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Purchase for download full test bank with answers

 

ISBN-10: 1464141266

ISBN-13: 9781464141263

Sample chapters

Test Bank

to accompany

Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

 

Chapter 1: Studying Life

 

 

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Richard Shingles)

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The basic structural and physiological unit of all living organisms is the
  2. aggregate.
  3. organelle.
  4. organism.
  5. membrane.
  6. cell.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A cell
  2. can be composed of many types of tissues.
  3. is found only in plants and animals.
  4. is the smallest entity studied by biologists.
  5. may be a distinct entity or a building block of a more complex organism.
  6. All of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The Curiosity rover is currently searching for signs of life on Mars. What kind of evidence would most likely indicate the presence of living organisms on Mars?
  2. Fossilized prokaryotic cells
  3. Different nucleic acids and amino acids than those found on Earth
  4. Fatty acid molecules
  5. Complex molecules containing genetic information
  6. Simple organic molecules

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following is not true of life?
  2. Life has a common ancestry.
  3. Life is made up of living organisms.
  4. Living organisms are all descended from a common origin.
  5. Life has multiple origins.
  6. Life has striking similarities across gene sequences.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Earth is approximately _______ years old.
  2. 5.5 million
  3. 40–50 million
  4. 4.5 billion
  5. 5 trillion
  6. 40 trillion

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. There has been life on Earth for approximately _______ years.
  2. 10 thousand
  3. 4 million
  4. 100 million
  5. 1 billion
  6. 4 billion

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The oldest rocks on Earth are approximately _______ years old.
  2. 4,000‒5,000
  3. 400,000‒500,000
  4. 2–3 million
  5. 4–5 billion
  6. 8 billion

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The seed of a desert plant may be dormant for many years without growing, but is still considered to be alive because it
  2. is always converting molecules.
  3. possesses heritable information.
  4. is always regulating its internal environment.
  5. is reproducing.
  6. is extracting energy from its environment.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about viruses is true?
  2. They do not mutate and evolve.
  3. They do not contain genetic information.
  4. They carry out physiological functions on their own.
  5. Their existence depends on cells.
  6. Biologists do not consider viruses to be part of life.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The critical step for the evolution of life was the
  2. formation of fatty acids.
  3. formation of simple molecules.
  4. appearance of proteins that could replicate themselves.
  5. appearance of nucleic acids that could replicate themselves.
  6. synthesis of proteins.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Cellular structure occurs due to
  2. an aggregation of cells.
  3. the synthesis of proteins with stable shapes.
  4. the enclosure of biological molecules by a membrane.
  5. complex proteins being dissolved in water.
  6. the formation of reactants and products.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. To fuel cellular metabolism, early prokaryotes
  2. took in small molecules directly from the environment.
  3. fed on other prokaryotes.
  4. converted oxygen into biological energy.
  5. transformed the energy of sunlight into biological energy.
  6. Both a and d

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The chemical formula for oxygen gas is
  2. O.
  3. O2.
  4. H2O2.
  5. O3.
  6. CO2.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The abundance of O2 led to the evolution of
  2. anaerobic eukaryotes.
  3. aerobic eukaryotes.
  4. anaerobic prokaryotes.
  5. aerobic prokaryotes.
  6. Both b and d

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The chemical formula for ozone is
  2. O.
  3. O2.
  4. H2O2.
  5. O3.
  6. None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. O2 is important to life on Earth because it
  2. allows for anaerobic metabolism.
  3. blocks UV radiation.
  4. produces ozone in the upper atmosphere.
  5. provides energy to some basic forms of life.
  6. provides food for early prokaryotes.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The accumulation of _______ allowed organisms to grow larger.
  2. O2 in the atmosphere
  3. CO2 in the atmosphere
  4. CO2 in the water
  5. O3 in the atmosphere
  6. Both b and c

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about aerobic metabolism is false?
  2. It is more efficient than anaerobic metabolism.
  3. It can occur in O2-rich environments.
  4. It allows organisms to grow.
  5. It is used by the majority of organisms on Earth today.
  6. It provides protection from UV radiation.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The diversity of organisms that have descended from a single kind of unicellular ancestor is mainly due to
  2. replication of the genome.
  3. mating.
  4. artificial selection.
  5. mutations in the genome.
  6. structural adaptations.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Natural selection functions
  2. by causing mutations in the genome.
  3. by producing structural and functional changes within organisms.
  4. through differential probabilities of survival and reproductive success.
  5. through sexual selection and genetic drift.
  6. by allowing unlimited growth of populations.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following features is the same in muscle cells and gut cells?
  2. Cell function
  3. Local cell environment
  4. Expressed genes
  5. Genome
  6. Proteins formed

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The process of evolution acts on
  2. populations.
  3. species.
  4. individual organisms.
  5. communities.
  6. ecosystems.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A species consists of
  2. all the populations of different organisms that live together in a particular area.
  3. all the populations found in a community.
  4. a group of individuals of the same type of organism that can successfully interbreed.
  5. all the populations found in an ecosystem.
  6. a group of individual organisms in an area that do not interact.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Adaptations are _______ traits.
  2. structural
  3. physiological
  4. behavioral
  5. reproductive
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The toe pads of arboreal (tree) frogs and the webbed feet of aquatic frogs are examples of
  2. genetic drift.
  3. structural adaptations.
  4. sexual selection.
  5. artificial selection.
  6. cooperation.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Refer to the figure below. Which of the following statements concerning the “tree of life” is true?

 

 

  1. All protists are most closely related to other protists.
  2. Only one domain includes single-celled prokaryotes.
  3. Two of the domains had endosymbiotic events leading to the formation of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  4. All three domains split from one common ancestor.
  5. Two of the domains have multicellular organisms.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. All living organisms can be assigned to one of three separate
  2. species.
  3. genus groups.
  4. domains.
  5. ancestors.
  6. genomes.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Species are given a distinctive scientific name formed from two Latin names called a
  2. minimali.
  3. biannual.
  4. normal.
  5. binomial.
  6. polynomial.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the scientific names below is written incorrectly?
  2. Homo sapiens
  3. Branta Canadensis
  4. Acer saccharum
  5. H. neanderthalensis
  6. Canis lupis

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A phylogenetic tree
  2. classifies all plant species based on their habitats.
  3. diagrams the evolutionary history of a particular group of organisms.
  4. is based on binomial nomenclature.
  5. only catalogues fossil plants.
  6. only uses genome sequencing data.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The branching patterns of the evolutionary tree of life are based on a rich array of
  2. fossil evidence.
  3. molecular evidence.
  4. information about metabolic processes.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Scientists group species on an evolutionary tree that is based on
  2. the fossil record.
  3. physical structures.
  4. genomic sequencing.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Evolutionary relationships among living organisms can best be determined by comparing
  2. the genomes of both extinct and living organisms.
  3. the genomes of living organisms.
  4. samples from the fossil record.
  5. anatomical features of living organisms.
  6. anatomical features of fossils.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. You propose a set of experiments to test whether present-day chloroplasts originated from a single or multiple endosymbiotic events. Which experimental approach would provide the most detailed test of the hypothesis?
  2. Testing whether plants and algae have similar pigments in their chloroplasts
  3. Testing whether the chloroplasts of plants and algae have the same structure
  4. Performing an instrumental test to determine if the wavelengths of light absorption by chloroplast pigments are the same in both plants and algae
  5. Using structural chemistry to test if the light-absorbing pigments in plants and algae are the same
  6. Comparing the genomes of plant and algal chloroplasts to determine how closely related the genome-encoded molecules are

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?; 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Plants, fungi, and animals have evolved from ancestral
  2. protists.
  3. endosymbiotic bacteria.
  4. Archaea.
  5. cyanobacteria.
  6. inorganic molecules.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Plants are
  2. eukaryotic unicellular aerobes.
  3. eukaryotic multicellular aerobes.
  4. eukaryotic multicellular anaerobes.
  5. prokaryotic unicellular anaerobes.
  6. prokaryotic multicellular aerobes.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following did not evolve from protists?
  2. Plants
  3. Archaea
  4. Animal
  5. Fungi
  6. All of the above evolved from protists.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following had independent origins of multicellularity from protists?
  2. Plants
  3. Fungi
  4. Animals
  5. Plants and fungi
  6. Plants, fungi, and animals

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following represents the correct order of the levels of complexity at which life is studied, from most inclusive to least inclusive?
  2. Cell, tissue, organ, organism, population, community
  3. Community, population, organism, tissue, cell
  4. Community, population, organism, organ, tissue, cell
  5. Community, organism, population, organ, tissue, cell
  6. Community, organism population, cell, organ, tissue

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. In the image below, what is the smallest (lowest) level of biological organization that is visible?

 

 

  1. Community
  2. Organism
  3. Molecule
  4. Cell
  5. Population

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of the mechanical work of cells?
  2. Transporting molecules around inside cells
  3. Moving whole cells around
  4. Moving whole tissues
  5. Locomotion in an organism
  6. Processing information in nervous systems

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the functions of homeostatic regulation?
  2. The processing of sensory information
  3. The regulation of salinity across the plasma membrane
  4. The maintenance of a wide range for each physiological condition
  5. The maintenance of physical conditions such as temperature
  6. The sending of signals to components of physiological systems

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Homeostasis is
  2. the mechanism by which organisms acquire nutrients from the environment.
  3. the maintenance of a narrow range of internal conditions.
  4. the sensory system of an organism.
  5. the mechanical movement of molecules from one cellular location to another.
  6. the maintenance of extracellular fluids.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following always results from a scientific investigation?
  2. Proof of the hypothesis
  3. Refinement of the experimental design to produce qualitative data
  4. Formulation of new questions that result in additional experimentation
  5. Repetition of statistical tests to verify results
  6. Development of additional technologies to meet the needs of scientists

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the major steps in the hypothesis‒prediction approach?
  2. Stating an opinion
  3. Forming a hypothesis
  4. Making an observation
  5. Asking a question
  6. Testing a prediction

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. After observing that fish live in clean water but not in polluted water, researchers state that “polluted water kills fish.” This statement is an example of a(n)
  2. fact.
  3. observation.
  4. prediction.
  5. theory.
  6. hypothesis.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A biologist listens to frogs singing at a local pond and hypothesizes that the sounds may be mating calls. What would be the next step in the hypothesis–prediction method?
  2. Controlling an environment
  3. Making an observation
  4. Forming a hypothesis
  5. Making a prediction
  6. Testing a prediction

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A biologist hypothesizes that the sounds made by lions at night in the Serengeti may be territoriality calls and predicts that two lions inhabiting the same territory will roar even louder. She selects an area inhabited by one lion, records its calls, and plays them back in the same area. She records her observations, and notes that the lion does indeed roar more often as a result of this experiment. What would be the next step in the hypothesis–prediction method?
  2. Asking new questions
  3. Making an observation
  4. Forming a hypothesis
  5. Making a prediction
  6. Testing a prediction

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The main purpose of any single experiment is to
  2. obtain accurate quantitative measurements.
  3. prove unambiguously that a particular hypothesis is correct.
  4. avoid a merely comparative analysis.
  5. answer as many key questions as possible.
  6. test a prediction that is based on a hypothesis.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The advantage of controlled scientific experiments is that
  2. all variables except one are held constant.
  3. the hypothesis can be proven correct.
  4. patterns can be predicted.
  5. investigations can be carried out in the field.
  6. a massive amount of data can be synthesized.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following is a characteristic of a comparative experiment?
  2. It has only independent variables.
  3. It has only one dependent variable.
  4. It compares one independent variable with one dependent variable.
  5. It starts with groups or samples that are as similar as possible.
  6. It starts with the prediction that there will be a difference between groups or samples.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A rapid decline of amphibian populations has been observed worldwide. Which of the following could not be one of the proposed hypotheses related to this decline?
  2. A fungal disease could be a cause.
  3. Increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation could be a cause.
  4. Exposure to agricultural chemicals could be a cause.
  5. Exposure to atrazine could be a cause.
  6. Frogs die naturally.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the experiments of Tyrone Hayes on abnormalities of male frog sex organs is true?
  2. Based on a set of controlled experiments, Hayes had to reject his hypothesis that atrazine was causing abnormalities in male frogs.
  3. Based on comparative experiments, Hayes formed a new hypothesis that UV radiation was causing abnormalities in frogs.
  4. Hayes used controlled experiments to compare the effects of various atrazine concentrations on reproductive tissues.
  5. Hayes reasoned, by means of inductive logic, that if atrazine caused abnormal testes development, then such deformities could be caused simply by exposing developing tadpoles to various concentrations of atrazine.
  6. The experiments showed that the abnormality rate was proportional to the level of atrazine exposure.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Tyrone Hayes collected frog and water samples from eight widely separated sites across the U.S. and studied the incidence of abnormalities in frogs exposed to different levels of atrazine. This was a(n) _______ experiment.
  2. comparative
  3. controlled
  4. inductive
  5. logic
  6. deductive

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A statistical test starts with
  2. a null hypothesis.
  3. deductive logic.
  4. inductive logic.
  5. a hypothesis.
  6. a model system.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Bacteria can be used as a model system to study chemical reactions in cells. These reactions can be related to similar processes in humans because bacteria and humans
  2. share a genetic code.
  3. are both prokaryotes.
  4. have exactly the same genome.
  5. have the same number of chromosomes.
  6. Both a and d

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Much of what we know about the biochemistry of photosynthesis was discovered in experiments with
  2. fruit flies.
  3. zebrafish.
  4. roundworms.
  5. Arabidopsis.
  6. Chlorella.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following questions cannot be answered by means of the hypothesis‒prediction approach?
  2. Are eastern meadowlark populations declining faster than western meadowlark populations?
  3. Is the song of the western meadowlark prettier than that of the eastern meadowlark?
  4. Do eastern and western meadowlarks interbreed?
  5. Do meadowlarks benefit from prairie habitat restoration?
  6. Have the migration paths of western meadowlarks been affected by climate change?

