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INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

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Psychology Core Concepts 7th Edition by Philip G. Zimbardo – Test Bank
Sample  Questions

 

Chapter 03: Sensation and Perception

 

1.0 – Chapter 03 Multiple Choice

 

  1. Jonathan I. developed ________ after sustaining brain injury.
  2. loss of hearing
  3. cerebral achromatopsia
  4. an inability to write words
  5. a change in personality
  6. phantom pains

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 87

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. cerebral achromatopsia

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT an adaptation that Jonathan I. was able to make following his unique visual loss?
  2. He became a night person.
  3. He reinterpreted his loss as a gift.
  4. He began painting in black and white.
  5. He used more vivid colors in his paintings.
  6. He began sculpting.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 87-88

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. He used more vivid colors in his paintings.

 

  1. ________ refers to our initial experience of a stimulus.
  2. Transduction
  3. Perception
  4. Photoreception
  5. Sensation
  6. Olfaction

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 88

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. Sensation

 

  1. Activation of receptors by external stimuli is called
  2. perception
  3. sensation
  4. adaptation
  5. habituation
  6. transduction

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 88

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. sensation

 

  1. Sensation is to perception as ________ is to ________.
  2. stimulation; recognition

Correct. The stimulation of our sensory receptors by energy from the world around us is  sensation. The process by which that energy is interpreted into recognized patterns is perception.

  1. awareness; interpretation
  2. interpretation; awareness

Incorrect. In a general sense, this is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. organization; interpretation
  2. awareness; transduction

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 88-89

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. stimulation; recognition

 

  1. Through the process of ________, we are able to interpret incoming sensory patterns.
  2. sensation
  3. kinesthesis
  4. transduction
  5. gustation
  6. perception

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 89

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: e. perception

 

  1. Seeing a face is to sensation as recognizing a friend’s face is to
  2. kinesthesia.
  3. olfaction.
  4. transduction.

Incorrect. Transduction refers to the conversion of a physical stimulus into a neural code that can be sent to the brain.

  1. sensation.
  2. perception.

Correct. Remember the definitions of sensation and perception. Think of sensation as “reception” and perception as “interpretation.”

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 89

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: e. perception.

 

  1. Neurons cannot
  2. convert an external stimulus into a nerve impulse.

Incorrect. Information can be sent to the cerebral cortex, but it is the “type” of information that is important in this question.

  1. carry information to the cerebral cortex.
  2. transmit light or sound waves or any other external stimulus.

Correct. In order for a stimulus to be sent to the brain, it must be transduced into a neural signal.

  1. transform stimuli into diverse sensations.
  2. code sensory information.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 90

Topic: Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. transmit light or sound waves or any other external stimulus.

 

  1. A sensory ________ is a specialized neuron that detects sensory energy in the outside world.
  2. neurite
  3. axon
  4. glial cell
  5. receptor
  6. effector

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 90

Topic: Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. receptor

 

  1. Cells that are triggered by light, vibrations, sounds, touch, or chemical substances are called
  2. ganglion cells.
  3. bipolar cells.
  4. ossicles.
  5. sensory receptors.
  6. amacrine cells.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 90

Topic: Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. sensory receptors.

 

  1. The process of ________ is responsible for the conversion of physical energy to neural impulses.
  2. transduction
  3. plasticity
  4. absolute threshold
  5. psychophysics
  6. adaptation

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 90

Topic: Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. transduction

 

  1. Nerve impulses that carry information travel along ________ to specialized processing areas in the brain.
  2. vestibular canals
  3. nerve endings
  4. sensory pathways
  5. olfactory epithelium
  6. photoreceptors

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 90-91

Topic: Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. sensory pathways

 

  1. The information-carrying signal travels from the receptor cells along a sensory pathway by way of the ________________ to specialized sensory processing areas in the brain.
  2. thalamus
  3. amygdala
  4. hypothalamus
  5. hippocampus
  6. corpus callosum

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 90-91

Topic: Transduction: Changing Stimulation to Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. thalamus

 

  1. The ________ refers to the smallest amount of physical energy needed to produce a sensory experience.
  2. difference threshold
  3. signal detection
  4. absolute threshold
  5. equilibrium constant
  6. transduction threshold

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 91

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. absolute threshold

 

  1. When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor presented tones to Ann through earphones. The tones started at a low intensity and then became louder. The doctor asked Ann to raise her hand whenever she started to hear a sound. The doctor was testing Ann’s
  2. auditory convergence.
  3. absolute threshold.

Correct. The doctor was testing Ann’s absolute threshold or the softest sound she could detect.

  1. refractory threshold.
  2. difference threshold.

Incorrect. The doctor was testing Ann’s absolute threshold, not her ability to detect a difference or change.

  1. Weber threshold.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 91

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. absolute threshold.

 

  1. The point at which a person can detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is presented is called the
  2. absolute threshold.
  3. range threshold.
  4. difference threshold.
  5. noticeable threshold.
  6. signal-to-noise threshold.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 91

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. absolute threshold.

 

  1. If you are able to taste one teaspoon of salt in a bucketful of hot buttered popcorn, this amount is above your
  2. difference threshold.

Incorrect. This is close, but the difference threshold refers to the amount of change in a stimulus that is needed in order to be detected 50% of the time.

  1. equilibrium.
  2. vestibular sense.
  3. olfaction.
  4. absolute threshold.

Correct. The absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of sensory stimulus needed to be detected 50% of the time.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 91

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: e. absolute threshold.

 

  1. Your roommate can hear a hum from the air conditioner that you are unable to hear. This difference reflects the operation of
  2. difference thresholds.
  3. equilibrium.
  4. vestibular activity.
  5. cortical processing.

Incorrect. In order for the various lobes of the cerebral cortex to process different types of sensory information, they must first be transduced into a neural code. This is not the best answer to this question.

  1. absolute thresholds.

Correct. The absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of sensory stimulus needed to be detected 50% of the time.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 91

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: e. absolute thresholds.

 

  1. The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the ______ and the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the ______.
  2. absolute threshold; just noticeable difference

Correct. The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the absolute threshold, and the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the difference threshold.

  1. base value; just noticeable difference (jnd)
  2. response criterion; sensory constant
  3. difference threshold; absolute threshold

Incorrect. The lowest stimulus intensity required for detection is the absolute threshold, whereas the smallest noticeable difference between a standard stimulus intensity and another stimulus value is the difference threshold.

  1. sensory detector; Weberian threshold

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 91-92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. absolute threshold; just noticeable difference

 

  1. The perceptual threshold for vision is defined as the ability to detect ________ located _________ on a clear night.
  2. a candle flame; 1 mile away
  3. car headlight; 1 mile away

Incorrect. Have you ever driven on a dark highway at night? You can probably see the headlight of an oncoming car from MUCH farther than a single mile away!

  1. an emergency flare; 30 miles away
  2. a candle flame; 30 miles away

Correct. It does seem amazing that we could detect a single flame from that far away, but on a dark night that is actually correct!

  1. a camp fire; 8 miles away

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. a candle flame; 30 miles away

 

  1. The average threshold for human hearing is the tick of a watch from ______ under very quiet conditions.
  2. 20 feet
  3. 60 feet
  4. 40 feet
  5. 80 feet
  6. 100 feet

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. 20 feet

 

  1. A(n) ________ refers to the smallest change in physical energy between two stimuli that is recognized as different.
  2. difference threshold
  3. absolute threshold
  4. signal detection
  5. sensorimotor threshold
  6. supraliminal threshold

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. difference threshold

 

  1. Suppose Maria is painting while the sun is setting; once she notices that the room is getting darker, she decides to call it quits for the day. This example illustrates the role of
  2. threshold.
  3. a just noticeable difference.

Correct. This example demonstrates a just noticeable difference, because Maria identifies that the room is gone sufficiently dark to necessitate quitting work.

  1. absolute threshold.

Incorrect. The absolute threshold is the minimum amount of information must be received in order to be detected 50% of the time. This example demonstrates a just noticeable difference.

  1. bias.
  2. attention.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. a just noticeable difference.

 

  1. The term just noticeable difference is synonymous with
  2. separation threshold.

b . response threshold.

  1. difference threshold.
  2. absolute threshold.
  3. Weber’s law.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. difference threshold.

 

  1. The difference threshold is defined as the degree of change in a stimulus level that is required in order for a person to detect a change __________ of the time.
  2. 25 percent
  3. 50 percent
  4. 75 percent
  5. 90 percent
  6. 100 percent

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. 50 percent

 

  1. Weber’s law states that ________ are a function of the initial stimulus intensity.
  2. absolute thresholds

Incorrect. This seems like it would make sense, but Weber’s law is about changes in a stimulus after it has already been detected.

  1. signal detection
  2. just noticeable differences

Correct. Weber’s law states that the amount of change needed to detect a JND increases as the intensity of the initial stimulus increases.

  1. false alarms
  2. sensorimotor thresholds

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. difference thresholds

 

  1. The principle that the just noticeable difference of any given sense is proportional to the stimulus being judged is called
  2. the opponent-process principle
  3. the doctrine of specific nerve energies
  4. the phi phenomenon
  5. Weber’s law
  6. Gestalt’s law

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. Weber’s law

 

  1. ________ suggests that we are more likely to notice when a newborn gains five pounds than when a sumo wrestler gains five pounds.
  2. Subliminal perception
  3. Transduction theory
  4. Sensory adaptation

Incorrect. Sensory adaptation suggests that continual exposure to a stimulus results in a decrease in sensation of that event.

  1. Weber’s law

Correct. Weber’s law states that the amount of change needed to detect a JND increases as the intensity of the initial stimulus increases.

  1. Kinesthesia

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. Weber’s law

 

  1. Another name for the ________ is the just noticeable difference.
  2. just say when effect
  3. statoacoustic effect
  4. difference threshold
  5. signal detection error rate
  6. absolute threshold

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. difference threshold

 

  1. Weber’s law states that the higher the intensity of the stimulus, the ________ it will have to be ________ to result in a noticeable difference in sensory experience.
  2. more; changed
  3. less; reduced
  4. less; increased
  5. faster; reduced
  6. faster; removed

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. more; changed

 

  1. The ________ approach to sensory thresholds explains how we detect signals consisting of stimulation affecting our eyes, ears, nose, skin, and other sense organs.
  2. classical psychophysics
  3. signal detection theory
  4. evolutionary
  5. cognitive neuroscience
  6. somatosensory

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 93

Topic: Signal Detection Theory

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. signal detection theory

 

  1. Signal detection theory suggests that differences in absolute thresholds between different people reflect
  2. signal strength.

Incorrect. It is not just the strength of the signal that matters, but also the strength of interfering events and the judgment of the receiver that matters.

  1. sensory processes.
  2. human judgment.

Correct. Have you ever had a conversation with someone who said, “you never listen to me?” Perhaps what they were saying was not important to you at the moment. This demonstrates the importance of judgment in signal detection theory.

  1. absolute thresholds.
  2. sensory adaptation.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 93

Topic: Signal Detection Theory

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: c. human judgment.

 

  1. ________ refers to the loss of responsiveness in receptor cells due to constant stimulation.
  2. Absolute threshold
  3. Sensory adaptation
  4. Signal detection
  5. Weber’s law
  6. Equilibrium

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 93

Topic: Sensory Adaptation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: b. Sensory adaptation

 

  1. Which of the following examples best illustrates the principle of sensory adaptation?
  2. the shock felt by a swimmer who jumps into a pool of ice cold water
  3. your awareness of the weight of your backpack when you first pick it up

Incorrect. Because you just picked it up and it is a new (novel) stimulus, you haven’t yet had time to experience sensory adaptation.

  1. the irritation felt when your roommate turns on your bedroom light at 3 a.m.
  2. your eventual failure to notice the background music at a restaurant

Correct. As the music goes on continually, you will be less and less aware of it. That is classic sensory adaptation.

  1. A and B are correct.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 93-94

Topic: Psychology Matters: Sensory Adaptation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: d. your eventual failure to notice the background music at a restaurant

 

  1. The fact that the great smell of baked goods is more powerful when you first enter a bakery than when you have been there for awhile is because of
  2. sensory adaption.

Correct. Sensory adaptation refers to a decreased tendency to sense a stimulus as that stimulus is continually presented.

  1. the just noticeable difference.
  2. Weber’s law.

Incorrect. Weber’s law deals with the amount of change in a stimulus that must occur in order to detect it, and the fact that this change increases or decreases predictably as a function of the strength of the initial stimulus.

  1. closure.
  2. subliminal messaging.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 93-94

Topic: Sensory Adaptation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. sensory adaption.

 

  1. The most complex and highly developed sense for humans is
  2. hearing.
  3. sight.
  4. pain.
  5. touch.
  6. taste.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 94

Topic: How Are the Senses Alike? How Are They Different?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. sight.

 

  1. The eye is uniquely able to extract information about the world from
  2. sound waves.
  3. objects touching the skin.
  4. actual objects.
  5. temperature changes.
  6. light waves.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 95

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. light waves.

 

  1. Each retina of the eye has about ______ million rods.
  2. 1
  3. 25
  4. 75
  5. 125
  6. 250

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 95

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. 125

 

  1. Which component of the eye contains the visual receptors?
  2. sclera
  3. retina
  4. cornea
  5. anterior chamber
  6. macula

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 95

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. retina

 

  1. Visual transduction occurs within the
  2. fovea.
  3. cornea.
  4. iris.
  5. retina.
  6. pupil.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 95

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. retina.

 

  1. Rods are photoreceptors that would allow us to perceive
  2. a bagful of jelly beans.
  3. a glass of grape Kool-Aid.
  4. the rainbow.

Incorrect. To perceive the vivid colors of a rainbow, you’d need to activate cones.

  1. the stars at night.

Correct. Rods are responsible for vision in low-level situations. They also do not perceive colors.

  1. a small multi-colored butterfly.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 95-96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. the stars at night.

 

  1. It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night because
  2. we are seeing primarily with the cones.
  3. rods do not adapt to the dark.
  4. we are seeing primarily with the rods.

Correct. It is difficult to distinguish between colors at night because we are seeing primarily with the rods, and rods are not involved in color processing.

  1. we are used to seeing mostly with the fovea.

Incorrect. The fovea is full of cones, which do not function at night or at low light levels.

  1. visual accommodation cannot occur in the dark.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 95-96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. we are seeing primarily with the rods.

 

  1. Which of the following is true of rods?
  2. They respond to color.
  3. They are found mainly in the fovea.
  4. They operate mainly in the daytime.
  5. They are responsible for night vision.
  6. They combine to make up the iris.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 95-96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. They are responsible for night vision.

 

  1. Which of the following lists the correct order in which light activates the visual cells of the retina?
  2. rod and cone cells; bipolar cells; ganglion cells
  3. ganglion cells; bipolar cells; photoreceptors
  4. bipolar cells; ganglion cells; rod and cone cells
  5. ganglion cells; rod and cone cells; photoreceptors
  6. glial cells; cones; ganglion cells; bipolar cells

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 95-96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. rod and cone cells; bipolar cells; ganglion cells

 

  1. Receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision and sharp vision are
  2. bipolar cells.
  3. ganglion cells.
  4. rods.
  5. cones.
  6. amacrine cells.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  d. cones.

 

  1. Which of the following is true about cones?
  2. They are responsible for black and white vision.
  3. They are found mainly in the center of the eye.
  4. They operate mainly at night.
  5. They respond only to black and white.
  6. They combine to make up the cornea.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. They are found mainly in the center of the eye.

 

  1. We are able to perceive color and fine detail when a visual scene stimulates ________ within the ________.
  2. rods; retina
  3. cones; fovea
  4. photoreceptors; lens
  5. ganglion cells; iris
  6. bipolar cells; cornea

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. cones; fovea

 

  1. Bundles of axons from ganglion cells make up the
  2. fovea.
  3. optic nerve.
  4. optic schism.
  5. rods and cones.
  6. pupil.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. optic nerve.

 

  1. The place in the retina where the axons of all the ganglion cells come together to leave the eye is called the
  2. fovea.
  3. blind spot.
  4. optic chiasm.
  5. optic nerve.
  6. optic vitreous.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. blind spot

 

  1. The blind spot refers to the region of the eye at where the ________ exits the eye.
  2. blood vessels
  3. cones
  4. optic nerve
  5. retina
  6. bipolar cells

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. optic nerve

 

  1. The aspect of color that corresponds to names such as red, green, and blue is
  2. brightness
  3. saturation
  4. hue
  5. fine detail
  6. timbre

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. hue

 

  1. The wavelength of the light reaching your eyes determines in part what ______ you see.
  2. brightness
  3. saturation
  4. hue
  5. fine detail
  6. gross detail

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. hue

 

  1. A psychological sensation caused by the intensity of light waves is called
  2. shape.
  3. energy level and wavelength.
  4. brightness.
  5. frequency.
  6. timbre.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. brightness.

 

  1. The brain senses ________ by the level of neural activity produced in the retina and passed along the neural pathways.
  2. movement
  3. afterimages
  4. brightness
  5. color
  6. distance

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. brightness

 

  1. The visible spectrum refers to the
  2. portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye.
  3. effect of intensity on how we see dark to grey to white.
  4. effect of the sound density on the perceptions of those with synesthesia.
  5. well-known fact that colors are less visible to some men’s eyes.
  6. radiation waves that fall between 20 and 20,000 hz.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. portion of the whole spectrum of light that is visible to the human eye.

 

  1. Which of the following properties of sound is the most similar to the brightness of light?
  2. pitch
  3. volume

Correct. Volume is the most similar to brightness and is based on the intensity of the stimulus.

  1. purity

Incorrect. Purity is most related to saturation in the light domain. In both cases, it refers to the total amount of different wavelengths, or frequencies, in the stimulus.

  1. timbre
  2. timbre

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98, 102

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light; Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. volume

 

  1. Which of the following properties of sound would be the most similar to the color, or hue, of light?
  2. pitch

Correct. Pitch relates to sound wavelengths, and color relates to light wavelengths.

  1. loudness

Incorrect. Pitch is the property of sound most similar to the color, or hue, of light.

  1. timbre purity
  2. hue
  3. “it signals the hypothalamus to commence with eating behaviors.”

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 98, 102

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light; Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. pitch

 

  1. The longest wavelengths we can see are experienced as ______ colors.
  2. red
  3. blue-violet
  4. green
  5. yellow
  6. orange

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98-99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. red

 

  1. What color would you report seeing if a researcher projects the longest wavelength in the visible spectrum onto a screen?
  2. red

Correct. The human eye sees the longest wavelengths as the color red.

  1. blue

Incorrect. The human eye sees the shortest, not the longest, wavelengths as the color blue. The longest wavelengths appear red.

  1. yellow
  2. violet
  3. white

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 98-99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. red

 

  1. The sky appears to be blue because it reflects ________ wavelengths of light.
  2. subliminal
  3. short

Correct. In the visible spectrum, ROYGBIV, blue waves are shorter light waves.

