Description

 

INSTANT DOWNLOAD COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice 9 th ed By Polit – Test Bank

 

 

Sample  Questions

 

1. A pediatric RN undertakes a study of the effect of low birth weight on infants’ cognitive development. A developmental psychologist collaborates on the study. A second RN helps by recruiting families into the study. A graduate student is asked to give statistical advice in analyzing the data. This is an example of what type of study?
A) Multisite research
B) Qualitative research
C) Funded research
D) Collaborative research

 

 

2. Which term is not used by qualitative researchers to refer to people who participate in a study?
A) Informants
B) Key informants
C) Study participants
D) Subjects

 

 

3. Which term is used by both qualitative and quantitative researchers to refer to the abstractions under study?
A) Concept
B) Construct
C) Phenomenon
D) Variable

 

 

4. The RN is reading a research article. The article talks about constructs. Which would most likely be called a construct?
A) Gender
B) Body temperature
C) Uncertainty in illness
D) Blood type

 

 

5. What is the dependent variable(s) in the research question “Is the quality of life of nursing home residents affected by their functional ability or hearing acuity”?
A) Quality of life
B) Functional ability
C) Hearing acuity
D) Nursing home residents

 

 

6. What is the independent variable in the hypothesis “Baccalaureate degree prepared nurses will practice more rehabilitative nursing measures on a client in an ICU than will associate degree prepared nurses”?
A) Associate degree prepared nurses
B) Baccalaureate degree prepared nurses
C) Rehabilitative nursing measures
D) Type of educational background of nurses

 

 

7. What is the purpose of an operational definition in a quantitative study?
A) State the theoretical meaning of the concept.
B) Specify how a variable will be defined and measured.
C) State the expected relationship between the variables under investigation.
D) Designate the conceptual underpinnings of the variable.

 

 

8. Which is a datum from a quantitative study of the labor and delivery experiences of women over age 40?
A) Length of time in labor
B) 107 ounces
C) Infant’s Apgar score
D) Vaginal versus cesarean delivery

 

 

9. Which is a datum from a qualitative research study on the labor and delivery experiences of women over age 40?
A) 14.6 hours in labor
B) 60-minute interviews 1 day after delivery
C) “It was a lot more painful than I ever imagined.”
D) 15 women with a vaginal delivery

 

 

10. Which pair of variables is there most likely to be a relationship that could be described as causal?
A) Degree of physical activity and heart rate
B) Stress and coping style
C) Age and health beliefs
D) Parity and postpartum depression

 

 

11. What is the basic distinction in quantitative studies?
A) Quantitative and qualitative research
B) Empirical and nonempirical research
C) Experimental and nonexperimental research
D) Population-based and sample-based research

 

 

12. Which is widely used by quantitative nurse researchers?
A) Ask research questions
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory

 

 

13. What is the research tradition that focuses on understanding phenomena within a cultural context?
A) Experimental
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory

 

 

14. What is the research tradition that is an approach to understanding people’s life experiences?
A) Experimental
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory

 

 

15. What is the statement of the researcher’s expectations or predictions about relationships among study variables?
A) Hypothesis
B) Framework
C) Research question
D) Conceptual definition

 

 

16. What is the overall plan for answering the research question?
A) Sampling plan
B) Proposal
C) Problem statement
D) Research design

 

 

17. What is the aggregate of those to whom a researcher wishes to generalize study results called?
A) Gate keepers
B) Population
C) Sample
D) Consumers

 

 

18. What is the research design in qualitative studies called?
A) Experimental
B) Narrative
C) Interpretive
D) Emergent

 

 

19. Where are registered nurses most likely to find research results?
A) Conference presentations
B) Journal articles
C) Books
D) Dissertations

 

 

20. What is included in the methods section of a study?
A) Review of the literature.
B) Names of the statistical tests that are going to be used.
C) Strategies used to address the problem.
D) Discussion including recommendations for the research.

 

1. Which electronic database is widely recognized as the premier source for bibliographic coverage of the biomedical literature?
A) CINAHL
B) Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition
C) ProQuest
D) MEDLINE

 

 

2. The RN is doing a basic search of articles on nurses’ stress in the ICU. In conducting a subject search in an electronic database, what should the nurse type to initiate the search?
A) An author’s name
B) Restrictions to the search
C) A topic or keyword
D) A mapping procedure

 

 

3. In an electronic literature search, what is the researcher doing when she does not know the precise keywords for retrieving information on a topic?
A) Mapping
B) Searching
C) Restricting focus
D) Copying

 

 

4. What is a primary source for a research literature review?
A) A description of a study written by researchers who did the study
B) A summary of relevant research on the topic of interest
C) A thesaurus that directs readers to subject headings germane to the topic
D) Any journal article on a topic of interest

 

 

5. There are several strategies for finding studies on a topic. What is the ancestry approach?
A) Search for articles that summarize prior research.
B) Read the accompanying abstract to determine whether the article is pertinent to the topic.
C) Tracking down earlier studies cited in a reference list of a report.
D) Using a pivotal study to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it.