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is not part of the basis for the scientific conclusion that evolution is a fact?
  2. Evolution can be observed and measured directly.
  3. Predictions about future developments in the natural world can be made based on the principles of evolution.
  4. The process of evolution can be observed in the fossil record.
  5. Changes in the genetic composition of populations can be observed over relatively short periods of time.
  6. The fossil record can be observed over an almost unimaginably long period of time.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Scientific explanations for a natural phenomenon
  2. can be tested only in the laboratory.
  3. are always based on an ethical point of view.
  4. are based on reproducible and quantifiable observations.
  5. are based on untested hypotheses.
  6. cannot be rejected.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements represents a scientific point of view?
  2. Earth was created by a supernatural force.
  3. The positions of the sun, moon, and stars provide guidance for making decisions.
  4. Inner strength comes from the beauty in nature.
  5. Meditation helps to solve health problems.
  6. Testing the effect of antibiotics on E. coli can help prevent deaths from food poisoning.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Many possible applications of scientific knowledge raise ethical issues for some people. Which of the following applications, however, would be rejected by all responsible scientists?
  2. Selecting the sex of one’s children
  3. Using stem cells as part of medical treatments
  4. Modifying the human genome
  5. Using scientific knowledge to dictate how the world ought to be
  6. All of the above would be rejected by scientists.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. In which of the following organisms have modern agricultural practices been used to develop new breeds or strains?
  2. Animals
  3. Plants
  4. Fungi
  5. Both a and b
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following scientific fields is providing us with knowledge that will help in the control of possible future tuberculosis epidemics?
  2. Molecular biology
  3. Physiology
  4. Microbial ecology
  5. Evolution
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. New vaccines to protect against the influenza virus are developed every year because of the _______ the virus.
  2. high rate of infection caused by
  3. high rate of evolution of
  4. long generation time of
  5. low mutation rate of
  6. Both a and c

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following problems is directly related to global climate change?
  2. Development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  3. Overfishing of bluefin tuna
  4. Engineering of drought-resistant crops
  5. Consumption of fossil fuels
  6. Genetic diseases

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Overfishing in the Atlantic bluefin tuna breeding ground has resulted in a serious decline in the tuna’s population. In response, an international commission drew a line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with the intent of allowing western populations of bluefin tuna to recover by restricting fishing quotas in that hemisphere. Why did this policy fail to achieve the desired result?
  2. Tracking data showed that the tuna’s breeding ground is not identical to its feeding ground.
  3. Tracking data showed that western bluefin tuna feed all across the Atlantic Ocean.
  4. Tracking data showed that eastern and western bluefin tuna populations are not, as was initially believed, geographically isolated in terms of their feeding grounds.
  5. Many tuna caught on the eastern side of the line were from the western breeding population.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Despite numerous studies showing the negative effects of atrazine on frog development, the Environmental Protection Agency continues to allow restricted use of atrazine as long as environmental levels do not exceed 30 to 40 ppb. What will be the likely result of this policy?
  2. The occurrences of frog abnormalities will gradually decline.
  3. Abnormalities will continue to appear in frogs.
  4. No new abnormalities in frogs will appear.
  5. Abnormal frogs that reproduce will have offspring that all develop normally.
  6. Both c and d

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Which of the following is not a direct concern for biologists?
  2. The origin of the universe
  3. The extraction and consumption of fossil fuels
  4. The rate of change in the world’s ecosystems
  5. The increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
  6. The rapid rate of climate warming

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

Fill in the Blank

 

  1. _______ are the basic structural and physiological units of living organisms.

Answer: Cells

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In the course of evolution, fatty acids were the critical ingredient in the enclosure of biological molecules in _______ films because these molecules are not _______ in water.

Answer: membranous (or membrane); soluble

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The use of energy from sunlight to synthesize complex molecules is known as _______.

Answer: photosynthesis

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The sum total of all the chemical transformations and other work done in a living organism is called its _______.

Answer: metabolism

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In contrast to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotes lack intracellular compartments referred to as _______.

Answer: organelles

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The total of all the information encoded by an organism’s genes constitutes its _______.

Answer: genome

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The change in genetic makeup of biological populations through time is called _______.

Answer: evolution

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Charles Darwin called the differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population _______.

Answer: natural selection

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. _______ are structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism’s chance of survival and reproduction in its environment.

Answer: Adaptations

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A group of individuals of the same species that interact is called a(n) _______; a number of such groups that live and interact in the same area are called a(n) _______; and the latter groupings, along with the nonliving environment, constitute the _______.

Answer: population; community; ecosystem

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A Pacific tree frog has the scientific nomenclature of Hyla regilla. This particular tree frog belongs to the genus _______.

Answer: Hyla

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Genome sequencing and other molecular techniques have allowed biologists to study the evolution and classification of life’s diverse organisms. By examining the fossil record and by identifying similarities and differences among living species, they have been able to construct _______ trees to diagram evolutionary relationships.

Answer: phylogenetic

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The two membrane-enclosed compartments within cells that are thought to have arisen by endosymbiosis are _______ and _______.

Answer: mitochondria (or chloroplasts); chloroplasts (or mitochondria)

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Single-celled organisms that lack discrete intracellular compartments belong to the domains _______ and _______.

Answer: Archaea (or Bacteria); Bacteria (or Archaea)

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The three major groups of multicellular eukaryotes are the plants, animals, and _______. Each evolved independently from different groups of unicellular eukaryotes generally known as _______.

Answer: fungi; protists

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. After observing new data, scientists apply _______ logic in order to propose a possible explanation, which is called a(n) _______.

Answer: inductive; hypothesis

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Platelets are cell fragments that are critical for blood clotting, a process that involves the release of proteins from platelet storage granules. Platelet granules contain approximately 300 different proteins. One hypothesis about the packaging of proteins into these granules is that each protein is delivered in precisely measured amounts to each granule. An alternative hypothesis is that each protein is targeted to the individual storage granules randomly. The second hypothesis is an example of a(n) _______ hypothesis.

Answer: null

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Because of the similarities shared by many life forms, scientific knowledge gained about one type of organism can often be generalized to other organisms. Biologists studying photosynthesis, for example, have experimented with the Chlorella alga, knowing that they can extend their findings to other plants. In this case, photosynthesis in the alga was considered a _______ system.

Answer: model

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The study of plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana has allowed scientists to understand the _______ that control development in other plants as well.

Answer: genes

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Changes in the global climate, leading to the extinctions of large numbers of species and the spread of new and old diseases, are caused largely by the activities of _______.

Answer: humans (or man or people)

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

Diagram

 

1.‒2. Refer to the figure below showing life’s “timeline.”

 

 

  1. Based on the timeline, which of the following statements is true?
  2. The oldest fossils include photosynthesizers.
  3. The first photosynthesizers were prokaryotic.
  4. Multicellularity arose before the evolution of eukaryotic cells.
  5. The oldest fossils include multicellular organisms.
  6. The first photosynthesizers were multicellular.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. If we picture the history of Earth as a 30-day month, as in the timeline, modern humans arose
  2. at the beginning of week 4.
  3. on day 27.
  4. in the last 5 minutes of day 30.
  5. on day 29.
  6. just before noon on day 30.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

3.‒4. Refer to the figure below showing DNA as life’s “blueprint.”

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is not supported by evidence presented in the figure?
  2. Genes are composed of DNA.
  3. Each cell contains the entire genome.
  4. Nucleotides contain genetic information.
  5. DNA is composed of nucleotides.
  6. Proteins are composed of genes.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The exposure of DNA to excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation produces thymine (a nucleotide) dimers, which, if unrepaired, can lead to production of skin cancer. This mutation would
  2. have no effect on genes.
  3. have no effect on proteins.
  4. effect both genes and proteins.
  5. effect only proteins.
  6. effect only genes.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

5.‒6. Refer to the diagram below showing the evolutionary tree of life.

 

 

  1. According to the relationships indicated by this phylogeny, which of the following statements is true?
  2. Animals are equally related to plants and fungi.
  3. Animals are more closely related to fungi than they are to plants or any protists.
  4. Fungi evolved more recently than did plants.
  5. Most eukaryotes are protists.
  6. Some plants evolved more recently than did archaea.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is demonstrated by this diagram?
  2. Plants contain chloroplasts but not mitochondria.
  3. No members of Eukarya contain both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  4. Chloroplasts are found in bacteria.
  5. Mitochondria developed through endosymbiosis before chloroplasts.
  6. Mitochondria are found in bacteria.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The image below shows a community. According to the hierarchy of biological systems, what level is created with the addition of nonliving components like sunlight and rain?

 

 

Answer: An ecosystem

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

8.‒9. Refer to the diagram below showing the steps in the scientific method.

 

 

  1. Which step in the diagram best illustrates the use of inductive logic?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 3
  5. 4
  6. 5

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Step 4 illustrates the use of _______ logic.

Answer: deductive

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The graph below shows the results of a study of atrazine exposure in male frogs. According to these data, higher atrazine concentrations do not result in a higher rate of gonadal abnormality. Which of the following conclusions could be deduced from these results?

 

 

  1. Low levels of atrazine are not as dangerous to amphibians as high levels of atrazine.
  2. A dosage of 15 ppb would cause a rate of abnormality between the one caused by the 0.1 ppb dosage and the one caused by the 25 ppb dosage.
  3. The effect of the atrazine exposure is not proportional to the level of exposure.
  4. Atrazine is only hazardous in a natural ecosystem, where it is naturally diluted in the waterways.
  5. Atrazine usage should be banned.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The figure below shows comparative experiments performed to study the incidence of abnormalities in frogs from environments with very different levels of atrazine. Which of the following is the best null hypothesis for this study?

 

 

  1. Atrazine might have a greater effect on gonad development at low concentrations than at high concentrations.
  2. Testes are normal in the absence of atrazine, but male gonadal abnormalities occur in the presence of atrazine.
  3. Atrophied testes and testicular oogenesis show no difference in their response to atrazine level.
  4. Atrazine levels show no difference with respect to the percentage of gonadal abnormalities.
  5. Differences in the percentage of gonadal abnormalities among sites with varied atrazine levels could be random sampling effects.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

 

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Richard Shingles)

 

  1. An organism
  2. always contains more than one cell.
  3. can evolve.
  4. cannot do biological work.
  5. can be generated from nonliving materials.
  6. must reproduce to ensure survival of its kind.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A seed of a desert plant may survive for many years because it is
  2. composed of a structure that protects it from the external environment.
  3. unicellular.
  4. always regulating its internal environment.
  5. reproducing.
  6. always extracting energy from its environment.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Viruses
  2. can mutate.
  3. can extract energy from their environment.
  4. can synthesize DNA or RNA on their own.
  5. can reproduce on their own.
  6. are cellular.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Genomes are
  2. genetic information shared among all living cells.
  3. usually made of RNA.
  4. made of proteins.
  5. genetic information that can be passed on to offspring.
  6. only found in animal and plant cells.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Energy transformations in early prokaryotes involved taking in small molecules from the environment and breaking them down to their component atoms. This process is called
  2. mechanical work.
  3. synthesis.
  4. break down.
  5. metabolism.
  6. electrical work.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All cells in a complicated multicellular organism
  2. produce all the same proteins.
  3. have the same function.
  4. express the same parts of the genome at the same time during development.
  5. have controlled expression of the genome.
  6. randomly express parts of the genome.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the tree of life (shown below) is false?

 

 

  1. Most of the species that were ever present on Earth have already been discovered.
  2. Earth’s organisms are divided into three domains.
  3. Protists are microbial eukaryotes.
  4. The organisms on any one branch share a common ancestor.
  5. The common ancestor forms the root of the tree.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. In terms of increasing complexity, the order of parts of a multicellular animal is
  2. cell, macromolecule, tissue, organ, organ system.
  3. molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system.
  4. tissue, cell, molecule, organ system, organ.
  5. molecule, tissue, cell, organ, organ system.
  6. tissue, molecule, cell, organ, organ system.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A population differs from a community in that a community
  2. consists of just one species.
  3. includes the abiotic environment.
  4. consists of many species.
  5. is synonymous with an ecosystem.
  6. is a group of the same species that interact with each other.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Oceans were a good environment for early organisms because they
  2. contained ozone.
  3. shielded organisms from visible light.
  4. alleviated the need for a cell membrane.
  5. shielded organisms from ultraviolet light.
  6. were rich in oxygen.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The organisms that produced the oxygen gas in Earth’s early atmosphere in were
  2. anaerobic eukaryotes.
  3. aerobic eukaryotes.
  4. photosynthetic prokaryotes.
  5. aerobic prokaryotes.
  6. completely unlike modern organisms.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Eukaryotes resemble prokaryotes in that both
  2. contain nuclei.
  3. have organelles.
  4. have plasma membranes.
  5. are multicellular.
  6. contain specialized cells.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements about model systems is false?
  2. The study of a model system can always be extended to humans.
  3. Much of what we know about the genes that control plant development has come from work on Arabidopsis.
  4. Basic understanding of many chemical reactions in cells came from research on bacteria.
  5. The biochemistry of photosynthesis was largely worked out from experiments on Chlorella.
  6. Knowledge of how animals develop has come from work on sea urchins.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis is
  2. a final answer to a question.
  3. formulated by deductive logic.
  4. an alternative to an experiment.
  5. the basis for making predictions.
  6. formulated solely by speculation.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Scientific explanations for a natural phenomenon
  2. cannot be tested by humans.
  3. may be based on data that cannot be reproduced.
  4. must be based on statistically significant data.
  5. are tested exclusively by the original scientist.
  6. are a reflection of how things should be.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The scientific method entails measuring the effects of specific factors that are altered by the experimenter. The factor that is changed is also called a(n)
  2. hypothesis.
  3. conclusion.
  4. variable.
  5. observation.
  6. speculation.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In a scientific experiment, the control group is the one that
  2. is not manipulated and used for comparison.
  3. exerts control over the test subjects.
  4. is usually discarded.
  5. is exposed to a specific treatment to test the effects.
  6. is statistically significant.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. An international commission drew a line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with the intent of allowing western populations of bluefin tuna to recover from ocean fishing. Which of the following statements regarding this effort is false?
  2. The policy had little effect on bluefin populations, as the eastern and western Atlantic populations freely mix.
  3. Tracking data revealed that bluefin tuna feed across the Atlantic Ocean.
  4. Bluefin tuna populations recovered in the western Atlantic Ocean
  5. Bluefin fishing was restricted on the western Atlantic Ocean but not on the eastern Atlantic Ocean
  6. It was initially assumed that bluefin tuna populations had geographically separated feeding grounds.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is not an effect of the vastly increasing human population on the environment?
  2. Changing global climate
  3. Evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria
  4. The extinction of a great number of species
  5. Spreading of disease
  6. None of the above; all of the above are effects of a vastly increasing human population.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is not of major interest to biologists?
  2. That modern agriculture depends on biology
  3. That biology is the basis of medical practice
  4. That biology can inform us on the origin of the universe
  5. That biology can inform public policy
  6. That biology is crucial for understanding ecosystems

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

 

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Richard Shingles)

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of living organisms?
  2. Self-regulation of an internal environment
  3. Presence of one or more cells
  4. The ability to produce biological molecules
  5. The ability to extract energy from the environment
  6. All of the above are characteristics of living organisms.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If samples were brought back from a distant planet, what would be the first evidence of life, assuming its evolution followed the same path as Earth’s?
  2. Presence of nucleic acids
  3. Multicellular life forms
  4. Presence of oxygen
  5. Cell membranes
  6. Presence of fatty acids

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

Imagine that NASA’s next probe to one of Jupiter’s moons takes a sample from one of its methane lakes. Pictures taken under a microscope reveal a cell-like structure remarkably similar to that of a simple prokaryotic organism. NASA calls it a “Xenop.” Based on the textbook’s discussion of the common aspects of living organisms on Earth, which of the following pieces of additional information about the Xenop is paired with its logical conclusion?