  1. medium
  2. long

Incorrect. In the visible spectrum, ROYGBIV, red waves are longer light waves.

  1. intense

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 98-99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. short

 

  1. Joachim and Maricella are going for a romantic walk in the park after an afternoon storm. Maricella looks up in the sky and sees a rainbow. She exclaims, “How beautiful!” Joachim, being something of a science buff, might correctly say
  2. “You are just seeing the visible spectrum.”
Incorrect. Joachim would be correct to say she is seeing the visible spectrum, but statements B and C are also correct.
  1. “That’s because you are seeing all the wavelengths of light we can see from short to long.”
  2. “That’s because different wavelengths lead to the perception of different colors.”
  3. “That’s because the visible spectrum ranges from red to violet wavelengths of light.”
  4. All of these things would be correct.

Correct. All of these statements are correct. In viewing a rainbow, we see the visible spectrum with all the wavelengths of light, and the different wavelengths lead to the perception of different colors.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 98-99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. All of these things would be correct.

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of both light waves and sound waves?
  2. hue

Incorrect. Hue is a particular descriptor of light and color. Pitch is analogous in the sound domain. The terms are used separately.

  1. decibels
  2. amplitude
  3. wavelength

Correct. Wavelength is the common characteristic of both light waves and sound waves.

  1. timbre

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 98-99, 102-103

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light; Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Applied

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. wavelength

 

  1. Humans can typically discriminate amongst how many different hues?
  2. 5000
  3. 5 million
  4. 500,000
  5. 50,000
  6. 50 million

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. 5 million

 

  1. The idea that the eye contains separate receptors for red, green, and blue is known as the ______ theory.
  2. opponent-process
  3. additive color mixing
  4. trichromatic
  5. reductive color mixing
  6. Gestalt

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  c. trichromatic

 

  1. If you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper, you will see a greenish image of the object. This phenomenon BEST supports the ______ theory of color vision.
  2. Grieco trichromatic
  3. opponent-process

Correct. The opponent-process theory sees the cones as being arranged in pairs, and red is paired with green. The greenish afterimage demonstrates that fatiguing the eye produces opposite, or opponent, perceptions.

  1. Helmholtz trichromatic

Incorrect. The Helmholtz trichromatic theory proposed three types of cones: red cones, blue cones, and green cones, one for each of the three primary colors of light

  1. Hering’s vibration
  2. Ponzo’s

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  b. opponent-process

 

  1. According to the opponent-process theory of color vision, the correct pairings of opposite colors are
  2. red versus green and blue versus yellow.
  3. black versus gray and white versus colored.
  4. blue versus red and green versus yellow.
  5. blue versus green and red versus yellow.
  6. grey versus black and green versus blue.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  a. red versus green and blue versus yellow

 

  1. According to the opponent-process theory, if you stare at a red star for awhile (e.g., 60 seconds) and then look at a plain sheet of white paper you will see an afterimage of the star in which hue?
  2. yellow
  3. blue
  4. green

Correct. According to the opponent process theory of color vision, green and red are opposing colors.

  1. red

Incorrect. The negative afterimage of red is green, not red itself.

  1. purple

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  c. green

 

  1. The trichromatic and opponent‑process theories of color vision are not in conflict because each corresponds to
  2. a different portion of the spectrum.

Incorrect. The trichromatic and opponent-process theories correspond to a different stage of color processing, and they are no longer separate theories.

  1. the opposite half of perceivable colors.
  2. one type of color blindness.
  3. a different stage of visual processing.

Correct. The trichromatic theory is concerned with what happens when light hits the cones in the retina, whereas the opponent-process theory concerns neural signals on their way to the brain.

  1. a different area of the eye.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  d. a different stage of visual processing.

 

  1. A person who cannot distinguish pale colors such as pink and tan would be said to have a(n)
  2. color weakness.
  3. negative color attitude.
  4. optic chiasma.
  5. color complement disorder.
  6. electromagnetic apperception.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. color weakness.

 

  1. A person who has the most common form of color blindness will probably have the hardest time distinguishing between
  2. red and green.
  3. yellow and blue.
  4. tan and pink.
  5. yellow and red.
  6. orange and red.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. red and green.

 

  1. John Russell has color blindness. He is most likely to have difficulty doing which of the following?
  2. distinguishing red from blue
  3. distinguishing red from green

Correct. A majority of people who suffer from colorblindness experience difficulties distinguishing reds and greens from each other.

  1. distinguishing blue from yellow

Incorrect. Yellow-blue color blindness is one form of color blindness that is seen, but it is not nearly as common as red-green color blindness.

  1. distinguishing red from yellow
  2. distinguishing light from dark

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  b. distinguishing red from green

 

  1. One of your mother’s siblings is always known for putting together awful-looking colors when getting dressed. Who is this person more likely to be?
  2. your aunt because women have more problems with color vision
  3. your uncle because men have more problems with color vision

Correct. Men have more problems with color vision due to the sex-linked nature of most forms of color blindness.

  1. You can’t tell as men and women have an equal chance of having problems with color vision.

Incorrect. Men have more problems with color vision.

  1. You would only be able to know if you had information about the color vision of your niece or nephew.
  2. Humans rarely have problems with color vision, so this wouldn’t happen.

Difficulty: A

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: 2

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer:  b. your uncle because men have more problems with color vision

 

  1. A sound wave generated in outer space will travel at the rate of
  2. 100 feet per second.
  3. 3000 feet per second.
  4. 3000 feet per minute.
  5. 0 feet per second as sound waves can’t be formed in outer space.
  6. 1000 feet per minute.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 100

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. 0 feet per second as sound waves can’t be formed in outer space.

 

  1. Snapping your fingers causes the surrounding air to
  2. move in circles.

Incorrect. Actually, sound waves travel in a straight line, not in a circular fashion.

  1. lose heat.
  2. vibrate.

Correct. Everything you hear is a result of vibrating air molecules, which we call sound waves.

  1. gain moisture.
  2. implode.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. vibrate.

 

  1. The sound that is produced when you strike a tuning fork has the physical properties of
  2. timbre and pitch.
  3. frequency and amplitude.
  4. tempo and timbre.
  5. loudness and speed.
  6. key and intensity.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. frequency and amplitude.

 

  1. In terms of sound waves, frequency refers to the
  2. peak-to-valley height of the wave.
  3. number of vibrations the wave completes in a given time.
  4. physical strength of the wave as determined by the listener.
  5. relative complexity of the waveform.
  6. loudness of the sound.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. number of vibrations the wave completes in a given time.

 

  1. The eardrum is also called the
  2. bass fiddler membrane.
  3. oval window.
  4. tympanic membrane.
  5. cochlea.
  6. Corti membrane.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.

 

Answer: c. tympanic membrane.

 

  1. The hammer, anvil, and stirrup transmit sound waves from the ________ to the ________.
  2. middle ear; cochlea
  3. outer ear; cochlea
  4. retina; frontal cortex
  5. cochlea; auditory cortex
  6. retina; basilar membrane

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 101-102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. outer ear; cochlea

 

  1. Pitch is to frequency as
  2. frequency is to amplitude.
  3. high is to low.
  4. loudness is to amplitude.

Correct. Just as the pitch of the tone we hear is determined by the frequency of the sound wave, the loudness (or volume) that we experience is determined by the amplitude or intensity of a sound wave.

  1. peak is to wave.

Incorrect. The peak of a sound wave refers to its highest point. It does not relate to the analogy in this question.

  1. timbre is to saturation.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. loudness is to amplitude

 

  1. The cochlea is where
  2. fluid waves are converted to airwaves.
  3. the initial sound energy is received.
  4. the auditory cortex intersects the outer ear.
  5. the hammer, anvil, and stirrup can be found.
  6. airwaves are converted to fluid waves.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. airwaves are converted to fluid waves.

 

  1. Fluid located in the cochlea is set in motion and causes vibration in the
  2. ossicles.
  3. bipolar cells.
  4. basilar membrane.
  5. semicircular canals.
  6. tympanic membrane.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. basilar membrane.

 

  1. Sounds are converted into action potentials within the ________ and then transmitted to the ________.
  2. middle ear; cochlea
  3. cochlea; parietal cortex
  4. pinna; frontal cortex
  5. basilar membrane; auditory cortex
  6. basilar membrane; occipital cortex

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 1.2

 

Answer: d. basilar membrane; auditory cortex

 

  1. Auditory signals are processed in the
  2. association areas of frontal cortex.
  3. vestibular cortex of the frontal lobes.
  4. somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobes.
  5. auditory cortex of the cerebellum.
  6. auditory cortex of the temporal lobes.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. auditory cortex of the temporal lobes.

 

  1. The frequency of a sound wave determines how high or low the sound sounds, a quality known as
  2. tone.
  3. amplitude.

Incorrect. The amplitude of a sound wave reveals the loudness, or volume, of that sound. It is unrelated to the pitch or frequency of that wave.

  1. pitch.

Correct. Higher frequencies are associated with higher sounds (or pitches).

  1. gigahertz.
  2. timbre.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. pitch.

 

  1. Which of the following are the auditory receptors where sound waves finally become neural impulses?
  2. hair cells
  3. organs of Corti
  4. basilar membranes
  5. tectorial membranes
  6. the oval windows

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. hair cells

 

  1. An alien from outer space was just captured. Scientists take turns examining the creature. At a press conference, one of the scientists reports that the alien can hear frequencies between 10,000 and 30,000 Hz. How does the alien’s ability to detect sound compare to a human being’s ability?
  2. The alien and humans detect the same frequencies.

Incorrect. Although the alien can detect higher frequencies, its hearing is not as acute at lower frequencies. Humans can hear a range between 20 to 20,000 Hz.

  1. Humans can detect higher frequencies than the alien.
  2. The alien can detect higher frequencies, but its hearing is not as acute at lower frequencies.

Correct. Although the alien can hear frequencies 10,000 Hz above what humans can hear, it cannot hear frequencies below 10,000 Hz, while humans can.

  1. Humans can detect higher frequencies; however, the alien detects lower frequencies better than humans.
  2. Humans can detect both lower and higher frequencies than this alien.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 102-103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. The alien can detect higher frequencies, but its hearing is not as acute at lower frequencies.

 

  1. Place theory argues that sounds of different frequencies induce vibration in different areas of the
  2. pinna.

Incorrect. The pinna is a fancy name for your earlobe. It is not directly responsible for how we hear, but its job is to “funnel” sound waves into the ear canal.

  1. basilar membrane.

Correct. The basilar membrane contains tiny hairs that translate sound impulses into neural signals.

  1. auditory nerve.
  2. temporal lobe.
  3. chorionic membrane.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. basilar membrane.

 

  1. The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the
  2. specific location where hair cells are stimulated.

Correct. The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the specific location where hair cells are stimulated.

  1. number of hair cells that are stimulated.

Incorrect. The place theory of pitch suggests that pitch is determined by the specific hair cells that are stimulated.

  1. size of the hair cells that are stimulated.
  2. degree of bend in the stimulated hair cells.
  3. rate at which the ossicles in the middle ear fire.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. specific location where hair cells are stimulated.

 

  1. Frequency theory alone would best describe how the basilar membrane deals with frequencies below
  2. 8300 Hz.
  3. 6700 Hz.
  4. 2200 Hz.
  5. 5000 Hz.
  6. 4800 Hz.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. 5000 Hz.

 

  1. Loudness is determined by a sound wave’s
  2. pitch.
  3. quality.
  4. amplitude.
  5. frequency.
  6. speed.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: c. amplitude.

 

  1. The ________ is the unit of measurement for loudness.
  2. nanometer
  3. pounds per square inch
  4. gigahertz
  5. decibel
  6. anodyne

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. decibel

 

  1. Most natural sounds in the real world
  2. have the same amplitude but different frequencies.
  3. are mixtures rather than pure tones.
  4. consist of frequencies that are narrow in range, but vary greatly in amplitude.
  5. usually have only one frequency and one amplitude.
  6. combine amplitudes and frequencies in basically the same way.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. are mixtures rather than pure tones.

 

  1. The ________ of sound allows us to distinguish a guitar note from a saxophone note.
  2. timbre

Correct. The timbre is what makes different sounds sound distinctive from each other.

  1. kinesthetics
  2. harmonics

Incorrect. Your textbook does not discuss harmonics. Even so, they are aural overtones that occur, and they are not related to the ability to distinguish a guitar from a saxophone.

  1. auditory diffusion
  2. absolute thresholds

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. timbre

 

  1. The ________ sense allows us to orient our body with respect to gravity.
  2. gustatory
  3. vestibular
  4. olfactory
  5. kinesthetic
  6. analgesic

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. vestibular

 

  1. Closing your eyes and then touching your nose with your forefinger most accurately

illustrates which of the following?

  1. vestibular sense
  2. kinesthetic sense

Correct. The knowledge of the position of your limbs is controlled by the kinesthetic system.

  1. somasthetic sense

Incorrect. The kinesthetic system is one of the somasthetic senses, so it would be the better answer.

  1. anomalous cognition
  2. tactile sense

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

Answer: b. kinesthetic sense

 

  1. Which of the following is the primary structure that allows one to maintain his or her balance?
  2. cochlea
  3. middle ear
  4. semicircular canals
  5. circular canals
  6. the Pacinian corpuscles

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: c. semicircular canals

 

  1. The receptors for body position and movement are located
  2. in the parietal cortex.
  3. in the inner ear.
  4. in the outer layer of the skin.
  5. within the corpus callosum.
  6. within the spinal cord.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. in the inner ear.

 

  1. A person with damage to the ________ would be clumsy and uncoordinated.
  2. phosphenes

Incorrect. Phosphenes refer to visual “smears” that we see when you press against your closed eyelids.

  1. hippocampus
  2. olfactory bulb
  3. temporal lobes
  4. kinesthetic receptors

Correct. Remember that kinesthesia refers to our sense of body position and movement, and so if it wasn’t working properly we’d be very clumsy indeed.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. kinesthetic receptors

 

  1. The sense of smell is also known as
  2. olfaction
  3. the salivary sense
  4. chemical infarctation
  5. gustation
  6. tactition

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: a. olfaction

 

  1. The sense of smell is adaptive in that
  2. it aids in the location of food.

Incorrect. This is correct, but it is not the best answer. There are four “correct” answers so E is the best choice.

  1. it allows us to detect decaying food.
  2. it signals sexual receptivity in some mammals.
  3. smell can mark the boundaries of a territory.
  4. All of the above are correct.

Correct. As your textbook points out, smell is responsible for many adaptive functions. All of these four are examples of how smell is very important.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. ________ are chemical signals that are used as communication devices within a given species to signal relevant stimuli.
  2. Phosphenes
  3. Pheromones
  4. Hallucinogens
  5. Cochlear microphonics
  6. Hormones

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. Pheromones

 

  1. The sense of taste is known as
  2. gustation.
  3. gesticulation.
  4. gestation.
  5. gastrulation.
  6. gentrification.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 106

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. gustation.

 

  1. Laverne looks at the tongue of her friend and sees all kinds of bumps on her tongue. “Girl,” she says, “you sure have a lot of _____________.”
  2. olfactory receptors
  3. taste buds

Incorrect. The “bumps” on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the papillae.

  1. papillae

Correct. The “bumps” on the tongue that are visible to the eye are the papillae.

  1. taste receptors
  2. umami

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 106

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

Answer: c. papillae

 

  1. Where are the taste receptors located?
  2. on the papillae
  3. in the taste buds
  4. on the microvilli
  5. in the gustatory bulb
  6. in the parietal lobe of the cerebrum

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 106

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: b. in the taste buds

 

  1. What are the five primary tastes?
  2. hot, sour, spicy, sweet, origami
  3. salty, sour, spicy, sweet, tart
  4. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami
  5. peppery, salty, sour, sweet, acidic
  6. sweet, bitter, rich, bland, and acrid

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 106

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: c. bitter, salty, sour, sweet, umami

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the five taste qualities?
  2. bitter
  3. sour
  4. umami
  5. creamy
  6. salty

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 106

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. creamy

 

  1. Which of the following can produce a loss of taste reactivity?
  2. aging
  3. reduced density of papillae on the tongue
  4. smoking
  5. overconsumption of hot spicy foods
  6. all of the above are correct

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 106-107

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: e. all of the above are correct

 

  1. Maricella always uses less seasoning on her food than do the other members of her family. Her sister has just taken an introductory psychology course and says to Maricella,
  2. “I know what you are – you are a taster pro.”
  3. “I know what you are – you are a taster queen.”
  4. “I know what you are – you are a supertaster.”

Correct. Someone who is more sensitive to taste than others is called a supertaster.

  1. “I know what you are – you are a Gustavus Adolphus.”

Incorrect. Someone who is more sensitive to taste than others is called a supertaster.

  1. “I know what you are – you are an anosmic.”

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 107

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.2

Answer: c. “I know what you are – you are a supertaster.”

 

  1. Sensory information related to the skin senses is processed within the
  2. frontal lobes.
  3. semicircular canals.
  4. hairs of the basilar membrane.
  5. somatosensory cortex.
  6. reticular activating system.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 108

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: d. somatosensory cortex.

 

  1. ________ is the primary stimulus for sexual arousal in humans.
  2. Sight
  3. Touch
  4. Smell
  5. Taste
  6. Hearing

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 108

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. Touch

 

  1. Brain imaging studies have implicated an area of the cortex called the TPO, lying at the junction of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, which may be the cause of this condition:
  2. anesthesia
  3. synesthesia
  4. senesthesia
  5. synosthesia
  6. sensorithesia

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Synesthesia: Sensations across the Senses

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: b. synesthesia

 

  1. The idea that pain signals must pass through a type of “doorway” in the spinal cord is referred to as the
  2. opponent-process theory of pain.
  3. revolving door theory of pain.

Incorrect. There is no such thing as the revolving door theory of pain. The gate-control theory is based on the concept of a doorway in the spinal cord.

  1. substance P theory of pain.
  2. gate-control theory of pain.

Correct. The gate-control theory is based on the concept of a doorway in the spinal cord.

  1. Capsaicin theory.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Psychology Matters: The Sense and Experience of Pain

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: d. gate-control theory of pain

 

  1. The gate-control theory of pain suggests that
  2. the pain signals must pass through a kind of “gate” located in the spinal cord.

Correct. The gate-control theory is based on the idea that the pain signals must pass through a kind of “gate” located in the spinal cord.

  1. the skin receptors act as a gate for the pain sensation.
  2. the cortex blocks pain unless released by substance P.
  3. the gate is a physical structure that blocks pain signals.

Incorrect. The gate-control theory is based on the idea that the pain signals must pass through a kind of “gate” in the spinal cord that is not an actual physical structure.