 

 

6. There are several strategies for finding studies on a topic. What is the descendancy approach?
A) Search for articles that summarize prior research.
B) Read the accompanying abstract to determine whether the article is pertinent to the topic.
C) Track down earlier studies cited in a reference list of a report.
D) Use a pivotal study to search forward to subsequent studies that cited it.

 

 

7. What is a secondary source for a research literature review?
A) A description of a study written by researchers who did the study
B) A summary of relevant research on the topic of interest
C) A thesaurus that directs readers to subject headings germane to the topic
D) A description of the study by an individual unconnected with it

 

 

8. The nurse is conducting a literature review. Which will not assist the nurse when conducting a literature review?
A) One major purpose of a literature review is to learn what research has already been done in the area.
B) A text word search allows searchers to look for specific words in all test fields of records in the electronic database.
C) The literature review section should conclude with a critical evaluation of knowledge on the problem of interest.
D) Information from anecdotal and opinion articles is usually included in research literature.

 

 

9. There are several major steps in preparing a written research review. What is the first step?
A) Formulating a question
B) Devising a search strategy
C) Conducting a search
D) Retrieving relevant sources

 

 

10. When doing a literature review, what type of information will a researcher undertaking a new study find as an undesirable attribute?
A) Available research findings
B) Descriptions of an expert’s opinions about the phenomenon
C) How the variables of interest have been operationally defined in prior studies
D) What research approaches have been used to study similar problems

 

 

11. Qualitative researchers have varying opinions about reviewing the literature before doing a new study. What group of researchers is represented when collection of data occurs before reviewing the literature?
A) Grounded theory researchers
B) Phenomenologists
C) Ethnographogists
D) Grounded theory researchers and phenomenologist

 

 

12. Qualitative researchers have varying opinions about reviewing the literature before doing a new study. What group of researchers often undertakes a search for relevant materials at the onset of a study?
A) Grounded theory researchers
B) Phenomenologists
C) Ethnographogists
D) Grounded theory researchers and phenomenologist

 

 

13. Qualitative researchers have varying opinions about reviewing the literature before doing a new study. What group of researchers does a more thorough literature review during data analysis and interpretation so that findings can be compared with previous findings?
A) Grounded theory researchers
B) Phenomenologists
C) Ethnographogists
D) Grounded theory researchers and phenomenologist

 

 

14. Matrices are a convenient means of abstracting and organizing information for a literature review. How many dimension arrays are present?
A) Two
B) Three
C) Four
D) Five

 

 

15. Matrices are a convenient means of abstracting and organizing information for a literature review. When would a reviewer use an evaluation matrix?
A) Record methodological features of a set of studies.
B) Record research findings.
C) Record quality assessment information.
D) Facilitate thematic analysis of the retrieved information.

 

 

16. Matrices are a convenient means of abstracting and organizing information for a literature review. When would a reviewer use a results matrix?
A) Record methodological features of a set of studies.
B) Record research findings.
C) Record quality assessment information.
D) Facilitate thematic analysis of the retrieved information.

 

 

17. Written literature reviews are undertaken for many different purposes. In a quantitative research report, what section of the report would a review of prior research on the problem under study be located?
A) Introduction
B) Methods
C) Results
D) Discussion

 

 

18. Written literature reviews are undertaken for many different purposes. In a research report, what section of the report would limitations of the study be located?
A) Introduction
B) Methods
C) Results
D) Discussion

 

 

19. Written literature reviews are undertaken for many different purposes. In a qualitative research report, what section of the report would the thematic analysis of the data be presented?
A) Introduction
B) Methods
C) Results
D) Discussion

 

 

20. Some features of an electronic search are similar across databases. Which is an example of a wildcard symbol?
A) And
B) Not
C) Or
D) Question mark

 

 

1. What serves as the basis for regulations affecting research by the U.S. government?
A) The Nuremberg Code
B) The Declaration of Helsinki
C) The Belmont Report
D) The Code of Ethics of the American Psychological Association

 

 

2. In response to human rights violations, various codes of ethics have been developed. What was developed after Nazi atrocities were made public as an international effort to establish ethical standards?
A) The Nuremberg Code
B) The Declaration of Helsinki
C) The Belmont Report
D) The Code of Ethics of the American Psychological Association

 

 

3. What document covers primarily ethical issues for practicing nurses and includes principles that apply to nurse researchers?
A) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretative Statements
B) Ethical Research Guidelines for Registered Nurses
C) Ethical Guidelines in the Conduct, Dissemination, and Implementation of Nursing Research
D) ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses

 

 

4. The Belmont Report articulated broad principles on which standards of ethical conduct in research are based. Which is not considered an ethical principle for protecting study participants in the report?
A) Beneficence
B) Respect for human dignity
C) Informed consent
D) Justice

 

 