  1. The Xenop looks like a prokaryote and is surrounded by a vesicle-like membrane and, therefore, is living.
  2. The Xenop contains different nucleic acids and amino acids from life on Earth and, therefore, is not living.
  3. The Xenop can go many years without extracting energy from its environment and, therefore, is not living.
  4. The Xenop does not contain genetic information or reproduce and, therefore, is not living.
  5. The Xenop contains complex molecules and, therefore, is living.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Scientists postulate that the enclosure of complex proteins and other biological molecules by membranes resulted in the first cells with the ability to
  2. reproduce.
  3. photosynthesize.
  4. carry out aerobic respiration.
  5. live in nonaqueous environments.
  6. All of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Viruses
  2. can mutate.
  3. can extract energy from their environment.
  4. can synthesize DNA or RNA on their own.
  5. can reproduce on their own.
  6. are cellular.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Life arose on Earth approximately _______ years ago.
  2. 4000
  3. 400,000
  4. 4 million
  5. 1.5 billion
  6. 4 billion

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following correctly lists the order of important first events in the history of life?
  2. First archaea, chemical evolution, first chloroplasts, first nucleus, first cyanobacteria
  3. Chemical evolution, first archaea, first cyanobacteria, first nucleus, first chloroplasts
  4. Chemical evolution, first cyanobacteria, first archaea, first chloroplasts, first nucleus
  5. First cyanobacteria, first nucleus, first archaea, first chloroplasts, chemical evolution
  6. First cyanobacteria, chemical evolution, first archaea, first nucleus, first chloroplasts

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Scientists estimate that for more than _______ years after cells originated, all organisms consisted of one cell.
  2. 2500
  3. 250,000
  4. 2 million
  5. 2 billion
  6. 2 trillion

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A cell
  2. always contains a nucleus.
  3. is found only in plants and animals.
  4. is the fundamental unit of life.
  5. is never an entire organism.
  6. is always prokaryotic.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. All chemical transformations and other work done in an organism contribute to its
  2. mechanical work.
  3. synthesis.
  4. breakdown.
  5. metabolism.
  6. electrical work.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Metabolism is
  2. the consumption of energy.
  3. the release of energy.
  4. all chemical transformations in a cell or organism.
  5. the production of heat by chemical reactions.
  6. the exchange of nutrients and waste products with the environment.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The early organisms that produced the first oxygen gas in Earth’s atmosphere were
  2. aerobic eukaryotes.
  3. anaerobic eukaryotes.
  4. photosynthetic prokaryotes.
  5. aerobic prokaryotes.
  6. completely unlike modern organisms.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The initial accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere was the result of photosynthesis from an organism most like modern
  2. algae.
  3. mosses.
  4. kelp.
  5. eukaryotes.
  6. cyanobacteria.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that eukaryotic cells have
  2. genes.
  3. proteins.
  4. a membrane-bound nucleus.
  5. membranes.
  6. All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Photosynthesis was a major evolutionary milestone because
  2. photosynthetic organisms contributed oxygen to the environment, which led to the evolution of aerobic organisms.
  3. photosynthesis led to conditions that allowed life to arise on land.
  4. photosynthesis is the only metabolic process that can convert light energy to chemical energy.
  5. photosynthesis provides food for organisms.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

This fossil stromatolite is evidence for a major innovation in life’s history—what is the evolutionary innovation?

  1. Organelles
  2. Domain Eukarya
  3. Photosynthesis
  4. Multicellular organisms
  5. Endosymbiosis

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The organisms that produced oxygen gas in Earth’s atmosphere paved the way for the type of metabolism used by larger organisms, called _______ metabolism.
  2. anaerobic
  3. photosynthetic
  4. aerobic
  5. endosymbiotic
  6. heterotrophic

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Genomes are
  2. the shared genetic information among all living cells.
  3. usually made of RNA.
  4. made of proteins.
  5. the sum of genetic information in a cell.
  6. only found in animal and plant cells.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The information needed to produce proteins is contained in
  2. nutrients.
  3. tissues.
  4. evolution.
  5. organs.
  6. genes.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Ozone is important to life on Earth because it
  2. is toxic to all forms of life.
  3. can be used in place of oxygen.
  4. blocks much ultraviolet radiation.
  5. provides energy to some basic forms of life.
  6. acts as a disinfectant.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A final prerequisite for the survival of life on land was the accumulation of a protective layer of
  2. O2 in the atmosphere.
  3. CO2 in the atmosphere.
  4. water vapor in the atmosphere.
  5. O3 in the atmosphere.
  6. bacteria in the soil.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. What is required for natural selection to occur?
  2. Organisms must display variation.
  3. A trait must be passed on to future generations.
  4. A trait must increase survival.
  5. A trait must increase reproduction.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Populations of organisms have been able to inhabit a wide variety of environments on Earth because they
  2. have a genome.
  3. contain organelles.
  4. carry out photosynthesis.
  5. adapt through evolution.
  6. are similar to model organisms.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Darwin noted that all populations have _______ potential to grow, but in nature most populations _______ over time.
  2. limited; are stable
  3. unlimited; grow slowly
  4. limited; fluctuate unpredictably
  5. unlimited; are stable
  6. limited; decrease slowly

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Darwin referred to the differential reproductive success of individuals with particular variations as
  2. evolution.
  3. artificial selection.
  4. the cell theory.
  5. natural selection.
  6. inheritance of acquired characteristics.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A key point in Darwin’s explanation of evolution is that
  2. the biological structures most likely to be inherited are those that have become best suited to the environment through constant use.
  3. all mutations that occur are those that will help future generations fit more successfully into their environments.
  4. any trait that confers even a small increase in the probability that its possessor will survive and reproduce will be favored and will spread through the population.
  5. genes change in order to help organisms cope with problems encountered within their environments.
  6. extinction is nature’s way of weeding out undeserving organisms.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. The diversity of life has depended on similar environments and ecological communities around the globe.
  3. Sexual selection and genetic drift contribute to the diversity of life.
  4. Earth has existed and changed over a few thousand years, at most.
  5. All ancestral forms of life were very similar to organisms that currently exist.
  6. All organisms are closely related genetically.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Evolution is
  2. only relevant to the study of biology.
  3. the change in the genetic makeup of a population through time.
  4. the change in protein expression of a population through time.
  5. not influenced by natural selection.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All cells in a complicated multicellular organism
  2. contain a subset of the genome.
  3. have the same function.
  4. express the same parts of the genome at the same time during development.
  5. control the expression of the genome.
  6. randomly express parts of the genome.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about mutations is incorrect?
  2. All mutations are harmful.
  3. Mutations occur spontaneously.
  4. Mutations can be induced by outside environmental factors.
  5. Mutations occur each time the genome is replicated.
  6. A mutation can improve the functioning of an organism.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is correct?
  2. All cells from a single organism express the same genes.
  3. Mutations are always caused by chemicals or radiation.
  4. Mutations can occur spontaneously.
  5. Most mutations are harmful, so evolution proceeds more rapidly when no mutations occur.
  6. Mutations affect proteins but not the DNA.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Relationships between living organisms can best be gleaned by comparing
  2. the fossil record.
  3. the genomes of living organisms.
  4. the genomes of both extinct and living organisms.
  5. anatomical features of living organisms.
  6. anatomical features of fossils.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. A phylogenetic tree
  2. shows evolutionary relationships.
  3. relies on evidence from fossils, metabolic processes, and molecular analyses of genomes.
  4. helps us understand the history and relationships of living organisms.
  5. shows the order in which populations split and evolved into new species.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Biologists have organized the diversity of life into three domains based largely on
  2. physical similarities.
  3. ecological niches.
  4. chronological order.
  5. molecular data.
  6. All of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The domain Eukarya includes all of the following except
  2. archaea.
  3. plants.
  4. fungi.
  5. animals.
  6. protists.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Plants are _______ organisms that are _______ of oxygen production.
  2. eukaryotic unicellular; capable
  3. eukaryotic multicellular; incapable
  4. prokaryotic multicellular; capable
  5. prokaryotic unicellular; incapable
  6. eukaryotic multicellular; capable

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

Which of the following is demonstrated in this diagram of the tree of life?

  1. There are three groups of Eukarya.
  2. Protists and bacteria have no common ancestor.
  3. Plants and fungi have a more recent common ancestor than plants and animals do.
  4. Plants, fungi, and animals are descendants of different microbial eukaryotic ancestors.
  5. Archaea is the evolutionarily ancient group.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. In terms of increasing complexity, the order of parts of a multicellular animal is
  2. cell, macromolecule, tissue, organ, organ system.
  3. molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system.
  4. tissue, cell, molecule, organ system, organ.
  5. molecule, tissue, cell, organ, organ system.
  6. tissue, molecule, cell, organ, organ system.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following represents a correct ordering of the levels of complexity at which life is studied, from most simple to most complex?
  2. Community, population, organism, organ, tissue, cell
  3. Cell, organ, tissue, organism, population, community
  4. Cell, tissue, organ, organism, population, community
  5. Cell, tissue, organ, population, organism, community
  6. Tissue, organ, cell, population, organism, community

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not part of the basis for the scientific conclusion that evolution is a fact?
  2. Evolution can be observed and measured directly.
  3. The process of evolution can be observed in the fossil record.
  4. Predictions about future developments in the natural world can be made based on the principles of evolution.
  5. Changes in the genetic composition of populations can be observed over relatively short periods of time.
  6. The fossil record can be observed over an almost unimaginably long period of time.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. A group of differentiated cells that work together to carry out a similar function is known as a(n)
  2. tissue.
  3. organ system.
  4. unicellular organism.
  5. protein.
  6. gene.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. All living organisms acquire _______ from their environment.
  2. sunlight
  3. nutrients
  4. carbon dioxide for photosynthesis
  5. cues for forming different tissue types
  6. All of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Nutrients acquired by animals
  2. are synthesized by cells.
  3. are broken down outside of cells.
  4. require energy to be broken down.
  5. are broken down inside cells.
  6. do not play a role in the synthesis of complex molecules.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Homeostasis involves the regulation of a
  2. variable internal environment.
  3. constant external environment.
  4. constant internal environment.
  5. constant rate of natural selection.
  6. variable rate of natural selection.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following processes is not dependent on interactions of plants with other organisms (including other plants)?
  2. Obtaining nutrients
  3. Regulating the internal environment
  4. Dispersing seeds
  5. Competing for water
  6. Producing fertile seeds

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following can scientists determine about a “tagged” fish that was just caught?
  2. how deep it swam
  3. the route it took before it was caught
  4. how far it could swim
  5. exactly how far it swam
  6. whether it was a marine fish

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. In the scientific method, a hypothesis
  2. is a final answer to a question.
  3. is formulated by deductive logic.
  4. does not have to be testable.
  5. is the basis for making predictions.
  6. is formulated solely by speculation.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not a major step in the hypothesis-prediction approach?
  2. Controlling an environment
  3. Making an observation
  4. Forming a hypothesis
  5. Making a prediction
  6. Testing a prediction

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the scientific method is true?
  2. After forming a hypothesis, scientists apply deductive logic to make predictions from the hypothesis.
  3. The most informative experiments are those that have the ability to show that a hypothesis is correct.
  4. In a comparative experiment, a scientist compares groups that differ in a variable that has been manipulated in one of the groups and left unaltered in the other group.
  5. Controlled experiments are valuable when we do not know or cannot control the critical variables.
  6. A statistical test of a hypothesis starts with the premise that a significant difference exists between the groups in the study.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. After observing that frogs live in clean water but not in polluted water, researchers state that “polluted water kills frogs.” This simple statement is an example of
  2. scientific inquiry.
  3. biological evolution.
  4. a prediction.
  5. a hypothesis.
  6. a fact.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following questions cannot be answered by means of the hypothesis–prediction method?
  2. Are bees more attracted to red roses than to yellow roses?
  3. Are red roses more beautiful than yellow roses?
  4. Why are red roses red?
  5. Do red roses bloom earlier than yellow roses?
  6. Are red roses more susceptible to mildew than yellow roses?

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. All of the following are features of scientific hypotheses except:
  2. They are unable to be falsified.
  3. They make predictions.
  4. They are based on observations.
  5. They can be tested by experimentation.
  6. They can be tested by observational analysis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following does not result from a scientific investigation?
  2. Refinement of the experimental design
  3. Formulation of new questions that result in additional experimentation
  4. Use of statistical tests to evaluate the significance of the results
  5. Experiments repeated and verified by others
  6. None of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Comparative experiments are designed to answer questions that require
  2. experimental groups and control groups.
  3. little or no data collection.
  4. a final, definitive answer.
  5. the collection of qualitative data.
  6. observation and comparison rather than controlled variables.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In a model experiment, researchers subjected frogs to various levels of atrazine while keeping all other variables constant. This is an example of a _______ experiment.
  2. controlled
  3. repeated
  4. laboratory
  5. comparative
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Refer to the information below.

 

 

Which of the following is the best null hypothesis for this study?