  1. there are mechanisms at each level of the brain that can selectively block pain. messages.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Psychology Matters: The Sense and Experience of Pain

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: a. the pain signals must pass through a kind of “gate” located in the spinal cord

 

  1. Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of the neurotransmitters called ____________, the body’s natural version of morphine.
  2. endorphins
  3. substance P
  4. serotonin
  5. acetylcholine
  6. gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Psychology Matters: The Sense and Experience of Pain

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

Answer: a. endorphins

 

  1. The capacity of a placebo treatment to reduce pain perception is due to
  2. release of endorphins in the brain.

Correct. The psychological expectation that a treatment will help can cause a physiological response.

  1. inactivation of cells in the occipital cortex.

Incorrect. The occipital lobe of the cerebrum is not involved in pain perception.

  1. the release of naloxone in the spinal cord.
  2. damage by needles to skin receptors.
  3. B and D are correct.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Psychology Matters: The Sense and Experience of Pain

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. release of endorphins in the brain.

 

  1. A percept consists of ________ in combination with ________.
  2. sensation; associated meaning
  3. stimulus; a receptor
  4. receptor; a sensory pathway
  5. afterimage; a motor response
  6. phosgene; associated meaning

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 112

Topic: What Is the Relationship Between Sensation and Perception?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. sensation; associated meaning

 

  1. ________ refers to the fact that we do not know how the brain combines features into a single percept.
  2. Gestalt perception
  3. Combinatory confusion
  4. Sensorimotor flux
  5. The uncertainty principle
  6. The binding problem

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: e. The binding problem

 

  1. In bottom-up processing, the resulting percept is determined by
  2. stimulus characteristics.

Correct. Bottom-up processing involves perceiving stimuli based on the individual characteristics, or physical details, of those stimuli.

  1. our expectations.

Incorrect. Expectations inform top-down processing, not bottom-up processing.

  1. our current emotions.
  2. what others tell us.
  3. other environmental stimuli.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. stimulus characteristics.

 

  1. What type of processing takes sensory data into the system through receptors and then sends the data to the brain for analysis of information?
  2. top-down processing
  3. integrative processing
  4. distinction-extraction processing
  5. bottom-up processing
  6. serial combinatorial processing

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. bottom-up processing

 

  1. Your dog has been lost for three days. When you hear a bark, you assume that it is Fido because of
  2. location constancy.
  3. closure.
  4. the law of common fate.
  5. olfaction.

Incorrect. Olfaction is a fancy way of saying “smell.” It does not apply to this question.

  1. top-down processing.

Correct. Your expectation (and hope) that your dog will return will cause you to assume that any bark in the neighborhood will be Fido’s bark.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: e. top-down processing.

 

  1. Top-down processing emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT
  2. stimulus features.

Correct. This is an emphasis of bottom-up processing.

  1. experience.

Incorrect. Our past experiences influence what we expect to perceive in the future. This is a crucial aspect of top-down processing.

  1. cultural background.
  2. knowledge.
  3. memory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. stimulus features.

 

  1. Top-down processing is also known as ________ processing.
  2. stimulus-driven
  3. data-driven
  4. conceptually-driven
  5. feature-driven
  6. time-driven

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: c. conceptually-driven

 

  1. A student takes a drug that distorts perception. He holds up his hand right in front of his face. Horrified he yells, “I have a giant hand!” Most likely the drug interfered with
  2. size constancy

Correct. The tendency to interpret an object as always being the same physical dimensions, regardless of its distance from the viewer, is known as size constancy.

  1. shape constancy

Incorrect. Shape constancy has to do with the shapes of objects, not with their physical dimensions.

  1. brightness constancy
  2. color constancy
  3. Gestalt constancy

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

Answer: a. size constancy

 

  1. The fact that you perceive your psychology professor as being the same size when viewed from different parts of the classroom is known as
  2. size constancy.

Correct. This is one of several perceptual constancies noted in your book, and together they help us understand the fact that the basic physical aspects of a stimulus do not necessary change just because of a change in appearance.

  1. conservation.
  2. recognition.
  3. perceptual ambiguity.
  4. the law of Pragnanz.

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that addresses our tendency to perceive things in the simplest manner possible.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. size constancy.

 

  1. Perceptual constancy reflects the understanding of the perceiver that
  2. objects remain the same despite changes in their appearance.
  3. most objects readily change their shape, but not color.
  4. our brain is readily fooled by sensory input.
  5. images can be interpreted in more than one way.
  6. perceived boundaries are not a function of the stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. objects remain the same despite changes in their appearance.

 

  1. The concept of ________ explains why you “know” a door is rectangular even though your sensory image is distorted when you are not looking at it straight on.
  2. closure

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that addresses the brain’s tendency to fill in missing pieces of a visually incomplete stimulus.

  1. the law of proximity
  2. the placebo effect
  3. perceptual constancy

Correct. In this case, the specific type of perceptual constancy would be “shape constancy.”

  1. olfaction

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. perceptual constancy

 

  1. When most people look at the black-and-white Hermann grid illusion,
  2. they see other colors where there are none.

Incorrect. This is a different optical illusion that is not addressed in this chapter.

  1. the inhibiting process causes them to see gray dots.

Correct. If you look at this grid, found on page 115, you will “see” gray dots at each corner. These dots do not, in fact, exist. It is an optical illusion.

  1. the boxes blur together and it is difficult to determine boundaries.
  2. the black boxes are seen as white, and the white lines are seen as black.
  3. they see two alternating patterns appear and disappear.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 114-115

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: b. the inhibiting process causes them to see gray dots.

 

  1. Which of the following stimulus patterns can be interpreted (top down) in two or more distinct ways?
  2. concepts
  3. ambiguous figures
  4. expectations
  5. assumptions
  6. facts

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: b. ambiguous figures

 

  1. A Necker cube is an example of a(n)
  2. ambiguous figure.

Correct. The cube, which appears to be clear, can be seen in a number of different orientations all at once. This makes it an ambiguous figure.

  1. Gestalt creation.
  2. mental set.
  3. pheromone.

Incorrect. A pheromone is an olfactory (smell) stimulus that can influence the behavior of certain animals.

  1. phosphene.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. ambiguous figure.

 

  1. Your ability to view and interpret an ambiguous figure in two different ways is a result of
  2. visual problems.
  3. alternating between the occipital and parietal lobes.
  4. mental fatigue and exhaustion.
  5. alternating perceptual control between the left and right hemispheres.
  6. perceptual sets.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 115

Topic: Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. alternating perceptual control between the left and right hemispheres.

 

  1. Some people may wear dark clothes with stripes that go up and down because they look thinner in these clothes. This is most likely an example of a(n)
  2. hallucination.
  3. distraction.
  4. perceptual set.
  5. illusion.

Correct. There is visual “trickery” going on that explains why this appearance is described as “thinning.” This is an example of a visual illusion.

  1. the law of continuity.

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that addresses our tendency to look for continuous motion in a visual stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. illusion.

 

  1. If you want to make your dorm room to appear larger, you should
  2. paint the room in dark colors.
  3. paint the room with vertical stripes.
  4. paint the room in light colors.
  5. place a lot of furniture in the room.
  6. paint the room in alternating light and dark patterns.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: c. paint the room in light colors.

 

  1. An overweight person who wants to appear thinner would be advised to
  2. wear light clothing.
  3. stay away from crowded rooms.
  4. choose shirts with large horizontal stripes.
  5. wear dark clothing.

Correct. This strategy takes advantage of certain neurological process that influence how we perceive visual stimuli.

  1. turn up the room lights.

Incorrect. Dim rooms and dark colors help to give the appearance of being slimmer.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Perceptual Ambiguity and Distortion

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. wear dark clothing.

 

  1. Learning-based inference is to nurture as ________ is to nature.
  2. Pavlovian theory
  3. gene therapy
  4. artificial intelligence

Incorrect. There is nothing in this chapter that speaks about artificial intelligence. Even if there was, it would be a “nurture” approach, not a nature approach.

  1. environmental theory
  2. Gestalt theory

Correct. Gestalt theory suggests that our brains are “wired” to perceive stimuli in specific ways. This is a “nature” approach.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 117-118

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: e. Gestalt theory

 

  1. “The whole is more than the sum of its sensory parts” is a statement reflecting
  2. experience-based inference.
  3. the artificial intelligence approach.

Incorrect. Artificial intelligence is not discussed in this chapter.

  1. environmental adaptation.
  2. Gestalt psychology.

Correct. Gestalt psychology suggests that you should focus on the “whole,” rather than on its individual parts.

  1. top-down processing.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. Gestalt psychology.

 

  1. The Gestalt principle of ________ distinguishes patterns from their back grounds.
  2. proximity
  3. illusory contour
  4. figure-ground
  5. ambiguity
  6. continuity

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 118-119

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: c. figure-ground

 

  1. Figure is to ground as
  2. light is to dark.
  3. obvious is to hidden.

Incorrect. This is not correct because there are ambiguous figure ground relationships where it is difficult to distinguish one from the other.

  1. characteristics are to background.

Correct. The figure is that which we look and focus on, while the background refers to the ground against which the figure is set.

  1. shape is to texture.
  2. Gestalt is to learning.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 118-119

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

Answer: c. characteristics are to background.

 

  1. An example of a group or organization that tries to maximize the similarity between figure and ground would be a(n)
  2. business.
  3. legal office.
  4. hospital.

Incorrect. There would be no reason to reduce the difference between the figure and ground a hospital setting.

  1. army.

Correct. The army would use camouflage to try to hide the figure of a soldier from the background of the surrounding brush.

  1. artist studio.

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 118-119

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

Answer: d. army

 

  1. The Gestalt principle of ________ occurs when you see an incomplete figure as complete.
  2. figure-ground distinctions
  3. subjective contour
  4. perceptual grouping
  5. closure
  6. common fate

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. closure

 

  1. Examine this pattern: XXX XXX XXX XXX You are likely to perceive this as four groups of three X’s, rather than six pairs of X’s. This is due to the
  2. law of proximity.

Correct. This Gestalt principle suggests that we perceive things based on how close they are to each other.

  1. law of common fate.
  2. law of similarity.
  3. law of Pragnanz.
  4. law of continuity.

Incorrect. This Gestalt principle suggests that we actively seek out continual motion in visual stimuli.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 119-120

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. law of proximity.

 

  1. According to the Gestalt law of ________, we assume that the nerd we knew in fifth grade is still a nerd today.
  2. Pragnanz
  3. common fate
  4. similarity

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that suggests that visually similar stimuli tend to get perceived as being related to each other.

  1. continuity

Correct. This principle can speak to visual stimuli, or personality characteristics.

  1. kinesthesia

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. continuity

 

  1. The law of Prägnanz is also known as the
  2. minimum principle of perception.
  3. law of common fate.
  4. grouping perception.
  5. principle of least resistance.
  6. just noticeable difference.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. minimum principle of perception.

 

  1. Proofreading is a task that is made difficult because of the Gestalt principle known as the law of
  2. continuity.
  3. proximity.
  4. Prägnanz.

Correct. This is the Gestalt principle that suggests that we perceive things in the simplest manner possible.

  1. common fate.
  2. similarity.

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that suggests that visually similar stimuli tend to get perceived as being related to each other.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: c. Prägnanz.

 

  1. Hermann von Helmholtz was a proponent of which perceptual theory?
  2. Gestalt principles
  3. learning-based inference
  4. environmental adaptation
  5. artificial intelligence approach
  6. the absolute threshold theory

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: b. learning-based inference

 

  1. The learning perspective suggests that the most important factors in determining our ability to identify a percept are
  2. time, weather, and day of the week.
  3. our eyes, our ears, and our brain.
  4. the object, its environment, and the presence of distractors.
  5. the laws of continuity, similarity, and proximity.
  6. context, expectation, and perceptual sets.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: e. context, expectation, and perceptual sets.

 

  1. It may take your favorite teacher a few seconds to recognize you when you see her in the grocery store. This experience illustrates the importance of
  2. perceptual sets.
  3. context.

Correct. Our ability to perceive things is related to the environment, or context, in which we usually perceive them.

  1. closure.

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that addresses our brain’s ability to automatically fill in the missing pieces of a visually incomplete stimulus.

  1. contiguity.
  2. common fate.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: b. context.

 

  1. A sprinter’s readiness to react to the starter gun given his/her anticipation is an example of
  2. proximal stimuli.
  3. perceptual sets.

Correct. A perceptual set refers to a readiness to perceive a specific stimulus in a given context.

  1. bottom-up processing.
  2. difference thresholds.
  3. phosphenes.

Incorrect. Phosphenes are visual stimuli that result from physical pressure on the eyes. You might experience them if you rub your eyes.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 121

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: b. perceptual sets.

 

  1. Shannon reads Jason the words “folk,” “soak,” and “joke.” Then she asks him, “What do you call the white of an egg?” He replies by saying, “Yolk,” when the correct answer is albumen (or simply, egg white). Jason gave an incorrect answer due to
  2. bottom-up processing.
  3. a perceptual illusion.
  4. closure.

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that addresses our brain’s ability to automatically fill in the missing pieces of a visually incomplete stimulus.

  1. a perceptual set.

Correct. A perceptual set refers to a readiness to perceive a specific stimulus in a given context.

  1. the law of common fate.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 121-122

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. a perceptual set.

 

  1. Adults from the mainland United States are tricked by the Ponzo illusion, whereas Guam citizens are often not fooled by it. This is best explained by
  2. Gestalt psychology.
  3. learning-based inference.

Correct. Because the visual components that make up the Ponzo illusion are not regularly encountered in Guam, citizens of that country would not be likely to “fall” for the illusion.

  1. heredity.
  2. the law of continuity.
  3. the law of Pragnanz.

Incorrect. This is a Gestalt principle that suggests that we tend to perceive stimuli in the simplest way possible.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 122-123

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: b. learning-based inference.

 

  1. Visual distance and depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called
  2. monocular cues.
  3. diocular cues.
  4. binocular cues.
  5. dichromatic cues.
  6. Capellian cues.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 123

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

Answer: c. binocular cues.

 

  1. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly different image of the object is known as
  2. retinal disparity.
  3. binocular inversion.
  4. convergence.
  5. stereophonic vision.
  6. motion parallax.

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 123

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

Answer: a. retinal disparity.

 

  1. When Bill looks at his lamp alternately with his left eye and right eye, the image seems to jump from one position to another. This phenomenon illustrates
  2. the Gestalt principle of similarity.
  3. retinal disparity.

Correct. The fact that, when we look at an object, each one of our two eyes receives a slightly different image of the object is known as retinal disparity.

  1. interposition.

Incorrect. Interposition, or overlap, is the assumption that an object that appears to be blocking part of another object is in front of the second object and closer to the viewer.

  1. the Gestalt principle of proximity.
  2. convergence.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 123

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Applied

Objective: 3.3

Answer: b. retinal disparity

 

  1. Which of the following occurs when because one object appears to be blocking another object, the viewer assumes that the blocked object is farther away?
  2. convergence
  3. linear perspective
  4. interposition
  5. texture gradient
  6. motion parallax

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

Answer: c. interposition

 

  1. An aircraft pilot with only one eye is able to guide the plane during takeoff and landing using the depth cues of
  2. relative size.
  3. interposition.
  4. light and shadow.

Incorrect. This is a correct option, but the other choices are also correct. Therefore E is the best answer.

  1. atmospheric perspective.
  2. All of the above are correct.

Correct. The other four options are all monocular distance cues.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: e. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. In the depth cue of ________, distant objects appear to be fuzzy.
  2. relative size
  3. interposition
  4. light and shadow
  5. atmospheric perspective
  6. All of the above are correct.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: d. atmospheric perspective

 

  1. The distance cue in which two parallel lines extend into the distance and seem to come together at one point is called
  2. linear perspective
  3. shadowing
  4. aerial perspective
  5. motion parallax
  6. interposition

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

Answer: a. linear perspective

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0 – Chapter 03 Completion

 

  1. The process of __________ associates meaning with incoming sensory stimuli.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 89

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. perception

 

  1. The minimal amount of stimulus change that is still noticeable half the time is the __________ .

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 92

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 1.1

 

Answer: a. difference threshold or just noticeable difference (JND)

 

  1. The diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to prolonged stimulation is known as __________ .

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 93

Topic: Psychology  Matters: Sensory Adaptation

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: a. sensory adaptation

 

  1. Vision is at its sharpest in the __________ , the very center of the __________ where cone-shaped photoreceptors are concentrated.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 96

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: fovea; retina

 

  1. Visible light occupies only a tiny segment of the __________ spectrum.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 98

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. electromagnetic

 

  1. Vibrating air molecules enter the ears at the __________ .

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 101

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. pinna

 

  1. The detection of gravity is involved in the __________ sense.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. vestibular

 

  1. The __________ sense is the sense of body position and the movement of body parts relative to each other.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. kinesthetic

 

  1. Impulses from nerve cells convey odor information to __________ bulbs located just below the frontal lobes.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. olfactory

 

  1. How is the sense of smell adaptive for humans?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: Smell allows us to detect edible food, identify tainted food, and identify potential mates.

 

  1. ________ are chemical substances used to communicate within a given species.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 105

Topic: How the Other Senses Are Like Vision and Hearing

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: a. Pheromones

 

  1. In __________ processing, perceptions are guided by the sensations themselves.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Perceptual Processing: Finding Meaning in Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. bottom-up

 

  1. The Gestalt principle of __________ makes you see incomplete figures as complete and supplies the missing edges beyond gaps and barriers.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: a. closure

3.0 – Chapter 03 Essay

 

  1. Discuss the “thresholds” theory of classical psychophysics and explain how this perspective has been modified by the advances of signal detection theory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 91-93

Topic: Thresholds: The Boundaries of Sensation

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.1

 

Answer: Classical psychophysics basically says that if a stimulus has enough intensity to cross our absolute threshold (which is the minimal amount of a stimulus necessary for detection), it will be sensed. Signal detection theory claims that the perceiver’s physical condition, judgments, and biases also play a role in signal detection.

 

  1. Contrast the two major views of color vision theory.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 99

Topic: Vision: How the Nervous System Processes Light

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: One view is the trichromatic theory which argues that three classes of photoreceptors detect color, with each color representing a mixture of activation of the receptors. This view cannot account for negative color afterimages. In contrast, opponent process theory argues that for a system in which red light may activate a cell in the visual system, while green light inhibits that cell.

 

  1. Describe the four-step process by which sound vibrations are turned into auditory sensations.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 101-102

Topic: Hearing: If a Tree Falls in the Forest…

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.2

 

Answer: Sound waves must be relayed to the inner ear after reaching the eardrum first. Next, the cochlea must focus the vibrations on the basilar membrane. Then, this basilar membrane will transform the vibrations into neural impulses. Finally, these impulses will reach the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes for higher-order processing.

 

  1. Name and describe the two competing theories that attempt to explain perception. Provide an example for how each theory might explain a percept.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 117-122

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Factual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: The learning-based inference claims that prior learning determines our perceptions. The Gestalt theory claims that the brain is designed to seek out patterns. Thus, this theory believes that nature is the key determinant of what we perceive. As for the examples, the student’s examples must reflect prior learning for the learning-based inference (for example, seeing B0Y as ‘b-o-y” rather than “b-zero-y”).