5. What is beneficence?
A) Performance of some good
B) Protection from physical and psychological harm and exploitation
C) Participants right to self-determination
D) Freedom to control their own actions

 

 

6. What is justice?
A) Right to fair treatment
B) Protection from physical and psychological harm and exploitation
C) Participants right to self-determination
D) Freedom to control their own actions

 

 

7. Which ethical principle may be violated if a researcher unobtrusively studies interactions among patients in a psychiatric hospital?
A) Confidentiality
B) Freedom from harm
C) Right to self-determination
D) Right to privacy

 

 

8. What is the safeguard mechanisms by which even the researcher cannot link the participant with the information provided?
A) Confidentiality
B) Anonymity
C) Informed consent
D) Right to privacy

 

 

9. What provides prospective participants with information needed to make a reasoned decision about participation?
A) Confidentiality
B) Anonymity
C) Informed consent
D) Right to privacy

 

 

10. How can confidentiality of study participants be increased?
A) Avoiding the collection of any identifying information
B) Avoiding introducing the participants to any of the research personnel
C) Placing all identifying information on computer files rather than in manual files
D) Placing all identifying information on manual files rather than in computer files

 

 

11. What is an example of a vulnerable group?
A) Women hospitalized for a mastectomy
B) Members of a senior citizen group
C) People who do not speak English
D) Pediatric clients

 

 

12. What is a major potential risk of research to participants?
A) Monetary gains
B) Access to a new and potentially beneficial treatment
C) Opportunity to discuss personal feelings and experiences with an objective listener.
D) Physical boredom

 

 

13. Researchers can often show their respect for participants—and proactively minimize emotional risks—by carefully attending to the nature of the interactions they have with them. What are debriefing sessions?
A) Discussions with prospective participants to obtain informed consent
B) Discussions with participants after a study to explain various aspects of the study
C) Discussions with a human subjects committee before a study to obtain permission
D) Discussions before a study that findings will be shared after data have been analyzed

 

 

14. In a qualitative study that involves multiple contacts between the researcher and study participants, what can the researcher negotiate?
A) Implied consent
B) Stipend
C) Process consent
D) Risk/benefit ratio

 

 

15. When is informed consent not obtained?
A) Researcher pays a stipend to study participants.
B) Researcher collects information covertly.
C) Risk/benefit ratio is low.
D) Study is determined exempt by Institutional Review Board.

 

 

16. Most institutions where research is conducted have formal committees for reviewing proposed research plans. In the United States, what will the committee likely be called?
A) Research Ethics Board
B) Institutional Review Board
C) Ethical Advisory Board
D) Human Subject Committee

 

 

17. What is an expedited review?
A) The committee must consist of five members to carry out the review.
B) Research involving no more than minimal risk can use this procedure.
C) The researcher must have an affiliation with an institution.
D) The research is exempt from the review board process.

 

 

18. What is an important consideration when nurses choose to use animals as research subjects?
A) Must obtain informed consent from the animal’s owner.
B) Recognize that it is more convenient to use an animal.
C) Recognize that it is less costly to use animals than humans.
D) Recognize that animals need humane care and treatment.

 

 

19. When can the researcher omit informed consent, when existing data from records and/or specimens are used?
A) The study does not involve an intervention.
B) The researcher is gathering data anonymously.
C) Health professional students are used as subjects.
D) The study is gathering data from records over 10 years old.

 

 

20. Under HIPAA regulations, a covered entity such as a hospital can disclose individually identifiable health information from its records if the patient signs an authorization granting access. What does this include?
A) Who will receive the information
B) Why they need the information
C) The Social Security number of the patient
D) If the data is not specifically obtained for the research

 

 

1. What occurs in a sequential clinical trial?
A) Data are continuously analyzed as they become available.
B) The first half of the subjects is assigned to the experimental group and the second half is assigned to the control group.
C) Preference is used to assign subjects to either the experimental or control condition.
D) Stopping rules are only used if subjects are exposed to risk of harm or discomfort.

 

 

2. Which phase of a clinical trial requires an experimental design?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) IV

 

 

3. Which phase of a clinical trial involves seeking opportunities for refinements and preliminary evidence of efficacy?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) IV

 

 

4. What type of research would occur if a nurse researcher wanted to determine how well a prenatal program was meeting its objectives?
A) Delphi survey
B) Evaluation
C) Needs assessment
D) Survey

 

 

5. When is an experimental design most likely to be used?
A) Impact analyses
B) Outcome analyses
C) Process evaluations
D) Formative evaluations

 

 

6. When are qualitative data most likely to be collected?
A) Impact analysis
B) Outcome analysis
C) Process analysis
D) Cost-benefit analysis

 

 

7. Which factor is not utilized in Donabedian’s framework for outcomes research?
A) Outcomes
B) Interactions
C) Processes
D) Structures

 

 

8. What would the nurse researcher who is interested in learning whether self-administered health history questionnaires yielded results comparable to a personal interview health history form be doing?
A) Secondary analysis
B) Content analysis
C) Methodologic study
D) Survey