  1. Atrazine might have a greater effect on gonad development at low concentrations than at high concentrations.
  2. Testes are normal in the absence of atrazine, but male gonadal abnormalities occur in the presence of atrazine.
  3. Atrophied testes and testicular oogenesis show no differences in their response to atrazine level.
  4. Atrazine levels show no differences with respect to the percentage of gonadal abnormalities.
  5. Differences in percent gonadal abnormalities among sites with varied atrazine levels could be random sampling effects.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements about statistical analysis in science is false?
  2. Statistical methods are applied to data to prove that the null hypothesis is incorrect.
  3. Statistical tests analyze variation and calculate the probability that observed differences in an experiment could be due to random variation.
  4. Statistical tests can be used to evaluate both comparative and controlled experiments.
  5. Scientists generally conclude that the differences they measure are significant if the statistical tests show that the probability of error is 5 percent or lower.
  6. The power of science derives from absolute dependence on evidence that comes from reproducible and quantifiable observations.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements about model systems is false?
  2. The study of a model system can be extended to humans.
  3. Much of what we know about the genes that control animal development has come from work on Arabidopsis.
  4. Basic understanding of chemical reactions in cells came from research on bacteria.
  5. The biochemistry of photosynthesis was worked out from experiments on Chlorella.
  6. Knowledge of how animals develop has come from work on sea urchins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Much of what we know about the genes that control plant development was discovered in experiments with
  2. fruit flies.
  3. zebrafish.
  4. roundworms.
  5. Arabidopsis.
  6. Chlorella.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. For a hypothesis to be scientifically valid, it must be _______, and it must be possible to _______ it.
  2. testable; prove
  3. testable; reject
  4. controlled; prove
  5. controlled; reject
  6. testable; control

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. The oxygen that we breathe is produced by photosynthesis.
  3. The food that fuels our bodies comes from other living organisms.
  4. The fuels that drive our cars are produced by living organisms.
  5. Our bodies are covered in complex communities of living unicellular organisms.
  6. All species that invade our bodies are harmful.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following has not been improved by genetic recombination?
  2. New breeds of domestic animals
  3. New strains of agricultural plants
  4. Higher productivity in fungi
  5. Evolution of pest resistance
  6. Boosts in food production

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not founded on modern-day medical practices combined with knowledge of biology?
  2. Knowing that infections can be passed from one person to another
  3. Understanding how living organisms work
  4. Knowing that many diseases are genetic
  5. Understanding the origin, basis, and effects of disease
  6. Knowing that bacteria evolve

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Many of the microbial organisms that are periodically epidemic in human populations have
  2. short generation times and low mutation rates.
  3. short generation times and high mutation rates.
  4. long generation times and low mutation rates.
  5. long generation times and high mutation rates.
  6. long generation times and no mutations.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Scientists develop new vaccines for flu every year because of the
  2. high rate of infection by the influenza virus.
  3. long generation time of the influenza virus.
  4. high rate of mutation of the influenza virus.
  5. short generation time of the influenza virus.
  6. Both c and d

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following is not a concern for biologists?
  2. Modern agriculture
  3. Public policy
  4. Understanding ecosystems
  5. Medical practice
  6. All of the above are concerns for biologists.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. When applying biology to public policy,
  2. the recommendations of scientists are always followed.
  3. the economic issues of a policy are not considered.
  4. several countries may be involved.
  5. there are no ethical issues involved.
  6. the correct course of action is always evident.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. An international commission drew a line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean with the intent of allowing western populations of Bluefin tuna to recover from ocean fishing. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. The policy had little effect on Bluefin populations as the eastern and western Atlantic populations freely mix.
  3. Tracking data revealed that Bluefin tuna feed across the Atlantic Ocean.
  4. Bluefin tuna populations recovered in the western Atlantic Ocean.
  5. Bluefin fishing was restricted on the western Atlantic Ocean but not on the eastern Atlantic Ocean.
  6. It was initially assumed that Bluefin tuna populations had geographically separated feeding grounds.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. When applying scientific studies to political policy,
  2. the recommendations of scientists are always followed.
  3. the economic issues of a policy are not considered.
  4. scientific conclusions indicating negative effects on humans are not always considered.
  5. there are no ethical issues involved.
  6. scientific conclusions do not always prevail.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not something that a governmental institute should consider in crafting public policy?
  2. Harmful effects demonstrated on wild species by an herbicide
  3. Potential farming income losses due to a ban on an insecticide
  4. Special handling procedures required to safely use a substance
  5. Whether a government official holds stock in a company that produces a chemical
  6. Widespread utility of a drug versus detrimental side effects

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The concern over how human activities affect the world’s ecosystems is due to the
  2. increase of change in ecosystems.
  3. decrease of change in ecosystems.
  4. rate of change in ecosystems.
  5. absence of change in ecosystems.
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not an effect of a vastly increasing human population on the environment?
  2. Changing global climate
  3. Evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria
  4. Causing the extinctions of a great number of species
  5. Spreading of disease
  6. None of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. When studying the natural history of a group of organisms, scientists look at all of the following except
  2. how the organisms get their food.
  3. how the organisms reproduce.
  4. how the organisms behave.
  5. how the organisms interact with other organisms.
  6. what cash value the organisms have to entrepreneurs.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following human activities does not rely on biodiversity?
  2. Birdwatching
  3. Gardening
  4. Farming
  5. Hunting
  6. Fishing

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Biologists have discovered almost all of the species that inhabit Earth.
  3. Biologists have discovered about three-quarters of the species that inhabit Earth.
  4. Biologists have discovered about half of the species that inhabit Earth.
  5. Biologists have discovered only a small percentage of the species that inhabit Earth.
  6. Biologists have discovered a small percentage of the species that inhabit Mars.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

 

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

(By Meredith Safford)

 

  1. Life arose on Earth approximately _______ years ago.
  2. 4 billion
  3. 4 million
  4. 4,600
  5. 1.5 billion
  6. 4 trillion

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is the feature or component of organisms that allows for life in such a wide variety of environments on Earth?
  2. Prokaryotic cells
  3. Eukaryotic cells
  4. Homeostasis
  5. Adaptation
  6. Model systems

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of most living organisms?
  2. Regulation of internal environment
  3. One or more cells
  4. Ability to produce biological molecules
  5. Ability to extract energy from the environment
  6. All of the above are characteristics of most living organisms.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Photosynthesis was a major evolutionary milestone because
  2. photosynthetic organisms contributed oxygen to the environment, which led to the evolution of aerobic organisms.
  3. photosynthesis led to conditions that allowed life to arise on land.
  4. photosynthesis is the only metabolic process that can convert light energy to chemical energy.
  5. photosynthesis provides food for other organisms.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not an attribute of homeostasis in a multicellular organism?
  2. Maintaining a stable internal environment
  3. Maintaining the extracellular fluid within a range of physical conditions
  4. Maintaining a stable external environment
  5. Physiological systems that can change in response to regulatory signals
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A group of cells that work together to carry out a similar function is known as a(n)
  2. tissue.
  3. organ system.
  4. unicellular organism.
  5. protein.
  6. gene.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following does not contribute to adaptation in the wild?
  2. Artificial selection
  3. Genetic drift
  4. Natural selection
  5. Sexual selection
  6. All of the above contribute to adaptation in the wild.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not considered part of the natural history of a group of organisms?
  2. How the organisms behave
  3. How the organisms interact with other organisms
  4. How the organisms get their food
  5. How the organisms reproduce
  6. A natural history includes considerations of all of the above.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The information needed to produce proteins is contained in
  2. nutrients.
  3. tissues.
  4. evolution.
  5. organs.
  6. genes.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Evolution is
  2. not important to the study of biology.
  3. the change in the genetic makeup of a population through time.
  4. the change in protein expression of a population through time.
  5. not influenced by natural selection.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In a model experiment, researchers subjected frogs to various levels of atrazine while keeping all other variables constant. This is an example of a _______ experiment.
  2. controlled
  3. repeated
  4. laboratory
  5. comparative
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. For a hypothesis to be scientifically valid, it must be _______ and it must be possible to _______ it.
  2. testable; prove
  3. testable; reject
  4. controlled; prove
  5. controlled; reject
  6. testable; control

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in that eukaryotic cells have
  2. genes.
  3. proteins.
  4. organelles.
  5. membranes.
  6. All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In the names of organisms, the _______ is placed first and the _______ is placed second.
  2. species; genus
  3. genus; domain
  4. domain; genus
  5. genus; species
  6. domain; species

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Metabolism refers to
  2. natural selection.
  3. the chemical transformations and work of a cell.
  4. communities.
  5. mutations in DNA.
  6. cellular structure.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following factors are taken into consideration in the biological classification of organisms?
  2. Physical characteristics
  3. Fossil records
  4. Molecular characteristics
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is not a step in the scientific method?
  2. Observation
  3. Quantifying data
  4. Asking questions
  5. Formulating a hypothesis
  6. All of the above are steps in the scientific method.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 1.2 How Do Biologists Investigate Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The term “anthropogenic” refers to
  2. human-caused fires.
  3. the study of insects.
  4. human-generated effects upon the environment.
  5. the study of human biology.
  6. the study of agriculture.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 1.3 Why Does Biology Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is not a domain on the tree of life?
  2. Archaea
  3. Plantae
  4. Eukarya
  5. Bacteria
  6. All of the above are domains on the tree of life.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 1.1 What Is Biology?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

 

CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (from Textbook)

 

  1. Which of the following is not an attribute common to all living organisms?
  2. They are made up of a common set of chemical components, including particular nucleic and amino acids.
  3. They contain genetic information that uses a nearly universal code to specify the assembly of proteins.
  4. They share sequence similarities among their genes.
  5. They exist in populations that evolve over time.
  6. They extract energy from the sun in a process called photosynthesis.

Answer: e

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In describing the hierarchy of life, which of the following descriptions of relationships is not accurate?
  2. An organ is a structure consisting of different types of cells and tissues.
  3. A population consists of all of the different animals in a particular type of environment.
  4. An ecosystem includes different communities.
  5. A tissue consists of a particular type of cells.
  6. A community consists of populations of different species.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is a property of a good hypothesis?
  2. It is a statement of facts.
  3. It is general enough to explain a variety of possible experimental outcomes.
  4. It is independent of any observations.
  5. It explains things that are not addressable by experimentation.
  6. It can be falsified by experiments.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following events was most directly responsible for increasing oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere?
  2. The cooling of the planet
  3. The origin of eukaryotes
  4. The origin of multicellularity
  5. The origin of photosynthesis
  6. The origin of prokaryotes

Answer: d

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is a reason to use statistics to evaluate data?
  2. It enables you to prove that your hypothesis is correct.
  3. It enables you to exclude data that do not fit your hypothesis.
  4. It makes it possible to exclude the null hypothesis.
  5. It enables you to predict experimental results.
  6. It accounts for variation in scientific measurements.

Answer: e

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Why is it important in science to design and perform experiments that are capable of falsifying a hypothesis?

Answer: In science, we formulate hypotheses about how the world works, then try to reject those hypotheses with experiments. The experiments must be designed so that we would expect them to uncover problems with our hypothesis. If the experiments are incapable of rejecting a hypothesis, then the experiments are not a rigorous test of the hypothesis.

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What is the significance of the fact that mitochondria and chloroplasts contain the DNA that instructs their form and function?

Answer: The independent DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts is evidence of the origin of these eukaryotic organelles from ancient bacteria that became incorporated in the eukaryotic cell. Since the ancestors of these organelles once existed as independent organisms, they have their own genomes.

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The results in Dr. Hayes’s comparative experiments were more variable than the results from his controlled experiments. How would you explain this?

Answer: Controlled experiments, by definition, are able to control many variables in carefully maintained experiments, often in laboratory conditions. Comparative experiments, in contrast, often contain many additional variables that cannot be controlled by the investigator. Comparative experiments often incorporate realistic variation from uncontrolled factors, which accounts for their higher overall variability.

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Biologists can now isolate genes from organisms and decode their DNA. When the nucleotide sequences from the same gene in different species are compared, differences are discovered. How could you use those data to deduce the evolutionary relationships among the organisms in your comparison?

Answer: If two species share particular changes in the gene we compare, and those changes are not shared by other species we examine, we would expect the two species with the common changes to be more closely related to one another. By comparing many such changes in many genes, we can group species based on their relative evolutionary divergence from one another. For example, we share more changes in our genes with chimpanzees than we do with gorillas. From this, we can deduce that humans and chimpanzees shared a more recent common ancestor than they shared with gorillas.

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Mitochondria are cell organelles that have their own DNA and replicate independently of the cell itself. In most organisms, mitochondria are inherited only from the mother. Based on this observation, when might it be advantageous or disadvantageous to use mitochondrial DNA rather than nuclear DNA for studying evolutionary relationships among populations?

Answer: Mitochondrial DNA is often used to follow the history of maternal lineages in a population or species. Nuclear DNA is not used in such cases because it is typically inherited from both parents. This difference can be useful in many circumstances. For example, we might examine a hybrid individual between two species. Equal portions of nuclear DNA from both species could confirm that the individual is a direct hybrid between the two species. If we examine the mitochondrial DNA, however, we can learn which of the two parental species was the female in the cross—and therefore learn by default, which was the male.