 

  1. Explain the major principles of Gestalt psychology and discuss two specific laws of perceptual grouping.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 118-120

Topic: Theoretical Explanations for Perception

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 3.3

 

Answer: This perspective believes that the brain is designed to seek patterns. The theory claims that much of this is innate. The theory also claims that “the whole is more than the sum of its parts.” After describing the perspective, the student must then name and describe two principles, which include: figure-ground (figure is seen as closer than background), closure (we mentally “fill in” missing elements), the law of similarity (we mentally group similar things together), the law of proximity (we mentally group items that are nearby one another together), the law of continuity (we prefer smoothly connected figures), the law of common fate (moving objects are perceived as being in a group), and the law of Pragnanz (we tend to perceive the simplest pattern).

Chapter 04: Learning and Human Nurture

 

1.0 – Chapter 03 Multiple Choice

 

  1. Learning always occurs as a result of
  2. changing our emotions.
  3. experience.
  4. changes in the environment.
  5. classical conditioning.
  6. internal changes.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. experience.

 

  1. __________ is a process through which experience brings about a lasting change in behavior or knowledge.
  2. Learning
  3. Adaptation
  4. Memory enhancement
  5. Muscle memory
  6. Habituation

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Learning

 

  1. Which of the following would NOT be an example of learning?
  2. A newborn infant sucks on a nipple filled with milk.

Incorrect. This is not learning because it is a reflexive behavior. This is not the best answer, though, because B is also not an example of learning.

  1. A teenager falls asleep after staying awake for 96 hours.
  2. A rat presses a lever to obtain a food pellet.
  3. You wince when you see a long needle similar to the one that hurt you during a drug injection last week.
  4. A and B are correct.

 Correct.  Both A and B refer to actions that take place without learning occurring. A is a reflex, and B is a natural physiological response.

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Application

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: e. A and B are correct.

 

  1. Which of the following statements about learning is NOT true?
  2. Learning is another word for “maturation.”

Correct. Maturation, which is not described by your textbook, involves more biological processes than simple learning.

  1. Learning is a lasting condition.
  2. Learning involves changes in behavior.
  3. Learning involves experiences.

Incorrect. Learning does involve experience, and the statement is true. The question asks which statement is NOT true.

  1. Learning involves changes in knowledge.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Learning is another word for “maturation.”

 

  1. While walking down a dark alley, you jump at a loud noise. This would not be considered learning because
  2. it is not a behavior.
  3. jumping is only done for survival purposes.
  4. not everyone would jump in this situation.
  5. jumping is merely a reflex.

Correct. Reflexes are inborn and do not require learning in order to happen.

  1. jumping is a difficult skill, biologically speaking.

Incorrect. Jumping may not be difficult, but in this case it is a reflexive response.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. jumping is merely a reflex.

 

 

  1. ________ refers to the process of experience producing a lasting change in behavior.
  2. A stimulus-response set
  3. Learning
  4. Automation
  5. Insight
  6. Potentiation

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. Learning

 

  1. Jenna walks into her science class laboratory, and she immediately feels queasy. Today is the day her class is dissecting frogs and she is sickened by the smell of the formaldehyde. However, after an hour Jenna is no longer sickened because of
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. habituation.

Correct. Habituation refers to the tendency to learn not to respond to a stimulus once it has become familiar to us.

  1. operant conditioning.
  2. her reflexes.
  3. spontaneous recovery.

Incorrect. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response in classical conditioning.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 135

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. habituation.

 

  1. Gina walks into her psychology class on the first day, and she sits next to Roger. She thinks his looks are decent, but by the end of the semester she finds him to be quite attractive due to
  2. the mere exposure effect.

Correct. The mere exposure effect suggests that we tend to like things to which we’ve been frequently exposed, including people.

  1. habituation.

Incorrect. Habituation refers to the tendency to learn not to respond to a stimulus once it has become familiar to us.

  1. continuous reinforcement.
  2. shaping.
  3. her new cognitive map.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 135

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. the mere exposure effect.

 

  1. The two main types of behavioral learning are
  2. reflexive responses and shaping.
  3. insight learning and operant conditioning.
  4. classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
  5. social learning and observational learning.
  6. reinforcement and insight learning.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 135

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

 

  1. One might expect that classical conditioning was discovered by a psychologist. However, it was discovered by a
  2. physician who was studying the age at which children start to walk.
  3. physiologist who was studying memory processes in monkeys.
  4. physiologist who was studying digestion.
  5. dog trainer who was trying to come up with the best way to reward animals for their performances in his shows.
  6. neurologist who was studying unconscious motivations behind behaviors.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 136

Topic: What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. physiologist who was studying digestion.

 

  1. The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was
  2. Skinner

Incorrect. Skinner was a well-known contributor to the study of learning but his work centered on operant or instrumental conditioning.

  1. Tolman
  2. Kohler
  3. Pavlov

Correct. The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was Pavlov.

  1. Garcia

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 136

Topic: What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. Pavlov

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding Pavlov is accurate?
  2. Pavlov was studying salivation in dogs as part of a research program on digestion.
  3. Pavlov was elated when his student first noticed that the dogs were salivating before tasting the food.
  4. Pavlov continued his Nobel Prize–winning research on digestion after documenting conditioning.
  5. Pavlov stressed the importance of speculating about the dog’s feelings toward the food.
  6. Pavlov wanted to be a psychologist very badly, which is why he did research that influenced the field of psychology.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 136

Topic: What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Pavlov was studying salivation in dogs as part of a research program on digestion.

 

  1. While studying ________, ________ discovered ________ conditioning.
  2. monkeys; Skinner; operant
  3. rabbits; Watson; observational
  4. digestion; Pavlov; classical
  5. mental events; Plato; aerobic
  6. dogs; Bandura; insight

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 136

Topic: What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. digestion; Pavlov; classical

 

  1. Learning to make a reflex response to a stimulus other than to the original, natural stimulus is called
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. operant conditioning.
  4. memory linkage.
  5. adaptation.
  6. shaping.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 136

Topic: What Sort of Learning Does Classical Conditioning Explain?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. classical conditioning.

 

  1. An eye blink is an example of
  2. introspection.
  3. an environmental event.
  4. a reflex.

Correct. This inborn, automatic action requires no learning.

  1. an operant.

Incorrect. An operant refers to a voluntary behavior that has an impact on one’s environment. An eye blink is an involuntary action.

  1. shaping.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. a reflex.

 

  1. As an infant, Stephanie received many penicillin injections from the doctor. When she later saw a photographer in a white coat that was similar to the doctor’s coat, she started to cry. This is an example of
  2. instrumental learning
  3. observational learning

Incorrect. Observational learning involves watching others in a learning experience; in this example, Stephanie experienced these events herself.

  1. classical conditioning

Correct. Stephanie’s experience is an example of classical conditioning.

  1. habituation
  2. counterconditioning

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. classical conditioning

 

  1. The abbreviation UCS stands for
  2. unconditional statement.
  3. uniform conditioned subject.
  4. unconditional sensation.
  5. unconditioned stimulus.
  6. operant stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. unconditioned stimulus.

 

  1. In the context of classical conditioning, which of following components “elicits” a response?
  2. UCR
  3. UCS

Correct. The unconditioned stimulus is one of three types of stimulating classical conditioning that can produce a response. The other two are a conditioned stimulus and a neutral stimulus.

  1. CER

Incorrect. CER refers to a conditioned emotional response, which is not a form of a stimulus.

d.CSR

  1. NR

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. UCS

 

  1. Pavlov placed food in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. The food acted as a (an)
  2. unconditioned response.
  3. unconditioned stimulus.

Correct. The food acted as an unconditioned stimulus that automatically evoked the conditioned response. Food automatically causes one to salivate.

  1. conditioned response.
  2. conditioned stimulus.

Incorrect. The food acted as an unconditioned stimulus that automatically evoked salivation. The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral and food is not a neutral stimulus.

  1. neutral stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. unconditioned stimulus.

 

  1. You are sitting in a class when your professor holds up a large white feather. We could guess that most people would not really respond in any important way to the feather, because the feather is a(n)
  2. primary reinforcer.

Incorrect. A primary reinforcer is a concept from operant conditioning that refers to a reward that satisfies a basic, biological necessity. It is not an appropriate answer for this example.

  1. negative punisher.
  2. unconditioned response.
  3. neutral stimulus.

Correct. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is any event that evokes no significant response.

  1. extinct event.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. neutral stimulus.

 

  1. Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. After a while he notices that the fish swim to the top to look for the food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the ________ is the unconditioned stimulus.
  2. presence of Alan near the aquarium

Incorrect. Alan’s presence is not what brings about a response, either conditioned or unconditioned, in this example.

  1. fish swimming to the top
  2. aquarium light
  3. fish food

Correct. The fish food is the unconditioned stimulus because by definition food is an unconditioned stimulus.

  1. the sound of his footsteps as he approaches the tank

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. fish food

 

  1. Every time Maricella goes to work in the morning, she notices that her dog sulks in the corner of the room and looks very sad. Over several weeks, she notices that the dog gets unhappy when she picks up her car keys, immediately before leaving the house. Which phenomenon of learning best describes the dog’s behavior?
  2. classical conditioning

Correct. The dog has come to associate the sound of the keys with the departure of Maricella, and his sadness has become a conditioned response.

  1. innate learning
  2. negative punishment

Incorrect. While the dog may experience the departure of Maricella as a punishment, this does not explain his association with the sound of her car keys.

  1. instinctive drift
  2. stimulus discrimination

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 137-138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. classical conditioning

 

  1. A(n) ________ refers to the behavior elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.
  2. conditioned stimulus
  3. conditioned response
  4. unconditioned response
  5. controlled response
  6. neutral response

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137-138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. unconditioned response

 

  1. In a conditioning experiment, a sound is paired with a brief puff of air to the eye of the rabbit. After several pairings, the rabbit ultimately blinks its eye when it hears the sound. Which of the following is true?
  2. The blinking of the eye serves as stimulus.
  3. The puff of air serves as the unconditioned stimulus.

Correct. The puff of air elicits a reflexive response without learning taking place, so it is an unconditioned stimulus.

  1. The puff of air serves as the conditioned stimulus.
  2. The blinking of the eye serves as the conditioned stimulus.

Incorrect. The blinking of the eye is a response, not a stimulus.

  1. The air puff is a discriminative stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137-138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. The puff of air serves as the unconditioned stimulus.

 

  1. In the Pavlov study, the salivation to the tone represents the ________ after conditioning.
  2. unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

Incorrect. Salivating to the tone would require learning to take place, and the U (or unconditioned) in UCS refers to an unlearned stimulus.

  1. orienting response (OR)
  2. conditioned stimulus (CS)
  3. conditioned response (CR)

Correct. Because the dog learns to salivate to the tone, it is a conditioned, or “learned,” response.

  1. neutral stimulus (NS)

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 137-138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. conditioned response (CR)

 

  1. The abbreviation UCR stands for
  2. unconditional reinforcement.
  3. uniform conditioned rule.
  4. unconditional retention.
  5. unconditioned response.
  6. unconstrained reaction.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. unconditioned response.

 

  1. When Pavlov placed food in the mouths of canine subjects, they began to salivate. The salivation was a(n)
  2. unconditioned response.

Correct. The salivation was reflexive to the presentation of food and, thus, was an unconditioned response.

  1. unconditioned stimulus.
  2. conditioned response.

Incorrect. Because salivation was initially reflexive for food and not to another stimulus, such as a sound, salivation would be considered an unconditioned response.

  1. conditioned stimulus.
  2. discriminative stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. unconditioned response.

 

  1. Normally, when food is placed in the mouth of any animal, the salivary glands start releasing saliva to help with chewing and digestion. In terms of Pavlov’s analysis of learning, salivation would be referred to as a(n)
  2. unconditioned response.

Correct. The unconditioned response is a naturally occurring process when the animal is stimulated. Salivation is such a process in response to food.

  1. voluntary response.
  2. conditioned response.
  3. digestive reflex.

Incorrect. Although salivation is part of digestion, the best answer is the unconditioned response because it is more specific and part of Pavlov’s conceptualization.

  1. habituated response.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. unconditioned response.

 

  1. An unconditioned stimulus is any stimulus that
  2. triggers a learned response.
  3. is based upon its association with another unconditioned stimulus.
  4. provides positive or negative reinforcement.
  5. naturally elicits a behavior without learning.
  6. inhibits previously learned behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 137

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. naturally elicits a behavior without learning.

 

  1. The initial learning stage in classical conditioning, in which the neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus, is known as
  2. prompting.
  3. trial-and-error learning.
  4. acquisition.
  5. insight learning
  6. shaping.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. acquisition.

 

  1. The linkage between a UCS and the UCR requires
  2. that the person must be hungry.
  3. the individual must receive either punishment or reinforcement.
  4. a critical impact of insight.

Incorrect. Insight learning is a form of cognitive learning. This question refers to classical conditioning concepts.

  1. no learning.

Correct. The U means “unconditioned,” and this is, by definition, an automatic behavior that occurs without learning.

  1. that the dog salivates at the sound of the bell.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. no learning.

 

  1. Sue noticed that whenever she opened the door to the pantry, her dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry by drooling and whining. She thought that because the dog food was stored in the pantry, the sound of the door had become a(n)
  2. unconditioned stimulus.
  3. conditioned stimulus.

Correct. A conditioned stimulus is one that has been a signal for the UCS. In this case the door sound signals food.

  1. unconditioned response.
  2. conditioned response.

Incorrect. The sound cannot be a response because the sound was a stimulus presented to the dog.

  1. neutral stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. conditioned stimulus.

 

  1. Imagine that you flinch after seeing lightning because in previous instances the lightning is followed by thunder, which scared you. In this scenario, lightning can be interpreted as being a(n)
  2. unconditioned stimulus.

Incorrect. in this example, the thunder is the unconditioned stimulus because it elicits a response before learning occurs.

  1. unconditioned response.
  2. conditioned stimulus.

Correct. the conditioned, or learned stimulus, is lightning because it only elicited a response after learning took place.

  1. conditioned response.
  2. extinguished stimulus

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. conditioned stimulus.

 

  1. Harmony notices that her cat salivates as soon as he hears the sound of Harmony opening a can with an electric can opener. In this example, the ________ is the conditioned stimulus.
  2. can of cat food
  3. sound of the electric can opener

Correct. The sound of the can opener is a stimulus that causes a conditioned response in the cat.  c. dish that Harmony puts the food in

Incorrect. Although the dish might also have become a conditioned stimulus, in this example Harmony noticed that salivation came in response specifically to the sound of the can opener.

  1. cat scurrying into the kitchen
  2. the smell of the cat food

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. sound of the electric can opener

 

  1. Miranda notices that her cat salivates as soon as her cat hears the sound of the electric can opener. In this example, the sound of the can opener is the
  2. primary stimulus.
  3. positive reinforcer.
  4. conditioned stimulus.

Correct. In this example, the sound of the electric can opener is the conditioned stimulus because it causes a natural, reflexive response of salivation in the cat.

  1. secondary reinforcer.

Incorrect. In this example, the sound of the electric can opener is the conditioned stimulus. You might think the cat enjoys hearing the sound and it takes on reinforcing properties. However, the question focuses on the behavior and, thus, the sound acts as the conditioned stimulus.

  1. tertiary reinforcer.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. conditioned stimulus.

 

  1. The abbreviation CS stands for
  2. conditioned stimulus.
  3. correlated stimulus.
  4. conventional structure.
  5. conditional situation.
  6. conjuncted structure.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. conditioned stimulus.

 

  1. Imagine that you try to condition someone so that a particular sound elicits a literal “knee jerk response.” Which of the following is accurate?
  2. The initial strike to the knee is the CS.
  3. The initial knee jerk response is the CR.

Incorrect. Because the initial knee jerk took place without learning, it is a US.

  1. The sound is the CS.

Correct. If you learned to respond to the sound with a previously reflexive response, the sound becomes a conditioned stimulus.

  1. The anticipation of being struck in the knee is the CSR.
  2. The initial appearance of the response is an example of spontaneous recovery.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. The sound is the CS.

 

  1. After acquisition of classical conditioning, the ________ now has the ability to elicit a response that resembles the UCR.
  2. operant response

Incorrect. In classical conditioning, there is no such thing as an operant response.

  1. conditioned stimulus

Correct. The conditioned, or learned, stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke the response that was originally evoked by the UCS.

  1. unconditional stimulus
  2. orienting stimulus
  3. independent stimulus

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. conditioned stimulus

 

  1. Pavlov placed food in the mouths of the dogs, and they began to salivate. Pavlov’s student noticed that after a few days the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the student’s footsteps. The salivation to the sound of the footsteps was a
  2. primary reinforcer.
  3. positive reinforcer.
  4. conditioned response.

Correct. Since salivation is not a natural reflexive response to footsteps, the situation was one in which salivation became a response to the sound and, thus, is referred to as a conditioned response.

  1. secondary reinforcer.

Incorrect. A reinforcer is a stimulus, whereas the salivation is a response—in this case, a conditioned response.

  1. negative reinforcer.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. conditioned response

 

  1. The abbreviation CR stands for
  2. conditional reinforcement.
  3. contingent reflex.
  4. conditioned response.
  5. contingent reflection.
  6. contingent response.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. conditioned response.

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic experiments, the repeated presentations of the metronome along with the food was called the ________ step of the classical conditioning process.
  2. acquisition
  3. testing
  4. extinction
  5. spontaneous recovery
  6. generalizing

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. acquisition

 

  1. You decide that you are going to condition your dog to salivate to the sound of a metronome. You sound the metronome and then several minutes later you give the dog a biscuit. You do this several times but no conditioning seems to occur. This is probably because
  2. the metronome was not a distinctive sound.
  3. the metronome should have been sounded after the animal ate the biscuit.

Incorrect. The CS occurring after the UCS has been found not to yield strong classical conditioning.

  1. you should have had an even longer interval between the metronome and the biscuit.
  2. the biscuit was given too long after the sound of the metronome.

Correct. Pavlov found that the CS and UCS must be only seconds apart in order to condition salivation. Longer intervals were not successful.

  1. the metronome was not loud enough to be heard by the dog.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. the biscuit was given too long after the sound of the metronome.

 

  1. ________ refers to a procedure in classical conditioning where a CR no longer occurs in the presence of the CS due to the absence of the UCS.
  2. Extinction
  3. Spontaneous recovery
  4. Inhibition
  5. Discrimination
  6. Generalization

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Extinction

 

  1. After Pavlov’s dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the metronome, he experimented with sounding the metronome and then failing to present the dogs with any food right away. Soon they stopped salivating to the sound of the metronome. This represents the process called
  2. acquisition.
  3. testing.

Incorrect. Testing is not a term used in this paradigm.

  1. extinction.

Correct. Extinction occurs when the CR no longer predicts the CS and the organism no longer responds to the stimulus.

  1. spontaneous recovery.
  2. shaping.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. extinction.