 

 

9. What is the U.S. Census?
A) Survey
B) Evaluation
C) Needs assessment
D) Secondary analysis

 

 

10. A nurse researcher used the U.S. Census data to examine the relationship between women’s labor force participation and fertility. What does this represent?
A) Survey
B) Evaluation
C) Needs assessment
D) Secondary analysis

 

 

11. The nurse researcher is conducting a needs assessment to estimate the needs of a cardiac support group. What does a needs assessment often use?
A) Behavioral objectives
B) Stopping rules
C) Key informants
D) Cost-benefit analysis

 

 

12. The nurse researcher is interested in this type of research to assess the effectiveness of clinical interventions that often involve a series of phases. What type of research can provide this information?
A) Clinical trials
B) Sequential clinical trials
C) Practical clinical trials
D) Pragmatic clinical trials

 

 

13. This type of research aims to reduce the gap between efficacy and effectiveness studies, such as between internal and external validity.
A) Clinical trial
B) Evaluation design
C) Hybrid design
D) Sequential clinical trial

 

 

14. Which type of analysis would the nurse researcher use to test whether a program caused net impacts relative to the counterfactual?
A) Process
B) Implementation
C) Outcome
D) Impact

 

 

15. What type of research examines the quality and effectiveness of healthcare and nursing services?
A) Evaluation
B) Outcomes
C) Survey
D) Delphi

 

 

16. The nurse researcher is reading about a replication study. What is a systematic extension replication?
A) Exact duplication of methods of an earlier study
B) Close approximation but not exact duplication of methods
C) Deliberate attempts to test the implications of the original research
D) Concerned with the development, validation, and assessment of methodologic tools of strategies

 

 

17. The nurse researcher is reading about a replication study. What is virtual replication?
A) Exact duplication of methods of an earlier study
B) Close approximation but not exact duplication of methods
C) Deliberate attempts to test the implications of the original research
D) Concerned with the development, validation, and assessment of methodologic tools of strategies

 

 

18. The nurse researcher is reading about a replication study. What is identical replication?
A) Exact duplication of methods of an earlier study
B) Close approximation but not exact duplication of methods
C) Deliberate attempts to test the implications of the original research
D) Concerned with the development, validation, and assessment of methodologic tools of strategies

 

 

19. What is a black box?
A) Concerned with the development, validation, and assessment of methodologic tools or strategies
B) Designed to obtain information about the prevalence, distribution, and interrelations of phenomena within a population
C) Constructs of interest to nurse researchers that have defied measurement efforts
D) The underlying, unmeasured causes or mediators of the observed effects of an intervention

 

 

20. Which phase do randomized clinical trials take place?
A) I
B) II
C) III
D) IV

 

 

1. Quantitative nurse researchers typically develop a detailed data collection plan. At one point is this plan implemented?
A) Before beginning data collection
B) During data collection
C) After data collection
D) Before beginning and during data collection

 

 

2. A nurse researcher documents the number of times a mother made positive, encouraging comments to the toddler. This is an example of what?
A) Structured self-report
B) Unstructured self-report
C) Structured observation
D) Unstructured observation

 

 

3. What is the first step in the development of a data collection plan in a quantitative study?
A) Locating existing instruments for key constructs
B) Identifying and prioritizing data needs
C) Developing suitable forms for data collection
D) Pretesting data collection instruments

 

 

4. When a nurse researcher is selecting an instrument for a research project, what is the primary consideration?
A) Conceptual relevance
B) Data quality
C) Cost
D) Reputation

 

 

5. What is advisable for a nurse researcher who is administering a questionnaire to a highly disadvantaged population?
A) Pretest the questionnaire with a less disadvantaged sample.
B) Collect data about the study participants’ reactions to the study.
C) Determine the readability level of the questionnaire.
D) Use mostly open-ended questions in the questionnaire.

 

 

6. When would a nurse researcher not consider the use of a pretest in a quantitative research design?
A) Assess whether the sequencing of questions or instruments is sensible.
B) Determine if the measures yield data with sufficient variability.
C) Identify questions that participants find objectionable or offensive.
D) Prioritize data collection requirements.