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

Test Bank

to accompany

Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

 

Chapter 2: Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life

 

 

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Xenia Morin)

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The calcium phosphate enamel on teeth from an animal skeleton is found to have a high ratio of 18O to 16O. From this information it can be assumed that the animal
  2. experienced prolonged malnutrition.
  3. experienced prolonged exposure to radioactivity.
  4. lived in a region where it rained “heavy” water.
  5. lived in a region where it rained “light” water.
  6. had a diet that was high in cholesterol-rich meat.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.0 Chapter Introduction

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The best reference source for the atomic number and mass number of elements is
  2. a good chemistry text.
  3. a dictionary.
  4. the periodic table.
  5. a general physics book.
  6. a good biology text.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which component of an atom does not significantly add to its mass?
  2. Proton
  3. Neutron
  4. Electron
  5. Both a and b
  6. All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. What is the difference between an atom and an element?
  2. An atom is made of protons, electrons, and (most of the time) neutrons; an element is composed of only one kind of atom.
  3. An element is made of protons, electrons, and (most of the time) neutrons; an atom is composed of only one kind of element.
  4. An atom does not contain electrons, whereas an element does.
  5. An atom contains protons and electrons, whereas an element contains protons, electrons, and neutrons.
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The number of protons in a neutral atom equals the number of
  2. electrons.
  3. neutrons.
  4. electrons plus neutrons.
  5. neutrons minus electrons.
  6. isotopes.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the atom is true?
  2. There are usually more protons than electrons in an atom because the negative charge of an electron is larger than the positive charge of a proton.
  3. The negative charge of an electron adds mass to an atom without influencing other properties.
  4. In an atom with a neutral charge, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons.
  5. The number of electrons determines whether an atom of an element is radioactive.
  6. The energy level of electrons is higher in shells close to the nucleus of the atom.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. An atom that is neutrally charged contains
  2. only neutrons.
  3. the same number of neutrons and electrons.
  4. the same number of neutrons and protons.
  5. the same number of protons and electrons.
  6. no charged particles.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of _______ in each atom.
  2. neutrons
  3. neutrons plus electrons
  4. neutrons plus protons
  5. protons
  6. protons plus electrons

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The six elements most common in organisms are
  2. calcium, iron, hydrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and oxygen.
  3. water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sodium, and oxygen.
  4. carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen.
  5. nitrogen, carbon, iron, sulfur, calcium, and hydrogen.
  6. phosphorus, helium, carbon, potassium, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Because atoms can have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, elements have
  2. isotopes.
  3. multiple atomic masses listed on the periodic table.
  4. multiple atomic numbers.
  5. isomers
  6. Both a and b

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The mass number of an atom is determined primarily by the _______ it contains.
  2. number of electrons
  3. number of protons
  4. sum of the number of protons and electrons
  5. sum of the number of protons and neutrons
  6. number of charges

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. An atom with _______ has an atomic mass of 14.
  2. 14 neutrons
  3. 14 electrons
  4. 7 neutrons and 7 electrons
  5. 7 protons and 7 electrons
  6. 6 protons and 8 neutrons

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following elements has a higher atomic mass than phosphorus?
  2. Hydrogen
  3. Oxygen
  4. Sodium
  5. Magnesium
  6. Calcium

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. 3115P and 3215P have virtually identical chemical and biological properties because they have the same
  2. half-life.
  3. number of neutrons.
  4. atomic weight.
  5. mass number.
  6. number of electrons.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium all have the same
  2. mass number.
  3. atomic number.
  4. mass.
  5. radioactive decay.
  6. nuclear composition.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The number of different natural elements found in the universe is closest to
  2. 18.
  3. 54.
  4. 86.
  5. 94.
  6. 146.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. All of the following elements occur naturally in living organisms except for
  2. lithium.
  3. selenium.
  4. sodium.
  5. manganese.
  6. molybdenum.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. According to the periodic table, which of the following elements has the same number of outer-shell (valence) electrons as oxygen?
  2. Calcium
  3. Nitrogen
  4. Fluorine
  5. Sodium
  6. Sulfur

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. According to the periodic table, the compound that sulfur forms with hydrogen is most like which of the following compounds?
  2. NH4+
  3. NH3
  4. H2O
  5. HF
  6. HCl

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?; 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Compared to carbon, silicon has the same number of
  2. protons.
  3. valence (outer-shell) electrons.
  4. neutrons.
  5. electrons.
  6. Both a and c

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following elements is found in all living things?
  2. Nitrogen
  3. Phosphorus
  4. Sulfur
  5. Carbon
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following pairs has similar chemical properties?
  2. 12C and 14C
  3. 12C and 40Ca
  4. 16O and 16N
  5. 1H and 22Na
  6. 18O and 45Ca

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A stable isotope of phosphorus has an atomic number of 15 and an atomic mass of 31. How many neutrons does this isotope of phosphorus have?
  2. 14
  3. 16
  4. 30
  5. 31
  6. 46

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Hydrogen’s atomic weight is 1.00794. The reason the number is not a whole number is that
  2. the weight of an electron is included in the calculation.
  3. the average of the mass numbers, which takes into account the abundance of all the element’s isotopes, is included in the calculation.
  4. the mass of the neutron is not included in the calculation.
  5. the weight of a neutron is not a whole number.
  6. the calculation is dimensionless.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.011. Its mass number is 12.000. Why are these two values slightly different?
  2. Atomic weight does not take into account the weight of rare isotopes of the element.
  3. The atomic weight does not include the weight of the protons.
  4. The atomic weight includes the weight of the electrons.
  5. Atomic weight is the average of the mass numbers of a representative sample of the element, including all its isotopes.
  6. The mass number of an element is always lower than its atomic weight.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic weight of 40.08. From this information it can be determined that this element
  2. forms ions.
  3. forms isomers.
  4. has at least two isotopes.
  5. has a pH of 7.
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Carbon-12 is the most abundant isotope of carbon on Earth. Carbon-13 makes up about 1 percent of Earth’s carbon atoms, and is useful for radioimaging. Which of the following is true?
  2. Carbon-13 has more protons than carbon-12.
  3. Carbon-13 has more neutrons than carbon-12.
  4. Carbon-13 has more electrons than carbon-12.
  5. Carbon-13 has an electronic configuration that is different from that of carbon-12.
  6. Carbon-13 has an equal number of protons and neutrons.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Nitrogen-14 and Nitrogen-15 are isotopes. Nitrogen-15 is used to determine protein structure. Which of the following is true?
  2. Nitrogen-15 has more neutrons than nitrogen-14.
  3. Nitrogen-15 has more protons than nitrogen-14.
  4. Nitrogen-15 has more electrons than nitrogen-14.
  5. Nitrogen-15 has an electronic configuration that is different from that of nitrogen-14.
  6. Nitrogen-15 has an equal number of protons and neutrons.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. What part of the atom determines how the atom reacts chemically?
  2. Proton
  3. Neutron
  4. Electron
  5. Innermost shell
  6. Nucleus

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The ability of an atom to combine with other atoms is determined by the atom’s
  2. atomic weight.
  3. ability to form isomers.
  4. number and distribution of electrons.
  5. nuclear configuration.
  6. mass number.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following elements is the most chemically reactive?
  2. Carbon
  3. Helium
  4. Neon
  5. Argon
  6. All of the above have the same chemical reactivity.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All of the elements listed below follow the octet rule except for
  2. hydrogen.
  3. chlorine.
  4. carbon.
  5. sodium.
  6. nitrogen.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the elements listed below requires two additional electrons to fill the outermost electron shell?
  2. Lithium
  3. Carbon
  4. Nitrogen
  5. Oxygen
  6. Fluorine

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. An atom is most stable when
  2. it can have one unpaired valence electron, allowing it to fulfill the octet rule.
  3. it can share electrons with other atoms to form an uneven number of pairs of electrons.
  4. it has eight electrons.
  5. it can fill its outermost shell by either sharing electrons or by gaining or losing one or more electrons until is filled.
  6. its outermost electron shell fulfills the quartet rule.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order (in decreasing order) for the relative strengths of chemical bonds?
  2. Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der Waals forces
  3. Ionic, covalent, hydrogen, van der Waals forces
  4. van der Waals forces, covalent, ionic, hydrogen
  5. Hydrogen, covalent, van der Waals forces, ionic
  6. Ionic, covalent, van der Waals forces, hydrogen

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following atoms usually has the greatest number of covalent bonds with other atoms?
  2. Carbon
  3. Oxygen
  4. Sulfur
  5. Hydrogen
  6. Nitrogen

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In a hydrogen molecule, the two atoms are held together by
  2. hydrogen bonds.
  3. a shared pair of electrons.
  4. van der Waals forces.
  5. ionic attractions.
  6. differences in electronegativity.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about ionic and covalent bonds is true?
  2. An ionic bond is stronger than a covalent bond.
  3. Compared to an ionic bond, a nonpolar covalent bond has more equal electron sharing.
  4. An ionic bond is almost identical to a nonpolar covalent bond.
  5. Ionic bonds vary in length but covalent bonds are all the same length.
  6. An ionic bond can have multiple bonds but a covalent bond cannot.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Carbon makes the same number of covalent bonds as phosphorus does.
  3. Oxygen makes more covalent bonds than sulfur does.
  4. Sulfur makes more covalent bonds than carbon does.
  5. Hydrogen makes more covalent bonds than carbon does.
  6. Oxygen makes fewer covalent bonds than nitrogen does.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Oxygen forms _______ covalent bond(s), carbon forms _______, and hydrogen forms _______.
  2. one; four; one
  3. four; four; four
  4. two; four; none
  5. two; four; one.
  6. two; two; two

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The ball-and-stick structure of methane (CH4) shows that all
  2. bonds are hydrogen bonds.
  3. bond angles are the same.
  4. bond lengths are the same.
  5. Both a and b
  6. Both b and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the Bohr structure of methane (CH4) is true?
  2. All bonds contain paired electrons shared between carbon and hydrogen.
  3. All bonds contain paired electrons from carbon.
  4. All bonds contain paired electrons from hydrogen.
  5. All bonds are hydrogen bonds.
  6. All bonds are ionic bonds.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The shapes of large biological molecules can change because the three-dimensional orientation
  2. of atoms depends upon bond angles, and bond angles often vary in a stable biological molecule.
  3. of atoms depends upon rotations around single covalent bonds.
  4. is dependent upon some atoms with very flexible bonds.
  5. is not dependent upon hydrogen bonds.
  6. of bonds can stretch according to electronegativity of the atoms.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Chemical bonds formed by differences in the electronegativity of the atoms are
  2. covalent bonds.
  3. ionic bonds.
  4. hydrogen bonds.
  5. van der Waals forces.
  6. Both b and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A double covalent chemical bond represents the sharing of _______ electron(s).
  2. one
  3. two
  4. three
  5. four
  6. six

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Two carbon atoms held together in a double covalent bond share _______ electron(s).
  2. one
  3. two
  4. four
  5. six
  6. eight

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All of the following are nonpolar except for
  2. O2.
  3. N2.
  4. CH4.
  5. NaCl.
  6. H2.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. When magnesium (Mg) bonds with another element, it
  2. gains two electrons from the other element.
  3. shares four electrons with the other element.
  4. loses two electrons to the other element.
  5. forms a hydrogen bond.
  6. gains six electrons from the other element.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The two covalent bonds in a water molecule are polar because
  2. oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen.
  3. oxygen and hydrogen have similar electronegativities.
  4. oxygen is less electronegative than hydrogen.
  5. water a small molecule.
  6. water is hydrophilic.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A covalent bond is formed by the sharing of _______ between atoms, whereas an ionic bond is formed by the _______.
  2. neutrons; sharing of electrons
  3. electrons; electric attraction between two neutral atoms
  4. protons; electric attraction between two neutral atoms
  5. protons; sharing of electrons
  6. electrons; transfer of electrons from one atom to another

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Particles that have a net negative charge are called
  2. electronegative.
  3. cations.
  4. anions.
  5. acids.
  6. bases.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following molecules is held together primarily by ionic bonds?
  2. Water
  3. Sugar
  4. Sodium chloride
  5. Methane
  6. Ammonia

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds
  2. form between two hydrogen atoms.
  3. form only between hydrogen and oxygen atoms within a molecule.
  4. form between a weak electronegative atom and hydrogen.
  5. involve a transfer of electrons.
  6. form weak interactions but can provide structural stability when many are found in a single molecule.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Cholesterol is a lipid and most often found in cell membranes. It is composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen atoms and has the following chemical formula: C27H46O. Based on this information, one would expect cholesterol to be
  2. insoluble in water.
  3. a highly polar molecule.
  4. a cation.
  5. an anion.
  6. insoluble in hexane.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds are attractions
  2. between oppositely charged ions.
  3. between atoms resulting in electron sharing.
  4. between cations.
  5. between atoms each with partial electrical charges.
  6. that rely upon hydrophobic interactions.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A van der Waals interaction is an attraction between
  2. two nonpolar molecules, due to the exclusion of water.
  3. the electrons of one molecule and the nucleus of the same molecule.
  4. the electrons of one molecule and the protons of a nearby molecule.
  5. two adjacent nonpolar molecules, due to variations in their electron distribution.
  6. two polar molecules, because they are surrounded by water molecules.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In addition to covalent and ionic bonds, _______ are important in biological systems.
  2. van der Waals interactions
  3. hydrogen bonds
  4. hydrophobic interactions
  5. Both a and b
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about biochemical reactions is false?
  2. They obey the rules of chemistry and physics.
  3. They must always balance the number of atoms in the reactants and the products.
  4. They can create new energy during the reaction.
  5. They can store energy in the form of a covalent bond.
  6. They can change the form of energy found in the cell.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which statement about the following reaction is true?

C3H8 + 5 O2 ® 3 CO2 + 4 H2O + energy

  1. O2 is a product.
  2. The reaction is reversible.
  3. The reaction is balanced.
  4. Energy is needed for this reaction to occur.
  5. All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Two characteristics of water make it different from most other compounds: Its solid state is _______ its liquid state, and it takes up _______ heat as it changes to its gaseous state.
  2. less dense than; large amounts of
  3. more dense than; small amounts of
  4. less dense than; small amounts of
  5. more dense than; large amounts of
  6. just as dense as; no

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which characteristic of water contributes most to the relatively constant temperatures of the oceans?
  2. Water has the ability to ionize slightly.
  3. Water has a high specific heat.
  4. Salt water has low surface tension.
  5. Salt water is denser than fresh water.
  6. Water requires a small amount of heat energy to raise its temperature.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Ice floats because the ice crystals
  2. take up more space than the liquid water.
  3. are more dense than liquid water.
  4. form heat, which makes water expand.
  5. can move quickly and therefore can float.
  6. have a high surface tension.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In the summer, ice is used to cool beverages primarily because it
  2. is composed only of water.
  3. floats.
  4. dilutes the taste.
  5. is inexpensive.
  6. absorbs a lot of heat when it melts.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The amount of energy required to heat 20 g of water by 3°C is
  2. greater than the amount of heat required to heat 10 g of water by 6°C.
  3. less than the amount of heat required to heat 10 g of water by 6°C.
  4. the same as the amount of heat required to heat 5 g of water by 12°C.
  5. less than the amount of heat required to heat 30 g of water by 1°C.
  6. less than the amount of energy given off when 20 g of water cools by 3°C.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following correctly states an unusual property of water?
  2. Water will not react with other atoms.
  3. Solid water (ice) is denser than liquid water.
  4. The conversion of water from its solid to its liquid state does not require energy.
  5. Little heat energy is needed to raise the temperature of water.
  6. The hydrogen bonds between water molecules continually form and break.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. When exposed to extreme heat, the human body relies on _______ to absorb excess calories of heat and maintain normal body temperature.
  2. evaporation
  3. condensation
  4. respiration
  5. transpiration
  6. All of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Surface tension and cohesion occur in pure water because water
  2. forms nonpolar bonds.
  3. forms ionic bonds.
  4. resists the breaking of hydrogen bonds.
  5. forms weak bonds.
  6. resists the breaking of ionic bonds.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. H2SO4 can ionize completely to yield two H+ ions and one SO42– ion. H2SO4 is therefore a
  2. weak base.
  3. strong base.
  4. buffer.
  5. weak acid.
  6. strong acid.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. To determine the number of molecules in a teaspoon of sugar you have to know
  2. the weight of the sugar.
  3. the weight and density of the sugar.
  4. the molecular weight of the sugar.
  5. Avogadro’s number.
  6. the weight and molecular weight of the sugar, and Avogadro’s number.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. When 0.1 mole of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is added to 1 liter of water, it ionizes, releasing OH and Na+ ions. The resulting solution is
  2. acidic.
  3. basic.
  4. neutral.
  5. molar.
  6. a buffer.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A mole of hydrogen and a mole of carbon have
  2. different numbers of molecules.
  3. fewer numbers of hydrogen atoms than carbon atoms.
  4. the same number of molecules.
  5. the capacity to form one mole of carbohydrate.
  6. a different number of molecules that a mole of oxygen.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following compounds containing 1H, 12C, and/or 16O has the greatest number of molecules in a sample with a mass of 2 grams?
  2. Water (H2O)
  3. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  4. Acetic acid (CH3OOH)
  5. Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
  6. Table sugar (C12H22O11)

