of the following statements about credible commitments is true?
  2. States often trust the other side to comply with their treaty obligations.
  3. A state believes that the other side will not use force to revise the terms of a deal.
  4. A state makes convincing threats to compel states to comply with an agreement.
  5. States trust other states to negotiate in good faith while the bargaining process continues.
  6. States are never able to prove to other states that they will honor their agreements.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: Page 105  TOP: Commitment Problems MSC: Factual

  1. Which country has the United States NOT tried to convince to abandon its Weapons of Mass Destruction programs in recent years?
  2. China
  3. Libya
  4. North Korea
  5. Iraq
  6. Iran

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 106  TOP: Future Bargaining MSC: Factual

  1. Why is bargaining over future power especially difficult in international relations?
  2. States do not have reasonable expectations about the future power distribution.
  3. States have secret sources of power that cannot be observed.
  4. It is impossible to verify if a state is abiding by such an agreement.
  5. A state strengthened by such a deal cannot make a credible commitment to not use its newfound power to make further demands.
  6. A state will make up the power loss by forming new alliances instead.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Page 106  TOP: Future Bargaining MSC: Conceptual

  1. Which is NOT a reason why states traditionally fight over territory?
  2. Cyber control reasons.
  3. Security reasons.
  4. Ethno-religious reasons.
  5. Economic reasons.
  6. Natural resource reasons.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 107  TOP: Preventing War MSC: Factual

  1. What has made negotiations with North Korea over its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs difficult?
  2. The leadership of North Korea is irrational.
  3. North Korea refuses to make any concessions.
  4. Other states are generally not interested in North Korea, due to its poverty.
  5. The demands made by other states have been unclear to North Korea.
  6. North Korea is unwilling to sacrifice the security that comes with developing nuclear weapons.

ANS: E DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 108–9  TOP: Future Bargaining MSC: Applied

  1. What is a preventive war?
  2. A war launched to prevent human rights abuses in another state.
  3. A war that begins when deterrence fails.
  4. A war begun by a state to prevent an adversary from being a stronger threat in the future.
  5. A war launched by a state that fears an adversary is about to attack.
  6. A war authorized by an international organization to eliminate aggressive states that could threaten world peace.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 110–11  TOP: Prevention MSC: Factual

  1. Why might preventive war appear attractive to a declining state?
  2. A rising power will never agree to any bargain short of war.
  3. Rising powers historically have always gone to war against declining powers.
  4. A rising power will likely acquire WMD in the future and pre-emption is the only way to stop them.
  5. The rising power cannot credibly commit to not using its force in the future to revise any bargain struck in the short term.
  6. A war now will eliminate the rising power from ever being a concern in the future.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 110–11  TOP: Prevention MSC: Applied

  1. What is a first-strike advantage?
  2. There is a significant benefit for a state to be the first to attack.
  3. A state can easily repel a surprise attack by another state.
  4. A smaller state attacks a larger state first.
  5. A state launches the initial attack in any war.
  6. A state has an incentive to wait for another state to initiate a war.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 112  TOP: Prevention MSC: Factual

  1. What is a preemptive war?
  2. A war initiated by a state because it anticipates an imminent attack from an adversary.
  3. A war initiated by a state because it anticipates its adversary will become stronger in the future.
  4. A war initiated by a state because another state has refused to honor its treaty commitments.
  5. A defensive war fought by a state after it has suffered a surprise attack.
  6. A war fought over the restriction of trade during a crisis between two states.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate REF: Page 113  TOP: Preemption MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following best describes why World War I began?
  2. Belgium feared a German attack and destroyed the railroad tracks on its border.
  3. Russia mobilized its troops in order to protect its ally, France.
  4. Austria launched a preventive war against Russia, before it could mobilize its troops.
  5. France launched a preventive war against Germany.
  6. Germany launched a preemptive war against Russia, before it could mobilize its troops.

ANS: E DIF: Moderate REF: Page 114  TOP: Preemption MSC: Factual

  1. What was the Schlieffen Plan?
  2. The German plan to avoid fighting a war simultaneously with France and Russia.
  3. The German plan to retake the Rhineland by bluffing.
  4. The Austrian plan to punish Serbia for the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
  5. The Swiss plan to remain neutral during World War II.
  6. The Belgian plan to destroy key bridges to prevent a German attack.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: Page 114  TOP: Preemption MSC: Factual

  1. Which of the following problems make states more likely to go to war?
  2. Problems arising from complete information.
  3. Problems arising from conflicts over goods that are easily split between two states.
  4. Problems arising from the difficulty of committing to honor a deal.
  5. Problems arising from international organizations forcing states to comply with an agreement.
  6. Problems arising from states having relatively unchanging amounts of power.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 115–16  TOP: Commitment Problems MSC: Factual

  1. Why might an apparently indivisible good actually be divisible?
  2. No goods are completely indivisible: there are ways to divide any goods.
  3. The good concerned is territory, which is difficult to divide.
  4. States are willing to ruin an indivisible good by splitting it rather than allow another state to win the whole good.
  5. Sometimes states falsely claim that a desired object is indivisible in order to strengthen their bargaining position.
  6. Sometimes leaders think an asset like future military power is indivisible, because of misperception.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult REF: Pages 120–21  TOP: Indivisible Goods MSC: Conceptual

  1. All of the following are ways to make war less likely EXCEPT:
  2. increasing the costs of going to war.
  3. increasing transparency.
  4. outside enforcement of commitments.
  5. increasing the number of actors involved in a conflict.
  6. dividing apparently indivisible goods.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: Pages 121–22  TOP: Preventing War MSC: Conceptual

Essay

  1. Why is war a relatively rare occurrence?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: War

  1. What is the bargaining model of war? How does it explain why war occurs?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Bargaining and War

  1. How does poor and incomplete information contribute to the likelihood of war?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Incomplete Information

  1. Explain how incomplete information contributed to mistakes made before the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Incomplete Information

  1. Explain the risks and benefits of engaging in brinkmanship.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Brinkmanship

  1. Are democratic or autocratic leaders more capable of “tying their hands?” Explain your answer, using concepts of interests, interactions, and institutions.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Audience Costs

  1. How do commitment problems affect the likelihood that war will occur?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Commitment Problems

  1. China unsuccessfully attempted to convince the United States that it would intervene if the United States sent its troops into North Korea in 1950. Explain how this example demonstrates the difficulty of communicating resolve to an opponent.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Incomplete Information | Commitment Problems

  1. What makes a good indivisible, and how do indivisible goods affect the possibility of war?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Indivisible Goods

  1. What is the difference between a preemptive war and a preventive war?

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Prevention | Preemption

  1. Explain how the 2003 war with Iraq was a preventive war rather than a preemptive war.

ANS: Answer will vary.

TOP: Prevention | Preemption