 

 

7. The nurse researcher has finalized the instrument package and has to develop various forms. Which form will not be necessary at this time?
A) Screening
B) Informed consent
C) Administrative logs
D) Referral

 

 

8. Nurse researchers develop data collection protocols to ensure accurate, valid, and meaningful data. What is a data collection protocol?
A) Spells out procedures to be used in data collection
B) Very important in qualitative research to minimize subjectivity
C) Developed after research staff is trained
D) Varies only marginally from one study to another study

 

 

9. What method of data collection is most widely used by nurse researchers?
A) Structured self-report
B) Unstructured self-report
C) Structured observation
D) Unstructured observation

 

 

10. The nurse researcher is using a structured self-report instrument with open- and closed-ended questions. What is an open-ended question?
A) Permits respondents to reply in narrative fashion
B) Offers response alternatives from which respondents must choose
C) Offers a range of alternatives
D) Requires a choice between two options

 

 

11. The nurse researcher is using a structured self-report instrument with dichotomous questions. What is a dichotomous question?
A) Permits respondents to reply in narrative fashion
B) Offers response alternatives from which respondents must choose
C) Offers a range of alternatives
D) Requires a choice between two options

 

 

12. The nurse researcher is using a structured self-report instrument with forced-choice questions. What is a forced-choice question?
A) Requires a choice between two options
B) Offers a range of alternatives
C) Respondents are asked to rank concepts on a continuum
D) Requires respondents to choose between two competing positions

 

 

13. The nurse researcher is using the FACES pain scale instrument. What is this an example of?
A) Forced-choice question
B) Rating question
C) Checklist
D) Visual analog scale

 

 

14. The nurse researcher is using a composite psychosocial scale. What is a composite psychosocial scale?
A) Several questions with the same response format
B) Multiple-item self-report tool for measuring the degree to which individuals possess target attributes.
C) Comprises a series of statements about a phenomenon
D) Consists of a series of bipolar rating scales on which respondents indicate reactions toward a phenomenon

 

 

15. The nurse researcher reads about Q sort in a research article. What is Q sort?
A) Sorts a set of card statements into piles according to specified criteria
B) Several questions with the same response format
C) Comprises a series of statements about a phenomenon
D) Consists of a series of bipolar rating scales on which respondents indicate reactions toward a phenomenon

 

 

16. What type of research activity is used to assess respondents’ perceptions, hypothetical behaviors, or decisions?
A) Q sorts
B) Semantic differentials
C) Event history calendar
D) Vignettes

 

 

17. Structured self-reports are vulnerable to the risk of reporting biases. What type of bias is occurring when the tendency of some people is to respond to questions in characteristic ways, independent of content?
A) Response set
B) Social desirability
C) Extreme response
D) Acquiescence

 

 

18. The nurse researcher is involved in time sampling. What is time sampling?
A) Captures data about the occurrence of events
B) Specification of the duration and frequency of observational periods and intersession intervals
C) Selects integral behaviors or events of a special type for observation
D) Observers rate phenomena along a dimension that is typically bipolar

 

 

19. The nurse researcher reads that the halo effect occurred during data collection. What is the halo effect?
A) Tendency for observers to rate everything positively
B) Tendency for observers to rate everything harshly
C) Tendency of observers to be influenced by one characteristic in judging other, unrelated characteristics
D) Occurs when extreme events are distorted toward middle ground

 

 

1. There are four levels of measurement. What is ordinal measurement?
A) Classification of characteristics into mutually exclusive categories
B) Ranking of objects based on their relative standing on an attribute
C) Indicating not only the ranking of objects but the amount of distance between them
D) Distinguished from interval measurement by having a rational zero point

 

 

2. Which is an example of an interval measurement?
A) Gender
B) Fahrenheit temperature scale
C) Blood type
D) Marital status

 

 

3. There are four levels of measurement. What is nominal measurement?
A) Classification of characteristics into mutually exclusive categories
B) Ranking of objects based on their relative standing on an attribute
C) Indicating not only the ranking of objects but the amount of distance between them
D) Distinguished from interval measurement by having a rational zero point

 

 

4. What is the highest measurement level?
A) Nominal
B) Ordinal
C) Interval
D) Ratio

 

 

5. Which is an example of a ratio measurement?
A) Weight
B) Married
C) B positive blood
D) Female

 

 

6. It is not always easy to identify a variable’s level of measurement. Which measures usually are discernible?
A) Nominal and ordinal
B) Ordinal and interval
C) Ratio and interval
D) Ratio and nominal

 

 

7. What type of data can researchers summarize and describe with descriptive statistics?
A) Qualitative
B) Quantitative
C) Qualitative and quantitative
D) Neither qualitative or quantitative

 

 

8. What type of distribution is used to organize numeric data?
A) Frequency
B) Unimodal
C) Multimodal
D) Normal

 

 

9. What is the name for the shape of distribution that occurs when the nurse researcher has a bell-shaped curve distribution?
A) Frequency
B) Unimodal
C) Multimodal
D) Normal

 

 

10. What does a layperson call the center of a distribution?
A) Average
B) Central tendency
C) Median
D) Mean

 

 

11. What is the value that occurs most frequently in a distribution?
A) Average
B) Mode
C) Median
D) Mean

 

 

12. What is the preferred measure of central tendency?
A) Average
B) Mode
C) Median
D) Mean

 

 

13. The nurse researcher is examining how spread out the data is. Which are measures of variability?
A) Range and deviation scores
B) Standard deviation and variance
C) Standard deviation and deviation scores
D) Range and variance

 

 

14. The nurse researcher has scores from 62 to 98 on the exam. What is the range?
A) 36
B) 62
C) 98
D) 160

 