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The difference between an acid and a base is that an acid _______, whereas a base _______.
  2. undergoes a reversible reaction; does not
  3. releases OH ions in solution; accepts OH ions
  4. releases H+ ions in solution; accepts H ions
  5. releases OH ions in solution; releases H+ ions
  6. releases H+ ions in solution; accepts H+ ions

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. How would you make 100 ml of an aqueous solution with a 0.25 M concentration of a compound that has a molecular weight of 200 daltons?
  2. Add 25 grams of the compound to 100 ml of water.
  3. Add 20 grams of the compound to 100 ml of water.
  4. Measure 2.5 grams of the compound and add water until the volume equals 100 ml.
  5. Measure 2 grams of the compound and add water until the volume equals 100 ml.
  6. Measure 5 grams of the compound and add water until the volume equals 100 ml.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions?
  2. Household ammonia at pH 11
  3. Baking soda at pH 9
  4. Human blood at pH 7
  5. Black coffee at pH 5
  6. Cola at pH 3

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The optimum soil pH for growing strawberries is 6.5, whereas the optimum soil pH for growing blueberries is 4.5. Therefore, the number of hydrogen ions needed to grow strawberries is _______ times the number needed for blueberries.
  2. 2
  3. 10
  4. 100
  5. 1,000
  6. 1,000,000

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements comparing a solution of lemon juice (pH ~2) to a solution of tomato juice (pH ~4) is true?
  2. The lemon juice has more hydroxyl ions per liter.
  3. The lemon juice has more hydrogen acceptors per liter.
  4. The lemon juice has more H+ ions per liter.
  5. The lemon juice has a higher pH.
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate act as buffers in the blood. When a small amount of acid is added to this buffer, the H+ ions are used up as they combine with the bicarbonate ions. When this happens, the pH of the blood
  2. becomes basic.
  3. becomes acidic.
  4. does not change.
  5. is reversible.
  6. ionizes.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Solutions that contain buffers tend to resist pH changes because buffers
  2. are bases.
  3. change from ionic to nonionic in solution.
  4. change from nonionic to ionic in response to changes in pH and release or absorb H+.
  5. are weak acids or bases.
  6. are ionic polar molecules that add or absorb H+ in solutions.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A solution with pH 9 contains
  2. more H+ ions than OH ions.
  3. more OH ions than H+ ions.
  4. the same number of OH ions and H+ ions.
  5. no OH ions.
  6. only H ions.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A 1.0 M solution of HCl has a pH of
  2. 1.0.
  3. 3.5.
  4. 7.0.
  5. 11.2.
  6. 14.0.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A substance with a pH of 6.0 contains
  2. more OH than H+.
  3. 610 hydrogen ions.
  4. 610 moles of hydrogen ions.
  5. 10–6 moles of hydrogen ions.
  6. 106 moles of hydrogen ions.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Acid rain is a serious environmental problem. A sample of rainwater collected in the Adirondack Mountains had an H+ concentration of 1.0 ×10–4 mol/L. The pH of this sample was
  2. 0.0001.
  3. –4.
  4. 4.
  5. 1.
  6. 10,000.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

Fill in the Blank

 

  1. The mass of a _______ serves as the standard unit of measure for one dalton (Da). A _______ also has a mass of about 1 Da.

Answer: proton; neutron

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Oxygen and carbon are defined as different elements because they have atoms with a different number of _______ in the nucleus.

Answer: protons

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Every atom except for _______ has one or more neutrons in its nucleus.

Answer: hydrogen

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Based on the periodic table, the molecular weight of glucose (C6H12O6), to the nearest round number, is _______.

Answer: 180

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?;

2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. An element’s _______ takes into account the abundances of the naturally occurring isotopes.

Answer: atomic weight (or relative atomic mass)

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. _______ occurs when a radioisotopic atom is transformed into another atom, with an accompanying emission of energy in the form of alpha, beta, or gamma radiation.

Answer: Radioactive decay

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the number of _______ in the atom’s _______.

Answer: electrons; valence shell (or outermost shell)

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The tendency of atoms in stable molecules to have eight electrons in their outermost shells is known as the _______.

Answer: octet rule

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A _______ links two or more atoms through attractive forces to create a molecule.

Answer: chemical bond

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Of the different types of chemical bonds, the strongest bond in biological systems is the _______ bond.

Answer: covalent

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. An atom’s electronegativity depends on how many _______ charges it has, and on the distance between the _______ and the valence electrons.

Answer: positive; nucleus

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Oxygen, which has an electronegativity of 3.5, will have a stronger attraction for _______ compared to carbon, which has an electronegativity of 2.5.

Answer: electrons (or valence electrons)

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The electric charge in_______ covalent bonds is unequally distributed because one nucleus has a stronger attraction for the electrons than the other has.

Answer: polar

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. When two nonpolar molecules are in close proximity, their interactions are enhanced by _______.

Answer: van der Waals forces

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A _______ bond forms when there is an attraction between a partial positive charge on a hydrogen atom involved in a polar covalent bond and a partial negative charge on a nearby electronegative atom.

Answer: hydrogen

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In the equation C6H12O6 ® 6 CO2 + 6 H2O, C6H12O6 functions as the _______.

Answer: reactant

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The amount of heat needed to raise one gram of a substance by 1°C is known as _______ heat.

Answer: specific

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. One mole of a substance contains 6.02 × 1023 molecules. This number is known as _______.

Answer: Avogadro’s number

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The water strider skates along the surface of water due to a property of liquids called _______.

Answer: surface tension

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A chemical reaction that can proceed in either direction is called a(n) _______ reaction.

Answer: reversible

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Prolactin is a peptide hormone produced by the pituitary gland that stimulates breast and milk development in pregnant women. The normal prolactin concentration in a pregnant woman’s blood is 10‒209 ng/mL. Because prolactin’s molecular weight is 22,000 g/mol, a concentration of 110 ng/mL is equivalent to a concentration of 5 nM (nanomolar). Compared to the concentration of most molecules in the blood, the concentration of prolactin is significantly _______.

Answer: lower

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. If the pH of an acid rain sample is 2.5 pH units more acidic than water, the acid rain sample has a pH of _______.

Answer: 4.5

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Blood contains bicarbonate ions and carbonic acid and prevents significant changes in pH in the body because it acts as a(n) _______.

Answer: buffer

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The law of _______ is an important chemical principle of reversible reactions.

Answer: mass action

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A urine sample taken from a patient suffering from a kidney stone is found to have a pH of 5.5. Acidic urine is associated uric acid or cystine stones. Alkaline urine is associated with calcium- and phosphate-containing stones. The patient’s kidney stone most likely contains _______ crystals.

Answer: uric acid or cystine

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

Diagram

 

1.‒3. Refer to the figure below showing part of the periodic table.

 

 

  1. Which element has an atomic number of 15?

Answer: Phosphorus (P)

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which element has the same number of valence electrons as silicon (Si)?

Answer: Carbon (C)

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which elements shown in the figure have complete outer shells?

Answer: Helium (He), neon (Ne), and argon (Ar)

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

4.‒7. Refer to the figure below showing Bohr models of five elements.

 

 

  1. Which of the diagrams represents magnesium (Mg; atomic number 12)?

Answer: B

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the diagrams represents a stable atom, and which element is it?

Answer: E; argon (Ar)

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the diagrams shows an atom that will lose electrons to form a stable ion?

Answer: Both A and B

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following represents the correct ordering of the atoms shown in the figure, from lowest electronegativity to highest electronegativity?
  2. A < B < C < D < E
  3. B < C < E < D < A
  4. C < B < D < A < E
  5. D < E < A < B < C
  6. E < D < B < A < C

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

8.‒10. Refer to the figure below showing the electron shells and orbitals.

 

 

  1. Which orbital(s) is/are an s orbital?

Answer: Orbitals A and B

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which orbital(s) is/are a py orbital?

Answer: Orbital D

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A nitrogen atom (atomic number 7) will contain which orbitals found in the figure?

Answer: Orbitals A, B, C, and D

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

11.‒12. Refer to the figure below showing various chemical bonds and interactions.

 

 

  1. Which of the following represents the correct order of relative strengths, from weakest to strongest, of the bonds and interactions shown in the figure?
  2. E < D < A < B < C
  3. E < A < C = B < D
  4. D < B < C < A < E
  5. B = C < A < E < D
  6. E < C = B < A < D

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Nonpolar molecules would likely exhibit which type of bonds or interactions?

Answer: A or E

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

13.‒15. Refer to the figure below showing the chemical structure of several molecules.

 

 

  1. Which molecule is a hydrocarbon?

Answer: Octane

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the molecules are most likely to be miscible (soluble in each other)?
  2. Octane and water
  3. Water and methanol
  4. Amino acid and octane
  5. Methanol and octane
  6. Amino acid and methanol

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which molecule is an ion?
  2. Octane
  3. Water
  4. Methanol
  5. Amino acid
  6. None of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

16.‒17. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

  1. The product(s) of the reaction shown in the figure is/are
  2. CO2.
  3. H2O.
  4. heat and light.
  5. Both a and b
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Why is the reaction shown in the figure a balanced equation?

Answer: It is a balanced equation because an equal number of atoms are found in the reactants and products. Matter is neither created nor destroyed. For example, the total number of carbon atoms (black), oxygen atoms (red), and hydrogen atoms (white/grey) on the left side of the equation are equal to the total number of C, N, and H atoms on the right side.

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

18.‒19. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

  1. Which part of the diagram refers to the buffering range?
  2. The red zone
  3. The blue zone
  4. The area above the top dotted line
  5. The area between the dotted lines
  6. The area below the bottom dotted line

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which part of the diagram has the largest H+ change per unit of base added?
  2. The area between the dotted lines
  3. The area between pH 2 and pH 4
  4. The area between pH 4 and pH 6
  5. The area between pH 6 and pH 8
  6. Both the area between pH 2 and pH 4 and the area between pH 6 and pH 8

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

 

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Xenia Morin)

 

  1. Which of the following statements about isotopes is false?
  2. Isotopes vary in the number of neutrons but not protons.
  3. Carbon-13 and heavy oxygen are common elements used in isotope analysis.
  4. Isotopes have the same atomic number but not the same atomic weight.
  5. Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen containing 1 proton and 2 neutrons.
  6. Isotopes have virtually the same chemical reactivity.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Isotopic analysis of biological samples can be a useful tool in the study of
  2. the diets of humans.
  3. the diets of ancient animals.
  4. migration patterns of ancient people.
  5. migration patterns of dinosaurs.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the difference between an element and a molecule?
  2. An element is composed of atoms; a molecule is not.
  3. An element is unstable; molecules are stable.
  4. An element is composed of only one kind of atom; molecules can be composed of more than one kind of atom.
  5. Elements always have lower atomic weights than molecules.
  6. Elements exist in nature only as parts of molecules.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The reactivity of an atom arises from the
  2. energy difference between the s and p orbitals.
  3. presence of unpaired electrons in the outermost electron shell or valence shell.
  4. s-orbital rather than the p-orbital electron shell configuration.
  5. sum of the potential energies of all electron shells.
  6. potential energy of the outermost electron shell or valence shell.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. An element that contains 10 protons and 10 electrons is likely to
  2. form covalent bonds with another element.
  3. form ionic bonds with another element.
  4. be chemically inert (stable).
  5. be radioactive.
  6. be toxic.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?; 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?; 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Covalent bond formation depends on the ability of atoms to _______ other atoms.
  2. share one or more pairs of electrons with
  3. donate electrons to
  4. receive electrons from
  5. share neutrons with
  6. donate protons to

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following interactions between atoms is the strongest?
  2. Hydrophobic interactions
  3. Ionic attraction
  4. Covalent bonds
  5. van der Waals forces
  6. Hydrogen bonds

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Rank the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and phosphorus (P) in decreasing order of the number of covalent bonds they usually form.
  2. C > P > N > O > H
  3. P > O > C > N > H
  4. P > C > N > O > H
  5. P > C > O > N > H
  6. P > C > O > H > N

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. For a covalent bond to be polar, the two atoms that form the bond must have
  2. differing atomic weights.
  3. differing numbers of neutrons.
  4. differing melting points.
  5. differing electronegativities.
  6. similar electronegativities.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Polar molecules
  2. have bonds with an unequal distribution of electric charge.
  3. must form ions in water solution.
  4. have bonds with an equal distribution of electrical charge.
  5. have bonds with an overall negative charge.
  6. have bonds with an overall positive charge.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Solid salt, NaCl, is neutral. When dissolved in water, NaCl
  2. remains as NaCl (does not dissociate).
  3. dissociates to form Na and Cl+.
  4. dissociates to form Na+ and Cl ions that do not interact with water molecules.
  5. dissociates to form Na+ and Cl ions that do interact with water molecules.
  6. does not dissociate, but interacts with water molecules.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Hydrocarbons are _______ and _______, whereas salts are _______ and _______.
  2. nonpolar; hydrophobic; polar; hydrophilic
  3. nonpolar; hydrophilic; polar; hydrophobic
  4. polar; hydrophilic; nonpolar; hydrophobic
  5. polar; hydrophobic; nonpolar; hydrophilic
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Propane (CH3—CH2—CH3), is considered a nonpolar molecule because it
  2. has more attraction to water than to other propane molecules.
  3. has more attraction to other propane molecules than water.
  4. is a gas.
  5. can undergo a chemical reaction with oxygen.
  6. forms hydrogen bonds.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following structures is depicted incorrectly?