 

  1. When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS (food, in this case), the CR will “die out” in a process called
  2. CR fading
  3. extinction
  4. habituation
  5. generalization fading
  6. discriminatory fading

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. extinction

 

  1. The longest interval between the CS and UCS is required for classical conditioning of
  2. motor responses.
  3. visceral responses.
  4. conditioned salivation.
  5. conditioned fear.
  6. reflex responses.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. conditioned fear.

 

  1. One of Pavlov’s dogs had stopped salivating at the sound of the tone. The next day the tone was presented again and the dog began salivating. Pavlov referred to this as
  2. shaping.

Incorrect. Shaping is a process from operant conditioning, while Pavlov’s work focused on classical conditioning.

  1. spontaneous extinction.
  2. stimulus generalization.
  3. spontaneous recovery.

Correct. The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response is called spontaneous recovery.

  1. higher-order conditioning.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. spontaneous recovery.

 

  1. You train your dog, Milo, to salivate at the sound of a bell. Then you ring the bell every five minutes and don’t follow the ringing with food for Milo. He salivates less and less and finally stops salivating at all when the bell rings. But the next morning, when you ring the bell, Milo salivates! What term is used to explain the reappearance of this response?
  2. counterconditioning

Incorrect. Counterconditioning would have occurred if the animal was conditioned to some other stimuli, but this was not the case.

  1. instinctive drift
  2. spontaneous recovery

Correct. Milo’s response spontaneously recovered.

  1. stimulus discrimination
  2. extinction

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. spontaneous recovery

 

  1. The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred is called
  2. counterconditioning.
  3. instinctive drift.
  4. spontaneous recovery.
  5. stimulus discrimination.
  6. discriminatory reappearance.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. spontaneous recovery.

 

  1. An animal is conditioned to salivate to a metronome using Pavlovian procedures. After the conditioning is established, the animal is then put through an extinction procedure and the conditioned salivation disappears. Then the animal is removed from the test situation for several days. When returned to the test situation, the conditioned response is seen again. The effect is known as
  2. spontaneous recovery.

Correct. When a conditioned response briefly reappears after it has been extinguished, this is called spontaneous recovery.

  1. higher-order conditioning.

Incorrect. Higher-order conditioning refers to a chain of conditioned responses established from the first pairing, which is not the situation described here. The reappearance of an extinguished response is called spontaneous recovery.

  1. extinction.
  2. stimulus generalization.
  3. stimulus discrimination.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. spontaneous recovery

 

  1. What would you predict about Little Albert based on the principle of spontaneous recovery?
  2. Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.

Correct.  In spontaneous recovery the conditioned response can briefly reappear when the original CS returns, although the response is usually weak and short-lived.

  1. After his fear of loud noises was extinguished, the fear could come back.
  2. His fear of rats would disappear if he saw a rat without hearing a loud noise.

Incorrect. Although the statement is true, it doesn’t answer the question about spontaneous recovery, which involves the resurfacing of the fear even after it has seemingly been extinguished.

  1. His fear of loud noises would disappear if he heard a loud noise without a rat present.
  2. His fear of rats will reduce so that it is only shown when he is around a rat, though it will spread to rats of any color.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138-140

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning; Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Even after his fear of a rat was extinguished, the fear could come back.

 

  1. Robert’s dog, Little Gut, runs to Robert when he says, “Come.” If one day, Little Gut comes running when Robert says, “Dumb,” we might say that Little Gut has demonstrated
  2. spontaneous recovery.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response.

  1. social learning.
  2. insight learning.
  3. intermittent reinforcement.
  4. stimulus generalization.

Correct. The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the CS with the CR is called stimulus generalization.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: e. stimulus generalization.

 

  1. The tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus is called
  2. stimulus generalization.
  3. stimulus adaptation.
  4. response generalization.
  5. transfer of habit strength.
  6. extinction.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. stimulus generalization.

 

  1. The fact that you prefer blondes because your last love interest was a blonde best illustrates
  2. stimulus generalization.

Correct. Stimulus generalization occurs when we respond to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus.

  1. generalization gradient.
  2. stimulus discrimination.

Incorrect. Stimulus discrimination occurs when a person or animal recognizes that different stimuli should evoke different responses.

  1. discrimination gradient.
  2. spontaneous recovery.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. stimulus generalization.

 

  1. After Little Albert acquired a conditioned fear of rats, Watson wanted to see how he would react to a white rabbit, cotton wool, and a Santa Claus mask. He was studying whether or not ________ had occurred.
  2. behavior modification

Incorrect. Behavior modification is a clinical technique that uses conditioning. Stimulus generalization was the issue.

  1. stimulus discrimination
  2. extinction
  3. stimulus generalization

Correct. Stimulus generalization occurs when a conditioned response spreads to a similar stimulus. In this case, it was from rat to rabbit.

  1. spontaneous recovery

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning; Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. stimulus generalization

 

  1. Jane’s dog will listen to her commands but ignores her sister’s commands. Jane’s dog would be demonstrating
  2. spontaneous recovery.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response.

  1. social learning.
  2. insight learning.
  3. stimulus discrimination.

Correct. The response to one stimulus but not another similar one demonstrates stimulus discrimination.

  1. stimulus generalization.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. stimulus discrimination.

 

  1. After feeding a dog with a red bowl but never giving any food with a green bowl, the dog now salivates only to the red bowl. This is an example of:
  2. insight learning.
  3. higher-order conditioning.
  4. spontaneous recovery.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that refers to the reemergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response.

  1. extinction.
  2. stimulus discrimination.

Correct. The response to one stimulus but not another similar one demonstrates stimulus discrimination.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: e. stimulus discrimination.

 

  1. One outcome demonstrated by Watson and Rayner’s testing with Little Albert was that
  2. operant conditioning can modify behavior.
  3. the fear response may generalize to other stimuli.

Correct. Conditioning a fear to one stimulus runs the risk that the fear may “spread” to other, similar stimuli. As it turns out, this is exactly what happened with Albert.

  1. taste aversions can be formed in young children.
  2. counterconditioning is difficult.

Incorrect. This statement may be true in some instances, but nothing in your textbook suggests that counterconditioning Albert’s fear would be a difficult task.

  1. spontaneous recovery can occur at the wrong time.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. the fear response may generalize to other stimuli.

 

  1. For Little Albert, his fear of ________ was interpreted as an instance of ________.
  2. John Watson; a sensible response
  3. a white laboratory rat; conditioned fear
  4. his mother; childhood psychosis
  5. a Santa Claus mask; experimental psychosis
  6. a white laboratory rat; operant conditioning

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. a white laboratory rat; conditioned fear

 

  1. Little Albert was conditioned to fear a
  2. white mouse.

Incorrect. In fact, little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rats, not a white mouse.

  1. brown mouse.
  2. white rat.

Correct. The case of Little Albert is famous for demonstrating the ability to condition a phobia of a white rat.

  1. white puppy.
  2. gray pigeon.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. white rat.

 

  1. John Watson offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the ________ in his study.
  2. discriminative stimulus
  3. counterconditioning stimulus
  4. conditioned stimulus

Correct. The child was conditioned to respond to this stimulus with fear, even though he was not originally afraid of the rat.

  1. unconditioned stimulus

Incorrect. An unconditioned stimulus is one that the child automatically responds to with fear, such as a loud noise.

  1. extinguishing stimulus

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. conditioned stimulus

 

  1. What was the conditioned stimulus (CS) in the case of Little Albert?
  2. a white rat

Correct. The white rat was a neutral stimulus that at first didn’t elicit a fear response but that, after conditioning, became a conditioned stimulus.

  1. a loud noise

Incorrect. The UCS was the loud noise because it automatically evoked a fear response.

  1. a high chair
  2. a small enclosed space
  3. a blanket

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. a white rat

 

  1. What was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in the case of Little Albert?
  2. a rat

Incorrect. The rat was a neutral stimulus that didn’t at first elicit a fear response and, thus, was the CS.

  1. a loud noise

Correct. The UCS was a loud noise because it automatically evoked a fear response.

  1. a high chair
  2. a small enclosed space
  3. a blanket

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. a loud noise

 

  1. What could John Watson have done to eliminate Little Albert’s conditioned fear?
  2. Show Albert a toy dog instead of a live rat.

Incorrect. The toy dog wasn’t a conditioned stimulus because seeing it repeatedly probably wouldn’t have helped Albert. He needed to see the rat repeatedly.

  1. Let Albert touch a Santa Claus beard repeatedly.
  2. Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following.

Correct. Showing Albert a rat without the loud noise would teach Albert that nothing scary coincides with the presence of the rat.

  1. Have Albert hear a loud noise many times without a rat present.
  2. Simply remove Albert from the room where the conditioning originally took place.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. Show Albert a rat many times without a loud noise following.

 

  1. In the “Little Albert” study, the fear-producing stimulus used as a UCS was the
  2. white rat.

Incorrect. Albert did not have a reflexive fear response to the rat so it couldn’t be the unconditioned stimulus. He did have a reflexive fear response to the noise, and that was the unconditioned stimulus.

  1. loud noise.

Correct. Noise was the unconditioned stimulus as it automatically evoked fear.

  1. fear of the rat.
  2. fear of the noise.
  3. appearance of the experimenter.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. loud noise.

 

  1. One of the best therapy strategies for eliminating conditioned fears involves combining ________ in a process known as ________.
  2. negative and positive reinforcement; aversion
  3. arousal and stress reduction; shaping
  4. conditioned and unconditioned responses; discrimination

Incorrect. Sorry, but no part of this answer would be accurate in the elimination of phobic responses.

  1. primary and secondary reinforcers; social learning
  2. extinction and relaxation; counterconditioning

Correct. This process replaces the fear response with one of reflexive relaxation, and this is an important application of classical conditioning.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: e. extinction and relaxation; counterconditioning

 

  1. An important discovery stemming from Watson and Rayner’s experiment was that
  2. phobias can be reversed.

Incorrect. One of the ethical objections that many people have to this experiment is that Little Albert’s phobia was never reversed by Watson and Rayner.

  1. some phobias are more probable due to preparedness.
  2. children experience phobias more often than had previously been thought.
  3. phobias may be explained by using principles of classical conditioning.

Correct. Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert demonstrated the ability to condition a phobia with classical conditioning.

  1. instinctive drift explains phobias in human beings.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. phobias may be explained by using principles of classical conditioning.

 

  1. Imagine that you have an intense fear of flying and that that you are enrolled in a counterconditioning therapy program to help you lose this fear. Which of the following situations would greatly interfere with the success of this therapy for fear of flying?
  2. Your plane develops engine trouble while you are on a short 20-minute practice flight.

Correct. This would interrupt the process of teaching the clients to associate flying with relaxation instead of anxiety.

  1. You take a muscle relaxant to calm you before the therapy.

Incorrect. Though this may not be the best way to overcome aerophobia, it certainly would enhance the sense of relaxation that is a crucial part of counterconditioning.

  1. You are told over and over that flying is quite safe.
  2. You watch a movie about a person safely flying on a trip.
  3. B and C are correct.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Your plane develops engine trouble while you are on a short 20-minute practice flight.

 

  1. A Vietnam war veteran who hears a “call to battle stations” alarm sound last heard in heavy combat would be expected to
  2. demonstrate no response.

Incorrect. This would be very unlikely given the extent to which soldiers are trained to respond to specific stimuli.

  1. become extremely violent.
  2. feel relief that they are not now in combat.
  3. show strong emotional arousal.

Correct. The response that was so thoroughly trained into this veteran during their combat training might be expected to stick with them through their entire lives.

  1. experience a happy feeling.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. show strong emotional arousal.

 

  1. Last month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced
  2. blocking.
  3. conditioned food aversion.

Correct. Taste aversion is the term for a learned aversion to a particular food based on a previous bad experience with that food.

  1. operant taste conditioning.

Incorrect. Operant conditioning relates to voluntary behavior, whereas a taste aversion, such as the one Walter experienced, is an involuntary response.

  1. noncontingent conditioning.
  2. shaping.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. conditioned food aversion.

 

  1. Judy has cancer and is receiving chemotherapy at a local hospital. Her parents notice that she now rejects food that she willingly ate last week (before chemotherapy). Through the process of ________, the food is now acting as a ________.
  2. operant conditioning; negative reinforcer

Incorrect. There is nothing that makes the food a reinforcer, because it is not strengthening any response. This is actually an example of classical conditioning.

  1. negative reinforcement; conditioned stimulus
  2. aversive conditioning; conditioned stimulus

Correct.  Aversive conditioning pairs an unpleasant outcome with a given stimulus, and this can lead to unintentional food aversions in chemotherapy patients.

  1. appetitive conditioning; conditioned stimulus
  2. conditioned reinforcement; unconditioned response

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. aversive conditioning; conditioned stimulus

 

  1. What is likely to happen to rats that drink a saccharin solution and are then shocked?
  2. They will develop an aversion to saccharin.

Incorrect. Taste of food in mammals such as rats is associated with nausea, not shocks.

  1. They will refuse to drink any water and die
  2. They will not develop an aversion to saccharin solutions.

Correct. The rats will not develop an aversion to saccharin because rats are biologically prepared to associate taste with nausea, not shock.

  1. They will die as a result of the shocks they received in the research.
  2. They will learn to “enjoy” the sensation of an electric shock and actively seek it out.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 140-141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: c. They will not develop an aversion to saccharin solutions.

 

  1. The fact that food aversions are ________ poses a problem for classical conditioning theory.
  2. hard to measure
  3. not consistent

Incorrect. Your book does not note that classical conditioning examples must be “consistent” in order to be useful.

  1. learned through observation
  2. generalizable
  3. not entirely learned

Correct. There does seem to be some biological predispositions for certain food aversions in both human beings and animals. This suggests that learning is not exclusively responsible for this response.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 140-141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: e. not entirely learned

 

  1. One factor that makes a food aversion different from most types of classical conditioning is that
  2. other people can cause us to develop the connection the CS and the UCS.
  3. once the conditioning is established, it cannot be eliminated.

Incorrect. There is nothing in the text that suggests that it is impossible to eliminate a conditioned food aversion.

  1. the conditioned response often occurs before the unconditioned response.
  2. there can be a long time delay between the CS and the UCS.

Correct. Most instances of classical conditioning require a very brief delay between the CS and UCS. For conditioned food aversions, this contiguity is not required.

  1. conditioning may not always involve a change in the person’s response.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. there can be a long time delay between the CS and the UCS.

 

  1. Generally, it is best to present the CS followed immediately by the US for conditioning to occur. One exception to this rule is illustrated by
  2. food aversions.

Correct. Classically conditioned food aversions can occur even when there is a significant time delay between the CS and the US.

  1. conditioning voluntary responses.
  2. tactile aversions.
  3. conditioning eye blink responses.

Incorrect. To classically condition an eyeblink response, the CS and US would have to be presented almost simultaneously.

  1. conditioned emotional responses

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. food aversions.

 

  1. Human beings generally have an aversion to bitter and sour foods. Some researchers suggest that this is because foods that are inedible or even poisonous are often bitter or sour. The tendency of human beings to find these potentially harmful foods repulsive is an example of (a)
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. vicarious conditioning.
  4. conditioned emotional response.

Incorrect. The question does not refer to any emotional reaction as a consequence of the unpleasant taste.

  1. biological predisposition.

Correct. The survival value associated with learning to avoid dangerous foods is an example of a biological predisposition.

  1. instinctive drift.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. biological predisposition.

 

  1. A practical use of aversive conditioning by John Garcia was to
  2. cause to people to look forward to receiving chemotherapy.
  3. dissuade wild coyotes from attacking sheep.

Correct.  By using tainted meat, Garcia was able to get coyotes to develop a dislike for sheep meat.

  1. make Little Albert cry at the sight of a white rat.

Incorrect. This was the work of Watson and Rayner, not Garcia.

  1. alter people’s eating preferences for lamb.
  2. teach children to eat their green vegetables..

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Application

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: b. dissuade wild coyotes from attacking sheep.

 

  1. A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the research of ________to accomplish this.
  2. Bandura
  3. Skinner

Incorrect. Skinner studied operant conditioning, whereas this effect is a classical conditioning phenomenon.

  1. Tolman
  2. Garcia

Correct. Garcia worked on taste aversion.

  1. Seligman

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. Garcia

 

  1. A farmer is being troubled by coyotes eating his sheep. In an attempt to solve the problem, he kills a sheep and laces its body with a nausea-inducing drug. He leaves the sheep out where he knows the coyotes roam. He hopes they will learn not to eat the sheep. The farmer is attempting to apply the principle of ________ to accomplish this.
  2. observational learning
  3. latent learning

Incorrect. Latent learning has occurred when an animal or person seems not to learn something but later demonstrates the learned behavior in question. In this example, the farmer is attempting to cause a conditioned taste aversion in local coyotes to protect his sheep.

  1. instrumental conditioning
  2. conditioned food aversions

Correct. The farmer hopes that the taste of the sheep will evoke a conditioned response.

  1. intermittent reinforcement

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: d. conditioned food aversions

 

  1. To avoid conditioned taste aversions, cancer patients are now given ________ during chemotherapy
  2. morphine
  3. naloxone
  4. a familiar food
  5. unusually flavored candies or ice cream
  6. psychotherapy

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 142

Topic: Psychology Matters: Taste Aversions and Chemotherapy

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. unusually flavored candies or ice cream

 

  1. ________ classical conditioning, operant conditioning requires the organism to voluntarily produce the ________.
  2. Like; response

Incorrect. This answer is incorrect, because classical and operant conditioning are not alike in this manner.

  1. Unlike; response

Correct. classical and operant conditioning are different in that classical conditioning requires reflexive responses were operant conditioning deals with voluntary responses.

  1. Unlike; consequence
  2. Like; stimulus
  3. Similar to; discriminative response

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 142-143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. Unlike; response

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior?
  2. a child doing her homework after she receives her teacher’s approval for her behavior
  3. a rat pressing a bar after receiving food for this behavior
  4. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented

Correct. The dog’s blinking its eyes is not operant behavior because it is reflexive, involuntary behavior, whereas operant behavior is voluntary.

  1. a rat pressing a bar after avoiding a shock for this behavior

Incorrect. The rat’s pressing the bar is operant behavior because it is voluntary.

  1. a child sitting quietly because he knows his father is working and needs to concentrate.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 142-143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. a dog blinking its eyes after a flash of light is presented

 

  1. The kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is called
  2. operant conditioning.

Correct. Operant conditioning involves a choice to move and is, thus, voluntary behavior.

  1. classical conditioning.

Incorrect. Classical conditioning involves involuntary responses, such as salivation.

  1. effective based learning.
  2. spontaneous recovery.
  3. shaping.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. operant conditioning

 

  1. In operant conditioning, behavioral change is brought about by the manipulation of
  2. reflexes.

Incorrect. This is the crux of classical, not operant, conditioning.

  1. goals.
  2. consequences.