 

15. The nurse researcher is calculating the standard deviation. What is the standard deviation?
A) The average amount of deviation of values from the mode and is calculated for every other score
B) The average amount of deviation of values from the median and is calculated for every other score
C) The average amount of deviation of values from the mean and is calculated for every score
D) The average amount of deviation of values from the median and is     calculated for every score

 

 

16. The nurse researcher is reading about bivariate descriptive statistics. Bivariate descriptive statistics describe how many relationships between variables?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

 

 

17. What systems of measurement are crosstabulated on a contingency table?
A) Nominal and ordinal
B) Ordinal and interval
C) Ratio and interval
D) Ratio and nominal

 

 

18. Correlation coefficients describe the direction and magnitude of a relationship between how many variables?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

 

 

19. The nurse researcher knows that the most frequently used correlation coefficient is the product–moment correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r). What measurement variables are used?
A) Nominal and ordinal
B) Ordinal and interval
C) Ratio and interval
D) Ratio and nominal

 

 

20. Several risk indexes describe outcomes in relation to exposures for a two-group situation with dichotomous outcomes. These indexes provide useful information for making clinical decisions. What index expresses the estimated proportion of people who would be spared from an adverse outcome through exposure to an intervention?
A) Absolute risk reduction
B) Relative risk reduction
C) Odds ratio
D) Number needed to treat

 

 

1. Researchers who collect quantitative data typically progress through a series of steps in the analysis and interpretation of their data. Careful researchers lay out a data analysis plan in advance to guide that progress. What phase involves various clerical and administrative tasks?
A) Preanalysis
B) Preliminary assessments and actions
C) Principal analysis
D) Interpretation of quantitative results

 

 

2. Careful researchers lay out a data analysis plan in advance to guide that progress. What phase involves collection of data on numerous variables?
A) Preanalysis
B) Preliminary assessments and actions
C) Principal analysis
D) Interpretation of quantitative results

 

 

3. How must quantitative data be coded?
A) Missing values
B) Letter codes
C) Numerical values
D) Wild codes

 

 

4. What is a wild code?
A) Numerical value
B) Missing value
C) Values that lie outside the normal range of values
D) Codes that are not legitimate

 

 

5. What is the error prone process that requires verification?
A) Outliers
B) Data cleaning
C) Data entry
D) Consistency checks

 

 

6. Decisions on handling missing values must be based on the amount of missing data and how missing data are patterned. When is addressing missing data especially important?
A) Sensitivity analyses
B) Intention-to-treat analyses
C) Missing completely at random values pattern
D) Missing at random values pattern

 

 

7. Steps must almost always be taken to evaluate missing data problems. What occurs with a missing completely at random values pattern?
A) Missing values are just a random sample of all cases in the population.
B) Missing values are just a random subsample of all cases in the sample.
C) Missingness is related to other variables but not related to the value of the variable that has the missing values.
D) A pattern in which the value of the variable is missing is related to its missingness.

 

 

8. There are two missing values strategies that involve deletion or imputation. What is the analysis of those cases for which there are no missing data?
A) Listwise deletion
B) Pairwise deletion
C) Available case analysis
D) Data transformations

 

 

9. There are two missing values strategies that involve deletion or imputation. What is the most widely used approach to delete cases selectively on a variable-by-variable basis?
A) Listwise deletion
B) Pairwise deletion
C) Complete case analysis
D) Data transformations

 

 

10. There are two missing values strategies that involve deletion or imputation. What is occurring with a regression-based estimation of missing values?
A) Mean substitution
B) Expectation maximization imputation
C) Complete case analysis
D) Available case analysis

 

 

11. What is an activity that is completed during the preanalysis phase?
A) Entering, verifying, and cleaning data
B) Assessing and handling missing values problems
C) Assessing data quality
D) Assessing bias

 

 

12. A data cleaning procedure involves consistency checks. What does this focus on?
A) Internal data consistency
B) External data consistency
C) Checking for outliers
D) Checking for wild codes

 

 

13. What is the best method for addressing missing value problems?
A) Expectation maximization
B) Multiple imputations
C) Mean substitution
D) Subgroup mean substitution

 

 

14. What is the simplest imputation procedure?
A) Expectation maximization
B) Multiple imputations
C) Mean substitution
D) Subgroup mean substitution

 

 

15. Assessing data quality is an early analytic task. A value is considered an extreme outlier when if it is how many times greater than the interquartile range above the third quartile?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4

 

 

16. Researchers often undertake preliminary analyses to assess biases. What type of bias should nurse researchers check for when nonrandomized comparison groups are used and compared to the groups’ baseline characteristics?
A) Nonresponsive
B) Volunteer
C) Selection
D) Attrition

 

 

17. Researchers often undertake preliminary analyses to assess biases. What type of bias should nurse researchers check for when there are multiple points of data collection?
A) Nonresponse
B) Volunteer
C) Selection
D) Attrition

 

 

18. What is occurring with the Kolmorogov-Smirnov test?
A) Tests that the distribution deviates significantly from a normal distribution.
B) Tests that the median deviates significantly from a normal distribution.
C) Tests that the distribution does not deviate significantly from a normal distribution.
D) Tests that the median does not deviate significantly from a normal distribution.