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements about chemical reactions is false?
  2. They occur when atoms combine or change their bonding partners.
  3. They may lead to the destruction or creation of energy.
  4. They may go to completion.
  5. They may lead to changes in forms of energy.
  6. They convert reactants into products.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Sweating is a useful cooling device for humans because water
  2. absorbs a great deal of heat in changing from its liquid state to its gaseous state.
  3. absorbs a great deal of heat in changing from its solid state to its liquid state.
  4. can exist in three states at temperatures common on Earth.
  5. is an outstanding solvent.
  6. ionizes readily.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following properties of water contributes most to the ability of fish in lakes to survive very cold winters?
  2. Water is cohesive.
  3. Water has a high heat capacity.
  4. Frozen water is more dense than liquid water.
  5. Frozen water is less dense than liquid water.
  6. Water forms hydrogen bonds.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The molecular weight of acetic acid is 60. How much acetic acid would you need to prepare 10 ml of a 0.001 M (1.0 mM) solution?
  2. 6.0 g
  3. 0.6 mg
  4. 0.0006 g
  5. 0.06 mg
  6. 0.006 g

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Given that Avogadro’s number is 6.02 × 1023, how many molecules of KCl are there in 10–13 liter of a 1 M KCl solution?
  2. 6.02 × 1036
  3. 6.02 × 1010
  4. 6.02 × 10–10
  5. 6.02 × 103
  6. 6.02 × 1013

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Why is the pH of a 0.1 M solution of acetic acid in water higher than that of a 0.1 M solution of HCl in water?
  2. HCl is a weaker acid than acetic acid.
  3. The acetic acid does not fully ionize in water, whereas HCl does.
  4. HCl does not fully ionize in water, whereas acetic acid does.
  5. Acetic acid is a better buffer than HCl.
  6. Acetate (ionized acetic acid) is a strong base.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

 

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Xenia Morin)

 

  1. Living organisms obey the same laws of _______ and _______ as everything else on our planet.
  2. chemistry; physics
  3. biology; chemistry
  4. biology; physics
  5. mathematics; physics
  6. mathematics; chemistry

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Biological organisms are made of
  2. atoms, elements, water, other molecules, and ions.
  3. atoms, water, and other molecules.
  4. water, other molecules, and cations.
  5. only the elements C, N, P, K, and S.
  6. only the elements C, N, O, P, K, and S.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A helium atom contains
  2. a very large nucleus by volume.
  3. electrons that have a mass similar to that of protons.
  4. two hydrogen molecules.
  5. two positively charged neutrons.
  6. two negatively charged electrons.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which particles determine how an atom interacts with other atoms?
  2. Protons
  3. Neutrons
  4. Electrons
  5. Nuclei
  6. Bosons

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The Bohr model of an atom does not emphasize
  2. the electron shells.
  3. the pairing of electrons in different electron shells.
  4. the number of reactive electrons.
  5. the relationship between s orbitals and p orbitals.
  6. the number of electrons in the valence shell.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which six elements provide most of the mass of biological organisms?
  2. C, O, N, H, P, S
  3. K, O, N, H, P, C
  4. C, O, Na, H, P, S
  5. C, O, N, H, F, Mg
  6. C, O, N, H, P, Mg

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. _______ is the heaviest isotope of the element whose atomic number is 1.
  2. Hydrogen
  3. Deuterium
  4. Tritium
  5. Helium
  6. Titanium

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Atoms are generally charged and have mass. This statement is
  2. true, because all atoms have mass and have protons.
  3. true, because all atoms have mass and have electrons.
  4. false, because atoms have mass and have neutrons, which cancel out the charge.
  5. false, because atoms have mass but also have equal numbers of protons and electrons, which results in no (net) charge.
  6. Both a and b

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which molecule or molecules has an atomic weight of approximately 16?
  2. Methane (CH4)
  3. Water (H2O)
  4. Oxygen gas (O2)
  5. Both a and b
  6. Both a and c

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. In which column/group in the periodic table would you expect to find elements with five valence electrons?
  2. The group that starts with Be
  3. The group that starts with B
  4. The group that starts with N
  5. The group that starts with F
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. In the periodic table, when elements are in the same vertical column, they share a similar
  2. atomic mass.
  3. number of neutrons.
  4. number of valence electrons.
  5. number of unstable isotopes.
  6. number of protons.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Another term for atomic weight is
  2. relative atomic mass.
  3. atomic mass.
  4. atomic number.
  5. isotopic mass.
  6. Both a and d

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Oxygen (O) has an atomic number of 8. What is the approximate atomic mass of an oxygen atom in daltons?
  2. 8
  3. 12
  4. 16
  5. 20
  6. 24

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which describes the most significant relationship between radioactive decay and a radioactive isotope?
  2. Radioactive decay changes the form of the radioactive isotope.
  3. Radioactive decay sometimes releases mass, which changes the form of the radioactive isotope.
  4. Radioactive decay sometimes releases protons, which changes the radioisotope to a new element.
  5. Radioactive decay changes the form of the stable isotope.
  6. Radioactive decay sometimes releases protons, which changes the stable atom to a new element.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following sets of elements, when their symbols are read in the order provided, spells a word?
  2. Carbon, oxygen, fluorine, iron, nitrogen, sulfur
  3. Barium, cobalt, nitrogen
  4. Germanium, nickel, iodine, uranium, sulfur
  5. Calcium, fluorine, phosphorus, iodine, neon
  6. Potassium, argon, sulfur

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. In the periodic table, phosphorus has an atomic weight, or relative atomic mass, of 30.947. The three main isotopes of phosphorus are P-31, P-32, and P-33. If the atomic number for phosphorus is 15, why is the relative atomic mass not 30?
  2. Phosphorus has one stable and abundant isotope, P-31, which has one additional neutron that adds approximately one unit in mass.
  3. Phosphorus has many electrons that add mass.
  4. Phosphorus’s radioisotopes decay, producing less mass than P-30.
  5. Phosphorus isotope P-32 is stable and contributes two neutrons that add mass.
  6. Phosphorus has one additional proton that adds mass.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Stable isotope analysis can be a useful tool to study
  2. the movement of ancient people.
  3. the movement of ancient animals.
  4. the location where plants were grown.
  5. the sources of food in marine systems.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which orbitals would you expect to be occupied in a fluorine atom?
  2. 1s, 2s, 2px
  3. 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py
  4. 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz
  5. 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, 2pz, 3s
  6. 1s, 2s, 3s, 2px, 2py

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. What is the maximum number of electrons contained in a single p orbital?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 4
  5. 6
  6. 8

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. An orbital determines the _______ and _______ of its corresponding electron shell.
  2. size; atomic mass
  3. energy level; orientation
  4. energy level; orientation and geometry
  5. s orbital; p orbital
  6. size; valence shell

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. P orbitals are not
  2. found in all atoms with atomic number 2 and higher.
  3. found in three different orientations: x, y, and z.
  4. dumbbell shaped.
  5. the location in an atom where a p electron may reside at least 90 percent of the time.
  6. parts of the electron shells of an atom.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In the periodic table, why are hydrogen, lithium, and sodium in the same column?
  2. They have different numbers of protons.
  3. They have the same number of unpaired electrons.
  4. They have the same number of electrons.
  5. The periodic table is in alphabetical order.
  6. They have fully filled electron shells.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. How many electrons occupy the 2s orbital in an oxygen atom?
  2. 1
  3. 2
  4. 4
  5. 6
  6. 8

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What is the molecular formula and approximate atomic weight of the following biological molecule?

 

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-COOH

 

  1. C14H26O; 114 Da
  2. C12H28O4; 196 Da
  3. C14H28O2; 200 Da
  4. C14H28O2; 228 Da
  5. C14H26O2; 260 Da

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which defines a compound?
  2. A pure substance with a fixed ratio of elements that cannot form a salt
  3. A pure substance with a fixed ratio of two or more elements that are combined through bonds
  4. A pure substance with a fixed ratio of three or more elements that are combined through bonds
  5. A mixture
  6. A molecule, such as hydrogen gas

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Covalent bonds
  2. are polar but not nonpolar bonds.
  3. may be single, double, or triple bonds and can vary in orientation.
  4. share one or more electron pairs.
  5. Both a and b
  6. Both b and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What is the molecular weight of C6H12O6?
  2. 24 Da
  3. 48 Da
  4. 120 Da
  5. 180 Da
  6. 280 Da

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A(n) _______ is an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons. A(n) _______ bond is created by a(n) _______ attraction between two _______ atoms.
  2. ion; ionic; electrical; charged
  3. cation; ionic; charged; positive
  4. anion; ionic; electrical; negative
  5. ionic; van der Waals; electrostatic; charged
  6. anion; cation; charged; negative

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What type of chemical bond connects the two carbon atoms in the molecule shown?

 

 

  1. Nonpolar covalent bond
  2. Asymmetric bond
  3. Polar covalent bond
  4. Hydrogen bond
  5. Double covalent bond

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. What type of chemical bond connects the carbon and oxygen atoms in the molecule shown?

 

 

  1. Nonpolar covalent bond
  2. Asymmetric bond
  3. Polar covalent bond
  4. Hydrogen bond
  5. Hydrophobic interaction

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is not an example of a chemical bond or interaction?
  2. Ionic attraction
  3. van der Waals interaction
  4. Electronegativity
  5. Covalent bond
  6. Hydrogen bond

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is false?
  2. Bond angles are fixed and determined by the atoms.
  3. In a single carbon–hydrogen bond, the bond length varies between molecules.
  4. A nitrogen–hydrogen triple bond and a nitrogen–hydrogen single bond share electrons in a similar way.
  5. The presence of multiple covalent bonds depends on the number of electrons shared between atoms.
  6. Covalent bonds are considered polar when there is uneven sharing of electrons.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following correctly ranks the relative strengths of bonds and interactions?
  2. Covalent bond > ionic attraction > hydrogen bond > hydrophobic interaction > van der Waals.
  3. Covalent bond > ionic attraction = hydrogen bond > hydrophobic interaction > van der Waals.
  4. Covalent bond < ionic attraction < hydrogen bond < hydrophobic interaction < van der Waals.
  5. Covalent bond < ionic attraction = hydrogen bond < hydrophobic interaction < van der Waals.
  6. Covalent bond < ionic attraction = van der Waals < hydrophobic interaction < hydrogen bond

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Hydrogen bonds are most similar to
  2. weak nonpolar interactions.
  3. covalent bonds.
  4. hydrophobic interactions.
  5. anion interactions.
  6. polar interactions.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. Covalent bonds can be polar or nonpolar.
  3. Hydrogen bonds form between or within molecules.
  4. Hydrophilic interactions are essentially the same as hydrogen bonds.
  5. van der Waals forces are so weak that they have no significant importance in molecular interactions.
  6. Hydrophobic molecules tend to aggregate together.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Carbon atoms can bond _______ hydrogen atoms, and the outer shell of each hydrogen atom then contains _______ electrons.
  2. 2; 2
  3. 2; 4
  4. 4; 4
  5. 4; 2
  6. 8; 2

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is not a way to represent the structure and/or shape of a molecule?
  2. A polar model.
  3. A ball-and-stick model.
  4. A space-filling model.
  5. A Bohr model.
  6. A structural formula.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

This is a(n) _______ illustrated using a _______ model.

  1. methane molecule; ball-and-stick model
  2. methane molecule; space-filling model
  3. methane molecule; Bohr model
  4. ethane molecule; structural model
  5. ethane molecule; ball-and-stick model

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A molecule’s three-dimensional shape varies by _______ without changing the bond angles or its stability.
  2. bending a hydrogen bond
  3. converting a space-filling model to a ball-and-stick model
  4. converting a space-filling model to a Bohr model
  5. rotating atoms around a covalent bond
  6. rotating atoms around an ionic bond

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The electronegativity of an atom is a relative measure of the
  2. number of electrons in an atom.
  3. number of electrons in the atom’s outermost electron shell.
  4. difference between the number of atoms and the number of protons.
  5. affinity an atom has for electrons and its ability to capture additional electrons.
  6. affinity an atom has for protons and its ability to capture additional protons.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. A double covalent bond involves 8 electrons.
  3. A double covalent bond involves 4 electrons.
  4. A triple covalent bond is formed among 3 atoms.
  5. A triple covalent bond involves 12 electrons.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following covalent bonds would be the most polar?
  2. Nitrogen–oxygen
  3. Carbon–oxygen
  4. Hydrogen–oxygen
  5. Nitrogen–hydrogen
  6. Carbon–hydrogen

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which atom, sodium or chloride, is more electronegative? Which will “steal” an electron from the other?
  2. sodium; sodium
  3. sodium; chloride
  4. chloride; sodium
  5. chloride; chloride
  6. neither; neither

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A cation has the opposite charge from a(n)
  2. hydrophilic.
  3. anion.
  4. nonpolar.
  5. ionic interaction.
  6. complex ion.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Why does sodium chloride (NaCl) dissolve in water?
  2. Sodium and chloride form a polar covalent bond.
  3. Sodium and chloride can form cations.
  4. Water is a polar solvent.
  5. Both a and b
  6. Both b and c

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the ionic bonds in magnesium chloride (MgCl2) is false?
  2. Each chlorine atoms steals one electron from the same magnesium atom.
  3. The charge on the magnesium atom when bonded with 2 Cl atoms is +2.
  4. There are two ionic bonds in magnesium chloride.
  5. Two magnesium atoms are involved.
  6. All of the above statements are true.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The term hydrophobic is the opposite of
  2. hydrophilic.
  3. hygroscopic.
  4. hydrochloric.
  5. anisotropic.
  6. acidophilic.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Van der Waals interactions are most similar to
  2. weak nonpolar interactions.
  3. product interactions.
  4. hydrophilic interactions.
  5. anion interactions.
  6. reactant interactions.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which general chemical principles can be applied to all chemical reactions?
  2. The number of atoms in the reactants must match the number of atoms in the products.
  3. Matter can neither be created nor destroyed.
  4. Energy can change its form but cannot be destroyed or created.
  5. Both a and b
  6. a, b, and c

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The equation C4H10 + 7 O2 ® 4 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy is incorrect because
  2. two carbon atoms are missing from the products.
  3. two hydrogen atoms are missing from the products.
  4. two carbons atoms are missing from the reactants.
  5. two hydrogen atoms are missing from the reactants.
  6. Two oxygen atoms are missing in the products.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Consider the following statement: In a chemical reaction, the properties of the products are usually similar to the reactants.
  2. This is true, because chemical properties don’t change much when chemical partners change.
  3. This is true, because redox reactions don’t change the properties.
  4. This is false, because the chemical properties can be significantly altered when chemical partners change.
  5. This is false, because a chemical reaction usually changes the mass of the reactants but not their energy.
  6. This is false, because energy can’t be created or destroyed.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. When a chemical reaction occurs, changes in the form of _______ occur, which represents the capacity of the reaction to do _______.
  2. work; energy
  3. reactant; energy
  4. products; work
  5. reactants; products
  6. energy; work

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which statement best explains how atoms change partners when propane combusts?
  2. Carbon breaks a bond with hydrogen and forms a bond with oxygen.
  3. Carbon breaks a bond with oxygen and forms a bond with hydrogen and oxygen.
  4. Oxygen breaks a bond with oxygen and forms a bond with hydrogen.
  5. Oxygen breaks a bond with oxygen and forms a bond with carbon.
  6. Oxygen breaks a bond with oxygen and forms a bond with carbon or hydrogen.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which will correctly balance the following combustion equation for hexane?