Correct. This sort of learning states that behaviors can come to be controlled by the outcomes, or consequences, that they produce.

  1. motives.
  2. thoughts.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. consequences.

 

  1. ________ are observable behaviors that have an effect on the environment.
  2. Aversions
  3. Successive approximations
  4. Rewards and punishments
  5. Operants
  6. implicit motives

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. Operants

 

  1. ________ are consequences that alter the likelihood of behaviors.
  2. Conditioned and unconditioned reflexes
  3. Successive approximations
  4. Rewards and punishments
  5. Conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
  6. Discrimination and generalization

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. Rewards and punishments

 

  1. A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. operant conditioning.

Correct. The child’s voluntary behavior—eating his dinner—is rewarded with the cookie.

  1. biofeedback theory.
  2. social learning theory.

Incorrect. If this were an example of social learning, the child would have to watch someone else get a reward for eating dinner.

  1. observational learning.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. operant conditioning.

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of an operant?
  2. A dog salivates after seeing a bowl of meat.

Correct.  This is a reflexive behavior, not a voluntary action.

  1. One-month-old Jamie sucks on a nipple in order to hear her mother’s voice.
  2. A rat presses a lever to receive a food pellet.
  3. Sam tells a joke that has previously evoked much laughter.
  4. Abe repeatedly presses a button on a toy, because he likes the loud sound it makes.

Incorrect. This is a voluntary behavior that impacts Abe’s environment. That is a demonstration of an operant.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. A dog salivates after seeing a bowl of meat.

 

  1. Any observable, voluntary behavior that is emitted by an organism to affect the environment is called a(n)
  2. conditioned response.
  3. negative reinforcer.
  4. positive reinforcer.
  5. operant.
  6. intermittent variable.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: How Do We Learn New Behaviors By Operant Conditioning?

Skill: Factual

Objective: 1.2

 

Answer: d. operant.

 

  1. B. F. Skinner was a radical behaviorist who refused to
  2. conduct research with animals other than humans.
  3. believe that observation tells us anything about human nature.
  4. understand how it was possible for people to change.
  5. accept that individuals can change over time.
  6. speculate about what happens inside an organism.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. speculate about what happens inside an organism.

 

  1. Thorndike was known for his work with
  2. a Skinner box
  3. a puzzle box

Correct. Thorndike was known for his work with a puzzle box.

  1. modeling

Incorrect. Modeling was a much later process proposed for observational learning.

  1. monkeys
  2. insight learning

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. a puzzle box

 

  1. Thorndike’s idea that responses that brought about positive outcomes would likely be repeated is called
  2. the law of Skinner.
  3. the law of conditioning.
  4. the law of direct.
  5. the law of protect.
  6. the law of effect.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. the law of effect.

 

  1. The person MOST closely associated with the law of effect is
  2. Watson

Incorrect. Watson is best known for work that was done much later than that of Thorndike.

  1. Skinner
  2. Pavlov
  3. Thorndike

Correct. Thorndike proposed the law of effect.

  1. Bandura

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. Thorndike

 

  1. Skinner was to rats as Thorndike was to
  2. cats

Correct. Thorndike put cats in a puzzle box to demonstrate his law of effect.

  1. rabbits
  2. dogs

Incorrect. Seligman is the theorist most noted for using dogs in his demonstration of learned helplessness.

  1. pigeons
  2. chimpanzees

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. cats

 

  1. When good things happen to someone, the probability of repeating the behavior that occurred before the good things increases. This best illustrates
  2. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

Incorrect.  This is a principle from physics, not psychology.

  1. the law of effect.

Correct. The law of effect suggests that behaviors are followed by pleasant outcome will tend to be repeated and behaviors are followed by unpleasant outcomes will tend not to be repeated.

  1. generalization.
  2. the law of desirable consequences.
  3. intermittent reinforcement.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. the law of effect.

 

  1. “If a response is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated. If a response is followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated.” This is a statement of
  2. the law of positive reinforcement.

Incorrect. Although it sounds like a statement of positive reinforcement, it is not. Positive reinforcement is defined differently.

  1. Rescorla’s cognitive perspective.
  2. Thorndike’s law of effect.

Correct. Thorndike’s law of effect speaks to both pleasurable and unpleasurable consequences.

  1. Garcia’s conditional emotional response.
  2. Bandura’s Bobo effect.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: Skinner’s Radical Behaviorism

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. Thorndike’s law of effect

 

  1. The term “reinforcer” refers to any condition that ________ a response.
  2. precedes and causes
  3. strengthens or weakens
  4. weakens or eliminates
  5. follows and strengthens
  6. causes or eliminates

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. follows and strengthens

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a rewarding consequence?
  2. food

Incorrect. This is a correct answer, but it is not the best option because the other choices are also correct.

  1. high grades
  2. praise
  3. money
  4. All of the above are correct.

Correct. Clearly all of the options would be rewarding, or reinforcing, to the recipient.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 143-144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Application

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. According to Skinner, when you take an aspirin for your headache, taking the aspirin is ________ whereas the headache is ________.
  2. a positive reinforcer; an operant

Incorrect. The headache is not an operant because it is not a behavior. The taking of an aspirin is an operant, not a positive reinforcer.

  1. an operant; a negative reinforcer

Correct. Taking the medication is a voluntary behavior, and it is strengthened by the removal of the pain associated with the headache.

  1. an operant; a positive reinforcer
  2. a negative reinforcer; an operant
  3. an operant; negative punishment

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 143-144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

  1. Reinforcement is to punishment as
  2. decrease is to increase.
  3. increase is to decrease.

Correct. Reinforcement attempts to increase behavior, while punishment attempts to decrease a behavior.

  1. positive is to negative.

Incorrect. A positive operant outcome occurs when a person is given something, and a negative outcome occurs when a person has to be removed from them.

  1. giving is to receiving.
  2. bad is to good

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 143-144 & 149

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. increase is to decrease.

 

  1. A reinforcer is a consequence that ________ a behavior, while a punisher is a consequence that ________ a behavior.
  2. motivates; stimulates
  3. weakens; strengthens

Incorrect. A reinforcer strengthens a behavior while a punisher weakens a behavior.

  1. inhibits; motivates
  2. strengthens; weakens

Correct. A reinforcer strengthens a behavior while a punisher weakens a behavior.

  1. motivates; confuses

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 143-144 & 149

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. strengthens; weakens

 

  1. Under what circumstances will a reinforcer make the target response more likely to occur again?
  2. if it is a primary reinforcer
  3. if it is a positive reinforcer

Incorrect. Any reinforcer makes the target response more likely to occur again regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer.

  1. if it is a negative reinforcer
  2. Regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur.

Correct. Any reinforcer makes the target response more likely to occur again regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer.

  1. if it is a secondary reinforcer

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. Regardless of whether it is a positive or negative reinforcer, a reinforcer makes a response more likely to occur.

 

  1. Positive reinforcers ________ the likelihood of ensuing responses.
  2. decrease

Incorrect. This would be true of a positive punisher, not a positive reinforcer.

  1. increase

Correct. All reinforcers are defined by the fact that they strengthen the behaviors that they follow.

  1. extinguish
  2. eliminate
  3. have no effect on

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. increase

 

  1. A grandmother gives her grandchild a cookie because the child cleaned her room. What is the cookie in this example?
  2. punisher
  3. positive reinforcer

Correct. The cookie is a positive reinforcer because it increases the probability that the child will clean her room.

  1. negative reinforcer
  2. conditioned response

Incorrect. A conditioned response is an involuntary behavior in response to a conditioned stimulus

  1. shaping reinforcer

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. positive reinforcer

 

  1. Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as
  2. good is to bad.
  3. increase is to decrease.

Incorrect. Reinforcement attempts to increase behavior, while punishment attempts to decrease a behavior.

  1. reward is to punish.
  2. present is to remove.

Correct. A positive operant outcome occurs when a person is given something, and a negative outcome occurs when a person has to be removed from them.

  1. motivate is to inhibit.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. present is to remove.

 

  1. Negative reinforcement involves
  2. the learning of a new response.
  3. the removal of an aversive stimulus.
  4. decreasing the likelihood of certain future behaviors.
  5. providing an unpleasant stimulus periodically during the day.
  6. pairing an old reflex with a new stimulus.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. the removal of an aversive stimulus.

 

  1. When Joe thinks about his sorely missed girlfriend he drinks alcohol, which helps dull his feelings. This best illustrates
  2. positive reinforcement.

Incorrect. Nothing is being given to Jon in this example, so it could not be a positive operant outcome.

  1. negative reinforcement.

Correct. Drinking the alcohol “takes away” Joe’s pain, so he is more likely to drink when he thinks about his girlfriend in the future. This demonstrates negative reinforcement.

  1. positive punishment.
  2. negative punishment.
  3. Stimulus generalization

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. negative reinforcement.

 

  1. Fred is afraid of spiders. He won’t even watch a nature show on TV about them. When he sees a picture of a spider, he has a panic attack, but when he avoids looking at the image, his panic goes away. Fred’s avoidance of spiders is being
  2. extinguished, because he feels anxious after doing so.
  3. recovered spontaneously, because he will never get better.
  4. positively reinforced, because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down.

Incorrect. Positive reinforcement occurs when someone gets something positive as a reward for certain behavior. In this case, Fred is not getting anything, rather he is having his anxiety removed by his avoidance of spiders.

  1. negatively reinforced, because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down.

Correct. The termination of a stimulus, in this case panic, is negative reinforcement.

  1. positively reinforced, because he will lose his fear of spiders in the long run.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. negatively reinforced, because he is rewarded by his anxiety going down.

 

  1. If a child cries to obtain a new toy, the crying acts as a
  2. negative reinforcer.

Correct. The child rewards the parent by removing the annoying cry when he/she gets the toy that is desired.

  1. positive reinforcer.

Incorrect. The removal of the crying is what rewards the parent, so it is a negative reinforcer.

  1. partial reinforcer.
  2. negatively punisher.
  3. shaper.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. negative reinforcer.

 

  1. The descriptors “positive” and “negative,” when used in reference to reinforcers, are synonyms for
  2. “add” and “remove.”

Correct. Though commonly misunderstood, positive reinforcers refer to the adding of a stimulus and negative reinforcers refer to the removal of a stimulus.

  1. “conditioned” and “unconditioned.”
  2. “increase” and “decrease.”

Incorrect. This is the distinction between reinforcer and punisher, not positive and negative.

  1. “voluntary” and “involuntary.”
  2. “new” and “familiar.”

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. “add” and “remove.”

 

  1. Bill hates to clean up after dinner. One night, he volunteers to bathe the dog before cleaning up. When he finishes with the dog and returns to the kitchen, his wife has cleaned everything up for him. Which of the following statements is most likely true?
  2. Bill will start cleaning up the kitchen before he bathes the dog.
  3. Bill’s wife has positively reinforced him for bathing the dog.

Incorrect. Positive reinforcement would occur if Bill’s wife gave him something to reward him for bathing the dog, but in this case she removed something unpleasant—his having to do the dishes.

  1. Bill’s wife has negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog.

Correct. Bill’s wife negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog by removing something unpleasant—the task of cleaning up the kitchen.

  1. Bill will never bathe the dog again.
  2. Bill’s wife will never bathe the dog again.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. Bill’s wife has negatively reinforced him for bathing the dog.

 

  1. The Skinner box was designed so that
  2. he could punish his daughter, Deborah.
  3. rats could eliminate painful stimuli.
  4. animals could press a lever to receive food.
  5. gerbils could make their way through a maze to a food pellet in the box.
  6. cats could pull a string to open the door to the box.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. animals could press a lever to receive food.

 

  1. A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on
  2. classical conditioning.

Incorrect. Classical conditioning involves involuntary responses and Skinner boxes use voluntary responses to study operant conditioning.

  1. operant conditioning.

Correct. A Skinner box is most likely to be used in research on operant conditioning. Skinner developed the box in his work on operant conditioning.

  1. vicarious learning.
  2. cognitive learning.
  3. observational learning.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. operant conditioning.

 

  1. A box used in operant conditioning of animals that limits the available responses and, thus, increases the likelihood that the desired response will occur is called a
  2. trial box.

Incorrect. The box in question is called a Skinner box. Subjects undergo many trials but the term is not used for the apparatus.

  1. response box.
  2. Watson box.
  3. Skinner box.

Correct. The box is called a Skinner box.

  1. Thorndike chamber.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 144

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. Skinner box

 

  1. Mark and Kathy take their 2-year-old son to the supermarket every Saturday. Each week, the same sequence of events unfolds: Their son screams, demanding that they buy him treats. Although they refuse to give in to his demands, he continues to scream. Finally, either Mark or Kathy gets in their son’s face and yells at the top of their lungs “Shut up!” He stops screaming instantly. What operant conditioning concepts are illustrated in this story?
  2. The parents are using negative reinforcement to increase their son’s screaming.

Incorrect. The parents are not attempting to increase their son’s screaming, but rather to make it stop.

  1. The parents are in a very dysfunctional marriage; their child’s screaming is his way of trying to get his parents to remain married.
  2. The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.

Correct. The parents are using punishment, and they are negatively reinforced as cessation of screaming is a classic negative reinforcer.

  1. Their son probably learned how to scream by observing his parents at home, and now he is reinforced on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.
  2. The parents are using classical conditioning, and the screaming is a conditioned response.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 144 & 149

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. The parents are using punishment to suppress the screaming; their use of punishment is negatively reinforced by the cessation of screaming.

 

  1. ________ is a procedure for changing behavior by reinforcing responses that approach the desired goal.
  2. Molding
  3. Shaping
  4. Natural selection
  5. Behavioral analysis
  6. Counterconditioning

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 145

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. Shaping

 

  1. Mary’s parents want her to put her books in her bookcase. At first, they praise her for putting the books together in one pile. Then they praise her for getting the books on the same side of the room as the bookcase. When she gets the books on top of the bookcase, she gets praise. Finally, her parents praise her when she puts her books in the bookcase. This is an example of
  2. negative reinforcement

Incorrect. Negative reinforcement involves terminating an unpleasant stimulus.

  1. punishment
  2. extinction
  3. shaping

Correct. Mary is given praise for every step that gets her closer to the desired behavior, a process called shaping.

  1. generalization

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 145

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. shaping

 

  1. The best strategy to teach an organism a new response quickly is to use
  2. continuous reinforcement.

Correct. As your textbook notes, continuous reinforcement leads to the most rapid behavior change.

  1. secondary reinforcement.
  2. negative reinforcement.
  3. intermittent reinforcement.

Incorrect. This type of reinforcement may produce lasting behavior change, but it would take longer than continuous reinforcement.

  1. extinction.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 145

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. continuous reinforcement.

 

  1. As a marine biologist, you are trying to teach a dolphin to jump over a bar. At first, you reward the dolphin every time it swims near the bar. Then, you only reward her when she emerges from the water near the bar. Eventually, you reward the dolphin each time she jumps out of the water. Then, you only reward the dolphin when she jumps over the bar. This technique is an example of
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. spontaneous recovery.

Incorrect. There is nothing in this question that refers to the reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response.

  1. discrimination.
  2. shaping.

Correct. The reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired response is a process called shaping.

  1. positive punishment.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 145

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. shaping.

 

  1. You walk up to a soda machine and put in a dollar, and are rewarded with a bottle of root beer. When you put in another dollar, you get another soda. Assuming that the machine has a limitless supply of root beer, which kind of reinforcement schedule does this machine operate on?
  2. intermittent reinforcement

Incorrect. Partial reinforcement occurs when the reinforcement is received after some, but not all, responses.

  1. interval reinforcement
  2. continuous reinforcement

Correct. Each and every response is followed by a  reinforcer

  1. ratio reinforcement
  2. contiguous reinforcement

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 145

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. continuous reinforcement

 

  1. Bob has learned that he can usually get what he wants from his parents if he keeps whining for something. One day Bob starts whining in the toy store because he wants a GI JOE action figure. His father refuses to give it to him and ignores his whining. What will happen?
  2. generalization
  3. extinction

Correct. The whining will extinguish because the behavior is not being reinforced.

  1. spontaneous recovery

Incorrect. The behavior will extinguish. It might show spontaneous recovery later after Bob’s father extinguishes his behavior but the initial situation as presented will lead to extinction.

  1. discrimination
  2. shaping

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. extinction

 

  1. What kind of reinforcement is used if Sally’s parents give her $10 every time she

accumulates six A’s on her tests?

 

  1. gradual reinforcement

Incorrect. Gradual reinforcement is not a term used in the conditioning paradigm.

  1. sporadic reinforcement
  2. continuous reinforcement
  3. partial reinforcement

Correct. Sally is on a partial reinforcement schedule because she is not reinforced for every behavior; she is reinforced only after a certain number of behaviors.

  1. contiguous reinforcement

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. partial reinforcement

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?
  2. Neither partial nor continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist for long periods of time.
  3. Continuous reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through partial or intermittent reinforcement.

Incorrect. Continuous reinforcement leads to very quick extinction as the animal or subject quickly learns the conditioning contingency is no longer operative. Extinction is delayed by partial reinforcement.

  1. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.

Correct. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that persist longer as the subject keeps looking for eventual reinforcement.

  1. Continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement lead to behaviors that persist for equally long periods of time.
  2. Contiguous reinforcement is the same as continuous reinforcement.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. Partial reinforcement leads to behaviors that will persist longer than behavior learned through continuous reinforcement.

 

  1. The best way to ensure that your son will continue to clean his room once he has started doing it is to
  2. reward him some, but not all, of the times he cleans his room.

Correct. This sort of partial, or intermittent, reinforcement is very resistant to extinction.

  1. reward him every time he cleans his room.

Incorrect. This is continuous reinforcement, and it is more susceptible to extinction than partial reinforcement.

  1. reward him with money or new video games.
  2. punish him every time he fails to clean his room.
  3. never reward him other than to expect him to gain his own personal benefits from cleaning his room.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. reward him some, but not all, of the times he cleans his room.

 

  1. The key difference between the two main forms of schedules of reinforcement is whether
  2. reinforcers are given or removed.

Incorrect. This is the distinction between positive and negative reinforcers.

  1. reinforcement occurs often or rarely.
  2. the behaviors will increase or decrease in frequency.
  3. a person can control the consequences of the reinforcement.
  4. reinforcement is determined by time or by number of responses.

Correct. Ratio schedules rely on the number of responses, while interval schedules rely on the amount of elapsed time.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. reinforcement is determined by time or by number of responses.

 

 

 

  1. Intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective for maintaining behavior because such reinforcement
  2. has popularity and generosity.
  3. produces resistance to extinction.

Correct.  This is sometimes called the partial reinforcement effect. Behaviors continue because of the uncertainty of when the next reinforcement will be received.

  1. has frequency and generalizability.
  2. has discriminability and consistency.
  3. has predictability and physicality.

Incorrect. There is nothing presented by your authors that supports either of these two factors.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. produces resistance to extinction.

 

  1. The extinction of an operant response requires that
  2. the person must be punished frequently.
  3. reinforcements must be unpredictable.
  4. punishment must be delivered consistently.

Incorrect. Operant extinction involves withholding reinforcer, not adding a punisher.

  1. attention must be paid to the “proper” responses.
  2. all possible reinforcers must be withheld.

Correct. In other words, if you fail to reward a behavior, that behavior should eventually disappear.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. all possible reinforcers must be withheld.

 

  1. In operant conditioning, extinction involves
  2. unpredictable reinforcement.
  3. consistent, unpleasant punishments.
  4. withholding reinforcement.

Correct. In other words, if you fail to reward a behavior, that behavior should eventually disappear.

  1. adding new punishments.

Incorrect. Operant extinction involves withholding reinforcer, not adding a punisher.

  1. an increase in negative reinforcement.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. withholding reinforcement.

 

  1. When the number of responses is important to a schedule of reinforcement, that schedule is called a ________ schedule.
  2. ratio

Correct. Ratio schedules’ reinforcement is based on the number of responses made by a subject.

  1. interval

Incorrect. Interval schedules are based on the time between responses. Ratio schedules’ reinforcement is based on the number of responses made by a subject.

  1. conditioned
  2. time-delayed
  3. contiguous

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 146

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. ratio

 

  1. Maricella works as a seamstress. Her boss tells her that every time she completes five shirts, she will receive $5. When done with the five shirts, she dumps them into a bin and gets paid. Her pattern of shirt completion is most likely to be
  2. rapid shirt completion with a short break after each five completed.

Correct. In a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement, the pattern is rapid response and short breaks after each reinforcement. In this case, the $5 represents the reinforcement.

  1. long pauses after she receives the $5.

Incorrect. Her pattern of shirt completion is most likely to be rapid shirt completion with a short break after each five completed.

  1. a slow, steady rate of shirt-making without pauses.
  2. a fast, steady rate of shirt-making without pauses.
  3. linear and consistent.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. rapid shirt completion with a short break after each five completed.

 

  1. Al must build 25 radios before he receives $20. What schedule of reinforcement is being used?
  2. a variable-ratio schedule
  3. a fixed-ratio schedule

Correct. A fixed-ratio schedule demands a set number of responses, in this case 25.

  1. a fixed-interval schedule

Incorrect. A fixed-interval schedule is based on the time between responses.

  1. a continuous schedule
  2. a fixed at contiguous schedule

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. a fixed-ratio schedule

 

  1. Your friend works in a lab and is paid for each three blood smears analyzed. Your friend is operating on which schedule of reinforcement?
  2. fixed ratio

Correct. This person knows exactly how many times he will have to do the behavior before the reinforcement will be received.

  1. variable ratio

Incorrect. The number of responses is constant, not changing, so this is not a variable schedule of reinforcement.

  1. fixed interval
  2. variable interval
  3. random interval

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. fixed ratio

 

  1. If Tyler is given an allowance of $5.00 on every Friday for doing his chores, based on a fixed interval, we should expect that he will
  2. work hard consistently throughout the week.
  3. never know when he will be rewarded.

Incorrect. This is a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement, so Tyler will know exactly when the rewards are going to be received.

  1. not do many chores until just before allowance time.

Correct. If you examine the figure on page 147, you will see why this is the right answer.

  1. do his chores to prevent punishment by his parents.
  2. keep doing his chores, even when he no longer receives allowance.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. not do many chores until just before allowance time.

 

  1. For every 5 times that you go to the gym each week, you reward yourself with a treat. This best illustrates which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
  2. fixed ratio

Correct. This example demonstrates reinforcement being given after a specific number of behaviors has occurred. This demonstrates fixed ratio reinforcement.

  1. variable ratio
  2. variable interval
  3. fixed interval

Incorrect. If you gave yourself the reward every seven days, irrespective of the number of times he went to the gym, this would demonstrate fixed interval reinforcement.

  1. shaped

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. fixed ratio

 

  1. A telemarketer is working according to a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. fixed ratio

Incorrect. The number of responses is not constant, so this would not be a fixed schedule of partial reinforcement.

  1. variable ratio

Correct. This person does not know how many phone calls she will have to make before she successfully makes a sale and earns some form of payment.

  1. fixed interval
  2. variable interval
  3. continuous

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. variable ratio

 

  1. Which schedule of reinforcement tends to get the highest response rate?
  2. fixed interval
  3. variable ratio
  4. variable interval
  5. fixed ratio
  6. contiguous-continuous

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. fixed ratio

 

  1. Getting paid for each basket of apples you gather represents which schedule of reinforcement?
  2. fixed interval

Incorrect. A fixed-interval schedule is based on the time between responses.

  1. fixed ratio

Correct. A fixed-ratio schedule demands a set number of responses before reinforcement is received.

  1. variable ratio
  2. variable interval
  3. generalized

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. fixed ratio

 

  1. The key advantage of using a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement is that
  2. the person will be rewarded often.
  3. it is very predictable.
  4. it is easy to extinguish.

Incorrect. The text points out that all forms of partial reinforcement are very resistant to extinction.

  1. it produces more responding.

Correct. As your book notes, the VR schedule of reinforcement produces the highest rate of responding.

  1. the individual is usually content.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. it produces more responding.

 

  1. Your professor likes to give pop quizzes in your psychology class, thus she is promoting the ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. fixed ratio
  3. variable ratio
  4. fixed interval

Incorrect. The amount of time that must pass between quizzes is changing, not constant, so this is not a fixed schedule of reinforcement.

  1. variable interval

Correct. You never know how much time has to pass before another quiz will occur, so this demonstrates the VI schedule of reinforcement.

  1. continuous

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. variable interval

 

  1. Catching fish when fishing in a lake would most likely represent which of the following schedules of reinforcement?
  2. variable interval

Correct. Because you never know how long you’ll have to sit with your line in the water before you get a fish, this demonstrates variable interval reinforcement.

  1. fixed ratio
  2. fixed interval

Incorrect. If there was a way to guarantee that a fish would bite on your line after a specific amount of time had passed, this would demonstrate a fixed interval reinforcement.

  1. interval ratio
  2. continuous-partial

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. variable interval

 

  1. A monthly paycheck best represents a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. fixed interval

Correct. In this case, the reinforcement is received after a specific amount of time has passed. This demonstrates a fixed interval schedule of partial reinforcement.

  1. variable interval

Incorrect. If the paycheck was received after a changing amount of time, this would demonstrate a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.

  1. fixed ratio
  2. variable ratio
  3. continuous

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. fixed interval

 

  1. Reinforcement that is given for a response emitted after each hour and half (e.g., 10 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 1 p.m.) in time is most likely to be a ________ schedule.
  2. variable ratio
  3. variable interval

Incorrect. If the reinforcement was received after a changing amount of time, this would demonstrate a variable interval schedule of reinforcement.

  1. fixed interval

Correct. In this case, the reinforcement is received after a specific amount of time has passed. This demonstrates a fixed interval schedule of partial reinforcement.

  1. fixed ratio
  2. continuous

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. fixed interval

 

  1. A television producer who receives a monthly check is working according to a ________ schedule of reinforcement.
  2. fixed ratio
  3. variable ratio
  4. fixed interval

Correct. This person knows exactly how much time must pass before a reinforcer is to be received, so this is a FI schedule of reinforcement.

  1. variable interval

Incorrect. The amount of time between reinforcements is constant, so this is not a variable schedule of reinforcement.

  1. continuous

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. fixed interval

 

  1. Reinforcement on an interval schedule is always based on
  2. performance quality.
  3. the amount of time that has passed.
  4. the consistency of the behaviors.
  5. the number of accurate responses.
  6. the notion of reinforcement being unpredictable.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. the amount of time that has passed.

 

  1. Your text suggests that waiting for an elevator is a good example of a ________ reinforcement schedule.
  2. continuous
  3. fixed ratio
  4. variable ratio
  5. fixed interval

Incorrect. The amount of time before the elevator comes is uncertain, so this is not a fixed schedule of reinforcement.

  1. variable interval

Correct. This is because you have no idea how long it will take for the elevator to get to you. And no, by the way, pushing the call button will not make it come faster!

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. variable interval

 

  1. Food, sex, and water are considered examples of
  2. primary reinforcers.
  3. secondary reinforcers.
  4. continuous reinforcers.
  5. intermittent reinforcers.
  6. conditioned stimuli.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.4

 

Answer: a. primary reinforcers.

 

  1. A ________ reinforcer is any reward that satisfies a basic biological need, such a hunger, thirst, or touch.
  2. primary

Correct. A primary reinforcer satisfies basic biological needs.

  1. negative
  2. positive
  3. secondary

Incorrect. A secondary reinforcer gains its value through an association with a primary reinforcer.

  1. discriminatory

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. primary

 

  1. Of the following, ________ would serve as a primary reinforcer for most people.
  2. food

Correct. A primary reinforcer is one that satisfies a basic biological or survival need.

  1. praise

Incorrect. Because praise does not satisfy one of our innate, unlearned needs, it is not a primary reinforcer.

  1. money
  2. attention
  3. a hug

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. food

 

  1. Secondary reinforcers differ from primary reinforcers in that secondary reinforcers
  2. can potentially reinforce or punish behavior.

Incorrect. Reinforcers do not punish behavior, whether they are primary or secondary.

  1. do not satisfy physical needs whatsoever.
  2. do not inherently satisfy physical needs.

Correct. Secondary reinforcers are not required for survival, and often get their value through an association with a primary reinforcer.

  1. only pertain to intangible objects or events, such as praise.
  2. are harder to achieve.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. do not inherently satisfy physical needs.

 

  1. Kelsey just told her family a really funny joke that she made up herself. In order to use a primary reinforcer to encourage her in her joke-telling, Kelsey’s dad might
  2. offer her money.
  3. applaud her appropriate behavior.
  4. offer her praise for a job well done.

Incorrect. Praise is not a biologically based necessity, such as food or drink.

  1. offer her a piece of candy.

Correct. A primary reinforcer is one that relates to food, drink, shelter, touch, or other biologically-based necessities.

  1. send her to her room without dinner.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. offer her a piece of candy.

 

  1. ________ is an example of a primary reinforcer, whereas ________ is an example of a secondary reinforcer.
  2. A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student

Correct. A cupcake relates to food, drink, shelter, touch, and other biologically based needs, whereas a certificate does not.

  1. A kiss; money
  2. Water; food
  3. A gold star; cupcake

Incorrect. A gold star is an example of a secondary reinforcer, whereas a cupcake is an example of a primary reinforcer.

  1. a gift card; a cake

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. A cupcake; a certificate of achievement given to a student

 

  1. A _________ reinforcer, such as money or praise, gets its value through an association with a _________ reinforcer.
  2. positive; negative

Incorrect. Both positive and negative reinforcers can be primary or secondary. This is not the best answer.

  1. primary; secondary
  2. natural; artificial
  3. secondary; primary

Correct. Secondary reinforcers get their value through an association with a primary reinforcer that satisfies a biological need.

  1. acquired; discriminative

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. secondary; primary

 

  1. Which of the following is a secondary reinforcer?
  2. water
  3. food
  4. shelter

Incorrect. A gold star is a secondary reinforcer because it is learned to be reinforcing. Shelter meets a basic biological need for comfort and, therefore, is a primary reinforcer.

  1. a gold star

Correct. A gold star is a secondary reinforcer because it has no intrinsic biological value.

  1. air

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. a gold star

 

  1. During summer camp, campers get a sticker each time they demonstrate good sportsmanship. When they have earned 10 stickers, they may select a candy bar. This represents an example of
  2. negative reinforcement.

Incorrect. This would actually be positive reinforcement, since the stickers are “added” to the campers.

  1. primary shaping.
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. reward generalization.
  4. a token economy.

Correct.  These stickers that are “traded” for a selected reward are the important part of a token economy system of behavioral adjustment.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 148

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. a token economy.

 

  1. The Premack principle states that
  2. a preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred one.
  3. in order to be effective, reinforcement must be unpredictable.
  4. reinforcement is more effective than punishment.
  5. punishment must be used consistently and immediately.
  6. using two types of punishment works better than using only one.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 148

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. a preferred activity can be used to reinforce a less preferred one.

 

  1. Using the Premack principle, once you have finished studying for your next biology test you should
  2. not study for at least two hours.

Incorrect. Following one unpleasant task with another would not be a demonstration of the Premack principle.

  1. study for a different test.
  2. work on your biology homework assignment.
  3. teach the biology material to a friend or classmate.
  4. do something you enjoy.

Correct. This principle suggests that a favorable outcome can be used to condition an unfavorable behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 148

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. do something you enjoy.

 

  1. When Keller and Marian Breland, two psychologists who became animal trainers, decided that it would be cute to have a pig drop a big wooden coin into a box, they found that
  2. food was not an effective reinforcer for the pig and so learning didn’t occur.
  3. when given edible roots as reinforcers, the pig learned the task in less than ten trials.
  4. the pig displayed instinctive drift by dropping the coin and pushing it around with its nose.

Correct. Despite Skinner’s views, the pig had some built-in behaviors that came to the fore—the principle of instinctive drift.

  1. the pig showed intrinsic interest in the task and so reinforcement was unnecessary.

Incorrect. Reinforcement was necessary.

  1. the pig would demonstrate learned helplessness.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 148

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. the pig displayed instinctive drift by dropping the coin and pushing it around with its nose.

 

  1. A behavioral psychologist tries to train a bird to climb a tree to get a reward of a piece of fruit. At first, the bird learns how to climb the tree with its legs and beak. After a while, it starts flapping its wings and hopping around before it starts to climb. Eventually, the bird flies up to the piece of fruit, even though that prevents it from getting the fruit. According to the Brelands’ analysis of biological constraints, the bird is demonstrating
  2. response generalization.
  3. that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it.

Correct. The Brelands discovered that animals revert to instinctual behavior in gathering food, a phenomenon they called instinctive drift.

  1. the power of negative reinforcement.
  2. the law of effect.

Incorrect. The law of effect was proposed by Thorndike; since the bird isn’t getting the fruit, that principle is not applicable here.

  1. conditioned food aversion.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 148

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. that it was reverting to behavior that was instinctual for it.

 

  1. In order to get her 3rd-grade students to memorize the poem written on the chalkboard, Mrs. Thyberg gives the students stickers for each poem they can recite from memory. After earning 5 stickers, a student gets to pick a prize out of the goody box. Mrs. Thyberg is using (a) ________ to modify the children’s behaviors.
  2. token economy

Correct. The teacher is using tokens as rewards for desired behaviors.

  1. applied behavior analysis
  2. negative reinforcement

Incorrect. The students are being reinforced for their behaviors, but the reinforcement is positive, not negative.

  1. classical conditioning.
  2. positive punishment

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 148

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. token economy

 

  1. What has occurred when there is a decrease in the likelihood or rate of a target response?
  2. punishment

Correct. Punishment is defined as a stimulus that causes a decrease in the likelihood of a behavior.

  1. positive reinforcement
  2. negative reinforcement

Incorrect. Negative reinforcement increases the probability of a response.

  1. positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement
  2. discriminative shaping

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. punishment

 

  1. The difference between negative and positive punishment is whether
  2. behaviors occur less or more frequently.

Incorrect. This would illustrate the difference between punishment and reinforcement.

  1. something has been taken away or given.

Correct. Remember that “positive” means “add,” and “negative” means “remove.”

  1. the individual likes what is being given to them.
  2. it is consistent or unpredictable.
  3. the person is aware of what is occurring.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. something has been taken away or given.

 

 

 

  1. ________ punishment involves the ________ of an aversive stimulus.
  2. Negative; removal

Incorrect. Taking away an aversive stimulus would actually be a reinforcement, not a punishment.

  1. Conditioned; application
  2. Negative; application
  3. Positive; application

Correct. Remember that “positive” means “add,” whether it is reinforcement or punishment.

  1. Positive; removal

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. Positive; application

 

  1. A punisher is an aversive consequence that
  2. weakens the behavior it follows.
  3. is withheld to increase the probability of the response over time.
  4. decreases the probability of shaping by successive approximations.
  5. withholds negative reinforcers.
  6. occurs on a consistent and predictable basis.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. weakens the behavior it follows.

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of negative punishment?
  2. receiving harsh criticism for lying to your parents
  3. losing telephone privileges for breaking curfew

Correct. Having something taken away as a means of reducing the behavior is an example of negative punishment.

  1. getting stung by a bee when walking barefoot outside and stepping on the bee
  2. getting pepper-sprayed for making a lewd comment to a stranger

Incorrect. This would be an example of positive punishment, because being sprayed in the face is being given something rather than having something taken away.

  1. getting spanked by a parent for mouthing off

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. losing telephone privileges for breaking curfew

 

  1. A stimulus presented to a person or animal that decreases the probability of a particular response is known as
  2. positive punishment.
  3. negative punishment.
  4. negative reinforcement.
  5. negative expectation.
  6. positive reinforcement.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. positive punishment.

 

  1. When a stimulus is removed from a person or animal resulting in a decrease in the probability of response, it is known as
  2. positive punishment.
  3. negative punishment.
  4. negative reinforcement.
  5. punishing reinforcement.
  6. negative discriminations.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 149

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. negative punishment.

 

  1. A punisher ________ the probability of a response while a negative reinforcer ________ the probability of a response.
  2. decreases; decreases
  3. increases; increases
  4. decreases; increases

Correct. This is the major distinction between a punisher and a reinforcer, whether it is a positive or a negative reinforcer.

  1. does not alter; decreases
  2. increases; decreases

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144 & 149

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement; The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. decreases; increases

 

  1. The similarity of positive reinforcement and positive punishment is that each involves
  2. decreasing the likelihood of certain events.
  3. increasing the likelihood of certain events.
  4. desirable events or stimuli.
  5. removing a stimulus.

Incorrect. This would be correct if you changed the word “positive” to “negative” both times in the question.

  1. adding a stimulus.

Correct. Remember that “positive” means “add,” whether it is reinforcement or punishment.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 144 & 149

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement; The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. adding a stimulus.

 

  1. Which of the following is true of punishment?
  2. Punishment can involve the application of an aversive stimulus.
  3. Punishment must be used consistently in order to be effective.
  4. Aggression can be produced by punishment.

Incorrect. This is correct, but it is not the best option because all of these answers are accurate.

  1. Punishment interferes with the learning of new and better behaviors.
  2. All of the above are correct.

Correct. Clearly all of these concerns can mediate the effectiveness of punishment and bring real concerns to light.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 149-151

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. All of the above are correct.

 

  1. Drivers seldom slow down in construction zones because
  2. receiving tickets increases aggression toward the police.
  3. the punishment is unlikely to occur.

Correct. Because the punishment is very inconsistent, the punishment is not effective at weakening the behavior (speeding) it is designed to affect.

  1. learned helplessness usually occurs.
  2. certain drivers are more likely to receive speeding tickets.
  3. the signs do not tell the driver what is expected.

Incorrect. Actually, traffic tickets can only be given if speed limits are clearly marked. This is not the best answer.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 150

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. the punishment is unlikely to occur.

 

  1. Punishment is so difficult to use effectively for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
  2. the power of punishment to suppress behavior usually disappears when the threat of punishment is removed.
  3. the lure of rewards may make punishment worth the price.

Incorrect. This is one of the points made by your textbook.

  1. punishment is applied equally.

Correct. The same “infraction” should always elicit a punishment, or else the person committing the act will get confused as to whether it is or is not acceptable.

  1. punishment triggers escape or aggression.
  2. punishment makes the learner apprehensive.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 150-151

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. punishment is applied equally.

 

 

 

  1. Which of these punishments is LEAST likely to be effective?
  2. Claire is punished immediately for swearing at her mother.

Incorrect. This sort of immediacy is necessary for punishment to be effective.

  1. Dylan does not get desert every time he fails to clear the dinner table.
  2. To punish Brenda for hitting, her parents take away her phone but do not spank her.
  3. Brandon’s parents call him a liar when he is dishonest.

Correct. This sort of punishment will only result in resentment in Brandon, and is unlikely to lead to real, lasting behavior change.

  1. B and C are correct.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 150-152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. Brandon’s parents call him a liar when he is dishonest.

 

  1. Punishment is an effective means to control someone’s behavior only if
  2. you use a good amount of reinforcement too.
  3. learned helplessness occurs.

Incorrect. Learned helplessness would decrease the effectiveness of punishment, not increase it.

  1. the punishments are administered unpredictably.
  2. you can control the environment all of the time.

Correct. As your book points out, punishment is often very difficult because this type of control is very difficult to achieve.

  1. the person receiving punishment acts with aggression.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 151

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: d. you can control the environment all of the time.

 

  1. In terms of the equity of punishment,
  2. girls are punished more often than boys.
  3. punishment is usually applied equally to all people.
  4. schools more often use punishment to control members of racial minority groups.
  5. boys and girls receive about equal amounts of punishment.
  6. grade school children receive as much physical punishment as do adults.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 151

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. schools more often use punishment to control members of racial minority groups.

 

  1. Olivia is punished for spilling her cereal. Her parents give her a spanking and send her to her room where she cries. Later, her puppy makes a mess on the floor. Olivia kicks her puppy and puts it out in the yard where it whines sadly. Which of the following statements explains her behavior toward the puppy?
  2. Olivia is correctly applying Skinnerian principles of negative reinforcement to change her dog’s behavior.

Incorrect. Olivia’s punishment led her to be aggressive. In any case, kicking the dog outside is punishment and not negative reinforcement.

  1. Olivia is using negative punishment on her dog and it will change the dog’s behavior.
  2. Olivia is reenacting the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.

Correct. Olivia is reenacting the aggressive behavior and that is a problem with punishment.

  1. Olivia’s parents probably think that the best way to raise kids is “spare the rod, spoil the child.”

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 151

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: c. Olivia is modeling the aggressive behavior her parents demonstrated to her.

 

  1. An expert on parenting is addressing parents at the local grade school. When the topic of punishment is discussed, what is one outcome of punishment the expert is likely to note for the parents to consider?
  2. Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.

Correct. Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.

  1. Punished children tend to do really well in school.
  2. Punishment motivates the child to focus on schoolwork.
  3. Punishment tends to increase the number of nightmares experienced.

Incorrect. This answer might make sense but increased nightmares haven’t been reported. Aggression has.

  1. Punishment is more effective than reinforcement in changing children’s behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 151

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. Punishment can also lead to the child acting aggressively.

 

  1. Punishment must be administered ________ in order to be effective.
  2. on a schedule of partial reinforcement

Incorrect. Your textbook does not discuss intermittent (or partial) schedules of punishment.

  1. immediately and consistently

Correct. As your book notes, when punishment is delayed or inconsistent, it loses its effectiveness.

  1. intermittently
  2. after a cooling-off period
  3. by providing pleasant stimuli

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. immediately and consistently

 

  1. Which of the following criteria helps to increase the effectiveness of punishment?
  2. when it is swift

Correct. As your authors point out, making the punishment occur quickly after the undesirable behavior increases the effectiveness of the punishment.

  1. when it is inconsistent

Incorrect. As your authors point out, consistent punishment is effective punishment.

  1. when it is given with classical conditioning
  2. when it is vicarious
  3. when it uses physical discipline

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. when it is swift

 

 

  1. Punishment is MOST effective
  2. in most circumstances.
  3. when it occurs immediately after the undesired behavior.

Correct. As your authors point out, making the punishment occur quickly after the undesirable behavior increases the effectiveness of the punishment.

  1. when it is mildly aversive.

Incorrect. As your authors point out, punishment has to be rather aversive, not mildly aversive, in order to be effective.

  1. in surprisingly few situations.
  2. when it uses physical discipline.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. when it occurs immediately after the undesired behavior.

 

  1. Which strategy will NOT increase the effects of punishment?
  2. making the punishment occur only on a partial, sporadic schedule

Correct. Making the punishment only occur on a partial, sporadic schedule will not increase its effects.

  1. making the punishment consistent
  2. pairing punishment of the wrong behavior with reinforcement of the correct behavior

Incorrect. This pairing will increase the efficacy of punishment.

  1. having the punishment immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish
  2. having the punishment include some form of physical discipline

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. making the punishment occur only on a partial, sporadic schedule

 

  1. The most effective form of punishment usually involves
  2. intense physical pain.
  3. penalties, such as loss of privileges.
  4. psychological pain.
  5. attacks on character.
  6. delayed and inconsistent consequences.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: b. penalties, such as loss of privileges.

 

  1. Which of the following is true of the difference between operant and classical conditioning?
  2. Food is presented before the response in classical conditioning.
  3. Food is presented after the response in classical conditioning
  4. Classical conditioning requires a stimulus that follows the UCR.
  5. Classical conditioning is used to learn new useful behaviors.
  6. Operant conditioning involves the modification of an old reflex.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 153-154

Topic: Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: a. Food is presented before the response in classical conditioning.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a key difference between operant and classical conditioning?
  2. the order of stimulus and response
  3. whether they are voluntary

Incorrect. This is, in fact, a difference between operant and classical conditioning.

  1. whether they are based on reflex responses
  2. whether behavior is based on past stimulation or future conditions
  3. whether they attempt to explain how learning occurs

Correct. Both approaches to learning attempt to explain how behavior occurs. This is not a difference between them.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 153-154

Topic: Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: e. whether they attempt to explain how learning occurs

 

  1. The cognitive view would argue that learning
  2. always changes both behavior and thinking.

Incorrect. Your book notes that the cognitive views note that behavior change is not essential to prove that learning occurred.

  1. does not always change behavior, but it always produces changes in mental activity.

Correct. As you may remember, learning does not require an immediate behavior. This is what the concept of latent learning focused on.

  1. does not always change thinking, but it always produces changes in behaviors.
  2. produces changes in mental activity that cannot be objectively examined.
  3. always involves either reward or punishment.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 156

Topic: How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: b. does not always change behavior, but it always produces changes in mental activity.

 

  1. Who is best known for studying the phenomenon of insight in animals?
  2. Köhler
  3. Tolman
  4. Seligman
  5. Skinner
  6. Bandura

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 157

Topic: Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: a. Köhler

 

  1. Wolfgang Köhler suggested that chimps
  2. can use a primitive form of language.
  3. would seek affection directly from Kohler.
  4. avoid other chimps.
  5. are capable of insight learning.
  6. administer punishment to other chimps.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 157-158

Topic: Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. are capable of insight learning.

 

  1. Insight learning involves
  2. the perception of familiar objects in new forms or relationships.
  3. the integration of unfamiliar objects into familiar patterns.
  4. a strategy of vicarious trial-and-error.
  5. the development of abstract concepts.
  6. the process of assimilation.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 158

Topic: Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: a. the perception of familiar objects in new forms or relationships.

 

  1. You spend days wandering aimlessly around a park with many different paths that end at different parts of the park. One day when you arrive at the park you get a call on your cell phone from your cousin whom you haven’t seen for years, and she says she is waiting for you in a particular section of the park. Even though the paths are complicated and twisted, you manage to find the shortest route to your cousin. Tolman would explain your efficient passage through the park as an example of
  2. spontaneous recovery.
  3. insight.

Incorrect. Tolman postulated that such an example would be due to the formation of a cognitive map. Cognitive maps were his explanation of latent learning effects.

  1. the formation of a cognitive map.

Correct. Tolman postulated the concept of the cognitive map, which was in marked contrast to the behaviorist views of the time.

  1. unconscious trial-and-error imagery.
  2. the learning-performance distinction.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 158

Topic: Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: c. the formation of a cognitive map.

 

  1. The concept of latent learning was developed by
  2. Watson.
  3. Skinner.
  4. Thorndike.
  5. Tolman.
  6. Köhlberg.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a Rat’s Mind

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. Tolman.

 

  1. The idea that learning occurs and is stored up, even when behaviors are not

reinforced, is called

 

  1. insight.
  2. latent learning.
  3. placebo learning.
  4. innate learning.
  5. operant learning.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a Rat’s Mind

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: b. latent learning.

 

  1. Learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called
  2. insight.
  3. innate learning.
  4. vicarious learning.
  5. latent learning.
  6. social learning.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a Rat’s Mind

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. latent learning.

 

  1. Organisms seem to learn the spatial layout of their environment by ________, even if they are not reinforced for learning particular paths.
  2. reflexive responses
  3. social learning
  4. exploration
  5. extinction
  6. discrimination

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a Rat’s Mind

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: c. exploration

 

  1. The capacity of an organism to form a “cognitive map” of their environment
  2. was first demonstrated by B.F. Skinner using rats seeking food.
  3. does not require active exploration of the environment.
  4. is maladaptive in that such activity may not result in food reinforcement.
  5. involves the hippocampus.
  6. involves trial-and-error learning in a Thorndike box.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Cognitive Maps: Tolman Finds Out What’s on a Rat’s Mind

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. involves the hippocampus.

 

  1. Observational learning theory’s foremost proponent is
  2. Watson.
  3. Thorndike.
  4. Skinner.
  5. Bandura.
  6. Tolman.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. Bandura.

 

  1. ________ reported that watching violent behaviors makes children more likely to behave violently.
  2. Watson
  3. Thorndike
  4. Tolman
  5. Bandura
  6. Garcia

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. Bandura

 

  1. Bandura conducted a classic study known as the Bobo doll study. The term Bobo refers to
  2. Bandura’s pet name for the dog used in the study.
  3. Bandura’s loyal but strange assistant that carried out the study.
  4. Bandura’s nickname that his wife had given him.
  5. the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study.
  6. the name of the camp from which the children who were participants in the study were drawn.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 159

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. the type of inflatable doll that was used in the study.

 

  1. The idea that we can learn from seeing the actions of others is known as
  2. extinction.
  3. observational learning.
  4. insight learning.
  5. cognitive dissonance.
  6. the Garcia effect.

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 159-160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: b. observational learning.

 

  1. A Congressional hearing is taking place in Washington, DC. The representatives are discussing whether the portrayals of violence on children’s TV shows are perhaps contributing to the violence we see in schools today. The work of what psychologist is most relevant to their discussions?
  2. Bandura

Correct. Bandura’s work is most relevant to their discussions.

  1. Tolman
  2. Skinner

Incorrect. Bandura’s work is most relevant to their discussions. Skinner was not concerned with observational learning, which is the core phenomenon under discussion.

  1. Pavlov
  2. Garcia

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 159-160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: a. Bandura

 

  1. Studies of observational learning demonstrate that
  2. nonhuman species cannot learn by imitation.

Incorrect. In fact, some of the most important studies in observational learning have involved nonhuman animals.

  1. learning can occur in the absence of personal experience.

Correct.  Watching a model (or role model) and them emulating their behaviors demonstrates the process of vicarious learning.

  1. television viewing has more influence on behavior than direct observation of live events.
  2. people learn antisocial behaviors (but not prosocial behaviors) through observation.
  3. reward has a greater influence on our behavior than does punishment.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 159-160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: b. learning can occur in the absence of personal experience.

 

  1. Which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
  2. insight learning
  3. operant conditioning
  4. classical conditioning
  5. observational learning
  6. latent learning

 

Difficulty: 1

Page Reference: 160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. observational learning

 

  1. A girl learns that whenever her brother shares his cookie with her, her mother gives him a piece of candy. The girl starts sharing her treats with her friends when they come over in the hopes of getting a similar reward. The girl’s learning to share is an example of
  2. classical conditioning
  3. operant conditioning
  4. contingency theory

Incorrect. The girl’s learning to share is an example of observational learning theory. Contingency theory is not related to the concept.

  1. observational learning

Correct. Learning by watching others is known as observational learning.

  1. insight learning

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. observational learning

 

  1. You are walking by a cash machine when you notice that the person at the machine starts jumping up-and-down because the machine gave them too much cash. You wait in line and insert your card and ask for the same amount of money as the person before you. Your behavior reflects
  2. social learning.

Correct. By learning from someone else’s behavior and consequence, you have demonstrated social learning.

  1. latent learning.

Incorrect. The observable behaviors noted in the question make this the wrong answer.

  1. classical conditioning.
  2. operant conditioning.
  3. vicarious trial-and-error.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: a. social learning.

 

  1. ________ refers to the condition in which media violence reduces emotional arousal while watching violence.
  2. Counterconditioning
  3. Extinction
  4. Punishment
  5. Cognitive mapping
  6. Psychic numbing

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 160

Topic: Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: e. Psychic numbing

 

  1. The notion that learning produces physical changes in the synapses of the brain is consistent with
  2. hemispheric lateralization.
  3. brain imaging.
  4. spatial mapping.
  5. long-term potentiation.
  6. myelinization of neurons.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 161

Topic: Brain Mechanisms and Learning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. long-term potentiation.

 

  1. Damage to neurons within the ________ that use the transmitter ________ would be expected to diminish the experience of reward.
  2. limbic system; dopamine
  3. cerebellum; GABA
  4. parietal cortex; epinephrine
  5. medulla; serotonin
  6. cerebrum; acetylcholine

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 161

Topic: Brain Mechanisms and Learning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: a. limbic system; dopamine

 

  1. Researchers argue that complex organisms have two types of learning “circuits” – one involving simple behavior responses and the other involving
  2. “mindless” learning.
  3. observational learning.
  4. operant conditioning.
  5. complex forms of learning.
  6. lower forms of learning.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 161

Topic: Brain Mechanisms and Learning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. complex forms of learning.

 

  1. Cognitive learning is best described by all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. became the dominant perspective at the end of the 20th century
  3. learning involves insight

Incorrect. Insight learning is, in fact, a type of cognitive learning theory.

  1. big names include Tolman and Bandura
  2. the learner ignores useful information from stimuli

Correct.  There is nothing presented by your authors that would support this answer.

  1. inferences are made about mental processes that are not directly observable

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 162

Topic: Brain Mechanisms and Learning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: d. the learner ignores useful information from stimuli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.0 – Chapter 04 Completion

 

  1. ______ refers to a simple form of learning that involves learning NOT to respond to stimulation.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 135

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Habituation

 

  1. The situation in which a CS is presented alone (no UCS) is termed __________ .

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. extinction

 

  1. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner conducted their classic study of conditioned fear with an infant known as __________.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 139-140

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: a. Little Albert

 

  1. What is food-aversion learning?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 140-141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: The tendency of organisms to connect illness with certain foods and is a process that seems to have a genetic basis.

 

 

  1. How did Garcia convince coyotes to dislike lamb?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 141

Topic: Applications of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: The process of taste aversion learning was applied such that lamb meat containing a mild poison was left in pastures. A coyote that ate this meat became sick and subsequently avoided sheep.

 

  1. If Julie receives her allowance every Sunday, assuming she has completed all of her chores, she is on which intermittent schedule of reinforcement?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: fixed interval

 

  1. Under what conditions is punishment effective in the control of behavior?

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 151-152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: When it is consistent and in an environment of control.

 

  1. What is insight learning?

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 157-158

Topic: Insight Learning: Köhler in the Canaries with the Chimps

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: This involves a reorganization of a person’s perception of a problem.

 

 

 

 

3.0 – Chapter 03 Essay

 

  1. Describe the basics of a classical conditioning experiment.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 136-138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: A neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with a stimulus (UCS) that reliably elicits a response (UCR). Over trials, the CS elicits a form of the response termed the CR. The CS and UCS must be presented close enough in time so that the organism perceives them as being related.

 

 

  1. Describe the process of classical conditioning. Provide an example of classical conditioning, identifying and explaining all the relevant stimuli and responses.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 136-138

Topic: The Essentials of Classical Conditioning

Skill: Applied

Objective: 4.1

 

Answer: Students should note that CC involves a type of learning in which a stimulus that produces a reflex response becomes associated with a neutral stimulus, which eventually elicits a similar reflex response. The student must provide an example in which she labels and describes the neutral, unconditioned, and conditioned stimuli, as well as the unconditioned and conditioned responses. The example must involve the individual eventually demonstrating a reflex response to something which initially produced no relevant response.

 

  1. Contrast the four schedules of reinforcement in operant conditioning and give an example of each.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 146-147

Topic: The Power of Reinforcement

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: Ratio schedules provide a reinforcer for every nth response: Fixed ratio: N is the same from trial to trial; variable ratio: N averages across trials. Interval based schedules: first response after some time interval has elapsed is reinforced. Fixed interval has a constant time period whereas variable interval schedules have an average time period across trials.

 

  1. Discuss three ways in which classical conditioning is different from operant conditioning.

 

Difficulty: 3

Page Reference: 153-155

Topic: Operant and Classical Conditioning Compared

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: They differ in the consequences of the behavior (classical conditioning teaches a new reflex while operant conditioning teaches consequences for behavior), in the sequence of stimulus and response, and they differ in terms of the procedures of extinction.

 

  1. Name and discuss the four major kinds of consequences that function in the process of operant conditioning.

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 150, 152

Topic: The Problem of Punishment

Skill: Factual

Objective: 4.2

 

Answer: The student should name positive and negative reinforcement and positive and negative punishment. The student should mention that reinforcement follows and strengthens a response, whereas punishment follows and weakens a response. The student should note that “positive” involves adding something (in the case of reinforcement it is usually something desired, whereas in punishment it is usually something aversive), whereas “negative” involves removing something (in the case of reinforcement it is usually something aversive, whereas in punishment it is usually something desired).

 

  1. Describe the three forms of cognitive learning. Explain the differences between each of these forms and tell which scientist is credited with their “discovery.”

 

Difficulty: 2

Page Reference: 157-161

Topic: How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning?

Skill: Conceptual

Objective: 4.3

 

Answer: Köhler’s insight learning involves a sudden reorganization of perception. Tolman’s cognitive maps involve mental representations of an environment. Bandura’s social (or observational) learning involves learning by watching another individual.