 

 

19. What effect can occur when a nurse researcher accumulates a sample over an extended period of time to achieve adequate sample sizes?
A) Overt effect
B) Cohort effect
C) Ordering effect
D) Carryover effect

 

 

20. What type of analysis occurs when test research hypotheses using different assumptions or different strategies?
A) Substantive
B) Descriptive
C) Supplementary
D) Sensitivity
1. Qualitative researchers use the conceptual demands of the study to select articulate and reflective informants with certain types of experience in an emergent way. What is a typical qualitative sample?
A) Large, random
B) Small, random
C) Large, nonrandom
D) Small, nonrandom

 

 

2. Qualitative researchers often begin with a sample where potential participants come forward and identify themselves. What type of sample is being used?
A) Convenience
B) Snowball
C) Purposive
D) Purposeful

 

 

3. Qualitative researchers, like quantitative researchers, sometimes ask early informants to refer to other study participants. What type of sample is being used?
A) Convenience
B) Snowball
C) Purposive
D) Purposeful

 

 

4. Many qualitative studies eventually evolve to selecting cases that will most benefit the study. What type of sample is being used?
A) Convenience
B) Volunteer
C) Snowball
D) Purposive

 

 

5. The broad category of purposive sampling involves general goals. What is one of the broad general goals?
A) Find examples that are representative or typical of a specific group on some dimension of interest.
B) Sampling to set up the possibility of comparisons or replications across similar types of cases on a dimension of interest.
C) Find examples that are representative or typical of a broader group on some dimension of interest.
D) Sampling to set up the possibility of comparisons or replications across random cases on a dimension of interest.

 

 

6. Various purposive sampling strategies have been used by qualitative researchers. What is an important purposive strategy for sampling for representativeness or comparative value?
A) Maximum variation sampling
B) Critical case sampling
C) Criterion sampling
D) Sampling politically important cases

 

 

7. Although many qualitative sampling strategies unfold while in the field, purposive sampling in the sequential category involves deliberative emergent efforts. What is an example of this category of purposive sampling?
A) Opportunistic sampling
B) Reputational case sampling
C) Critical case sampling
D) Stratified purposeful sampling

 

 

8. What type of sample involves selecting cases that are especially important or illustrative?
A) Critical case sampling
B) Maximum variation sampling
C) Homogeneous sampling
D) Typical case sampling

 

 

9. What type of sample identifies and gains access to a case representing a phenomenon that was previously inaccessible to research scrutiny?
A) Critical case sampling
B) Criterion sampling
C) Revelatory case sampling
D) Sampling politically important cases

 

 

10. What type of sample adds new cases based on changes in research circumstances or in response to new leads that develop in the field?
A) Theory-based sampling
B) Opportunistic sampling
C) Sampling confirming and disconfirming cases
D) Sampling politically important cases

 

 

11. What type of sample selects cases based on a recommendation of an expert or key informant?
A) Homogeneous sampling
B) Typical case sampling
C) Extreme case sampling
D) Reputational case sampling

 

 

12. What type of sample selects cases that are intense but not extreme?
A) Typical case sampling
B) Extreme case sampling
C) Intensity sampling
D) Stratified purposeful sampling

 

 

13. What type of sample occurs when only average, above average, or below average cases are selected?
A) Typical case sampling
B) Extreme case sampling
C) Intensity sampling
D) Stratified purposeful sampling

 

 

14. What main qualitative tradition is theoretical sampling guided by?
A) Ethnography
B) Phenomenological studies
C) Grounded theory studies
D) Sociology

 

 

15. Which type of sample may require more cases to reach data saturation?
A) Convenience sample
B) Purposive sample
C) Theoretical sample
D) Extreme case sample

 

 

16. What is data saturation?
A) Sampling to the point at which new information is continually obtained
B) Sampling to the point at which new information is continually obtained with no redundancy
C) Sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained with any redundancy
D) Sampling to the point at which no new information is obtained and redundancy is achieved

 

 

17. What type of researcher often uses key informants who serve as guides and interpreters of the culture?
A) Ethnographers
B) Phenomenologists
C) Grounded theory researchers
D) Sociologists

 

 

18. Phenomenologists typically work with what size sample who meets the criterion of having lived the experience under study?
A) 10 or fewer
B) 11–15
C) 16–19
D) 20–30

 

 

19. Grounded theory researchers typically work with what size sample?
A) 10 or fewer
B) 11–15
C) 16–19
D) 20–30

 

 

20. Generalizability in qualitative research is controversial. What widely used model of generalizability involves judgments about whether findings from an inquiry can be extrapolated to a different setting or group of people?
A) Analytic generalization
B) Transferability
C) Thick description
D) Proximal similarity

 

 

 

1. Mixed methods research involves the collection, analysis, and integration of what type of data?
A) Qualitative only
B) Quantitative only
C) Both qualitative and quantitative
D) Neither qualitative or quantitative

 

 

2. Mixed methods studies involve at least how many questions that require different types of data?
A) One
B) Two
C) Three
D) Four

 

 

3. In terms of sequencing, mixed method designs can either be concurrent or sequential. What is a sequential design
A) Both strands occurring in one simultaneous phase.
B) Both strands occurring prior to informing the third and fourth strand.
C) One strand occurring prior to and informing the second strand.
D) Two strands occurring prior to and informing the third and fourth strand.

 

 

4. In terms of sequencing, mixed method designs can either be concurrent or sequential. What is a concurrent design?
A) Both strands occurring in one simultaneous phase.
B) Both strands occurring prior to informing the third and fourth strand.
C) One strand occurring prior to and informing the second strand.
D) Two strands occurring prior to and informing the third and fourth strand.

 

 

5. Notation for mixed method research designates both priority and sequence. How is priority identified for the dominant strand?
A) All capital letters
B) All lower-case letters
C) An arrow
D) Plus sign

 

 

6. Notation for mixed method research designates both priority and sequence. How is sequence identified for the concurrent designs?
A) All capital letters
B) All lower-case letters
C) An arrow
D) Plus sign

 

 

7. Notation for mixed method research designates both priority and sequence. How is sequence identified for the nondominant strand?
A) All capital letters
B) All lower-case letters
C) An arrow
D) Plus sign

 

 

8. Notation for mixed method research designates both priority and sequence. What type of research is identified by QUAN(qual)?
A) Sequential, qualitative-dominant design
B) Sequential, qualitative-nondominant design
C) Qualitative component embedded within a quantitative study
D) Quantitative component embedded within a qualitative study

 

 

9. There are specific mixed method designs in the Creswell–Plano Clark taxonomy. What do (QUAL + QUAN) represent?
A) Triangulation
B) Embedded
C) Explanatory
D) Exploratory

 

 

10. There are specific mixed method designs in the Creswell–Plano Clark taxonomy. What does (QUAN ® qual or quan ® QUAL) represent?
A) Triangulation
B) Embedded
C) Explanatory
D) Exploratory

 

 

11. There are specific mixed method designs in the Creswell-Plano Clark taxonomy. What does (QUAL ® quan or qual ® QUAN) represent?
A) Triangulation
B) Embedded
C) Explanatory
D) Exploratory

 

 

12. What type of sampling strategy occurs when some of the participants from one strand are in the other strand?
A) Identical
B) Nested
C) Parallel
D) Multilevel

 

 

13. What type of sampling strategy occurs when some of the participants are either in one strand or the other, but drawn from a similar population?
A) Identical
B) Nested
C) Parallel
D) Multilevel

 

 

14. Data collection in mixed methods research can involve all methods of structured and unstructured data. In sequential designs, how are decisions about data collection made?
A) Second phase are based on findings from the first phase.
B) Third phase are based on findings from the first phase.
C) Fourth phase are based on findings from the second phase.
D) Fifth phase are based on findings from the fourth phase.

 

 

15. Methods of integration of qualitative and quantitative data during analysis include data conversions. What is the use of meta-matrices mean?
A) Qualitizing of quantitative data
B) Quantitizing of qualitative data
C) Both qualitative and quantitative data are arrayed in a spreadsheet type of matrix.
D) Assessment of congruence and exploration of complementarity.

 

 

16. Creswell and Plano Clark identified broad types of research situations that are especially well suited to mixed methods research. What is one of these types of research situations?
A) Concepts are new and poorly understood and there is a need for quantitative exploration.
B) The qualitative results are puzzling and difficult to interpret and quantitative data can help to explain the results.
C) The findings from both approaches can be greatly enhanced with a third source of data.
D) Neither a qualitative nor a quantitative approach by itself is adequate in addressing the complexity of the research problem.

 

 

17. The purpose of this design is to obtain different, but complementary data about the central phenomenon under study. What type of design has this purpose?
A) Triangulation
B) Embedded
C) Explanatory
D) Exploratory

 

 

18. What type of research design involves the separate but concurrent collection of qualitative and quantitative data, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis?
A) Convergence model
B) Data transformation model
C) Multilevel model
D) Correlational model

 

 

19. What type of research design would use a correlational model?
A) Triangulation
B) Embedded
C) Explanatory
D) Exploratory

 

 

20. Criteria that have been proposed for enhancing the integrity of mixed methods studies included inference quality and inference transferability. What is inference transferability?
A) The believability and accuracy of inductively derived conclusions.
B) The believability and accuracy of deductively derived conclusions.
C) The degree to which conclusions can be applied to different people or contexts.
D) The degree to which conclusions can be applied to similar people or contexts.