2 CXHY + 19 O2 ® Z CO2 + 14 H2O + energy

  1. X = 6, Y = 14, Z = 10
  2. X = 6, Y = 12, Z = 10
  3. X = 6, Y = 14, Z = 12
  4. X = 6, Y = 16, Z = 12
  5. X = 6, Y = 14, Z = 14

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Water has _______ nonbonding electrons pair(s) and _______ bonding electron pair(s).
  2. 0; 1
  3. 1; 1
  4. 1; 2
  5. 2; 2
  6. 4; 2

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. What is the molecular formula for a water molecule?
  2. H2O
  3. HO2
  4. H–O–H
  5. H3O+ + OH
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false? Water has
  2. low specific heat capacity.
  3. the ability to form ice that floats and can insulate the water below.
  4. the capacity to form hydrogen bonds.
  5. a rigid crystalline structure below 0°C.
  6. the ability to dissolve polar solutes.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Why does a water molecule have a tetrahedral shape?
  2. Because oxygen bonds to two hydrogen atoms
  3. Because oxygen contains two sets of unpaired electrons
  4. Because oxygen contains two sets of paired electrons
  5. Both a and b
  6. Both a and c

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If 1 calorie of energy is needed to raise 1 g of water by 1°C, what is the amount of energy needed to raise 15 g of water by 3°C?
  2. 3 calories
  3. 9 calories
  4. 15 calories
  5. 30 calories
  6. 45 calories

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If carbon dioxide has a molecular weight of approximately 44, then 0.25 moles of carbon dioxide has
  2. Avogadro’s number of molecules.
  3. a molecular weight of 22.
  4. a molecular weight of 11.
  5. approximately 1.5 ´ 1024 molecules.
  6. a molecular weight of 88.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Changes in the physical form of water lead to the release or absorption of heat energy. Which of the following statements is true?
  2. Water absorbs heat from the environment when changing from liquid to gas.
  3. Water absorbs heat from the environment when changing from liquid to solid.
  4. Water releases heat to the environment when changing from liquid to gas.
  5. Water releases heat to the environment when changing from gas to vapor.
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is false?
  2. Water is acidic.
  3. Water is a good solvent.
  4. Water has a high specific heat capacity.
  5. Water is ubiquitous in living organisms.
  6. Water is an important habitat for living organisms.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Consider the following statement: Most biochemical reactions take place in aqueous solutions.
  2. True, because water is the solvent in an aqueous solution and cells are full of water.
  3. True, because water is the reactant in the aqueous solution.
  4. False, because water is the reactant and cannot also be the aqueous solution.
  5. False, because most biochemical reactions love water.
  6. False because most biochemical reactions involve enzymes and not water.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The _______ in an aqueous solution is water.
  2. nonpolar solvent
  3. solute
  4. solvent
  5. ion
  6. reactant

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. What is the significance of Avogadro’s number?
  2. It is the total number of molecules found in the world.
  3. It is the number of molecules in a mole.
  4. It is the total number of moles of any molecule found in the world.
  5. It is the number of molecules in 1 kg of a compound.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What is the molarity of 14.5 g of NaCl in 0.5 L of water?
  2. 0.125 M
  3. 0.25 M
  4. 0.5 M
  5. 0.75 M
  6. 1 M

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. What differentiates a strong acid from a weak acid?
  2. A weak acid accepts H+ ions.
  3. Ionization of a weak acid is irreversible, whereas ionization of a strong acid is reversible.
  4. Ionization of a weak acid in water is incomplete, whereas ionization of a strong acid in water is complete.
  5. A strong acid is more basic than a weak acid.
  6. None of the above is correct.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following molecules can be characterized as a weak acid?
  2. HCl
  3. HCO3
  4. CH3COOH
  5. NH3
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The pH scale is a log scale. This means that
  2. a solution with pH of 7 is twice as acidic as a solution with pH of 9.
  3. a solution with pH of 7 is twice as acidic as a solution with pH of 5.
  4. a solution with pH of 7 is 10 times more acidic than a solution with pH of 9.
  5. a solution with pH of 7 is 10 times more acidic than a solution with pH of 5.
  6. a solution with pH of 7 is 100 times more acidic than a solution with pH of 9.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If a tomato puree mixture has a hydrogen concentration of 1 ´ 10–4 M, it has a pH of
  2. 3.5.
  3. 4.0.
  4. 4.5.
  5. 5.0.
  6. 5.5.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The pH of pure rainwater is 5.5. Samples of rainwater were collected from two areas. The average in area A was pH 5.3, and the average in area B was pH 5.0. Which of the following statements is false?
  2. Pure rainwater is more acidic than pure water.
  3. Rainwater from area B is more basic than that from area A.
  4. Rainwater from area A is more acidic than pure rainwater.
  5. Rainwater from area B has a hydrogen ion concentration of 1 ´ 10–5 M.
  6. Rainwater from area A has a hydrogen ion concentration of 5 ´ 10–6 M.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. _______ capacity is a term used to describe the ability of a solution to prevent large changes in pH with the addition of a base or acid.
  2. Heat
  3. Buffering
  4. Cohesive
  5. Vaporization
  6. Freezing

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. An aqueous solution with a mixture of a _______ acid and its corresponding _______ is called a(n) _______.
  2. strong; base; molar solution
  3. weak; base; buffer
  4. strong; acid; ionic solution
  5. strong; acid; buffer
  6. buffer; base; acid

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Buffers demonstrate which important chemical principle?
  2. The law of mass action
  3. The law of thermodynamics
  4. The law of motion
  5. The law of reversibility
  6. The law of compounds

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Refer to the figure below.

 

 

For the solution containing a buffer, the pH range with greatest buffering capacity is

  1. 2–4.
  2. 3–5.
  3. 4–6.
  4. 5–7.
  5. 6–8.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

 

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

(By Edward Awad)

 

  1. Atomic number is determined by the number of _______ in an atom.
  2. protons and neutrons
  3. electrons
  4. neutrons
  5. protons
  6. protons, neutrons, and electrons

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements concerning electrons is false?
  2. Electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom in defined orbitals.
  3. The outer shell of all atoms must contain eight electrons.
  4. An atom may have more than one valence shell.
  5. Electrons are negatively charged particles.
  6. All of the above are true; none is false.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The element with which of the following atomic numbers would be most stable?
  2. 1
  3. 3
  4. 12
  5. 15
  6. 18

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. What is the difference between an element and a molecule?
  2. Molecules may be composed of different types of atoms, whereas elements are always composed of only one type of atom.
  3. Molecules are composed of only one type of atom, whereas elements are composed of different types of atoms.
  4. Molecules are elements.
  5. Molecules always have larger atomic weights than elements have.
  6. Molecules do not have electrons, whereas elements do.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The strongest chemical bonds occur when
  2. two atoms share electrons in a covalent bond.
  3. two atoms share electrons in an ionic bond.
  4. hydrogen bonds are formed.
  5. van der Waals forces are in effect.
  6. there are hydrophobic interactions.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.1 How Does Atomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Any molecule that is hydrophilic
  2. cannot form hydrogen bonds.
  3. is a polar molecule.
  4. is a nonpolar molecule.
  5. has a partial positive region and a partial negative region.
  6. Both b and d

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The stability of the three-dimensional shape of many large molecules is dependent on
  2. covalent bonds.
  3. ionic bonds.
  4. hydrogen bonds.
  5. van der Waals attractions.
  6. hydrophobic interactions.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The molecular weight of glucose is 180. If you added 180 grams of glucose to a 0.5 liter of water, what would be the molarity of the resulting solution?
  2. 18
  3. 1
  4. 9
  5. 2
  6. 0.5

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Ice floats in water because
  2. ice is less dense than water.
  3. there are no hydrogen bonds in ice.
  4. ice is denser than water.
  5. water has a higher heat capacity than ice.
  6. ice has more covalent bonds than water.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Cola has a pH of 3; blood plasma has a pH of 7. The hydrogen ion concentration of cola is therefore _______ than the hydrogen ion concentration of blood plasma.
  2. 4 times greater
  3. 4 times smaller
  4. 400 times greater
  5. 10,000 times greater
  6. 30,000 times greater

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Solution A has a pH of 2. Solution B has a pH of 8. Which of the following statements about these solutions is true?
  2. A is basic and B is acidic.
  3. A is acidic and B is basic.
  4. A is a base and B is an acid.
  5. A has a greater [OH] than B.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. What is the weight of one mole of glucose (C6H12O6)?
  2. 180 grams
  3. 42 atomic mass units
  4. 96 grams
  5. 342 grams
  6. 6.02 grams

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following statements about buffers is true?
  2. They allow the pH of a solution to vary widely.
  3. They make solutions basic.
  4. They maintain pH homeostasis.
  5. They disrupt pH homeostasis.
  6. They make solutions more acidic.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about water is true?
  2. Water has a low heat of vaporization.
  3. Water has a high specific heat.
  4. When water freezes, it gains energy from the environment.
  5. All of the above
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 2.4 What Makes Water So Important for Life?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about chemical reactions is true?
  2. The bonding partners of atoms remain constant.
  3. All reactions release energy as they proceed.
  4. The bonding partners of atoms change.
  5. All reactions consume energy as they proceed.
  6. None of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 2.3 How Do Atoms Change Partners in Chemical Reactions?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Covalent bonds form when
  2. atoms of opposite charge are attracted to each other.
  3. hydrogen and oxygen interact.
  4. hydrophilic molecules bind hydrophobic molecules.
  5. electrons of nonpolar substances interact.
  6. atoms share electrons.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 2.2 How Do Atoms Bond to Form Molecules?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

 

CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (from Textbook)

 

  1. The atomic number of an element
  2. equals the number of neutrons in an atom.
  3. equals the number of protons in an atom.
  4. equals the number of protons minus the number of neutrons.
  5. equals the number of neutrons plus the number of protons.
  6. depends on the isotope.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The mass number of an element
  2. equals the number of neutrons in an atom.
  3. equals the number of protons in an atom.
  4. equals the number of electrons in an atom.
  5. equals the number of neutrons plus the number of protons.
  6. depends on the relative abundances of its electrons and neutrons.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the isotopes of an element is not true?
  2. They all have the same atomic number.
  3. They all have the same number of protons.
  4. They all have the same number of neutrons.
  5. They all have the same number of electrons.
  6. They all have identical chemical properties.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about covalent bonds is not true?
  2. A covalent bond is stronger than a hydrogen bond.
  3. A covalent bond can form between atoms of the same element.
  4. Only a single covalent bond can form between two atoms.
  5. A covalent bond results from the sharing of electrons by two atoms.
  6. A covalent bond can form between atoms of different elements.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about water is not true?
  2. It releases a large amount of heat when changing from liquid into vapor.
  3. Its solid form is less dense than its liquid form.
  4. It is the most effective solvent for polar molecules.
  5. It is typically the most abundant substance in a living organism.
  6. It takes part in some important chemical reactions.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The reaction HCl ® H+ + Cl in the human stomach is an example of the
  2. cleavage of a hydrophobic bond.
  3. formation of a hydrogen bond.
  4. elevation of the pH of the stomach.
  5. formation of ions by dissociation of an acid.
  6. formation of polar covalent bonds.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Using the information in the periodic table (Figure 2.2), draw a Bohr model (see Figures 2.5 and 2.7) of silicon dioxide, showing electrons shared in covalent bonds.

Answer:

 

 

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Compare a covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms with a hydrogen bond between a hydrogen and an oxygen atom, with regard to the electrons involved, the role of polarity, and the strength of the bond.

Answer: An easy way to answer this question is to make a simple table:

 

  Covalent H—H Hydrogen H….O
Electrons Shared Remain with H and O
Polarity Nonpolar Polar; + at H end
Strength Stronger Weaker

 

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Use Tables 2.2 and 2.3 to determine for each of the pairs of bonded atoms below:
  2. whether the bond is polar or nonpolar;
  3. if polar, which end is d; and
  4. whether the bond is hydrophilic or hydrophobic.

 

C–H       C=O     O–P     C–C

 

Answer:

C–H: nonpolar; hydrophobic

C=O: polar; d– at O; hydrophilic

O–P: polar; d– at O; hydrophilic

C–C: nonpolar; hydrophobic

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Geckos are lizards that are amazing climbers. A gecko can climb up a glass surface and stick to it with a single toe. Professor Kellar Autumn at Lewis and Clark College and his students and collaborators have shown that each toe of a gecko has millions of micrometer-sized hairs, and that each hair splits into hundreds of 200-nanometer tips that provide intimate contact with a surface. Careful measurements show that a million of these tips could easily support the animal, but it has far more. The toes stick well on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. Bending the hairs allows the gecko to detach. What kind of noncovalent force is involved in gecko sticking?

Answer: This is an example of Van der Waals forces, which act over a short distance and do not involve polarity.

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Would you expect the elemental composition of Earth’s crust to be the same as that of the human body?

Answer: The human body has the same elements as Earth’s crust but in very different proportions.

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating